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-

""

. . . .

-

2006
3

537.8(07)
3
29
. ., ..
29 : . .: - , 2006. 144
.
ISBN 5762906876
.

, . .
, 550700, 071400, 200100.
537.8(07)
3
: , . . . -; - . . . . ( ).


..

25.10.06. 6084 1/16. .
. Times New Roman. . . 9,0. 150 .

197376, .-, . . , 5

ISBN 5762906876

. ., . ., 2006
4


. .
, . ()
( ,
. .).

,
, .
, ,
, , , , . .

().
100 100 3 3 . -, , - Microwaves (). ( .
- 2...4 500 . .)
7...12 ;
( ) 0,91,8 . , ,
( 23 ),
. .
, ( . .), .
5


.

(, ) , , .
:
( , , ).

.

-.
, .

1.

. , , , . (1831 1879) 1861 1864 .
. 1873 .
, , , . , , (1857 1994).
( . . . .: , 1986.)
6

,

, ,
1855 1860 . ( ) (1824 1907).

(1824 1887). ,
,
.
,
. ,
, . ,
, ,
,
. ,

, .

1.1.

, ,
,
.
:
r
1. E . ,
. r
E (/).
7

, ( ), r r
: Edl = U .
C

, . U ().
r
2. D .

r
r
D = E , = 0 r ( 0
1
109 / (
36
)), r (
r
r = 1 )). D

( 0 =

(/2).

Q .
D


,
r
r0
S
. . 1.1.
. -
- Q: S ,
r
r
, r0 - .
()
, S Q, V, (.1.1):
8

r r
DdS
= Dn dS = Q.

Q () .

r :
r r
r r
2
;
DdS
=
4

r
D
=
Q
D
= er Q 4r 2 .

r
3. H .
, . . .
(
r
, *): H l
, , (. 1.2):
r r
(1.1)
Hdl = I n .
l

r
H
r
(/). (1.1) - dl
.
l
r
l
H
r
r , ,
l
:
r r
. 1.2. Hdl
= H 2r = I .


, I: H = I 2r .
r
4. B .
r
r
B = H .
r
B ().
*, (1775 1836) .
9

= 0 r , r ( r = 1), 0 -

( 0 = 4 107 /).
S (. 1.3) :
r r
= BdS .
S

().
*,
()
, . :

e=
.
t
r
5. j . ,
,

(.1.3):
r r
I = jdS .

r
B

r
dS
S

r
j

(/2).
,
,
Q
(1.2)
I =
,
t
. . , , V,
V .
V :
. 1.3.

Q = ( x, y, z )dV .
V
*, (1791 1867) .
10

(1.3)

, :
r r r r
E , D, H , B . , I
r
j , Q .
1.2.

,
, . ,
, .
, , :
1)
r r
r r
(1.4)
Hdl = jdS .
l

2) :
r r
r r
Edl
=

BdS .

t
l
S

(1.5)

(1.4)
.
r
(1.5), E l S, .
l , S.
: ,
I, , (. 1.4).
, . (1.2)
.
I Q , , :
11

r r

r r

jdS = t DdS .

,

:
r
r
D
j =
.
t
(. 1.4) r
, j r
D
, .

t
, ,
r
D
r
j

r r
Q = DdS
S

.1.4. , . S .
r
r
j , D

. ,
?
, displacement current. displacement . , , r
r
D

j ,
t
, . . . , ,
.
12

,
r
r D
j +
, ,
t

r
r
, H
H
(. 1.5). ,

I (t )
.
(1.4) :

r r

r r
r r
Hdl = t DdS + jdS . (1.6) . 1.5. l
S
S
-


,

, (.1.5).
(1.6) :
r r
r r
Edl
=

BdS .

t
l
S

. . , . ,
, .
, ,
:
r r
r r
r r
r r
r r
(1.7)
Hdl
=

DdS
+
jdS
;
Edl
=

BdS .

t
l
S
S
l
S
.
- .
13

, , .
1.3.

,
l , .
r r
r r
r r
r r
Hdl
=
rot
HdS
;
Edl
=
rot
EdS
.

S , l. (1.7) :
r
r
r D r r
r B r

rot H t j dS = 0; rot E + t dS = 0.

S
S
, .
r
r
r
r D r
B
rot E = ; rot H =
+ j.
(1.8)
t
t
(1.8) .
, :
r r
E = Em cos( t ) , :
r r
r
E = Emeit , Em .
i :

i.
t
(1.8) , ,
r
r
r
r r
(1.9)
rot E = i0 r H ; rot H = i0 r E + j .
14

.
r
r = r = 1 , j = 0 . (1.9)
r
r
r
r
(1.10)
rot E = i0 H ; rot H = i0 E.
r
H (1.10). rot r
r
: rot rot E = i0 rot H .
r
rot H .
r
r
rot rot E = 200 E
(1.11)
:
r
r
r
rot rot E = grad div E E

(1.12)

,
r
(1.13)
div E = ,

r
, (. . div E = 0 ).
(1.12) (1.13) (1.11).
r
r
(1.14)
E + 200 E = 0.
.
r
H .
, .
,
(1.14) , . , .
. 1.6
. , , , , 15

. , , , , , .
r
H
r
E

r
2

E (r ), H (r )

z
y

r
r
H
E
. 1.6.

, :
r 2 r
E =
E
z 2
:
r
r
2E
+ 200 E = 0.
(1.15)
z 2
,
.
(1.15) , z. ,
. , 16

(1.15) , z:
r
r
(1.16)
E ( z, t ) = e x Emei (t kz )

= (t t0 ) kz ,

(1.17)

k ( ).
- E x
.
1
2
z
(1.16) . .1.7.
. 1.7 -
.
(=const),

z, :
= 0.
t

z
(1.15)
= k = 0 ,
t
t
z
(1.18)
= = vph ,
t k
vph ,
.
(1.16) (1.15),
k 2 Emeikz + 200 Emeikz = 0 ,

, Eme ikz ,
:
k 2 = 200 , k = 00 .
(1.19)
k , z . (1.18):

1
vph =
=
.
00
00

vph = c , c .
17

, ,
(/) :
1
1
(1.20)
c=
=
= 3 108.
00
1
9
7
10 4 10
36
, .
,
. , (1.20), , .
,
q1 q2, r :
1 q1q2
( ).
fq =
40 r 2
,
0 .
, dl1 dl2 I1 I 2 , r :
r II
r r r
f I = 0 1 2 dl2 dl1 Er ( ).

4 r 2
, 0 .
,
, .
, (). , , XX .

18

1.4.


. .1.8 .
( ) 2R
:
20r

R
C1 =
, L1 = 0 ln .
R
2 a
ln
a

2a
, - . 1.8.
, ,
.
I( z )

R1z

L 1 z

...
U ( z)

G1z
C 1z

...

. 1.9.

: L1; R1; C1;


G1 (. 1.9).

z :
U = ( iL1 + R1 ) zI ; I = ( iC1 + G1 ) zU .
z ,
:
19

U
z = ( iL1 + R1 ) I ;
(1.21)

I
= ( iC + G )U .
1
1
z
(1.21), , .
.
(1.21),
2U

(1.22)
= ( iC1 + G1 )( iL1 + R1 )U .
z 2
(1.21)

2I

(1.23)
= ( iCl + Gl )( iLl + Rl ) I .
z 2
, . . R1 = 0 G1 = 0 .

(1.22) (1.23)
2U
z

2I

+ 2 Ll ClU = 0 ;
+ 2 Ll Cl I = 0 .

(1.24)

(1.25)
z
(1.24) (1.25) . (1.24) (1.15). ,
(1.15)
(1.24), 0 L1 0 1. ,
: 0 L1
(/), 0 1 (/). 0
0 , L1 1 ( ).
(1.24) , :
2

20

U = U eiz + U eiz ,

.
(1.26)
v

(U ,U )
= L1C1 =

. .
, v .
(1.22) (1.23) R1 G1,
:
i =

(iL1 + R1)(iC1 + G1)

(1.27)

, , , , :
R1 << L1; G1 << C1 .
(1.27) :

R
G
+ i = L1C1 1 + i 1 + i 1 .
2L1 2C1

(1.26)

:

1
C
L
= R1 1 + G1 1 .
2
L1
C1
, z,

U
= iUeiz .
z
(1.21) :
U
= iLl Ieiz .
z
21

. ,
:
U iL1
L
=
= 1.
I
i
C1

Z0

: Z 0 = L1 C1 .

z
z =0
z =l
P. 1.10.
-

Z 0 .
,
,

Z


.
.
. (1.26),
Z 0 :

(1.28)
Z 0 = C1 .


:
U ( z ) = U eiz + U eiz ; I ( z ) = I eiz + I eiz ;
U
I =
Z0

I =

U
Z0

, :
iz
+ U eiz
U eiz + U ei z
U ( z ) U e
Z ( z) =
=
= Z0
. (1.29)
I ( z)
I eiz + I ei z
U eiz U eiz
.

, . . .
, . 1.10,
z = 0 z = l . z = l , -

22

U . z = 0
Z .
z = 0 (1.29) :
U + U
.
Z = Z0
U U
z = l (1.28) :
U = U ei l + U eil .

:
U eil + U e il = U ;
U ( Z 0 Z ) + U ( Z 0 + Z ) = 0.

:
Z + Z0
,
(1.30)
U = U
2(iZ 0 sin l + Z H cos l )
U = U

Z Z0
.
2(iZ 0 sin l + Z H cos l )

(1.31)

,
. ().
( z = 0)
Z Z0
.
=
Z + Z0

(1.30) (1.31) (1.29) l (. . 1.10).


