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GEOGRAPHY NCERT QUESTIONS

LEARN CROP CONDITIONS


Revise general atmospheric circulation chapter
Learn what kind of soil occurs where in India
Rank continents based on area, population
Do supplementary boxes (6-8) tomorrow
Read NCERT glossaries

Cover:
Atlas
Important gulfs/ seas/ rivers/ straits/ isthmuses
Resource distribution for major minerals, industries
Global weather patterns, vegetation, and reason for their occurrence
State-wise relief features
State-wise list of crops and minerals (minerals on Page 28 of NCERT
8th Standard text, and Chapter 7 of Class XII NCERT Part 2)
Flora/ Fauna from NCERT
Find out which plant/ animal species have gone extinct in the last 5
years
Geo phenomena
Change in relief features
See Geography mains syllabus
Past year prelims questions
Current affairs: Earthquakes etc. (measurement scales)
Class VI
1. How often does the full moon occur?
2. How soon after the full moon are you likely to see the new
moon?
3. What is the English name for the constellation Saptarishi?
4. Of which bigger constellation is this a part?
5. What is the difference between stars and planets?
6. Which planet in the solar system is known as the earths twin?
(Page 4)
7. How long does one revolution of the moon around the earth
take? (Page 5)
8. What are asteroids? Name the biggest asteroid.
9. What is the difference between asteroids, meteors, and
meteoroids?
10. What are the maximum and minimum values that degrees of
latitudes can take? What positions on the globe do these
respond to?
11. On what basis are the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn
defined?
12. What is the Torrid Zone (latitudes)? What is its antonym?
13. What are Frigid Zones?

14. What are the maximum and minimum values assumed by


meridians of longitude? Where do these start?
15. Which longitudes does India correspond to?
16. How many time zones has the earth been divided into? (Page
16)
17. What is the angle that the earth makes with its orbital plane?
(Page 18)
18. What is the relationship between the circles of illumination
and the earths axis?
19. On which dates do the following occur: Winter Solstice,
Summer Solstice, Spring Equinox, and Autumn Equinox?
20. On which day of the year do the suns rays fall directly over
the Tropic of Cancer?
21. Define biosphere. (Page 30)
22. What is the deepest point of the ocean anywhere on the
earth? Name the place and the ocean (Page 31).
23. Which mountain range separates Asia from Europe?
24. Which is the biggest continent?
25. Which is the only continent through which Tropic of Cancer,
the Equator, and the Tropic of Capricorn all pass?
26. Rank all the continents according to their size.
27. On which continent will you find the Andes?
28. Name the 2 Indian research stations in Antarctica (Page 33).
29. True or false: rivers and lakes are a part of hydrosphere.
30. Which is the biggest ocean?
31. What is the Bering Strait? Where on the map will you find it?
(Page 35)
32. How many layers can the atmosphere be divided into? Name
them.
33. What are the 2 main gases in the atmosphere, by
composition? Mention %.
34. Which is the third most prevalent gas? (Google search!)
35. Does temperature always decline with altitude? (Google
search)
36. What holds the atmosphere close to the earths surface?
37. What are the three kinds of mountains according to their
origin? Which kind are usually the highest? (Page 41)
38. What kind of mountain range is the Himalayas?
39. Which range is older: Himalayas, or the Aravalis?
40. Which is the highest plateau in the world? (Page 42)
41. Why are plateaus usually very rich in minerals?
(http://www.notemonk.com/qa/question/377/why.does.plateau.re
gion.posses.rich.reserves.of.mi/)
42. What is the latitudinal and longitudinal extent of India? (Page
47)
43. Why is the Tropic of Cancer special to India?
44. Which longitude defines Indias standard time?
45. How many countries share land border with India?
46. What separates India and Sri Lanka? (Page 48)

47. Which are the largest and smallest states of India?


(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_states_and_territories_of_In
dia_by_area)
48. Name the northernmost and southernmost mountain ranges
of the Himalayas. (Page 51)
49. Mention states in which the following ranges lie, and mark
them on a map: Aravalis, Vindhyas, and Satpuras.
(Aravalis: Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Delhi// Vindhyas:
discontinuous; Gujarat, UP, even Bihar// Satpuras:
Gujarat/Maharashtra border, MP, Chhattisgarh)
50. What is the Hindi name for the Western Ghats?
51. Which 2 rivers flow through the Sunderbans delta?
52. What causes a Tsunami?
53. Name two major west-flowing rivers of India.
54. What are the 5 broad divisions of Indias vegetation?
55. Name 3 areas in India that one will find tropical rain forests.
56. Name some states where you will find tropical deciduous
forests. How are these different from tropical rainforests?
Class VII
1. Define ecosystem.
2. What are the main mineral constituents of the earths crust over
land? In the oceans?
3. What is its average thickness over land? Over oceans?
4. To what depth does the mantle extend?
5. What is the mineral composition of the earths core? What is its
average radius?
6. What are the 2 different kinds of igneous rocks? Give an example
of each.
7. What is the primary rock that makes up the Deccan plateau?
8. In what type of rocks are you likely to find fossils?
9. Why do lithospheric plates move? (Page 12)
10. What is the difference between endogenic and exogenic
forces? Give some examples of each.
11. What are floodplain and levees?
12. What are sea arches and sea stacks?
13. What are moraines?
14. What is loess?
15. Which layer of the earths atmosphere is ideal for flying
aircrafts? (Page 22)
16. Which layer of the earths atmosphere contains the ozone
layer?
17. In which layer do meteorites usually burn up?
18. In which layer does temperature begin to rise with altitude?
19. What is insolation?
20. Does atmospheric pressure increase or decrease with altitude?
21. What is the relationship between temperature of a place and
cloud formation? (Page 24)

22. Into what 3 categories can winds be broadly divided?


23. Why do jet planes leave a white trail behind them? (Page 26)
24. What is the major source of groundwater? (Page 26)
25. What are the 3 different mechanisms that cause rainfall?
Explain each.
26. What is cyclonic rain?
27. What is a terrarium? (Page 30)
28. In which countries will you find the following rivers: Amazon,
Darling, Danube, and Orange?
29. What are the three main kinds of movements of ocean
waters?
30. What is the difference between waves and tides?
31. What are spring tides and neap tides?
32. How do high tides help with ship navigation?
33. Mark the following ocean currents on a map, and indicate
which ones are cold and which, warm: North Atlantic Drift, Gulf
stream, Canaries, Alaska, California, North Equatorial, South
Equatorial, Humbolot, Falkland, West Wind Drift, West Altantic
Current, Kuroshio, Oyashio, Brazilian, Auglhas, Equatorial
Counter Current, North Pacific Drift (See dropbox-separate
file on ocean currents)
34. What are the three main categories into which natural
vegetation is classified? (Page 39)
35. What kind of trees are you likely to find in tropical rainforests?
36. What is the major factor distinguishing tropical rainforests
from deciduous ones?
37. Where are you most likely to find temperate evergreen
forests? Temperate deciduous forests (latitudes, which part of
continents)? (CHECK: Page 42)
38. Where are you most likely to find Mediterranean vegetation?
What kind of fauna are you likely to find here?
39. Where does one find coniferous forests? What is another name
for this kind of vegetation?
40. Where is one likely to find tropical grasslands? Temperate
grasslands?
41. Where does one find Tundra vegetation? Give some examples
of tundra vegetation.
42. Why are deserts usually found on western margins of
continents?
43. On the basis of climate, name the two different kinds of
grasslands.
44. Where does one find the prairies?
45. What is Chinook?
46. What are Velds?
47. Which is the worlds largest desert?
48. Why isnt there much rainfall in Ladakh? (Page 75)
Class VIII

1.
2.
3.
4.

What % of Indias land is: cropped? Forest? Other uses?


