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9th, September2016





Describe application of industrial Organization Psychology to

Increase Motivation and Teamwork

Improve Leadership and Governance
Improve employee recruitment, selection and retention

Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and behavior, Psychology is multifaceted
discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such as human Development ,clinical ,social
,and cognitive processes, It helps to explain how we feel, Think and act. Here bellow is to
describe how application of Industrial Organization Psychology,
Increase Motivation and Team work, Different scholars discussed this through different theories
of motivation where they developed numbers of theories concerning motivation, which are
The Two-Factor Theory of motivation (otherwise known as dual-factor theory or motivationhygiene theory) was developed by psychologist Frederick Herzberg in the 1950s.
Analyzing the responses of 200 accountants and engineers who were asked about their
positive and negative feelings about their work, Herzberg found 2 factors that influence
employee motivation and satisfaction, this theory implies that for the happiest and most
productive workforce, you need to work on improving both motivator and hygiene factors
Maslows Hierarchy of Needs The crux of the theory is that individuals most basic needs
must be met before they become motivated to achieve higher level needs, where this theory
explain five hierarchy levels means attitude of the employees will let you know what they prefer
that will make increase in production after satisfaction.
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human motivation created and developed by Douglas
McGregor at the MIT Sloan School of Management in the 1960s that have been used in human
behavior, organizational
communication and organizational development. They describe two contrasting models of
workforce motivation.
Theory X and Theory Y have to do with the perceptions managers hold on their employees, not
the way they generally behave. It is attitude not attributes. Where assumes employees are
inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work.

As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely and if based in this
group Industrial organization psychology will increase this through stick motivation Theory X.
assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. this theory Y
will be motivated by carrots

Team work. Means that people cooperate, using their individual skills and providing
constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between individuals. The study of teamwork
began with the emergence of social psychology and an interest in how groups behave,
particularly as against another group. This is the idea of having an in group that youre a
member of and that becomes part of your social identity, and then the out group against which
you discriminate and define yourself. It has developed into its own field of organisational
Personnel Selection Industrial Organizational psychologists are helping organizations to
develop selection methods (tests, structured interviews, biodata, etc.) that are valid predictors of
job performance in team-based environments. Industrial Organizational psychology have also
made contributions in the area of team staffing, based on the research into group composition.
Training - Industrial Organizational psychology have a long history of making contributions in
the areas of team development (e.g. models such as forming, norming, storming and performing),
decision-making (when are team decisions more effective than individual decisions?), problemsolving, conflict management (not all conflict is maladaptive) and goal-setting (are team goals
more appropriate than individual goals?)
Performance Appraisal - Industrial Organizational psychology have helped organizations to
answer the questions of how teamwork should be measured and evaluated.
Compensation - Industrial Organizational psychology have helped organizations to determine
how much teamwork should be worth, and what the proper mix between individual and teambased incentives is.

Organizational Development - Industrial Organizational psychology work with organizational

leaders to help those leaders prepare for the implementation and maintenance of a team based
approach, often assisting those leaders in organizational redesign.
II. Leadership is not Management or Directing. is the ability to inspire or influence others
towards the leader's goal. Leaders have followers, and leadership can be a
approached at different levels. The study of leadership at the macro level involves the influences
senior level individuals have in the larger organizational context-setting strategy, directing
change, influencing values. Theory and research may focus on characteristics of leaders, leader
style, leader-member interactions, behaviors of leaders, and related phenomena. At a more micro
level, leadership and management involves the day-to-day exchange between leaders and
Characteristics of leaders, This is one Industrial Organizational psychology use to improve
leadership where the features of the leader determine or predict what kind of leader is, if he or
she is kind, flexible, listen and accept subordinates opinions he or she is suitable to be a good
Leadership styles, Organizational psychologists have focuses with the concept of leadership
since the mid 20th century, changing their focus from personality (leaders are born, not made) to
environmental factors (circumstances determine who emerges as the leader) Means that the
style of leadership used to rule People will determine the best or not best ruling style and what
form of leadership is applied.
Leader- member interactions, Organizational psychologists have focuses on the interaction of
members leader that allows him or herself to interact with other peoples in the organization is
seems to be good leader.
Also leadership can, therefore conceptualized as both the ability and the process of influencing
the behavior of others towards the accomplishment goals in a given situation. The following are
the roles of leadership in any organization guiding people. Developing team work.

Governance refers to "all of processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government,

market or network, whether over a family, tribe, formal or informal organization or territory and
whether through the laws, norms, power or language."
Governance implies a configuration of distinct but interrelated elements statutes, including
policy mandates and assignment of responsibility programmatic structure administrative rules
and guide lines and institutionalizes rules and norms that constrain and enable the task, Industrial
Organizational psychology will help to improve leadership through distribution of resources and
responsibility and to members or distribution of authority to other member will increase the
development of an organization.
Recruitment refers to the overall process of attracting, selecting and appointing suitable
candidates for jobs (either permanent or temporary) within an organization. Recruitment can also
refer to processes involved in choosing individuals for unpaid positions, such as voluntary roles
or unpaid trainee roles.
Recruitment and selection are seminal topics within human resource management, ensuring that
organisations have the necessary human skills, knowledge and capabilities that will enable the
organisation to continue into the future. Recent recognition of the strategic potential of
recruitment and selection to enhance organisational performance put a lot of emphasis on getting
the right person for a post Selecting the right person, means that the personnel recruitment
and selection agenda should be dominated by a concern with formalisation, enshrined in its
language of objectivity, reliability, and validity, and a technology and method which
attempts to maximise decision-making accuracy, as well as a concern with the selectionperformance relationship.
In most HRM practice, performance is conceptualised in strict economic terms excluding
consideration of issues of fairness and acceptability to whatever individuals, groups or
authorities that might take an interest in selection decisions .Industrial Organizational
Psychology will improve recruitment ,selection and retention through different stages Most
recruitment and selection procedures involve several stages that occur over time.

The process usually includes a job analysis ) that results in job description and personnel
specification in order to uncover all the qualities that are necessary to perform the job
successful , an initial recognition of the need for new staff (see also Chapter 6), recruitment
advertising, followed by pre-screening applicants, and final selection decisions and induction of
new employees into the organization.
This systems view is generally based on the traditional predictivist perspective on selection,
which views the job as a given and stable entity into which the most suitable candidate needs to
be recruited.Industrial Organizational Psychology will improve recruitment through the
following stages,
Recruitment, to attract a suitable quality and quantity of applicant.
Pre-screening to reduce applicant numbers to manageable proportions
Assessment to conduct in depth assessments and reach suitability decision
Induction to facilitate transaction into new work role.
The advantage of taking such a systems view of selection is that it provides a holistic overview
of the entire process underlying two pertinent issues: bilateral decision-making and validation
feedback loops. First, decisions are made by both the recruiter and the candidate at several points
in the process,

Management Principles Handout by Dr Khadudu Chisuligwe.NIT