Z (l ) = Z 0

( Z + Z 0 )eil + ( Z Z 0 )eil
( Z + Z 0 )e

il

( Z Z 0 )e

il

(1.32)

Z(l)
l.
(1.32) ,
-:
23

Z + i Z 0 tg l
.
Z = Z 0
Z 0 + i Z tg l

, . z
U ( z ) = U ( z ) + U ( z ) = U e

i( z + )

+ U e

i z +

).

U(z) 2 = U(z).U(z)* ( *
):
2

U ( z ) = U + U + 2 U U cos 2 z + . (1.33)

, z, , .
U (z)
U ( z)

U ( z )

U ( z )

U ( z)

U max

U ( z)

U min

z
.1.11. (. (1.33))

. 1.11.
Z = Z 0 (. (1.31)) , .

24

2.

. , , r r r r
E , D, H , B . ,
, , ,
.
(, ,
. .), . (
XIX .) ( , -
).
, . , ,
.

, .
XIX .
,

, . , .

25

2.1. .

, ,
(, ),
, . ,
, , r
r
j = E .
r
r r
rot H = i0r E + j

r
r
r
rot H = i0 ( ' i
) E = i0 k E ,
0

k = ' i

.
0

(2.1)

.
, : k = ' i ''

r
r
r
r
rot E = i0 k H ; rot H = i0k E .

. () . , .
(2.1) ,
.
, , ,
.

26

, ,
2
2

E ( z ) + 20 k 0 k E ( z ) = 0 .

z
:

k 2 = 20 k 0 k .

, k k , , k
:

''
''
k = 0 'k 0 'k 1 i k 1 i k .
'k
'k

''k << 'k ''k << 'k .

,
1 ''
1 ''
k = 0 'k 0 'k 1 i k i k = i ,
2 'k 2 'k
; ( ) .
1
= 0 'k 0 'k , = (tg + tg ) ,
2
( ):
''
''
tg = k , tg = k .
'k
'k

,
:
E ( z, t ) = Emei (t z )ez .
ez , ,
. , ,
, .
, , .

27

'k = 'k = 1 ''k = ''k = 0 , , = 0 , . .


. ,
( = ' i '' , = ' i '' ), , .
, : ) , )
.
, = vph ,
vph =

c = 1

1
c
=
.
00 '() '()
'() '()

00 .
t t = t0

z t = t1
lA
lph
. 2.1.

, , (., , (2.1)).
, ,
, . ,
, .
z f = 1 T (. 2.1).
: l A , 28

t1 t0 ; lph ,
t1 t0 ( lph > l A ,
vph > vgr ). , , -

t1 t0 , : lph = vph (t1 t0 ) , , t1 t0 ,


: l A = vgr (t1 t0 ) .
.
. , , ,
, . . . , vph vgr . ,
.
, ,
lph ( ,
). . 2.2
.
disp

. 2.2. : ;

( << ) vgr :
29

vgr =

1
.
d d

(2.2)

,
=
=
vph () d

vph

dvph
d

vph 2

, ,
vgr =
1

vph
.
dvph
vph d

dvph

< 0 .
d
. ,
dvph
> 0 . , ,
d
.

dvph
d

vph

dvph
vgr vph +
.

vgr = vph = c . vgr c .


- (1918 1988)
,
(. . . 6. . .: , 1966). , , , : , , , ? . ,

, , ,
.
30

2.2.

, , ,
.
(1852 1914).
, . , ,
,
, .
:
(/3 )
(/3)
r2
r2
0 r E
E
WEr =
;
WEr =
.
2
8
:
(/3 )
(/3)
r2
r2
0 r H
H
WHr =
WHr =
2
8
, , V0, :
r2
0 r E
(2.3)
WEr total=
dV ;
2
V
0

WHr total =

r2
0 r H

V0

dV .

(2.4)

, C L, U,
I:
WC = CU 2 2 ; WL = LI 2 2.
, . ,
31

,
,
r2 r 2
E , H .
r
r
r
r D r
B
; rot H =
: rot E =
+ j.
t
t
r
r
H , E . r
r
r
r
D = 0 r E B = 0 r H ,
ur
r
r r
r r
E r r r
H r
rot H E = 0r
E + jE ; rot E H = 0 r
H .
t
t
r
r
E r 1 r 2
H r 1 r 2
,
E =
E
H =
H . t
2 t
t
2 t
.
r2
r2

0 r H
r r
r r 0 r E
r
rot H E rot E H =
+
+ jE .

t
2
2

:
rr
r
r r
r
div EH = E rot H + H rot E .

r2
r2

0 r H
rr
r
0 r E
(2.5)
div EH =
+
jE.

t
2
2

, r r

E , H .

ur
r r
r r
E , H : E , H = ,
ur
r r
E , H = .

4
ur
. ur
ur
: (/).(/) = /2. -

( 2 ) .
32

, r
r
E H .
.
, , . , :
,
.
, (2.5) , .
(2.5) V
r
r r
( div MdV = MdS ).
V

r2
r2

ur r

H
r
0 r
0 r
dV rj EdV
(2.6)

dS
=

+
.

t
2

S
V
V

(2.6)
Er 2 Hr 2
0 r
0 r
dV , +

t V
2
2

V;
rr
jEdV , ( )
V

;
ur r
dS ,
S

S.
(2.3) (2.4) (2.6)
:
ur r
rr

(2.7)
(WE total + WH total ) = dS + jEdV .
t
S
V

33

(2.7) .
:
, ,
,
, ,
.
, ur r
: dS > 0 V;
S

ur r

dS < 0 V .
S

( ).
, .

. :
I (t ) = I m cos t , I (t ) = I meit ; U (t ) = U m cos(t ) ,
U (t ) = U mei (t ) .

, :
1
I (t )U (t ) = I mU m [ cos + cos(2t )] .
2
, cos ,
:
1T
1
P = I (t )U (t )dt = I mU m cos .
T0
2


: I mU m cos 2t .
U I:

34

1
1
*
*
UI = Re(U m I m
) = Re(U m
Im )
2
2
U m : *
. :
ur 2 1 r r *
E = Em Em ,
2
uruur 1
r r*
r* r
1
E H = Re( Em H m
) = Re( Em
Hm ) .
2
2
1T
P = I (t )U (t )dt
T0

1
1
1
*
P = Re( I mU m
) = I m U m Re ei = I m U m cos .
2
2
2
.
, :
1. .
r*
r
2. H m
, Em :
r
r
r*
,
rot Em = i0 r H m H m
r*
r * r*
r
rot H m
= i0 k Em
+ jm Em .
3. :
r
r*
r*
r
r* r
r r*
Em rot H m
Hm
rot E = i0 k Em
Em + i0 r H m H m
+

r* r
jm Em .

(2.8)
4. (2.6), (2.8) V :
r r
r r*
E* E
r
r r*
r r

H
H
1
dS + 1 E j * dV .
i 0 k m m 0 r m m dV = Em H m
mm

2
2
2S
2V

V
(2.9)
, ,
:
r*
r 1 r
.
= Em H m

2

35

r
r*
r 1
r
= Re .
= Re Em H m

2
(2.9) .

, (2.9). ,

* = '+ i '' , * = ' i '' . (2.9)


r r
r r*
'' E* E

r
r& r

''
H
m m + 0
m H m dV 1 Re E rj * dV ;
Re dS = 0
mm

2
2
2 V

S
V
(2.10)
r* r
r r*
'E E
r r*
r& r
' HmHm
1
Im
dS = 0 m m 0
dV .
dV Im Em jm

2
2
2

S
V
V
(2.11)
(2.10) . S,
V.
V, , ( '' 0) ( '' 0) . , ,

, '' 0 (2.10) '' =


0

P =

r r*
1
Em Em
dV .

2V

(2.10) , . ,
, , , . . '' = 0 '' = 0 ,
:
r r*
r r
1
Re dS = Re Em jm
dV .
2
S
V

36

,
, , ,
:
r r
r r*
'' E* E

r r
0 '' H m H m
0
m
m
Re dS =
+
dV .

2
2

S
V
(2.10) , .
, (2.11), .

ez
R

ex

ey

er



. 2.3. , . ,

. . 2.3
, ,
.
, .

37

r
, E
(. .
2.4):
r
r r
i ( t kz )
E = ex Eme
.
r
H , r
r
: rot E = i0 H .
r r E
rot E = e y x ,
z
r
r r
1 E x r ik
H = ey
Emei (t kz ) .
= ey
i0 z
i0


r
E

k = 00 ,
r r
, k

r
H

. 2.4.
,


E x 0
0
0
.
=
=
=
Hy
k
0
00

, Z 0
:

Z 0 = 0 0 .
( Z 0 -

);

4 107
= 120 = 377 .
1
9
10
36
,
r r
r r E
E = ex Emeikz eit ; H = e y m eikz eit .
Z0
r
r
E H
0
=
0

38

2
r 1 r *
r Em

= E , H = ez
.

2
2Z0

r
k . . 2.4
r r r r
E , H , , k .
, (
E = 3 106 /):

2
9 1012
Em
=
= 1,2 1010 B/ 2 = 1,2 B/ 2 .
2Z 0 2 377

. , , 1,5 /2.
Em = 2Z 0 = 2 377 1500 103 / .
( ) .
v . ,

.
() .
.
. , . (1855
1912) 1899 . .
. . . . .