What is meant by soil profile?
What % of the worlds water is fresh water?
Why do deciduous trees shed their leaves in a particular season?
(Page 19)
5. True or False: Evergreen trees never shed their leaves.
6. What is mulching?
7. What is a mineral? (Page 24)
8. How can one tell if a rock contains copper?
9. In which kind of rocks is one likely to find metallic minerals? Nonmetallic minerals?
10. Name the minerals one is likely to find in the following places:
North Sweden, Ontario, South Africa. (Page 26)
11. Asia produces more than half the worlds total quantity of
which mineral? (Page 26)
12. Name 6 minerals that are found in abundance in Asia.
13. Which continent is the leading producer of iron-ore in the
world?
14. Which country is the largest producer of high-grade iron-ore in
the world?
15. Name 3 minerals of which Africa is the worlds largest
producer.
16. India is worlds leading exporter of which mineral?
17. Where in India do the following minerals exist: Iron, Bauxite,
Mica, Copper, Manganese, Limestone, and Gold?
18. List the worlds 6 largest producers of coal.
19. Which mineral is also known as the buried sunshine? (Page
31)
20. What are the leading oil-producing areas in India?
21. List the 4 major producers of natural gas in the world.
22. Name 3 areas in India where one can find natural gas
reserves.
23. Which are the two largest producers of nuclear power in the
world?
24. Where in India does one find Thorium? (Page 34)
25. Give some examples of geothermal energy.
26. Name one place in India that uses tidal energy to generate
electricity.
27. What are sericulture, viticulture, and pisciculture?
28. Specify the climatic conditions needed to grow the following:
Rice, Wheat, Millets, Maize, Cotton, Jute, Coffee, Tea, Sugarcane,
Rubber, Pulses (Rainfall, temperature, soil)
29. Name two major components of steel.
30. Name 4 states that have important steel producing centers in
India.
31. Where do the following steel-producing centers lie:
Bhadravati, Vishakhapatnam, Vijaynagar, Salem (Page 56)

32. Name 4 countries that are important producers of cotton


textiles today.
33. Describe the cotton industry in India (important centers).
34. Why did the Indian cotton industry initially flourish around
Maharashtra and Gujarat? (One major factor; Page 59)
35. Which places in India are famous for their gold-wrought cotton
pieces? (Page 59)
36. Which city is known as the Manchester of India? (Page 60)
37. Which river is the above city located by?
38. Which two continents together account for over 60% of the
worlds population? (Page 67)
Contine
nt
Asia

Europe
North
America
South
America

Africa
Australi
a

Major minerals
Tin: More than half the worlds tin comes from Asia (China, Malaysia,
Indonesia major)
Iron ore: China, India have large deposits
Lead, Antimony, Tungsten: China good
Iron ore: Leading producer in the world (Russia, Ukraine, Sweden
France)
Copper, Lead, Zinc, Manganese, Nickel: European parts of Russia
Iron ore, Gold, Uranium, Copper: Great Lakes of USA
Gold, Silver: Western mountains of USA
Iron ore: Brazil largest producer of high-grade ore
Copper: Chile, Peru
Tin: Brazil, Bolivia
Oil: Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Peru, Colombia
Also large deposits of gold, silver, zinc, diamond etc.
Worlds largest producer of diamonds, gold, and platinum
Cobalt, Bauxite
Oil: Nigeria, Angola, Libya
Bauxite- largest producer; also massive gold and diamonds

Mineral
Coal
Oil
Natural
Gas

Global Distribution
China, USA, Germany, Russia, South Africa, France
Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Qatar

Mineral
Gold
Oil
Natural
Gas
Iron
Bauxite
Mica
Copper

Distribution in India
Kolar (Karnataka); but very deep, so very expensive to mine
Digboi (Assam), Bombay High, deltas of Krishna and Godavari

Industry
Iron and
Steel
Cotton

Russia, Norway, UK, Netherlands

Jaisalmer, Krishna-Godavari delta, Tripura, Mumbai offshore areas


JOC, MP, Goa, Maharashtra, Karnataka
JOC, MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
JOC, Bihar, AP, Rajasthan
Rajasthan, MP, Jharkhand, AP

Global Distribution
Germany, USA (Pittsburgh),
China, Japan, Russia
India, China, Japan (Osaka),

Distribution in India
JOC, WB

Textile

USA

Class IX (VERY IMPORTANT)


1. What is the longitudinal and latitudinal extent of India?
2. Which parts of India experience equatorial type of climate?
3. List the Indian states through which the Tropic of Cancer passes
(8).
4. Which longitude has been selected as the Standard meridian of
India? List the Indian states through which this meridian passes
(5).
5. List the top seven countries in the world, according to landmass.
6. Amongst the horizontal and vertical extent of India, which is
shorter, and by how much? (Page 3)
7. What stone is used to make talcum powder? (Page 7)
8. How many major tectonic plates exist? Name them. (Page 7)
9. With reference to plate tectonics, what is a transform
boundary?
10. What are the names of the northern and southern parts of the
erstwhile Pangaea? (Page 08)
11. In which parts of India are you likely to find igneous and
metamorphic rocks?
12. In which part of the Himalayas is the altitudinal variation
higher? Western or Eastern? (Page 09)
13. Which Himalayan range contains most of the major peaks?
14. Name the states in which the following mountain ranges lie:
Aravalis, Vindhyas, Satpuras.
15. Which rock constitutes the core of the Himalayas? (Page 11)
16. Name the 3 ranges of the Himalayas. In which of these do
Kashmir, HP lie?
17. What are duns? (Page 11)
18. Which is the largest inhabited riverine island in the world?
(Page 12)
19. Name the 3 major river systems that serve the northern
plains.
20. From west to east, into what different relief features can the
northern plains be divided? (Page 12, important)
21. What are the two broad divisions of the peninsular plateau?
22. The central highlands lie to the north of which river?
23. Name 4 rivers that drain the central highlands.
24. In which direction do they flow? What does this say about the
topography of the central highlands?
25. What is the easternmost extension of the central highlands
called?
26. Which river drains this? (Page 13)
27. Name the highest peaks of the Western and Eastern Ghats.
28. Which mountain ranges form the northern/ eastern flanks of
the Deccan plateau?

29. What is the inclination of the Deccan Plateau?


30. What is the name of the extension of the Deccan Plateau in
the northeastern states? Name some important hill ranges in this
part of the plateau.
31. Which are higher, on average: western or eastern ghats?
(Page 13)
32. Which river marks the northern bound of the Eastern Ghats?
33. Which hills mark the southern bound of the Eastern Ghats?
34. Which among the western and eastern ghats cause more
orographic rain?
35. Of the 3 types of rocks, which are the most common in the
Deccan Trap?
36. The Indian desert lies to the west of which hill range?
37. Which is the only large river in the Indian desert? (Page 14)
38. What are barchans?
39. Name the 3 parts of the western coast, from north to south.
40. Name the 2 parts of the eastern coast, from north to south.
41. Name the 4 major rivers flowing through the eastern coast
and into the Bay of Bengal (north to south).
42. In which state does Lake Chilika lie? In which rivers delta?
43. Among Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and Lakshadweep
islands, which ones are coral, and which ones made from
submarine mountains?
44. Are the Northern Circars hills or plains? (Page 14)
45. Define: drainage basin. (Page 17)
46. What are the two main groups into which Indian rivers can be
divided? Which of these are perennial?
47. Describe the 4 different types of drainage patterns.
48. Name 3 rivers that flow from Nepal Himalayas. (Page 20)
49. Do the 3 main rivers of the central highlands (name them)
originate from the Ganga, or join the Ganga at a later stage?
50. What is the name of the river where the Ganga and the
Brahmaputra join?
51. What is the Sunderbans delta named after?
52. By what name is the Brahmaputra River known in Tibet?
53. Name the two major peninsular rivers of India from north to
south that flow westward and make estuaries.
54. Name the hills where these rivers rise.
55. Which states do they cover?
56. Which is the largest peninsular river?
57. Where does it originate? Which states does it drain? (Page 21)
58. Which river is known as the Dakshin Ganga?
59. Name the 4 major east-flowing rivers of peninsular India.
60. For each of these, name the source, and the states through
which it flows.
61. Name a saltwater lake of India, and the state in which it
occurs.

62. Even though Brahmaputra originates in Tibet, it carries lesser


amount of water and silt there as compared to in India. Why?
(Page 21)
River
Narmad
a
Tapi
Mahana
di
Godava
ri
(Dakshin
Ganga)
Krishna

Kaveri

Source
Amarkantak hills, MP
Satpuras, MP
Chhattisgarh highlands

States covered
MP, Gujarat (longer than Tapi)
MP, Gujarat, Maharashtra
Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa
Maharashtra, MP, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh

Western Ghats, Nasik,


Maharashtra
Mahabaleshwar,
Maharashtra
Prominent tributaries:
Bhima, Tungabhadra
Brahmagiri range of
Western Ghats (Coorg
district, Karnataka)

Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh

Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu

Chapter 04: Climate


63. Differentiate between weather and climate.
64. Why do coastal areas generally experience less variation in
temperature conditions as compared to the interiors of
countries?
65. In the Northern Plains, why is there a decrease in rainfall
generally from east to west?
66. What are the 6 major control factors that determine the
climate of any place?
67. Describe the effects of variation in each.
68. What is meant by continentality? (Page 27)
69. Areas lying above and below which latitudes are called
subtropics? (Google)
70. Why does India experience relatively milder winters as
compared to central Asia? (Page 27)
71. What kind of jet streams blow over India during summer and
winter? (Page 28)
72. Which wind system brings in the western cyclonic
disturbances experienced in the north and northwestern parts of
India? (Page 28)
73. In which direction does the Coriolis force deflect moving things
in the northern and southern hemispheres?
74. What is another name for this deflecting effect (not Coriolis
force)?
75. Even though the primary wind pattern that serves India
originates over land and carries little moisture, why is India not
arid?
76. Explain the reason behind the seasonal reversal of winds that
causes the southwest monsoon.

