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fn two aliferent static ‘cen fom seme, ad tis here at rete On te oter bandit atthe tena res a he vertex of ‘th tunne changes rapilly into wcompressive stress tad adiance of diameter he coats othe ‘gut, the uncured stress condition pre "fhe ext reronsieconition surat be atti sal proprio the terol pears op we! scoring the reasoning Sve Sha ‘By uing a Slowabie Yenaie tiers ofthe ToC, ‘Sudeep he tabs anche Polson’ ao? and including an adequate safe The rock cover wea fone arms fet caned ‘tayo sey "Tie inormation Fined fm invengations and sus by tok pce an ols oft iron plemure ome tne Tegay bet Tere ig sts hier ows nae ste faring rene tn snd EEEE tam Clieen acd Ngee pet many get ding he i Yas thes ning scab Smensoned to unin tbeteal Internal presse witout suppor by the rock, perhaps ‘than facreased allowable stress forthe set ‘The case of small rock cover Inthe cave af sal Fock cover the ability of the rock ‘vetburden to share testes may be checked by using ‘he fomae for tk walled hes circular tensile stress at r=1, BrP) ‘ceca tone sree at r= ‘exer fI0°—7) Je sso that he dafernce becom the iner end ‘tsi ene srens ae wih afl wel ek ‘prs. We can therefore check te thickness ofthe rock ‘over by entaohing the diferesce between! er BOLO PNP) and p, this erence jst being the tensile stress ofthe ‘oe beat the surface, “tsgeme remonable io keep this value below 0.5 ‘ple, coresponting to the ler compressive sess See marines sae firack 33 ‘mea we iad of hundred of ters: We ‘hi ineefore formule te condifon as flows BeBP<0S lem? ° Be Pe ie onc terion Ya eas settee Ya Pa stand Modern trends in selecting and designing Kaplan turbines PART ONE ByF. de jervo and F. de Leva* Results of an extensive investigation catied out on more than 130 Kaplan turbines manufactured allover the world aro presented in tho form, of statisti agrams providing engineers with the fates information for preliminary design of hydro powerplants, ‘rs rape pret he fut of tay on the preset ato th aren the doug of Syralic macs of ‘uch toe fe prt conser Feat pe aries as ‘ubbhedin Anput eae of ta magn! "or simply consderation at ae common to both eancs nd Ripion tortie ae not repeated tb spars the auhotrsoget therfore ta een othe boa fe wil pe «fete wean oe ‘rfienever it ba teen dumed advil, compusisons have been made’ betwes Frcs and” Kaplan ‘ites and dimensions, parcial Tor thew machine ‘Shuponets arse salar from te yerae post ‘few: such tte es sales andthe raf abe Wiser Pos & Dem Consucton December 167 “The data colected show tha he ted towed gener capaci em propeunet or Rep tan for Pence {Be comeqeence. of the competitiveness a France ‘Srbiner with re lee eevee fr lw end he ‘oper auc nt ty the a neo ot ‘Beperiog beers 96D and 176 aoe bbe I ges tbe main features of he lastlatons Jgvestgnted ay aken fom the tefrencs, wile te