39

2.3.

U2

U1

. ,
I1
I2
,
,
.
I1
I2
,
. 2.5.

,
e0
I L O A D . ~

.
,
. 2.6.

.
(
) .
IL O A D
e0
(. 2.5).

Y
Z-:
I1 = U1 y11 + U 2 y12 ;
. 2.7.
. ,

I 2 = U1 y21 + U 2 y22 ;
I1
U1
I = Y U .
2
2

: ,
Y- Z- , . .
(2.12)
Y12 = Y21, Z12 = Z 21.
40

:
, .
. 2.6 2.7. ,
e0 , .
U1 = e0 , ,
U 2 = 0; I 2 = e0 y21 .
. U1 = 0 ;
I1 = e0 y12 .

(2.12) , I 2 = I1 .
-
(. 2.8):




,
.

. , , . 2.8.
, .
.
- , -
, .
,
(. 2.8), .
, .

41

:
() , () .
, , *,
:
,
, , :
r r
r r
(2.13)
div Ea H b Eb H a = 0 ,
r
r
r
r
Ea , H a , a ; Eb , H b

, b .
.
(2.13) , , ,
b, , . . .
.
(2.13) , :
r r
r r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
div Ea H b Eb H a = H b rot Ea Ea rot H b H a rot Eb + Eb rot H a .
,
.

r r
r r
div Ea H b Eb H a =
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
= H b iH a Ea iEb H a iH b + Eb iEa . (2.14)

r r
r r
, : H bH a = H aH b
r r
r r
EbEa = Ea Eb .
(2.14), , . ,
* (1853 1928) -.
42

.
(2.14),
r r
r r
u ap , i ap
u qa , iqa
Ea H b Eb H a dS = 0.

Sq

Sp

. 2.9 , S p Sq . -

u bp , ibp

u qb , iqb

. 2.9. a b q ( )



:
r r
a b
Ea H b dS = u pi p .
Sp

(2.13) :

(u apibp ubp ,iap ) (uqaiqb uqb , iqa ) = 0 .

(2.15)

, Y-:
i ap = u ap y pp + uqa y pq ,

iqa = u ap yqp + uqa yqq

a;
ibp = u bp y pp + uqb y pq ,

iqb = u bp yqp + uqb yqq

b.

i ap , iqa , ibp , iqb (2.15). ,

(u apuqa ubpuqb ) ( y pq yqp ) = 0 .


u ap , uqa , u bp , uqb , y pq yqp = 0, . .
Y- .
2.3
. , , , ,

43

,
Y- Z- , . . .
, , . . .
.
:
, , , Y-
Z- , . . .

.

Y-

. 2.10. Y- .
, , ,
.

. 7, -
, .
, , , -, , . , , . . , -, Y-. . 2.10 Y-,
, - ,
.
44

, , . . . ,
, ,
, .
, , ,
. . .

3. ,

, , ,
() ,
, , .
, , , (, ,
, ) .
,
, , .

, .

. , ur
E
ur
: E = grad .
, .
,
.
45

, . , , , .
, .
,
.

3.1.


. 1 2 . (.
3.1).

, r
D S
V, :
r r
(3.1)
DdS
= dV .

( 0 ) . (3.1)
:
D1, n S + D2, n S = S ,

(3.2)

D1,n , D2,n , ; S .
: lim = sur .
0

sur
(/2).
(3.2)
46

D2, n D1,n = sur .


( sur = 0 ),
D1, n = D2,n .

:
, ,
.
.
, . , ,
,
sur
, :
I
II
B1,n = B2, n .
:

.

r
E .
1

r S
D1
n1

r
D2

n2


I II

. 3.1. ,
. n1 n2 S.

2 .
. 3.2
:
r r
r r
EdL
=

BdS
,

L ; L = 2 (1 + ); S , L.
r
, B S ,
47

II

r
E1,

r r
EdL
=0

r
E2,

. 3.2. ,

r r
E, D

sur

E =0
r
j
r
jsur

r r
H,B
H =0

. 3.3.


E1, L E2, L = 0 , ,
E1, = E2, .

:
.
r
H. ,
L (. . 3.2).
r r
r r
(3.3)
HdL = jdS ,
L

r
j , -

S, L.
,
,
0
:
lim j = jsur .
0

jsur (/). (3.3)


:
H1, L H 2, L = jsur L,
,
H1, H 2, = jsur .

:
.
48


H1, = H 2, .
:
, ,
.
. ,
( Ein = 0, H in = 0 ) .
- (, ) . , , . E = 0 ,
Dn = sur , Bn = 0 , H = jsur .

; (. 3.3).

3.2.

, , . , . . ().
. 3.4 .
: E1, = E2, H1, = H 2, .

r
r
E - H - Zsur = E1 H 1 . - - :
49

E2 H 2 = Z 0met .

Zsur = Z 0met .


:
r
r
rot E = i0 H ;
r
r
r
rot H = i0 E + E.

E1 H 1

E 2 H 2

. 3.4.

r
r

rot H = i 0 + E ,
i



ef = 0 + ,
i i
ef -

.
, Z 0 = 0 0 .
0 ef :
Z 0 met =

0
i0
.
=
i

,
Zsur =

i0
= Rsur + iX sur .

1+ i
,
2
:

i=

0
0
; X sur =
.
2
2
:

Rsur =

k =

1 i
1
,
0 =
0 = (1 i )
i

2
50

(3.4)


= 2 0 .
:
= 1 .
l = .
, -

. f = 10 300 = 0.6 .

(3.4) Rsur = 0,025 .

3.3.

,
r
A ,
r
E = grad ;
(3.5)
r
r
(3.6)
H = rot A .
r
A .
.
, , ,
. , ,
,
ur
ur r ur
F = q( E + [v B]) ,
q , v .
. (51

) .
, , ,
. r
A , .
r
, A , (. . 6 . 9
.: , 1966; 1967.).
r
, A , ,
.
.
r
A , (3.6). (3.6) :
r
r
H
rot E = 0
t
:
r
r
A
(3.7)
rot E + 0
=0.

r
rot grad a 0 , (3.7) ,
:
r
r
A
E + 0
= grad .
(3.8)
t
,
. ,
, (3.8) (3.5).
, ,
:

52

r
r
A
(3.9)
E = 0
grad .
t
(3.9), ,
.
r
r
, E H r
A (3.6) (3.9),
r
A Ax , Ay , Az .

r
A .
r
r D r
r
rot H =
+ j ; div D =
t
(3.6) (3.9):
r
r r

2 A
rot rot A = j 0 (grad ) 00
;
t
t 2
(3.10)
r

divgrad 0 div A =
.
t
0
:
r
r
r
rot rot A = grad div A A .
(3.10) :
r
r
r

2 A r

A + grad div A + 0
+ 00 2 = j ;
t

t
r

+ 0
div A =
.
t
0

(3.11)

(3.11)
r
r
( A ) ( j ).
,
:
r

div A + 0
= 0.
(3.12)
t
53

(3.12) .
, (3.11)
:
r
r
r
2 A
A 00
= j;
t 2
(3.13)
2

00
=
.
2
0
t
, . (3.13)
. :
r
A ( ), ( ). (3.13)

:
r
, Ax , Ay , Az . j = 0 = 0 (3.13)
,
r 2 r
A +
A = 0;
c2
2

(3.14)

= 0.
c2
( 0 ) (3.14) -

, , :
r
r

A = j ; =
.
0
r
( j = 0 = 0 ) :

r
A = 0; = 0.

( 0 )
(3.12) :

r
div A = 0,
.
54

, ,
:
, Ax , Ay , Az . ,
. ,
.
( , Ax , Ay , Az ).
. , (3.6) (3.9).
.
, , . . = 0. (3.9) (3.12)

ur
r
E = i0 A;
(3.15)
r
(3.16)
div A = 0.
uur
uur
, div(rot M ) = 0, M
, , (3.16) (3.15) :
ur
ur ur
ur
(3.17)
A = rot F , E = i0 rot F .
ur
F
ur
ur
A . (3.17) , , F ,
ur
A , .
Fx , Fy , Fz ,

(3.17) .
ur
F .
55

4.
,
. , .
( ).
.

4.1.
. 4.1 ,
.
y



( E = 0 ) b
.
r
a

A
, z

. 4.1. ur
,
r
2 A
A 00
= 0.
t 2

, ,
().

E y 0 , E z = E x = 0 . . b


56

r r
A = e y Ay ( x, z )eit ,

.
ur
div A = 0 .
:
r
r
r
E = i0 A grad = e y i0 Ay ( x, z ) ,
r
r
H = rot A.
:
E z = E x = 0;
E y = i0 Ay ( x, z ) ;
Ay
Az Ay
;

=
y
z
z
A
A
H y = x z = 0;
z
x
Ay Ax Ay
Hz =

=
.
x
y
x

Hx =

(4.1)

,
Z:
Ay = A0 f ( x ) eiz .

(4.2)

Ay :
2 Ay
x2

2 Ay
z2

+ 20 0 Ay = 0.

(4.3)

: = 0 x = 0 , x = a ( E y = 0 x = 0 ,

x = a ) f ( x) :
f ( x) = 0

(4.4)

x = 0 , x = a .

2 Ay
z

= A 0 f ( x)eiz ,

(4.3)
57

A0 f ''( x) 2 f ( x) + 2 0 0 f ( x) eiz = 0.

f ''( x) + k x2 f ( x) = 0,

(4.5)

k x2 = 2 0 0 2 ( k x ): 200 = k 2 (k
);
:

2 = k 2 k x2 .