77. Are monsoon winds surface winds?


78. Are southwest monsoon winds the only kinds of monsoon
winds that serve the Indian subcontinent?
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monsoon_of_South_Asia)
79. What is meant by adiabatic? (Dictionary)
80. What are western cyclonic disturbances? At what time of the
year do they usually occur? (Page 28)
81. With respect to the monsoon, what is the importance of the
Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats? (wiki link above)
82. Describe the traditional theory of monsoon formation.
83. What is sea breeze? How does it occur? (wiki)
84. Why does the northeast monsoon only cause rain in Andhra
Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, and not the rest of the country like
southwest monsoon? (wiki)
85. Explain the dynamic theory of the creation of monsoon
system. (wiki)
86. In what part of the atmosphere are jet streams usually
located? (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jet_stream)
87. What are the 3 major types of jet streams in each
hemisphere?
88. What is the main reason for the formation of jet streams?
89. In which direction do they usually flow?
90. Explain the Jet Stream Theory of the monsoons.
91. What are geostrophic winds? How are these related to jet
streams?
92. What are tropical cyclones? What is their primary cause, and
in which months do they usually occur in India? (Page 28)
93. Around what latitudes are the monsoons typically
experienced? (Page 30)
94. What is the role of the Tibetan plateau in causing the Indian
monsoon?
95. What is the ITCZ? (Page 30)
96. What is the southern oscillation? (see exact definition on the
wiki page)
97. What causes this?
98. What is El Nino? Why is it called that?
99. How does ENSO affect the Indian monsoon?
100.
By what other name is the cold Peruvian oceanic current
known?
101.
What is the Indian Ocean Dipole? (wiki)
102.
In which months does it usually develop, and at what
latitude?
103.
In ENSO years, what kind of IOD effect is beneficial for
the Indian monsoon? Positive, or negative? What does this
mean with respect to the relative warming of the Arabian Sea
as compared to the Bay of Bengal?
104.
What is monsoon burst? (Page 30)
105.
What are the two different branches of the southwest
monsoon? Which parts of India do they usually serve?

106.
Why are Indian winters usually dry? Which parts of the
country receive some rainfall during these months, and why?
(Page 31- CHECK)
107.
Despite this, what is the cause of winter rainfall received
in the Ganga Plains and snowfall in the mountains? By what
colloquial name is this rainfall known? (Page 31)
108.
In peninsular India, why does temperature usually
remain lower during the summer as compared to the rest of the
country?
109.
In which part of the country is maximum rainfall
received during the southwest monsoon? (Page 33- check)
110.
Why does Tamil Nadu receive rain in winter? (Check:
http://schools.aglasem.com/55642 question 04)
111.
Why is the delta region of the eastern coast frequently
struck by cyclones? (ibid)
<Climate chapter over>
112.
What are ferns? (Google)
113.
Can one find subtropical vegetation in tropical areas?
(Page 42)
114.
What is photoperiod?
115.
What is a biome? On what basis are they classified?
116.
List the 5 major types of vegetation found in India. Also
delineate the parts of India where each is likely to occur.
117.
What range of annual rainfall do the above typically
receive?
118.
Which of these is the most widespread in the country?
119.
Name 4 commercially important trees found in tropical
rainforests. (Page 46)
120.
Where in India do you find moist deciduous forests?
121.
What is the most important tree one finds in these?
122.
Give some examples of tundra vegetation.
123.
Name 5 Indian rivers that support Mangroves.
124.
Which agency publishes the Red List? (Page 48)
125.
Across which states in India do the Nilgiri hills spread?
(Page 50)
126.
What are the following used for: Sarpagandha, Jamun,
Arjun, Babool, Kachnar?
127.
Name three areas in India where one can find tigers.
128.
Where in India can one find red pandas?
129.
What is a biosphere reserve? (wiki)
130.
How many of these exist in India? Name them, and
indicate the states that they exist in. (wiki, answer in NCERT is
outdated)
131.
How many of these are included in the World Network of
Biosphere Reserves? (See end of questions for Class 9)
132.
Which are the two latest ones to be declared BRs in
India?

133.
Which is the most populous Indian state?
134.
Which 5 states together account for about half of the
total Indian population?
135.
Which state has the lowest population to area ratio?
136.
Describe the demographic profile of India.
(Indian Biosphere Reserves included in World Network of Biosphere
Reserves: PASS-4NM)
Class X
1. Give one example of an international resource.
2. What is the Rio Convention? (2 other names, aim)
3. What % of Indias land is covered with mountains, plains, and
plateaus respectively? (Page 5)
4. What is the desired % of forest area in India according to the
National Forest Policy of 1952?
5. What % of Indias land is currently under forest cover? (Page 6,
NCERT figure is correct)
6. Describe the 4 layer of the soil profile. (Page 7)
7. What is humus?
8. List where the following kinds of soil occur in India: Mountain,
Alluvial, Black, Red, Yellow, and Laterite.
9. What are the three main constituents of alluvial soil?
10. On the basis of age, what are the major classifications of
alluvial soil?
11. What is another name for black soil? (Page 8)
12. What is the major constituent of black soil?
13. In which mineral are these soils usually poor?
14. Black soils usually develop cracks during hot weather. Is this
helpful/ harmful for cultivation? Why?
15. What gives the characteristic color to red/ yellow soils?
16. In what kind of temperature and rainfall conditions would you
find laterite soils?
17. Name two crops that laterite soil is good for.
Soil

Alluvial

Loam
Black

Red
Yellow

Characteristics
Old alluvium is called Bhangar; new
alluvium is called Khadar
Contain sand, silt, clay
Generally, very fertile, with adequate
potash, phosphorous, and lime
Near-equal proportions of sand, silt, and
clay
Clayey (very fine) material; rich in most
soil nutrients, deficient in
phosphorous; also known as Regur
soils
Develop a reddish color due to diffusion
of iron in crystalline and metamorphic
rocks
Red soil looks yellow when it occurs in a

Distribution in India
Northern plains, eastern coastal
plants (deltas of Mahanadi,
Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri)

Deccan- Maharashtra,
Saurashtra, Malwa, MP,
Chhattisgarh
Low rainfall areas in eastern
and southern parts of
Deccan (igneous base rock)Orissa, Chhattisgarh, piedmont

hydrated form
Develop in high temperature, heavy
rainfall

Laterite

Arid

Humus content is low because


microorganisms die in these extreme
conditions
Can be used for cultivation with
fertilizers (tea, coffee, cashew nut etc.
can be grown)
Red-brown in colour; sandy and saline,
lack humus/ moisture due to high
temperature; can be used for
cultivation after proper irrigation

plains of Western Ghats

Southern India: Karnataka,


Kerala, Tamil Nadu, MP, hilly
areas of Orissa and Assam

Rajasthan, Gujarat

18. Explain: gullies, sheet erosion, strip cropping, shelter belts.


(Page 11)
19. What is the proper way of ploughing a field on a slope, so as
to counter soil erosion?
20. What is enrichment plantation? (Page 16)
21. What is the Himalayan Yew? (Page 17)
22. What are the Hindi names for the blackbuck and the Great
Indian Bustard? (Page 19)
23. Name the tiger reserves in the following states: Uttaranchal,
West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Assam, and Kerala.
24. Describe Indias Joint Forest Management Programme. (Page
21)
25. What % of Indias electricity is produced from hydroelectric
sources? (Page 25)
26. Which is the only state in India to have made rooftop
rainwater harvesting compulsory for all houses in the state?
(Page 32)
27. What does intensive subsistence farming mean? (Page 35)
28. What is plantation cropping?
29. During what months are Rabi crops usually sown? Harvested?
30. Name 5 important Rabi crops. (Page 36)
31. Name 9 important Kharif crops.
32. What are Aus, Aman, and Boro?
33. Among the 3 major millet crops, which one is rain-fed, and
which one a crop of dry regions?
34. Which state is the largest producer of Jowar? (Page 38)
35. Which state is the largest producer of Bajra?
36. Which state is the largest producer of Ragi?
37. What is gene revolution?
38. What is organic farming?
39. Name two bio-diesel crops. (Page 47)
40. How did partition of India affect the jute industry?
(http://www.answers.com/Q/How_did_the_partition_of_the_count
ry_in_1947_affect_the_jute_industry)
41. Which minerals are used in making a light bulb? (Copper,
Aluminum, Molybdenum, trona, tungsten etc.)
42. What is an ore? (Page 51)