(4.6)

(4.6) .

= 2 g , g
,
.
f ( x) (4.5). (4.5)

f ( x) = C1eik x x + C2eik x x .
(4.6),
C1 C2:
C1 + C2 = 0;
ik a
ik a
C1e x + C2e x = 0.

,
:
1
1
= 0,
eik x a eik x a
eik x a eik x a = 0 sin k x a = 0 .
, k x a = n , n = 1,2,3,... .
n
. : k x = n a .

58

, k = 2 , .
2

k z = 2 = ( 2 ) ( n a ) ;

(4.7)

n
f ( x) = C sin x .
(4.8)
a
n = 1 f () .
. (4.3) (4.8), n = 1


Ay = A0 sin x eiz .
a

(4.1), (4.2) (4.7) :


Ez = Ex = 0 ;

E y = i0 Ay sin x eiz ;
a

H x = iA0 sin x eiz ;
a
H y = 0;

(4.9)

n

cos x eiz ;
a
a
. H n,m , n m
H z = A0

x y . n = 1
m = 0.
H1,0 . 4.2.
E y H x :
Ez H x = Z g .

(4.9) :

Z g = 0 .
59

(4.10)

. 4.2
. z vg :

vg =

= vph .

vg
.
Ey

sin

x
a

Hx

sin x
a

Hz

H z cos x
a

0
g

. 4.2.

r
jsur

. 4.3
.
.
n = 1
(4.7) :
2

2 2 2 2

=
g a

r
H
. 4.3.

g =

1
1

60

( 2a )2

g =

(4.11)


1
2a
.
r > 1 , . .

2 = 0 r 0 .
. 4.4, g

.
,
( > c ), .
c = 2a .


2 2
=
=
1 .
g

(4.12)

> c , > c , ,
,
.
. , :
vph =


1
=
,
2 1 ( )2
c

vph =

c
2

(4.13)

1 ( c )
; vph c .

61

? (2.2). :
vgr = ( ) 1.

(4.14)

c
c = 2

c
c

(4.15)

, (4.12) (4.15):
=


1 c
c

2 =

2 c2
c2

(4.16)

c
= c

= c = 2a

. 4.4. :

;

. 4.4, . , (4.6). (4.16):


1 (2 ) 1 1

=
=
2 =
2
2
2 c
c 2

(4.14).

62

1
c2

vgr =
=c
= c 1 c .
(4.17)

, (4.13)
c
(4.18)
vph =
.
2

1 c

(4.17) (4.18)
vgr vph = c 2 .

(4.19)

, c ,
vph , vgr 0 . , vgr,ver
< c -

vph

.
. 4.5 c

.
vgr
, ,

c
(4.19),

.
. 4.5.
,
.
. (. 4.6). ,
, S ,
P =

ab r r

dS ,

00
63

r
r*
r
r 1
r
); H * ( = Re Em H m
m

2
.
y

r
H

z
r
H

. 4.6. .

:
E


E y = Em sin x eiz ; H x = m sin x eiz ;
Zg
a
a
r

r E2
( x) = ez m sin 2 x.
2Z g
a

0
.

(4.10) (4.11) ,
120
Zg =
.
2

1
c
Zg =

(4.20)


, :
ab

2
2
Em
Em
ab
2
P=
sin x dxdy ; P =
,
2
Z
a
2
Z
2

g
g
00

Em .

64

(4.21)

. 4.7 ,
.
r

Ey ( x) sin x
a

H x ( x) sin x
a

r
2
( x) sin x
a

x 0

r r r
. 4.7. E , H

(4.21). (4.20),
2


E 2 ab 1
P= 0 m
1 .
2 2 00
c
(4.17) :
2
0 Em
ab
P=
vgr .
(4.22)
2 2
(4.22) :
. , vgr 0 ,

.
, vph vgr , . ,
, .

65

4.2.
.
, . 4.1
r
H , , H-.
. ,
n
Ay = A0 sin x eix ,
a
n . H nm ,
, ( E z = 0 ; n , y m ). 4.1 H10 .
, E z , ( H z = 0 ). Enm . ,
, n , y m .
- - ; -, - .
, - y
- ; b
-, .
(Emn -,
a
x
0
-). . 4.8
z

. 4.8.

.
66

,
H z = 0 , - .
. ,
r r
r
r
r
H = rot A; E = i0 A grad ; div A = i0.
r
( j = 0 ).
,
r r
r
r
r
1
(4.23)
200 A + grad div A .
H = rot A; E =
i0
r
A ,
r r
A = ez A ( x, y, z ) , Hz = 0

rot .
, (4.23) :
A
Hx = ;
y
A
Hy = ;
x
H z = 0;
1 2 A
Ex =
;
i0 xz

(4.24)

1 2 A
Ey =
;
i0 yz
2 A
1 2
Ez =
00 A + 2 .
i0
z
r
A -

:
2 A ( x, y , z )
x

2 A ( x, y , z )
y

2 A ( x, y , z )
z

+ 200 A ( x, y, z ) = 0 . (4.25)

. , A ( x, y, z ) = f ( x, y ) ei z . r
A E z . E z , . .
67

f ( x, y ) x =0, a = f ( x, y ) x =0,b = 0 .

nx my iz
A ( x, y, z ) = Anm sin
.
(4.26)
sin
e
a b
n = 1, 2, 3...; m = 1, 2, 3. (4.26) (4.25).
2

n m
= 00

a b
2

(4.27)

2 2 2 2 2
,

=
g c

(4.28)

1 n 2 m 2
(4.29)
= + .
c 2a 2b
n m, c .

(4.26) (4.24). :
H x = Anm
H y = Anm

m nx my i z
sin
;
cos
e
b
a b
n
nx my i z
cos
;
sin
e
b
a b
H z = 0;

n
nx my iz
cos
;
sin
e
a
a b
m nx my iz
E y = Anm Z g( E )
sin
;
cos
e
b
a b
E x = Anm Z g( E )

n m
+

b
nx my i z
(E) a

E z = iAnm Z g
sin
,
sin
e

a b

Z g( E ) -:
68

Z g( E ) = Ez H y = E y H x .

(4.24) ,
Z g( E ) =

.
0
2

, (4.27) (4.29) , = 00 1 ( c ) ,
Z g( E ) =

0
2
1 ( c ) .
0

. 4.9 11 (n = 1, m = 1).

r
H
y

b
g

r
E

2
sin

x
a

x
sin

y
b

. 4.9.
E11

( H nm -,
TEnm -). r
r
A A ' , 0 0 .
Enm :

r
A = erz A ( x, y, z ) ;

r
r
1
r
Enm E =
200 A + grad div A ;
i0

r
H = rot Ar.

69

H nm :
r
A ' = erz A ' ( x, y, z ) ;

r
r
1
r
H nm H =
200 A '+ grad div A ' ;
i0

r
E = rot Ar '.


A '
;
Ex =
y
A '
;
Ey =
x
E z = 0;

1 2 A'
;
Hx =
i0 xz
1 2 A'
;
Hy =
i0 yz
1 2
2 A '
Hz =
00 A '+ 2 .
i0
z

A'(x,y,z) ,
A(x,y,z). :
A '
A '
Ex =
y =0,b = 0; E y =
y = 0, a = 0.
y
x
:
nx my iz
A ' = A 'nm cos
;
cos
e
a b
2

n m
= 00
.
a b
, -,
,
Ey
E
0
1
Z g( H ) = x =
=
.
2
H y Hx
0
1 ( c )
2

70

- (n = 0, 1, 2,..;
m = 0, 1, 2,). n = 1, m = 0 H10 4.1. . 4.10
H11 .

r
H

y
r
E

sin

x
a
a

x
sin

y
b

. 4.10. 11


H z cos x cos y
a
b

.

H10

. c
,
, = 23 , b = 10 .
: H10 , c

= = 2 = 4,6 .
: H01;
c = 2b = 2,0 .
:
H11 E11: c =

1
2

1 ( 2a ) + 1 ( 2b )

H 01

H 20

. 4.11.
H10 , H 01 , H 20

= 1,83 ;
71

H20: c = = 2,3 ;
H21 E21: c =

1
2

1 ( 2a ) + 1 ( 2b )

= 1,52 ;

H12 E12: c =

1
2

1 ( 2a ) + 1 ( 2b )

= 0,96 .

. 4.11
-.

4.3.
, ,
.
, r , z
. . 4.12 H11 .
H11 , ,
r. H11
d:
c = 1,71d .

H11 10 : c = 2a .
d =
.

d = .
r
r
E H
r
r
H11 E H
H 01 . -

72

,
.
r
H

r
E

r
H

r
E

H11 , c = 1, 71d

H10 , c = 2a

. 4.12. H11 .

H 01 .

-,
-.
.
.

73

5.


, . 4.
( ).
. , . .
,
.
( ) .

, .
,
. . ,
,
.

( ).
, .

5.1. -
,
. -
, , 74

. .

2R
, - .
2
,
- . 5.1
.
.
- ( E = 0 r = a r = R . . 5.1) - , r , z
. , , .
. , . 4 , .
, U; ,
, I. :
U
1 ikz
Er ( r , z ) =
e
;
ln( R / a ) r
(5.1)
I ikz
H (r , z ) =
e
.
2r
. (5.1) , .
: k = 0 0 , ( Z 0 = U / I ):
75

Z0 =

60
ln( R / a) ,

, .
2R

2R

r
H

r
H

+
+

r
E

r
E
2a

2a

. 5.2.
- 11

, - .
,
, : , ,
. . 5.2 - H11 , H11 (. . 4.12).
R >> a H11 :
c 1,71 2 R = 3, 42 R.

R a H10 . , , .
:
R+a
c 2
= ( R + a ).
2
.
.
76

, .
.

. (. 5.3).
r r
E H

r
H

r
E

. 5.3.
: , ( )

. 5.4 . ,
( E = 0 ) , . ( ) .

z
w

. 5.4.
:
( E = 0 ) ( H = 0 )

, . ,
( H = 0 ) , .
77

. 5.3,
. ,

, . , , ,
, , .
,
(5.2)
>> 1 w >> h.
.
, . ,

. , . .
, ,
,
:
(5.3)
E x y = 0, w = 0, H y
= 0.
x = 0, h
, .
r
A.
, z:
r r
A = e z A ( x , y , z ) e i z .

, (3.9) (3.12), :

78

1 2 A
1 2 A
;
; Ey =
Ex =
i0 xz
i0 yz
1 2
2 A
Ez =
0 0 A + 2 ;
i0
z
Hx =

(5.4)

A
A
; H y = ; Hz = 0.
dy
x

-, E z = 0 . (5.4),
2 + 20 0 = 0

(5.5)

:
2 A( x, y )
x

2 A( x, y )
y

=0

(5.6)

(5.5) (5.3) ,
( E z = 0 ) .
(5.3) , ().
:
- , . . , ,
, ,

.

(5.6), (5.3): A( x, y ) = S y ,

:
E x = 0, E y =

Seiz , E z = 0;
0

H x = Sei z , H y = 0, H z = 0.
(
)

79

Ey
Hx

0
.
0

(5.7)

,
. , , . 00.
.
c
: -
= 0 0 .

: E z = 0, H z = 0 .
, , . . vph :
vph () =

1
.
0 ()0


, .
U = E y h; I = H x w . (5.7)
:
120 h
Z0 =
.
w

(5.8)

, (5.8) -.
(5.2).

5.2. TEM-

-
80

, . . , -

, (.
5.5).
r
E

(w h)ef

r
H

5
4
3

2
1

wh

0 1 2 3 4 5

. 5.5.

. 5.6.

r
E z = 0 , 2 = 20 0 .
. ,
, ,
.

, ,
. ,
(1.28) Z 0 :

Z0 =

120 h
,
w ef

(5.9)

(. 5.6)
, , :
6

w
h 1
h
w
+ 1
= + 1,21
.
9w 2 2w
h ef h
81

(5.10)

, , (5.10), w h > 10

( w h )ef

w h 15%.

-
vph = c

5.3. -
,
, , 1.
(. 5.7).

(. 5.8),

>1
=1
.
,
/2

. 5.7. - , .
-
:
E,1 = E,2 En,1 = En,2 .
() . . 5.8 :
r
r
E,1 = E1 cos ; En,1 = E1 sin .
,
r
E1 = E2,1 + En2,1 ;

r
E2 =

E2,2 + En2,2 .


82

r
r
E2 = E1 cos 2 + sin 2 .

(. 5.8).
r
r
, > 0 E2 > E1 , . .

, .
,
+
,
> 1 x
x xx
+

x
,

+
w
h
, .

. 5.9.
- -
r
, E .
, , / 2 ,

(. . 5.7 5.9).
' = 1
' > 1
,

II
I
()
, - ()
. ,
, .5.8. , -
, -
83

. ,
,
,
- .
(5.4) ,
:
Ez =

1 2
2 Az
00 Az +
i0
z 2

0;

( 200 ) Az 0;
200 2 .

,
-
, .
:
2 = 2 00 + ()00 ;

(5.11)

= 00 + ().
(5.11) - :
c
.
vph =
+ ()

() .
vph =

c
2

(5.12)

a0 + a2 + ...

a0 ,
, , . ,
, , = 1 . ; a2 .
84

-
( 0)
(5.13)
ef ( ) = ef
,
2
h
1+ 0
Z0
ef (0) - ,
, . . ; h ; Z 0
(5.9). .
(5.12) (5.13) ,
2

h
a0 = ef ( 0 ) ; a2 [ ef ( 0 )] 0 .
Z0
, - -, . .

. - , - , .

.
(5.13), (5.9) (5.10), ,
0h
(5.14)
00 ( w + 1,21h + ...) ,
Z0


0 0 = 2 ,

(5.15)

, .
- ,
0h
(5.16)
< 0,1.
Z0
(5.14) (5.15) , (5.16) ,
85

1
(5.17)
.
20
w < 0,01 .
w + 1,21h <


-
.

5.4.
, . 5.10.
,
. -.

= 0

ef ,

ef
( ):
+ 1 1
1
ef =
+
.
(5.18)
12
2
2
h
1 + 10
w

(5.18)
;
(5.17).
. 5.11 ,
( w1 = 1 , w2 = 3,2 )
h = 1 = 9,6
(, ). ef , (5.18). , 86

f 2 f 1 .

(5.17).

120 h
ef w
(5.19)
Z0 =
.
2
6
h
h
h
h
1 + 2.42 0.44 + 1
w
w w
w
. 5.10,
, . 5.5, .
. , , (5.9)
(5.10), (5.19) . , .

. 5.10. .


(5.17)
.

87


:
1. .
; , . 5.10,
, . 5.4.
w < 0,01 w >> h .
,
, , :
ef = .
(*)
2. , . .
+ 1 1
1
.
(**)
ef =
+
12
2
2
h
1 + 10
w

, (**) (*) w >> h .


ef

w = 3,2

h = 1

w = 1,0
7,4

8
7

6,6

6
0

10 12

f,

. 5.11.

3.
.

88


(, ). :
( 0)
(***)
ef ( ) = ef
.
2
h
1+ 0
Z0

, h 0 (***) (**), ,
, (*). (***) . 5.11.
- .
.
. 5.12. .

r
E

a
w

. 5.12.

. 5.13.

. 5.13
.

.
. .
.
,
,
89

-. - ,
w + 2s <

(5.20)

(5.20)
,
. . (5.20) , :
= 0

ef ; ef = (1 + ) 2.
, -
= 1, = . -

, h (. . 5.12)
,

Z 0 ,
. Z 0 =100
120
,
= 10
80

: h > w + 2 s .
, t
40

( t s . . 5.12).
0
0, 2
0, 6 w/a
0, 4

. 5.14. -

= 10


:
30 K '( p)
Z0 =
,
ef K ( p)
Z 0 =50

K ( p), K '( p ) ; p = w / a ( a = w + 2 s ).
90


, 6-
:
1 1+
ln 2
1
K '( p)
=
K ( p) 1 1 +
ln 2
1

p
p '

p '

0,707 1;
1

0 0,707,

p ' = 1 p 2 .
, f=
=10 : = 10, h = 1 , w = 0.1 , a = 0.2 , s = 0.05 , Z0 = 50 ,
(. 5.14).

5.5.
-.

2U ( z )

R
G
+ 2 L1 + 1 C1 + 1 U ( z ) = 0.
i
i
z 2

R
G

k = L1 + 1 C1 + 1 ;
i
i

k = i.

(5.21)

eikz = eiz ez
, .
, ,
. 1.4.
l , :
U (l )
= el .
U (0)

[] l
91

U (l )
al = 20lg
= 20 ( l ) lg e = 8,68l.
U (0)
( ):
a = 8,68.
(5.21), , :
R1 L1 << 1, G1 C1 << 1 .

R
G
R
G

k = L1 + 1 C1 + 1 = L1C1 1 i 1 1 i 1 ;
i
i
2L1
2C1

1 R
G
k = L1C1 1 i 1 + 1 .
2 2L1 2C1
k = i ,

R
1
G
= L1C1 1 + 1 .
2
2L1 2C1

(5.22)

Ll Cl = , (5.22) , :
=

R1
+ tg .

L1

skin
j(x)

. 5.15.

92

G1 C1 = tg ( ) .

,

,
. 3.2.

.
t l
w (. 5.15).
, , U z I
: U z = E z l , I = H x w.
R (l ) l. , l << .
U
E l
l
R (l ) = = z = Rsur .
I H xw
w

1
1
R1 = R(l ) = Rsur .
l
w
Rsur 3.2 (3.3).
()
t < , ()
. l
1 l
R (l ) =
.
tw
:
1 1
R1 =
.
tw
, w
:
1 0
,
t > ;

w
2

R1 =
(5.23)
1 1,
t < .
w t
(3.18)
(3.20), (5.23) :

93

1 1
t > ;
w ,

R1 =
1 1,
t < .
w t
, , t > , -

:

1 0
;
w 2
, ;
h
L1 = 0 .
w

R1 =

1 0
R1
1
2
1
= w 2 =
=
.
h
L1
2
h

2
h
0
0
w
(5.22), , :

1/ = + tg ,
h

jz ( y )

1

a/ = 27,3 + tg .
h



. 5.16.
j (. . 5.15).

. 5.16
. , :
, ,
94

.
, .
. ,
.
:

f = 10 ; 0 = 3 ; = 0, 6 ; tg = 103 ;
3
h = 0,3 ; = 2; =
2
2
27,3
a/ =
(2 103 + 103 ) = 4,1 /, a = 0, 041 /.
0, 02

6.
LCR- ,
. ,
LCR- ,
. LCR- -, ,
. . ,
.
()
,

. , . , , 95

. .
. ,
.