43. What are placer deposits? (Page 52)


44. What is rat-hole mining?
45. Broadly speaking, indicate in which region of India are you
likely to find the following: coal, metallic minerals, mica,
petroleum, non-ferrous minerals.
46. What is the finest ore of iron called? (Page 52)
47. Which is the most widely industrially used ore of iron?
48. Name 4 major iron-ore producing areas of India.
49. What is the major use of Manganese?
50. Which state in India has the most manganese ores?
51. What are some uses of copper? (Page 55)
52. Which state in India produces the highest amount of copper
ore?
53. What is the major use of bauxite?
54. Which state in India produces the highest amount of bauxite?
55. What is the major use of mica?
56. Which state in India produces the highest amount of mica?
57. What are the two major uses of limestone?
58. Which two states in India produce the highest amount of
limestone?
59. Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India?
(Page 58)
60. Name the 4 different varieties of coal, and rank them in order
of increasing carbon content.
61. What is metallurgical coal?
62. Why are heavy industries and thermal power stations located
on or near coalfields? (Page 60)
63. Name two broad regions of India that contain most of the
countrys coal. Which states fall in these regions?
64. Name three major petroleum-producing areas of India, in
decreasing order of importance.
65. True or false: Natural gas is found only in areas with petroleum
deposits.
66. Which river basin contains large quantities of natural gas?
67. Where is the Gulf of Cambay? Name some major rivers that
drain into this gulf.
68. Name two places in India where uranium is found. (Page 61)
Mineral
Iron ore

Copper

Properties
Magnetite (purest),
haemetite (most widely
used)
Malleable, Ductile,
Conducting

Uses

Electrical wires
Aluminum production

Bauxite
Mangane
se
Mica

Splits easily into thin

Steel production;
bleaching powder,
insecticides, paints
Electric industries

Distribution in India
Orissa and
Karnataka together
produce over 50% (25
each)
MPs Balaghat mines
produce 52%;
Rajasthan- 42%
Orissa largest (45%)
(Panchpatmali/
Koratpur)
Orissa largest (33%)
Jharkhand leads

sheets; excellent
insulator
Limeston
e
Uranium

Cement
manufacture;
smelting of iron in
blast furnace

AP, MP, Rajasthan


(15% each)
Jharkhand, Aravali
ranges of Rajasthan

69. Which place in India provides ideal conditions for generating


electricity from tidal power?
70. Name two places in India where experimental projects have
been set up to generate electricity form geothermal sources.
71. Where is Koderma? What is it famous for? (Google)
72. What is the share of industry in Indias GDP? Manufacturing?
73. What is an agglomeration economy? (Page 66)
74. Give some examples of agro-based industries.
75. How much does the textile industry contribute to total
industrial production in India? (Page 67)
76. How much to GDP?
77. In its early years, in which parts of India was the cotton
industry concentrated, and why?
78. What is the major challenge facing the cotton textile industry
in India? (Page 70)
79. Which Indian state has the maximum number of jute mills?
Apart from the availability of raw materials, what are some of
the other factors for this concentration?
80. What is the major challenge facing the jute industry? Name
one important government intervention to correct this trend.
81. Name 10 states in India that have sugar mills.
82. Which 2 states together account for over 60% of the total
number of mills?
83. In recent years, why is there a tendency for mills to shift and
concentrate in southern and western states? (3 reasons) (Page
71)
84. List some of the problems that the sugar industry is facing in
India currently (very important)
85. Name three major components of steel. In what proportion
should they be mixed in the production of steel?
86. What is the purpose of using manganese in production of iron?
87. Name two major ingredients of aluminum. (Page 74)
88. What % of GDP does the chemicals industry contribute to
Indias GDP? (Page 75)
89. What kind of fertilizer is urea? (Chemically)
90. Describe the Indian governments new urea policy (Current
Affairs)
91. Among the 3 major fertilizers, which one does India have
absolutely no commercially usable reserves of?
92. Name 4 major ingredients of cement.
93. Where are most of the cement producing plants in India
located and why?

Industry

Features in India

Global
Distribution

Basic heavy industry


Iron and
Steel

Textile

Cotton
Textile

Jute
Textiles

Manufacturing requires 4:2:1 usage of iron ore,


coking coal, and limestone; manganese
Major challenges and constraints: high cost of
good quality coking coal, low productivity of
labour, bad energy supply, poor infrastructure
4% of GDP; 15% of all industrial production
Spinning centralized in Maharashtra, Gujarat, and
Tamil Nadu, but weaving is highly decentralized
India exports about 25% of the worlds total yarn,
but in textiles trade, our share is only 4%,
because our mills dont have the scale (so we
export yarn, and our textile mills import fabric)
India is second largest exporter after Bangladesh;
synthetic substitutes are the biggest threat
India second largest producer

Germany, USA
(Pittsburgh), China,
Japan, Russia

India, China, Japan


(Osaka), USA

More than 60% of all mills are in UP and Bihar


Sugar

Aluminiu
m
smelting
Chemical
Industries

Mills have been moving to southern states,


because of 3 factors: better sugarcane (higher
sucrose, cool climate => longer crushing season);
better cooperatives
Second most important metallurgical industry in
India
Aluminium is good conductor of heat, light but
strong, corrosion resistant, malleable etc.
Raw materials: Bauxite and Alumina
3% of Indias GDP; industries widely spread out
over the country
India has no natural Potash reserves

Fertilizer
New urea policy- incentives to increase production
Requires limestone, silica, alumina, and gypsum
Cement
Automobil
es

Strategically located plants in Gujarat to access


Gulf markets
7% of GDP

94. List 6 reasons as to why roads are a comparatively better


means of transport than railways. (Page 82)
95. Name the places linked by: Golden Quadrilateral, North-South
Corridor, and East-West Corridor.
96. What is the implementing agency for the road networks
mentioned above?
97. Does the same agency manage national highways?
98. What is another name for NH1?
99. Name the places connected by: NH2, NH7, NH8, NH15.
100.
Which NH is the longest?
101.
Which agency usually maintains district roads? (Page
82)

102.
Which agency builds and maintains roads in border
areas?
103.
What is the major usability difference between metaled
and un-metaled roads?
104.
Why is it said that Indian NHs are under extreme stress?
(% of road network v/s total load carried)
105.
How many national waterways exist in India? (Google)
106.
Which port accounts for almost half of all of Indias ironore exports? (Page 87)
107.
Which is Indias deepest landlocked port?
108.
In which states do the following ports lie: Marmagao,
Tuticorin, Kandla, Vishakhapatnam, Mumbai, Chennai, Haldia,
Kochi, Paradip, New Mangalore?
109.
What is the full form of STD?
Class XI- Fundamentals of Physical Geography
1. Which theory of the earths origin is connected with Laplace
and Immanuel Kant?
2. What is another name for the Big Bang Theory?
3. The Big Bang Theory postulates that the universe and galaxies
are expanding. True or False?
4. What is singularity?
5. How are galaxies and stars formed? (Page 15)
6. How are planets formed?
7. What is the difference between Terrestrial and Jovian planets?
Name them.
8. List 3 differences between Terrestrial and Jovian planets.
9. Among the elements found in the earths crust, core, and
mantle, where do you expect to find the density of the
materials the highest? Why?
10. Describe the evolution of the earths atmosphere. (Page 17)
11. How old is the earth?
12. What is the exact radius of the earth?
13. What is Mohos Discontinuity? (Page 25)
14. List 3 direct sources that help us get information about the
earths interiors.
15. List 3 indirect sources.
16. What is the gravity anomaly?
17. To what depth does lithosphere extend? (Page 22)
18. Define: focus, epicenter (with reference to earthquakes)
19. What are the 2 different kinds of earthquake waves? What is
the main difference between them? (Page 23)
20. What are the 2 different kinds of body waves? What are the
two main differences between them?
21. Of the three kinds of waves, which ones are the most
destructive?
22. List the mechanism of propagation of the 3 kinds of waves.
23. Which one creates crests and troughs in the material?

24. Which one creates density differences in the material?


25. What is a shadow zone?
26. Between P and S waves, which ones have a larger shadow
zone?
27. What is the extent on degrees of their respective shadow
zones?
28. Describe the most commonly used scales for measuring
earthquakes. (Google)
29. What is the mean thickness of: oceanic crust? Continental
crust? (Page 25)
30. What is the type of rock most commonly found in oceanic
crust? What is it used for?
31. What is the upper portion of the earths mantle called?
32. Does the lithosphere consist only of the earths crust? (Page
26)
33. In what state are the materials at the earths core? (CheckPage 26)
34. What is the difference between shield volcanoes, composite
volcanoes, calderas, and flood-basalt provinces?
35. Indias Deccan Trap is an example of which one of the above?
36. What are plutonic rocks? What is their other counterpart?
37. List and describe 6 different forms of intrusive landforms
formed by volcanic eruptions.
38. Why do earthquake waves develop shadow zones? (Google)
39. Why is the shadow zone larger for S-waves than P-waves?
(Google)
40. What % of the earths surface do continents cover? (Page 30)
41. Which scientists name is associated with the theory of
continental drift?
42. According to this theory, what were the ancient landmass and
the mega-ocean called?
43. List 5 evidences cited in support of the continental drift theory.
44. What is Tillite? (Page 31)
45. What are placer deposits?
46. According to Wegener, what were the two forces that caused
continental drift?
47. Name two prominent post-drift studies.
48. What are the three broad divisions of the ocean floor?
49. What are abyssal plains?
50. Where on the map would you find the ring of fire? (Page 33)
51. Which rocks are usually younger: those found on the
continental shelves, or those found close to the mid-oceanic
ridges?
52. Explain the concept of sea floor spreading, and give two
pieces of evidence in its favor. (Page 34)
53. How is a tectonic plate classified as oceanic or continental?
(Page 35, check)

54. According to the theory of plate tectonics, how many major


tectonic plates exist on the earths lithosphere? Name them.
(Page 35)
55. How is the theory of continental drift different from the theory
of plate tectonics?
56. Does the theory of plate tectonics discredit the existence of an
ancient, connected landmass known as Pangaea? (Page 36)
57. What are the 3 different kinds of boundaries of tectonic
plates?
58. What kind of boundary are the Himalayas located on? (Figure
on Page 35)
59. What is the driving force behind movement of tectonic plates?
60. What are the two main sources of the earths internal heat?
61. What is the name of the ancient sea that separated India from
the Asian landmass before the two converged?
62. Were the Deccan Traps created as a result of the collision of
the Indian mainland with the Asian one, or due to later
geological activity?
63. List the top five elements found in the earths crust (by %).
(Page 40)
64. Give some examples of organic and inorganic minerals.
(Check- Page 40)
65. What is the basic source of all minerals?
66. Do rocks have definite composition of minerals? (Page 41)
67. Which are the two most common minerals found in rocks?
68. What is the technical term for the science of rocks (not
geology).
69. What is lithifaction? (Page 43)
70. What is dynamic metamorphism?
71. What are the effects of thermal metamorphism?
72. What are the two types of thermal metamorphism?
73. What is foliation? By which other name is it known?
74. What is banding?
75. What is the basic source of all exogenic forces that act on the
earths surface? (Page 45)
76. Why do exogenic forces fail to ever even out all the relief
features on the earths surface?
77. What are the main forces that drive endogenic forces? (Page
46)
78. What is diastrophism?
79. What are epeirogenic forces?
80. What are shear stresses? (Page 47)
81. Is weathering an in-situ or ex-situ process?
82. What are the three main types of weathering processes?
83. Are mass movements an example of erosion? (Page 52)
84. What is solifluction? (Page 52)
85. What latitudes is this most common in?
86. Give 3 reasons why the Himalayas are prone to debris
avalanches and landslides. (Page 54)

87. What is the key difference between weathering and erosion?


88. What is the formula to calculate kinetic energy? How is this
related to erosion?
89. What are karst regions?
90. What are people who study soil called? (Check: Page 55)
91. What is the process of soil formation called?
92. List the five basic factors that affect soil formation?
93. What is geomorphology? (Page 59)
94. What are monadnocks? (Page 60)
95. What are peneplains?
96. Waterfalls and rapids are associated with which stage of a
river?
97. What is the difference between a gorge and a canyon?
98. In which types of rocks is one likely to find the above two
features, respectively?
99. What are incised meanders?
100.
What is meant by river rejuvenation? (Google)
101.
What are river terraces?
102.
What is the difference between paired and unpaired
terraces?
103.
How are alluvial cones formed? (Page 62)
104.
How are river deltas different from alluvial cones? (2
points)
105.
What are point bars? Where are these likely to be
located?
106.
Give 3 reasons for formation of meanders.
107.
What are braided channels?
108.
In which kinds of rocks does groundwater make
landforms? Name two.
109.
What is it about these rocks that helps groundwater
create landforms, unlike in other rocks?
110.
Explain: sinkhole, doline, uvalas, lapies.
111.
Which two rivers in the Himalayas join to make the
Ganga? Where do they join each other?
112.
What are: cirques, tarn lakes, horns, serrated ridges,
artes?
113.
What are fjords?
114.
What is glacial till?
115.
What are moraines?
116.
What are eskers?
117.
What are drumlins?
118.
What is a wave-cut platform?
119.
What is wave-built terrace?
120.
What are barrier bars and spits?
121.
What are lagoons?
122.
Which coast of India has dominant erosional/
depositional features?
123.
What are sea stacks?

124.
Do shingle beaches contain large pebbles or small?
(Page 71)
125.
What are pediments and pediplains?
126.
What are playas?
127.
What are deflation hollows?
128.
What is the difference between barchans, seifs, and
parabolic dunes?
129.
99% of the total composition of the atmosphere extends
up to what height from the earths surface? (Page 76)
130.
After Nitrogen and Oxygen, what is the gas most
commonly found in earths atmosphere?
131.
How does the ozone layer help us?
132.
Which layer of the atmosphere contains the ozone
layer? (Page 77)
133.
In which latitudes is a higher concentration of dust
particles found, and why? (Page 77)
134.
How do dust particles help in cloud formation?
135.
At which latitudes is the height of the troposphere
maximum?
136.
Why is the tropopause called that?
137.
In which layer of the atmosphere does the temperature
start increasing with height?
138.
At what heights do the various layers of atmosphere
exist?
139.
What is the primary reason behind differences in
atmospheric pressures at different places?
140.
What are the technical names for positions of the earth
when it is closet to/ furthest away from the sun?
141.
What is the angle made by the earths axis with the
plane of its orbit around the sun?
142.
Why do higher latitudes of the earth receive lesser
insolation?
143.
What are the reasons behind the red color exhibited by
the setting and rising sun? (Page 80)
144.
Why does the equator receive comparatively lesser
insolation as compared to the tropics?
145.
What is advection?
146.
How is the above important in the context of India?
147.
What is meant by the albedo of the earth?
148.
Describe the heat balance of the earth. (Page 81)
149.
Even though the tropics have a net heat surplus and the
poles have a net heat deficit, why do the tropics not get heated
up progressively and the poles melt?
150.
What are the four major factors that determine the
temperature of a place?
151.
What is meant by the normal lapse rate?
152.
What are isotherms?
153.
What is the relationship between isotherms and the
earths latitudes?

154.
In which hemisphere does this relationship hold roughly
true?
155.
Describe: Temperature Inversion (Page 85)
156.
In January, describe the typical position of isotherms in
the northern and southern hemispheres. (Page 85)
157.
What is the relationship between latitudes and the
length of days?
158.
In India, why is the day temperature maximum in May
and not during the summer solstice in June?
159.
In what units is atmospheric pressure measured? (Page
88)
160.
What is the primary cause for movement of air from one
place on the earth to the other?
161.
Although pressure decreases rapidly with height in the
lower atmosphere, why do we not experience vertical winds?
162.
What are the lines connecting places that have equal
atmospheric pressures called?
163.
Describe the distribution of these pressure lines in
January; name them with reference to the latitudes that these
characteristically lie at in January.
164.
List 4 forces that affect horizontal forces close to the
earths surface.
165.
How does the pressure gradient force differ due to
differences in the distances between isobars?
166.
What is the Coriolis force? How does it relate to
latitudes?
167.
What is the relationship between Coriolis force and the
Pressure Gradient force?
168.
Why are tropical cyclones not formed near the equator?
(Page 90; just memorize this)
169.
What are geostrophic winds?
170.
What is the wind circulation around a low-pressure zone
called? Around a high-pressure zone?
171.
List the 5 things that determine the general pattern of
circulation.
172.
Describe the 3 cells that set the pattern for the general
circulation of air.
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ixT7D3f8Qo)
173.
What are the nicknames of the equator, 30 degrees N
and S? (video above)
174.
Explain the formation of the polar jet stream. (around 16
minutes into the video)
175.
What is katabatic wind?
176.
What is an air mass?
177.
What is the difference between cold and warm fronts?
(Page 94-CHECK)
178.
What is an occluded front?
179.
What are extra-tropical cyclones? At what latitudes, and
how, are they formed?