6.1.
H10 , (. 6.1).
:
x
(6.1)
E x = 0; E z = 0; E y = E0 sin eiz .
a

y
c
:
x
b

E y x = 0, a = 0.

E y z = 0, c = 0.
. 6.1. , (6.2)

,
(6.2),
:
x i z
+ eiz .
E y = E0 sin
e
a
= 1 ,
z

x
sin z.
a
(6.2) , sin z = 0
E y = 2 E0 sin

E y z =0 = 0 z = 0 .
96


E y z =c = 0 ,

, c = p ( p = 1, 2, 3), = p c .
, :
n x;
m ;
z.
Ey

x x x
x x x
x x x

Hz
z
. 6.2. H102

10 .
= 2.
x
2z
E y = E0 sin sin
.
a
c
, :
E 2 x
2z
Hx = 0
sin cos
;
i0 c
a
c

(6.3)

H y = 0;
Hz =

E0
x
2z
cos sin
.
i0 a
a
c

, (6.3), . 6.2.

97

: H x H z
. E y
H x H z 90.
E y H x ,
. E y H x ,

, . .
- H nmp Enmp . ,
z,
z .
, . ,
. ,

,
.
.
Z, -
:
cos nx cos ny cos nz
Z ( x, y, z ) = Z nmp

sin a sin b sin c



sin, cos.
.
:
Z + 200 Z = 0,
=

2
x 2

98

2
y 2

2
z 2

:
n 2 m 2 p 2
2 Z ( x, y, z ) = 0.

0 0
a b c

,
, . ,
2
2
2
1
n + m + p .
(6.4)

00 a b c
, n, m, p. .
() , . , :

(0n, m, p ) =

n 2 m 2 p 2
( n , m, p )

f0
=c
+
+ ,
2a 2b 2c

6.2.
, ,
, .
, .

L
LCR-.
C
R
LCR-.
(. 6.3),
1
iL + RL
(6.5)
Z=
=
.
2 LC + iCR
.6.3.
1
1

L
+ iC
RCL-RL + iL
L >> R

99

1
, (6.5) LC
:
iL
.
Z=
2

1
+ iCRL
02
02 =

02 2 2
1
C
,

, = 0 .
L
0
2

, , , .


iL
Re Z
.
Z=
Im Z
2 RL
+i

L
0
1
:
2
1
L RL = Q ,
(6.6)


:
1
Z = Req
.
2
1 i
Q
0

. 6.4. LCR

Req = RLQ 2 .

:
2
1+ i
Q
0
Z = Req
.
(6.7)
2 2

1+
Q
0
(6.7) . 6.4. ( 2 1 = 2 )
.
. 6.4
100

2
Q = 1,
0

1 0 = , 0 2 = .
LCR- Q (6.6).
S1
r
H

r
E

S2

b
x
a

S3

. 6.6.

. 6.5.
H101 .

. 2 , I .
(6.6) 1 2 I m
m

Q=

2 L 2
Im
2 R 2
Im

2 2 = W , RI 2 2 = P , W ,
, LI m
m
; , .

Q = W P ,
(6.8)

W
,
PT
, .
Q = 2

101

. , H (t ) = H m
E (t ) = Em , , ,
2
2
0 H m
0 Em
dV
,
W
=
E
2
2 dV .
V
V
= 0 WH = WE = W , W , .
, :
r r
r
r
1
P = E H * dS , E = H Rsur ,
(6.9)
2S
r r
E , H -

WH =

; Rsur
.

r
(6.9) E , , -

, (6.8) (6.9) :
r 2
0 H dV
Q=

r 2 .
Rsur H dS
S

, 0 =

2
120 , 0 .
0
r 2
2 H dV
120 V
Q=
(6.10)
r 2 .
Rsur
H dS
0
S


,
. (6.10) ,
.
:
Q = G Rsur ,
G ,
102

Q = 120

g
.
Rsur

g :
r 2
H
dV

2 V
g=
r 2 ,

H dS

(6.11)

(6.12)

, . .
101 . .6.5, . 6.6.
:
1
x
z
1
x
z
H x = I m sin cos , H y = 0, H z = I m cos sin .
c
a
c
a
a
c

r2
1 abc
2 1
H
dV = I m
2+ 2 4 ;

a
c
V
r2
1 ac
2 1
H dS = I m 2 + 2 4 ;
a
c
S1
r2
2 1 bc
;
H dS = I m
a2 2
S2

r2
2 1 ab
H dS = I m
;
2 2
c
S3

r2
1 ac 1 cb 1 ab
2 1
+
H dS = 2 I m
2 + 2 + 2
=
a 4 a 2 c2 2
c
S
1 2 2
2
= Im
a + c ac + 2a3b + 2c3b ;
2 2

2a c

2 a 2 + c 2 abc
2a 2 c 2
.
0 a 2c 2 4 a3c + ac3 + 2a3b + 2c3b
:

1
g=
.
(6.13)
0 2 a 3 + c3
1
+
ac a 2 + c 2 b
g=

(
(

)
)

: b = 1,0 ; = = 2,0 .
103

2
1
1
=
+
, : 0 = 2 2 .
2
0
a
c2
(6.13),

g=
=
0, 4 .
2 2 2 2 16 + 1 2 2 3
4 8
( g 1) ; (6.4)

g = 2 .
g 1 , 10 . 10
, 300 Rsur = 0.025 , (6.11) :
Q=

377 1, 0
15000 .
0, 025

() .

6.3.

. 6.7 . l , .
,
,
l
.
I
U

z
z=l
z=0
,

()
. 6.7.
.

:
U ( z ) = U ei z + U eiz ,

U U .
1 .
104

:
U = U , z = 0;
(6.14)
U eil = U eil , z = l.
U U , :
1

eil

eil

= ei l eil = 2i sin l = 0.

l = n,

(6.15)

n = 1, 2, 3...
(6.15) . , . . , l
.

h
1 (6.14)
w
(6.15) . . 6.8.

.
. 6.8 .
:
I
Hm = m ;
w
I
z
H ( z ) = m sin ;
w
l
2
2 ( z ) dV = I m hlw ;
H
w 2

Im
2
H ( z )dS = w
S
105

lw

2 2 .


, , , . (6.12), :
2
I m hlw
2 w 2
h
g=
=
,
(6.16)
2
I

lw
m
w 2 2

, .
= 10; ef = 6.25; h = 0,5 ; f = 10 ;
0 = 3 ;

= 1,2 ;

l = 0,6 .

(6.16)

0,5
= 0,13 .
12
10 Rsur = 0,04 . (6.11) g=

, :
QM =

120 ef
377
g=
0,13 500 .
Rsur
2,5 0,04

. ,
.
Q
1
1
1
1
=
+
+
,
Q QM QD QR

QD (

1
= tg D ).
QD

,
, tg D 103 . QR . . , QR = 103...104 . : Q 250 .
, .

106


.
-
(. . 5.16). , , .
,
, (6.16). , , , .
, .

6.4.
,
- , .
, , . .
. ,
, .
,
.
, , .
.
. 6.9 . , .
H101 (. 6.10).
:
107

x
z
E y = E0 sin sin ;
a
c
c
x
z
Hx =
sin cos ;
i0
a
c
a
x
z
Hz =
cos sin .
i0
a
c

(6.17)

,
. 6.11. y.
x
c
y

z0
h

x0

x
z

+++
+++
+++

. 6.9.

,
:
I
y
j y ( y ) = 0 1 .
(6.18)
h
R 2
, , : h 8 .

. 6.10.
H101

jy(y)
. 6.11.

:
r
r
r
0 Em 2 0 H m 2
1
* dS + 1 E rj * dV .
i

dV = Em H m

2
2
2S
2 V m m

V
108

:
, , ;
,
, ;
, , .
.
:
r 2
0 Em
0 E02 abc
2 dV = 2 4 ;
V
r 2
0 H m
E02 2 2 abc
2 dV = 2 a + c 4 =
2 0

V
0 E02 02 abc
=
.
2 2 4

(6.4)
n = 1, m = 1, p = 1, ( a )2 + ( c )2 = 0200 :
E 2 H 2
0 E02 abc
02
i 0 m 0 m dV = i

.
2

2
2
2
4

.
= 0 , ,
r
r
E -, , H -, .
:
r 2
1 r r* r 1
(6.19)
E
H
dS
=
Z
H
m
m
sur
m dS .

2
2
Zsur ,

. ,

109

r 2
H dV

2 V
g=
,
0 Hr 2 dS

:
1 r 2
2 1 H m 2 dV 2 1 1 0 H m 2
=
H
dS =
dV .
0 g V
0 g 0 V
2 m
2
2

(6.19),
1 r r* r
1 0 H m 2
E H
dS = Zsur 00
dV .
2 m m
g0 V
2
. ,

.
, . :
h
1 r *
1
x0
z0
y
Em jm dV = E0 sin
sin
I 0 1 =

2V
2
a
c
h
0

1
h
x
z
1
= E0 I 0 sin 0 sin 0 = E0 I 0hef ,
2
2
a
c
2
x0 , z0 . :
h

hef = sin x0 sin z0 .


(6.20)
2
a
c
.
:
2
0 E02 abc
1 0 E0 abc 1
2
i
E0 I 0hef .
1 2 = Zsur 00

2
4
g 0 2
4
2

0
, Zsur = Rsur + iX sur .

, :

2
E0 i0 1

02

R + iX sur
0 sur

120g

110

abc
= I 0hef .