180.
Describe the three stages of an extra-tropical cyclone.
(http://charliesweatherforecasts.blogspot.in/2011/09/tropicalvs-extratropical-cyclones.html)
181.
How and when do extra-tropical cyclones dissipate? Or
are they permanent phenomena?
182.
In which direction do extra-tropical cyclones move in
each hemisphere?
183.
Draw the cross-section of an extra-tropical cyclone.
184.
What are the names of tropical cyclones in the Indian
Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Western Pacific, and Western Australia?
185.
How are tropical cyclones formed?
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-AAG4HEsgMQ)
186.
Explain the anatomy of a tropical cyclone.
187.
Explain: Tropical cyclones that cross 20 degrees N
latitude generally recurve and are more destructive.
188.
List 3 important differences between tropical and extratropical cyclones.
189.
What is storm surge?
190.
What are thunderstorms?
191.
What are tornadoes?
192.
In which latitudes are you likely to find tornadoes, and
why?
193.
In the northern hemisphere, in which directions do
tropical and extra-tropical cyclones spin? (See self note on top
of Page 94)
194.
In the southern hemisphere, in which directions do
tropical and extra-tropical cyclones spin?
195.
The direction of wind around a low pressure in the
northern hemisphere is: clockwise, anti-clockwise,
perpendicular to isobars, or parallel to the isobars?
196.
Define relative humidity.
197.
What is dew point?
198.
Why is evaporation greater when the movement of air is
greater? (Page 98)
199.
What is sublimation?
200.
What is the difference between fog and mist?
201.
What are the four different types of clouds?
202.
What is the difference between condensation and
precipitation? (Page 100)
203.
When does sleet form?
204.
Between 35 and 40 degrees North and South of the
equator, the rain is heavier on the eastern coasts of continents,
and vice versa for 45 and 65 degrees N and S. Why?
205.
Discuss the salient features of the world distribution of
precipitation.
206.
How many major climatic groups did Koeppen
recognize? Name them. (Page 103)

207.
What type of climate falls in the A region? How many
subgroups is this type divided into? Name them, along with
regions of the world where this type of climate is found.
208.
Apart from India, name two other places where Am type
of climate is found.
209.
In which latitudes does one find B type of climate?
210.
Explain: on the western margins of continents, B type of
climates extend more equatorwards and occur on coastal land,
whereas in middle latitudes (35-60 degrees N and S) they are
confined to the interiors of continents.
211.
Where is one likely to find Subtropical Steppes?
212.
Around which latitudes are you likely to find Cs type of
climate?
213.
What is the subtropical ridge? (Google)
214.
Describe the major climate types by latitude (se pdf
notes on dropbox)
215.
What are the four major divisions of the oceanic floor?
(Page 113)
216.
Why are fossil fuels rather commonly in the oceans just
off the shores of the continents?
217.
What are seamounts, guyots, and atolls?
218.
In which hemisphere are oceans, on average, likely to be
hotter? (Page 115)
219.
What cause longitudinal variations in ocean
temperature? (Page 115)
220.
Why do enclosed seas in the low latitudes record
relatively higher temperatures than the open sea, and enclosed
seas in high latitudes have lower temperature than the open
sea?
221.
What is halocline? (Page 118)
222.
What is the thermocline?
223.
What is the average temperature of the surface water of
the oceans at the equator? (Page 116)
224.
What is the upper limit of salinity to demarcate brackish
water? (Page 116)
225.
Around which latitudes are the highest levels of salinity
found and why? (Page 117)
226.
Which lake exhibits the highest level of salinity?
227.
Although the North Sea is located at a rather high
altitude, why does it record a high level of salinity?
228.
Among Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, which one
exhibits higher salinity and why?
229.
What is a continental margin? (Page 119)
230.
Classify the following into horizontal and vertical
motions: ocean currents, tides, and waves. (Page 120)
231.
What causes waves to form and travel?
232.
Describe the motion of water inside a wave with a
diagram.
233.
When do waves break? (Page 120)

234.
In what unit is wave speed usually measured?
235.
What is the difference between tides and surges? (Page
121)
236.
Aside from the gravitation force created by the pull of
the sun and the moon, what is the other major cause of tides?
237.
How many times a day do tides usually occur? At what
rough time interval?
238.
What is meant by perigee?
239.
What are spring tides and neap tides? When do they
occur?
240.
List three major forces that affect ocean currents. (Page
123)
241.
Why does water tend to flow away from the equator?
(Page 123- CHECK)
242.
Where are you likely to find cold/ warm ocean currents
in the low/ middle/ high latitudes on each hemisphere? (Page
123)
243.
Describe WHY the above happens.
244.
What are the two major factors influencing the direction
of ocean currents?
245.
List the 18 major ocean currents and classify them into
cold and warm ocean currents. Also indicate their position on a
map. (Page 124, 125)
246.
In which month does the earth reach its perihelion?January; aphelion is around July
247.
Define ecology. (Page 128)
248.
True or false: Habitat denotes the physical
characteristics that constitute the general environment of an
organism.
249.
What are the two broad types of ecosystems?
250.
What are biomes?
251.
What are four major kinds of biomes?
252.
What are the two major types of aquatic ecosystems?
253.
What are the two types of food chains? (Page 129)
254.
What are biogeochemical cycles?
255.
What is the carbon cycle?
256.
What are exotic species? (Page 137)
257.
What are the 3 classification of IUCN?
258.
What are the different levels of biodiversity?
Class XI: Book 02- India: Physical Environment
1. What are the latitudes and longitudes that cover the extremities
of India?
2. How many nautical miles does the territorial limit of India extend
towards the sea?
3. Which extent of India is longer in distance: horizontal or vertical?
4. Into which two broad climatic zones can the mainland of India be
divided?

5. Name the states through which Indias standard meridian


passes.
6. What is the difference between a Gulf and a Strait?
7. How many countries does India share a land border with? Rank
them in order of the length of the frontier.
8. Give three reasons as to why the rivers flowing east in India into
the Bay of Bengal form deltas.
9. Which river is Srinagar located alongside? (Page 11)
10.
Which part of
India is known as the molasses basin?
11.
Which major
rivers drain the northern plains of India? (Page 15)
12.
Into how
many major zones can the northern plains be divided? Name
them.
13.
True or false:
no part of the Indian peninsular plateau extends to the
northeastern regions.
14.
Which
among the western and eastern ghats in comparatively higher?
15.
What are the
western ghats locally known as in the following regions:
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala?
16.
Which is the
highest peak of the western ghats, and where is it located? (Page
17)
17.
Where do the
eastern and western ghats meet each other?
18.
Is the
Meghalaya plateau a part of the peninsular plateau?
19.
What are its
subdivisions?
20.
Which part of
India receives the maximum rainfall from the southwest
monsoon? (Page 17)
21.
Is the Thar
Desert a part of the peninsular plateau? (Page 18)
22.
Why is the
western coast of India more suited to ports and harbors?
23.
What is the
ten degree channel? (Page 19)
24.
What is the
eleven degree channel?
25.
Which is the
only active volcano in India? Where is it located?
26.
Which
between the two main groups of islands in India is built of coral
deposits?

27.
What are
Karewas? Where are they found? (Page 11)
28.
What are
catchment areas and drainage basins? (Page 20)
29.
What is the
difference between watersheds and basins?
30.
Which river is
known as the sorrow of Bihar? (Page 24)
31.
Which gap
separates the Rajmahal hills and the Meghalaya plateau?
32.
Which river
feeds the canal system of the Bhakra Nangal Project? (Page 25)
33.
What is a
river regime?
34.
What is
thalweg? (Page 30)
35.
List the
various rivers along the west and east coasts of India, and
mention the states that they serve.
36.
List two
major effects of the Himalayas on the climate of India.
37.
Although
Agra and Darjeeling are located at the same latitude, why is
Darjeeling much cooler?
38.
Why are
winters usually dry in India? (Page 35)
39.
What kind of
upper air circulation does India experience during winter
months?
40.
During
winter, when the prevailing night temperature increases, what
does it indicate? (Page 36)
41.
What are
tropical cyclones? At which time of the year are these likely to hit
India?
42.
Describe the
surface winds and upper air circulation over India during summer
months.
43.
Why do
areas in the northeast receive the maximum rainfall during the
southwest monsoon period? (Page 37, black underline)
44.
Between
which latitudes do the easterly jet streams confine themselves
over India? (Page 37)
45.
Which wind
system is responsible for the burst of monsoon over India?
(Page 38)
46.
What is the
monsoon trough? (Page 40)

47.
Explain:
monsoon rains show a declining trend from west to east over the
west coast of India, and from the southeast towards the
northwest over the North Indian Plain and the northern part of
the peninsula.
48.
What causes
El-Nino? (Page 38- and its not atmospheric pressure; that
happens because of El-Nino; doesnt cause it)
49.
What are the
two major reasons for break in the monsoon?
50.
Explain the
pattern of winter rainfall in India. (CHECK- Page 42)
51.
Which of the
following statements is true: during summer months, the
temperature in India (a) decreases from north to south, or (b)
increases from coast to the interior?
52.
At which
latitude are you likely to find the ITCZ during July? (Page 45)
53.
In which
direction does the loo blow? (westerly or easterly?)
54.
What is
kalbaisakhi? (page 45)
55.
Explain: the
monsoon winds over Bihar are easterly.
56.
Explain the
two branches of the southwest monsoon in India. (Page 47)
57.
Why does
Tamil Nadu remain dry during the southwest monsoon?
58.
Describe:
October Heat.
59.
Explain: the
weather in retreating monsoon (around October and November)
is dry in north India but is associated with rain in the eastern
part of the peninsula. (Page 49)
60.
Name the 6
Indian names for seasons, and the Indian names for the months
that they are associated with.
61.
Which parts
of India fall under the following type of climate: Amw, As, Aw,
Bwsw, Bwhw, Cwg, Dfc, E. (Page 53- DO PROPERLY)
62.
Which 2
broad regions in India receive the highest rainfall? (Page 56)
63.
How many
distinct seasons are found in India as per the IMD? Name them.
(Page 56)
64.
Name the 5
major groups into which Indian forests can be divided. (Page 57)
65.
Name 3
broad regions of India where one finds tropical evergreen forests.

66.
Which is the
most common type of forests in India?
67.
Name two
plants that are common in tundra vegetation.
68.
What are
temperate forests called in the Nilgiri hills? (Page 60)
69.
Which two
places in India are protected as waterfowl habitats under the
Ramsar convention?
70.
Do
Andamans have mangrove forests?
71.
Which state/
UT has the maximum forest cover?
72.
What % of
Indias area does the National Forest Policy aim to bring under
forest cover?
73.
What is
social forestry?
74.
What is farm
forestry?
75.
What are the
two main aims of the Wildlife Act of 1972?
76.
Which
organization runs the Man and Biosphere programme?
77.
Define:
Biosphere Reserve.
78.
How many
BRs exist in India, How many are included in the World Network
of BRs? Name them all.
79.
List the 8
types of soils found in India. (Page 69)
80.
Which is the
most common soil type in India?
81.
Which kind of
soil is used in making bricks? (Page 71)
82.
Is alluvial soil
only found in the Gangetic plains? (Page 69)
83.
In which of
the following minerals is alluvial soil rich? : Potash or
Phosphorus?
84.
List 5 states
where one finds black soil.
85.
Which
characteristic of black soil helps crops sustain even during dry
seasons?
86.
Which
minerals are black soils deficient in?
87.
Where do
you find red and yellow soils?

88.
Why do they
look like that?
89.
What are
laterite soils? Where are they found?
90.
What
minerals are these soils deficient in? Which minerals are found in
excess?
91.
What are
peaty soils? Where are they found?
92.
What is the
difference between sheet and gully erosion? (Page 73)
93.
Why does
excessive irrigation make arable soil saline?
94.
What is
integrated land use planning? (Page 74)
95.
Regur soil is
another name for what kind of soil?
96.
What do
farmers add to the soil when it turns saline? (Page 72)
97.
What is the
Yoakahama Strategy? (Google/ Page 80)
98.
What are the
four broad categories of natural disasters? (Page 79)
99.
The collision
of which two tectonic plates caused the recent Nepal
earthquake?
100.
Although the
Indian peninsular block is a fairly stable geological entity, what
is the cause of some devastating earthquakes in Gujarat and
Maharashtra? (Page 81)
101.
Explain: a
ship at sea is not much affected by a Tsunami, but the same
Tsunami can cause massive damage at the coast.
102.
Define:
tropical cyclone. (CHECK- Page 84)
103.
Which
latitudes are tropical cyclones found between? Why?
104.
Why are
tropical cyclones not found between 0-5 degrees latitudes?
105.
List four
conditions for the emergence of a tropical cyclone.
106.
In case of
Bay of Bengal, why do cyclones develop most numerously
during the months of October and November? (
107.
Where do
tropical cyclones derive their energy from? (Page 86)
108.
Why do
tropical cyclones make landfall on Indias east coast, and not on
the west coast? (Page 85- CHECK)

109.
Why does
Tamil Nadu sometimes experience flash floods during
November-January? (Page 88)
110.
What are the
4 types of droughts? (Page 89)
111.
Describe the
Disaster Management Bill of 2005.
Additional questions from this book:
1. Fault that separates northeastern plateau from peninsular
plateau? (Page 8)
2. Where are the following hills/ peaks located?
Hill
Nallamalla
Javadi

State
Andhra Pradesh
Tamil Nadu
Orissa (highest
peak of EGs is
here)

Mahendragiri

Hill
Veliconda
Palkonda

State
Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh

Aravalis

Gujarat, Rajasthan,
Haryana, Delhi

Vindhyas

Gujarat, MP, UP,


Bihar

Satpuras

Kangtu
Diphu pass
Lushai

Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Mizoram

Namcha Barwa
Bomdi La
Pataki Bum

Rajmahal hills

Jharkhand

Cardamom hills

Anaimalai hills

Kerala

Maikal range

Mahadeo hills
Dodabeta
Saddle, Diavolo,
Koyob, Thuiller

GujaratMaharashtra
border, MP,
Chhattisgarh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Arunachal Pradesh
Western Ghats
(Kerala, SW Tamil
Nadu)
Chhattisgarh (part
of Satpura)

MP (part of
Satpura)
WG, Tamil Nadu

Anaimudi

WG; Kerala

Kaimur hills

MP, Bihar

Andamans

Potwar plateau

Delhi Ridge

3. Where are the following rivers located?


River
Ghaghara
Tista
Brahmputra
Kameng
Subansiri
Dihang
Dibang/
Sikang
Lohit
Barak
Chindwin
Banas
Mahi

State
Major left bank tributary of the Ganges; comes from Nepal
Himalayas, join the Ganga in Bihar
Fast-flowing river of the Darjiling/ Sikkim Himalayas
Enters via Namcha Barwa in Arunachal Pradesh
All in Arunachal Himalayas; these are perennial with a high rate of
fall, and hence very well suited for hydroelectric power
generation
Manipur, Mizoram; tributary of the Meghana river
Manipur; tributary of Myanmars Irrawady river
Tribuatry of Chambal
Gujarat

Periyar
Pennar
Sabarmati
Kalindi
Meghana
Chambal
Betwa
Son
Chandrabha
ga
Ramganga
Mahananda
Son
Ganga
system
Brahmaputra
system
Mahanadi
Godavari

Krishna

Kaveri

Narmada
Tapi
Saraswati
Bharathapuz
ha
Sharavati
Pamba

River
Banas
Brahmputra
Barak
Betwa
Bharathapuz
ha
Chandrabha

West flowing; rises in MP, flows through Rajasthan and Gujarat to


drain into Arabian sea
Kerala; west flowing (Arabian sea drainage)
Andhra Pradesh
Gujarat
Sundarbans
Bangladesh
Oldest rivers; arise in central highlands, flow towards the Ganga
(so, southwest to northeast direction of flow). Seasonal rivers.
Hunza, Shigar, Gasting, Tochi, Gomal, Viboa, Sangar- tributaries of
Indus
Another name for Chenab (because it is formed at the confluence
of 2 rivers called Chandra and Bhaga)
Tributary of Ganga; UP
Tributary of Ganga; rises in Darjeeling
Rises in Amarkantak hills
Left bank tributaries: Ramganga, Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak,
Kosi, Mahananda
Right bank: Son, (Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken: via Yamuna)
Left bank tributaries: Dibang/ Sikang, Lohit, Burhi Dihing,
Dhansari
Right bank: Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, Sankosh
Rises in Chhattisgarh highlands (in Raipur); covers MP,
Chhattisgarh, Orissa
Rises in Nasik (WG), known as Dakshin Ganga; runs through
Maharashtra, MP, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh
Main Tributaries: Penganga, Indravati, Pranhita, Manjra
Rises in Mahabaleshwar (WG); runs through Maharashtra,
Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh
Main Tributaries: Konya, Tungabhadra, and Bhima
Brahmagiri hills, Karnataka (Kogadu district); runs through Kerala,
Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu
Main Tributaries: Kabini, Amravati, Bhavani
Amarkantak hills; flows in a rift valley between Vindhyas and
Satpuras, forms Dhuandhar waterfall near Jabalpur; Sardar
Sarovar Dam
Satpura, MP (Betul district); Maharashtra, MP, Gujarat
Rajasthan; tributary of Luni
Mandovi, Juari- Goa
Kerala
Karnataka
Kerala; falls into Vambanad lake

State
Tribuatry of Chambal
Enters via Namcha Barwa in Arunachal Pradesh
Left bank tributaries: Dibang/ Sikang, Lohit, Burhi Dihing,
Dhansari
Right bank: Subansiri, Kameng, Manas, Sankosh
Manipur, Mizoram; tributary of the Meghana river
Oldest rivers; arise in central highlands, flow towards the Ganga
(so, southwest to northeast direction of flow). Seasonal rivers.
Kerala
Another name for Chenab (because it is formed at the confluence

ga
Chindwin
Dihang
Dibang/
Sikang
Chambal
Ganga
system

Godavari
Ghaghara
Juari
Krishna

Kaveri

Kameng
Kalindi
Lohit
Meghana
Mahananda
Mahi
Mahanadi
Mandovi
Narmada
Periyar
Pennar
Pamba
Ramganga
Subansiri
Son
Sabarmati
Sharavati
Saraswati
Tista
Tapi

of 2 rivers called Chandra and Bhaga)