2 1
0 = 00 0 =
,
0
120
:

2 1
2 1 abc
E0
(6.21)
i 1 2 ( 1 + i ) = I 0hef .
Q
120 4

0
,
.
,
, , , , .
. (6.21) :
240hef 0
1
.
(6.22)
E0 = I 0
abc

1 2 1
i 1
+

Q 2 Q

0
, -
( X sur 0 ):
1 2res
1
1
= 0, 2res = 02 1 .
Q 2
Q

. -
. ,
.
= res
240hef
Q.
abc
:
E0,res
E0 () = I 0
.
(6.23)

2
1 iQ 1 2
res

E0,res = I 0

111

. , :
r
rr
1
(6.24)
P = EH * dS .
2

1
P = I 0 2 Zinput .
(6.25)
2
I 0 (6.18) . 6.12;
Zinput . (6.17) -

( x0 , z0 ) , : H ( y ) = I ( y ) 2r , r
. (6.22) :
h 2
1 r r*
x0
z0 1
EH dS = E0 sin
sin
H ( y ) rd dy =
2
a
c 2 0 0

1
h

E0 I 0 sin x0 sin z0 .
2
2
a
c
1442443
hef

, (6.20). ,
1 r r*
1
EH
dS
=
E I h .

2
2 0 0 ef
E0

(6.22) (6.24) (6.25),


1 2
1 2 240h2ef
= I
I Z
2 0 input 2 0
abc

(x, 0, z )
x

2 1
i 1
+
2res Q

,
:
2
240hef
Zinput =
abc

. 6.12.
, -

Rinput []:
112

2
i 1
2res

1
+Q

2
240hef
(6.26)
Rinput =
Q.
abc
. = = 2 ; b = 1 ; h =
0,3 ; 0 = z0 = 0,16 .

= 2 2 (f = 10,61 ); Q = 5000; sin x0 = sin z0 = 0,26;


a
c
hef = 0,01 .

(6.26), ,

, , Rinput = 85 .

6.5.

(. 6.13) , ,
, z. r .
, .
,
,
: n, m, p. n ; m r; p
z.
,
,
.
- E010 .

113

. 6.14 . : (n = 0); r (m =
=1); z ( = 0).
r
E

z
h

r
H

, r , z

Ez(r)
H(r)

. 6.13

2a
. 6.14.

E010

E010 :
n, mr pz
E z (, r , z ) = E0 cos( n) J n
(6.27)
,
cos
a h
J n ( s) n- . n, m

, r = a J n ( n, m ) = 0 , . .
. m
.

(. 6.15):
01 = 2,405

02 = 5,520

03 = 8,654

04 = 11,792

11 = 3,831

12 = 7,016

13 = 10,173

14 =13,324

114

(0n, m, p ) =

2
n, m
p .
+
h
a

1
0 0

(6.28)

E010 01 =
=2,405 (6.28) : 0 = c

2,405
, ,
a

1
f0 = c
. , 2,612a
: 0 = 2,612a .
1

J0(s)

0,5

J1(s)

0
0,5

15

10

. 6.15. .


() , 2, (. 6.16).
2
2
+ ; f = c 1 ; = 2,82a .
2a

0
0
2 2a

2a
, y

E010 H101

0 =

1
00

.

: E110 (. 6.17) H120 -

z
. 6.16.

H101

(. 6.18).
. 6.17 :
( n = 1 ); r ( m = 1 ); z ( l = 0 ).
115

E110 11 = 3,831 (6.27)


:
3,831
1
.
, , f0 = c
a
1,640a
, : 0 = 1,640a .
0 = c

H102 :
=

1
0 0

2
2
+ = c 3,512 ,
2a
a
a

1
, f0 = c
.
1,789a
, : 0 = 1,789a .
z

r
E

r
H
+
++ +
+

h
+

+ +

2a
z
. 6.17.
E110

. 6.18.

H102

( E010 H101 )
( E110 H102 ) , ,
, .
, () ,
() .
H nml , H z 0, E z = 0 . . 6.19 116


H 011 . (n= =0); r (m =
1); z ( = 1).
H 011

:
1
0 =
.
2
2
1 + 1
2h
1,64a

r
, E ,
.
.
h = 2a
(g = 2,07). h = 2a 0 = 1,52 .
H 011
.

H 011 -

E ( z )

2a

r
H
h
r
E

E (r )

H z (r )

.6.19.

H 011

, .
H 011 , (Nb). ( T 1 K ) 10
( Q 1010 ).

7. ,

,
. ,
117

.
( ). , .
-. , .

-:
, , , , , , .
, , , ,
- .
,
.

- , ,
, . . . .
. ,
, . .

118

7.1.
.
.
,
(),
.
. ,
NiFe2O3 ,

MnOFe2O3 ,
(Ni x Mn1-x )-Fe2O 4

2
2

Bsat

MeIIO Fe2O3 , MeII -

, 10 /

Y3Fe5O12 -

. 7.1.

().
. 7.1 .
Bsat . Bsat 2 . , , .
r
m

r
M0

r
m

r
M0

r
m

r
m

r
M0

r
M0

r
m

r
M0

r
H0
r
h

. 7.2. -

. . Bsat 0,04...0,5 .

119

,
, .7.2.
r
H 0
r
, h . , .

. 7.3.

M 0 ,
Bsat = 0 M 0 . . , . .
, .
r
r r
M
e
= M H .
(7.1)
t
m
. . * . . **
1935 .
H 0 , . . M 0 H 0 .
.
r
r
H M H 0 , M 0 *.. (1908-1968) -.
**. . (1915-?) -, .
120

h -, m - :

r r
r
r
r
r
H = H 0 + h ; M = M 0 + m,

r r
r
r
r
H 0 = ez H 0 ; h = ex hx + e y hy ,
r
r
r r
r
r
M 0 = ez M 0 , m = ex m x + e y m y + ez m z .

(7.2)

(7.3)

(7.2) (7.3) (7.1) :


e
imx = 0 ( H 0m y M 0hy ) ;
m
e
im y = 0 ( H 0mx M 0hx ) ;
(7.4)
m
imz = 0.
:
e
e
0 H 0 = 0 , 0 M 0 = M .
m
m
(7.4) :
imx + 0m y = M hy ;

0mx + im y = M hx ;

mz = 0.

(7.5)

(7.6)

, M 0 , 0 , M H 0 .
(7.6) :

M
mx = 0 M hx i
hy ;
2 02
2 02
my = i

M
2 02

hx i

0M
2 02

hy ;

(7.7)

mz = 0.
:

0M
2 02

( );
121

(7.8)

M
2 02

= k.

(7.9)

, k
. H 0 , k . , (7.7):
mx = hx ikhy ;
m y = hy + ikhx ;

(7.10)

mz = 0.

(7.10) :
mx
hx


m y = hy .
m
h
z
z
-

= ik
0

ik

0
0 .
0

r
r r
b = 0 ( h + m ) ;
r
r
b = h;
= 1 + .
r
b ; 1 ; -

:
' ik 0
= 0 ik ' 0
0
0 1
122

(7.11)

30

'( H 0 )

20
10
0
10
20
2

k(H0 )

20
10
0
10
20
2

0
1


M 0 (H 0 ) 1

0
1
2

. 7.4. . , -

, . ,
, , . ,

123

, ,
.
:
bx = 0 ( ' hx ikhy ) ; by = 0 ( ' hy + ikhx ) .
(7.12)
r
r
(7.12) , h b r
r
, , h b . ,

. (7.8) (7.9) ,
-.
(7.5):
e
0 = 0 H 0 ,
m
0
H 0 :
0 = 2f 0 , f0 = H 0, = 0,035 / ( / ) = 2,8 /.

H 0 = 105 / (1256 ), f0 = 3,5 ;


H 0 = 2,86 105 / (3570 ), f0 = 10 ( = 3 ).
. 7.4 . . 7.4
:

M
m
' = 1 0 M ; k =
; H =
.
(7.13)
e0
2 2
2 2
0

(7.5), (7.8) (7.9).


(7.13) . ,
. (7.13) , . . , , . .
(. 7.4, ). . 7.4, ,

124

, ,
1 . .
7.4, ,
, .
k (7.13)
.

7.2.

,
, .
. . 7.5 11
, .

.
(1) i ( t z )
h x(1) ( z , t ) = hm
e
.


( 2) i( t z )
.
h (y2 ) ( z , t ) = h m
e

,
() , () , :
(1)
(2)
hm
( z , t ) = hm
( z , t ) = hm 900 :

hx(1) ( z , t ) = hmei (t z ) ; hy(2) ( z, t ) = hmei (t z / 2) .

z z = 0 :
hx (0, t ) = hm cos t ;
hy (0, t ) = hm sin t.
125

(7.14)

,
, (7.14).
() .
. (. . 7.6),
r
H

r
E

r
E

r
H
y

. 7.5. H11
. ;


(t ) = t .
, (7.14),
. z ,
,
.
z
(, z).

:
+ ei (t z ) ;
hx ( z, t ) = hm
+ ei (t / 2 z ) .
hy ( z , t ) = hm

126

(7.15)

:
ei (t z ) ;
hx ( z , t ) = hm

(7.16)

ei (t + / 2z ) .
hy ( z , t ) = hm

(7.15) (7.12) :
+ ei (t z ) ;
bx+ ( z, t ) = 0 ( + k )hm
+ ei (t / 2 z ) ,
by+ ( z , t ) = 0 ( + k ) hm


, . (7.16) (7.12),

, . , :
+ = ( + ) h + ;
bm
0
m
= ( ) h ,
bm
0
m

hy

(t)

r
h
hx

. 7.6.