Manipur; tributary of Myanmars Irrawady river
Arunachal Himalayas; these are perennial with a high rate of fall,
and hence very well suited for hydroelectric power
generation
Arunachal Himalayas; these are perennial with a high rate of fall,
and hence very well suited for hydroelectric power
generation
Oldest rivers; arise in central highlands, flow towards the Ganga
(so, southwest to northeast direction of flow). Seasonal rivers.
Left bank tributaries: Ramganga, Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak,
Kosi, Mahananda
Right bank: Son, (Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken: via Yamuna)
Rises in Nasik (WG), known as Dakshin Ganga; runs through
Maharashtra, MP, Chhattisgarh, and Andhra Pradesh
Main Tributaries: Penganga, Indravati, Pranhita, Manjra
Major left bank tributary of the Ganges; comes from Nepal
Himalayas, join the Ganga in Bihar
Goa
Rises in Mahabaleshwar (WG); runs through Maharashtra,
Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh
Main Tributaries: Konya, Tungabhadra, and Bhima
Brahmagiri hills, Karnataka (Kogadu district); runs through Kerala,
Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu
Main Tributaries: Kabini, Amravati, Bhavani
Arunachal Himalayas; these are perennial with a high rate of fall,
and hence very well suited for hydroelectric power
generation
Sundarbans
All in Arunachal Himalayas; these are perennial with a high rate of
fall, and hence very well suited for hydroelectric power
generation
Bangladesh
Tributary of Ganga; rises in Darjeeling
Gujarat
West flowing; rises in MP, flows through Rajasthan and Gujarat to
drain into Arabian sea
Rises in Chhattisgarh highlands (in Raipur); covers MP,
Chhattisgarh, Orissa
Goa
Amarkantak hills; flows in a rift valley between Vindhyas and
Satpuras, forms Dhuandhar waterfall near Jabalpur; Sardar
Sarovar Dam
Kerala; west flowing (Arabian sea drainage)
Andhra Pradesh
Kerala; falls into Vambanad lake
Tributary of Ganga; UP
All in Arunachal Himalayas; these are perennial with a high rate of
fall, and hence very well suited for hydroelectric power
generation
Oldest rivers; arise in central highlands, flow towards the Ganga
(so, southwest to northeast direction of flow). Seasonal rivers.
Rises in Amarkantak hills
Gujarat
Karnataka
Rajasthan; tributary of Luni
Fast-flowing river of the Darjiling/ Sikkim Himalayas
Satpura, MP (Betul district); Maharashtra, MP, Gujarat
Hunza, Shigar, Gasting, Tochi, Gomal, Viboa, Sangar- tributaries

of Indus

4. What is a scarp? (Page 9)


5. What is Baltoro? (Page 11)
6. Which of the following are salt water lakes and which,
freshwater: Dal, Wular, Tsomoriri, Pangong Tso
7. Which river flows through the Kashmir valley? Is this river in its
young, middle, or mature form here?
8. What are duns? (Page 12)
9. What are Bhotias? (Page 13)
10.
What are the
tribes in the higher reaches of the Sikkim Himalayas called?
(Page 13)
11.
Name 6
prominent tribal communities in the Arunachal Himalayas.
(Page 14)
12.
Arrange from
north to south: Naga hills, Pataki Bum, Mizo hills, Manipur hills.
(Page 15)
13.
Where is the
Loktak lake located (state)? (Page 15)
14.
Amongst the
3 major zones of the alluvial planes, in which zone are you most
likely to find landforms of fluvial erosion and depositional
landforms? (Page 15)
15.
Which state
has the Mazagaon port? (Page 18)
16.
What are
kayals? (Page 18)
17.
Which is the
largest island in Lakshadweep group? (Page 19)
18.
What is the
Indus river called in Tibet? (Page 24)
19.
Name the
only district in India through which the Indus river flows. (page
25)
20.
Which is the
largest tributary of the Indus? (Page 25)
21.
Where is the
river Sikang? (Pge 26)
Class XII, Part 1: Fundamentals of Human Geography
1. What are environmental determinism, possibilism, and neodeterminism?
2. What is the growth rate of population in India? (Google)
3. List the 3 components of the HDI, and mention how theyre
measured. (Page 27)
4. Describe the Human Poverty Index.

5. Which economist introduced the concept of human


development? (Page 29)
6. What kind of products in Mediterranean agriculture famous for?
(Page 40)
7. What is the difference between cooperative and collective
farming? (Page 41)
8. Discuss the global distribution of cotton and iron and steel
industries. (Page 52)
9. What are quarternary and quinary services? (Page 61)
10.
What is the
difference between KPOs and BPOs?
11.
List the three
conditions that a settlement in India needs to fulfill to be
classified as an urban settlement. (Page 91)
Class XII, Part 2: India- People and Economy
1. Name the Indian states that are:
i. Largest by area
ii. Smallest by area
iii. Most populous
iv. Least populous
v. Most densely populated
vi. Least densely populated
vii. Lowest TFR
viii. Highest TFR
ix. Maximum forest cover (absolute)
x. Maximum forest cover (% of area)
xi. Highest % of urban population
xii. Lowest % of urban population
xiii. Largest receiver of internal migrants
xiv. Largest generator of internal migrants
2. What % of Indias population is rural?
3. What is the relationship between the work participation rate and
the level of economic development? (Page 11)
4. Describe the employment structure of Indias population.
5. What is the level of urbanization in India?
6. Which cities do National Highways 1 and 2 connect? (Page 114)
7. NHAI is under the administration of which ministry? (Page 114)
8. What are the four major classifications of roads in India? Ran
them in terms of % share of total road network that each
accounts for.
9. What are the three main divisions of railways tracks based on
the width of track? What are their % shares?
10. What is the main reason behind inland waterways becoming
un-navigable in many parts of the country? (Page 119 end)
11. How many National Waterways exist in India? (Google)

12. What is the name of the famous Nehru Trophy Boat Race held
in the backwaters of Kerala? (Page 121)
13. How many railway zones exist in India? (Google)
14. Which is the longest national highway in India? (Google)
15. What % of the worlds trade does India account for?
16. List the breakdown of Indias exports and imports by sector.
17. List the 5 biggest export and import items of India by % share.
18. List the top three overall trading partners of India, and also by
exports and imports.
19. Which coast of India has more seaports? (Page 129)
20. What is the functional difference between a port being
classified as major or minor? (Page 129)
21. Which port is known as the Queen of the Indian sea? (Page
131)
22. Which port is located on the Mahanadi?
23. Which port of India is a land-locked harbor?
24. What % of Indias land is covered under: forests, net sown
area, and area under non-agricultural uses? (Page 42)
25. What is the sum of Indian area under Culturable Wasteland,
Fallow land, and Net Sown Area? (Page 44)
26. List 6 kharif, 5 rabi, and 2 zaid crops grown in north Indian
states. (Page 44)
27. List 5 crops grown in south Indian states almost all year round.
28. In which kind of irrigation is water requirement higher:
productive or protective?
29. What % of Indias total cropped area is accounted for by food
crops?
30. Which state in India produces more than half of all Jowar
produced in the country? (Page 47)
31. This state also accounts for about a third of the total
production of another crop. Name that crop. (Page 49)
32. What broad parts of India are pulses grown in? What % of total
cropped area do they account for? (Page 47)
33. What are rai, toria, and taramira examples of? (Page 49)
34. Which state accounts for more than a third of their total
production?
35. List the top 5 producers of sugarcane in India. (Page 53)
36. What is the difference between black and green tea leaves?
37. Where in southern India is tea grown? (Page 53)
38. What are robusta and liberica?
39. Name the 3 top producers of coffee in India. (CHECK- Page 53)
40. What is the land-man ratio in India? Whats the world
average? (Page 53)
41. Roughly what proportion of surface and groundwater
withdrawals are accounted for by agriculture? (Page 64)
42. What is the cause for increasing incidence of arsenic poisoning
in many parts of India? (Page 65)
43. Which Indian state has made water-harvesting structures in
every home compulsory? (Page 67)

44. What is an important use of manganese? (Page 74)


45. Which state is the largest producer of manganese?
46. True or False: India is well endowed with both ferrous and nonferrous minerals.
47. What is a major use of bauxite? (Page 76)
48. Which state is the largest producer of bauxite?
49. What are the four types of coal, in order of increasing carbon
content? (Google)
50. Which river valley in India contains maximum coal deposits?
51. Name 3 states associated with oil reserves in India. (Page 80)
52. What are footloose industries?
53. Although Bhadravati, Bhilai, and Rourkela are not major coal
producing centers, why are lots of iron and steel industries
located there? (Page 86)
54. Why do iron and steel industries locate quite close to their raw
materials? (Page 87)
55. Apart from iron ore, list 5 main raw materials for producing
iron and steel.
56. What were the effects of partition on Indias cotton industry?
(Page 93)
57. At present, what is the driving location behind location of
cotton mills?
58. What are the four kinds of petrochemical industries? (Page 95)
59. What is the main cause of decline in industrial activity of the
Hugli Industrial Region? (Page 100)
60. Name the two top sugar producing states of India.