. (t ) = t

:
M
;
0
M
( ) = + k = 1 +
.
0 +
( + ) = k = 1 +


, z , :

127

= 0

( + )

0
0

( )
0

0
1

. 7.7 ( + ) . ( ) , . .
( + ) ( ) .
, . H11 ,
,
'( H 0 ) 40
.
20
0
.

( + )
40
0
2
1
1
2

20

( + ) . . 7.7.
- ,
- . . - .
- .
'=1

, ,
.
( ) , ( ) . 128


, . (. 2.3) ,

(7.11).
z
.
- ,
.
, -, ,
. 7.7.
, :
- . ,
-
. , . .

7.3. ,
( )

1845 .
. .

- .
() , ,
. H11 (. 7.8, 7.9).
129

, , . .
. .
- , ,
,
. H11 ,
,
z

H0

.
0

x x

r
h

z=0

x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x

z>0

.7.8. , . H11

. (7.15) (7.16),
- ( , , , ( + ) ( ) ):
+ ei (t
hx ( z, t ) = hm

(+ ) z)

ei (t
+ hm

( ) z)

...;

+ ei (t / 2( + ) z ) h ei (t + / 2( ) z ) .
hy ( z , t ) = hm
m

(7.17)

:
130

+ e i
hx ( z, t ) = hm

( + ) ( )
( + ) +( )
z i ( t
z)
2
2
e
+

ei
+ hm

( + ) ( )
( + ) +( )
z i (t
z)
2
2
e
;

+ e i
hy ( z , t ) = hm

( + ) ( )
( + ) +( )
z i (t / 2
z)
2
2
e

ei
hm

( + ) ( )
( + ) +( )
z i ( t + / 2
z)
2
2
e
.

+ = h = h
hm
m
m

(7.18)

( + ) + ( )
2
;
0 =

(7.19)

( + ) ( )
=
(7.20)
2
.
(7.18) (7.20), (7.17)
:
hx ( z, t ) = 2hm cos( z )ei (t 0 z ) ;
hy ( z , t ) = 2hm sin( z )ei (t 0 z ) .

(7.21)

. hm z, z

( z ) = z.
(7.22)
, z ,
, z, ( + ) , ( ) , 0 .
,
ef = 'ef 0 'ef 0 . , 131

. 'ef 'ef ,
- . ,
. . 7.9
, . z ( z ) , .
z
( z )

h(z)

. 7.9 H11 ,


.
, , -


.
,
7.9. ,
. z 45. , , . .
z.
, z.
. ,
, , ,
132

. ,
.
, , , .
.
, , :

( + ) = 0 1 + M ;
0

( ) = 0 1 + M .
0 +

(7.23)

.
, . , 1. (7.23) . (7.20),
M
= 0
.
2 2 2
0


(7.22) , .

8. - ()
,
. , ,
, ,
. 133

, ,
-. ( . apertura ). ,
. - :
( ).
( ).
-.

8.1.

.
(). ,
, .

r1

r2
z

2F


. 8.1. ( )


. 8.2.

, (.
8.1), ( r > 1 ).
, -

134

lef ( x) = r ( x ) + r z ( x) .
0

lef ( x) = const . , () .
. , (. 8.2).
:
r1 = z, r2 = (2 F z )2 + x 2 .

: r1 = r2 .
:

z 2 = (2 F z )2 + x 2 ,
:
x 2 = ( z 2 F )2 z 2 ;
x2 = 4 ( z F ) F ;
1 x 2
z=F+ .
F2

(8.1)

(8.1) F . .
. . 8.3 , H 01 . ,
.
z
:
z =

D 2
D 2
L D 2
D2

2
L + L = L 1+
.
L L+
L=
2

2L

135

2 2L

8L

(),
/8 :
z / 8.
(8.2)

L > D 2 / .
(8.3)
.

D
L

D
z < / 8

. 8.3.
.

. 8.4.

.
(8.3) L.
, (. 8.4). (8.2) ,
D .
8.2. :

(1690) * . ,
, :
.
. 8.5 () D,
* (1629 1695) .
136

.
.
, z = 0, x ,
( X , Z ) .
R( x) =

Z 2 + ( X x) 2 =

Z 2 + X 2 2 Xx =

R 2 2 Xx.
x ,

X 2 + Z 2 = R 2 .

x
R 2 2 R sin x = R 1 2 sin R x sin .
(8.4)
R
, ( X , Z ) . ( X , Z )
x
R, .
R( x) =

, . : E ( x)

D
2
R( x)

. ,
R ( x) , ,

R ( x) x . -

(X , Z)

D
2
.8.5.

,

, R
x . R,
D/2

D/2

R
R
E ( R, ) = 0 E ( x ) eik ( R x sin )dx = 0 eikR E ( x ) eikx sin dx.
R D / 2
R
D / 2

137

R0 , .

E ( x) = E0 = const.

D
sin k sin
2
.
ikx sin dx = E
= E0 D
0
E ( x )e
D
ik sin
D / 2
k sin
2
,
:
D
sin
sin

.
(8.5)
F () =
D
sin

,
,
.
D
D
sin
ik sin
e 2
e 2
ik

D/2

F ( )

1
0,8

F ( )

0,6

150

120

90
1

60

0,8
30

0,6
0,4

0,4

0,2

0,2
180

0,2
0,4
90 60 30

210
0

30

60

330

. 8.6.
()
D= 4

300

240
270

. 8.7. , . 8.6,

(8.5) , D,
(. 8.6, 8.7).
138

, ,
.
, ,
(8.4); R ( x) sin .
. , ,
.
( ) ,
( ).
, , , .
,
F () = 2 / . , = . 2
. (8.5)
D

sin
.

2
2
:
D .
(8.6)
(8.6) :
, ,
. ,
;
( ) .

8.3.
:
() , 139

, .

, R
. ,

.

,
. 8.8. ,
R
( . )
.
LV
. 8.8.
S:

r r r E2
P = E H dS = 0 S .
2Z0
S

. 8.9. (
).

E0
R, ,
.
:
. S1 = 4R 2 .

P1 , () -

140

E02
P1 =
4R 2 .
2Z0

,
. . 8.9

: V . R (. . 8.8). S2 = V R 2 . P2 , :
E02
P2 =
V R 2 .
2Z0

P1 P2 . D0 :
P
4
D0 = 1 =
.
P2 V

(8.6) L L
. D0 = 4 V .
2
, S = L LV ,
D0 = 4

S
2

, , L = LV = 60.

D0 = 4

( 60 )2

= 4 3600 40000.
2
:
;
.
() ,

, < 1 . , 0,5 0,9 .


141

G . ,
G = D0 .

8.4.
. 8.10 ( ) (
),
, , , .

L
l = L sin

.8.10.
.

, ,

, :
N 1

F ( ) = F0 ( )

I nei( kdn sin n ) , F0 ( ) -

n=0

() , .
I 0 = I n = const, n = 0n .

142

N 1

( 0 ) =

ei( kd sin n )n .

(8.7)

n =0

(8.7)
: ( ) = (1 q N ) (1 q) .
q = ei( kd sin 0 ) . :
( ) =

1 eiN ( kd sin 0 )
.
1 ei ( kd sin 0 )

N
N
N
i ( kd sin 0 ) i ( kd sin 0 )
i ( kd sin 0 )
e 2

e 2
e 2

.
1
1
1

i ( kd sin 0 ) i ( kd sin 0 )
i ( kd sin 0 )
e 2

e 2
e 2

90
120
F
(

)
60

2
,
150
30
1

0
180
, 210
330
.
240
300
270
:

d
0
. 8.11.
sin N ( sin )

2 .
() =
0 = 0 ( 1) 0 =90
d

sin( sin 0 )
( 2).
2
- N =8

d

sin = 0 .

2
( ) =

143

, ,
, :
0
sin 0 =
.
d 2
. 8.11 .


, , .

-, . . -,
.

144

. ., . . . : . . .: - , 2001.64 .
. .: . ., 1988.
. ., . . .: , 1989.

. . . .: , 1968.
. ., . . . .: . ,

1971.
., ., . -. .: , 1987.
. . . .-.: ,
1961. . 1.

145


.....................................................................................................................................3
1. ................................4
1.1. ............................................................................5
1.2. .....................................9
1.3.
........................................................................................................12
1.4. ...........................................17
2. ...................................................................23
2.1. . ....................................24
2.2. ....................................................................................................29
2.3. .................................................................38
3. , ......................43
3.1.
.......................................................................44
3.2.
............................................................................................................................47
3.3. .....................................................................49
4. .........................................................................54
4.1. ...................................................54
4.2. ...................................................64
4.3. ..............................................................70
5.
.....................................................72
5.1. -..............................................................................72
5.2. - .................................78
5.3. - .........................................................................80
5.4. .................................................84
5.5. ............................................................................89
6. ................................................................................93
6.1. ....................................................94
6.2. .........................................................................97
6.3. .............................................................................102
6.4. ......................................................................105
6.5. ................................................................111
7. , .................115
7.1. ...............................................117
7.2.
...........................................................................................123
7.3. ,
( )........................................................................................127
8. - ()..................................................................131
8.1. ....................................................................132
8.2. : .............134
8.3. ..................................................137
8.4. ............................................................................140
.........................................................................................................143

146


..

00.00.05. 6084 1/16. .


. Times New Roman. . . 150 .

197376, .-, . . , 5

147

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