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011200 , , ()
-

.., ..

1.2. , -


2012

.
.., .. - .
: , 2012. 101 .

-
, , , . .
.
-
, 011200 , , , 210100 , 230400
222900 , , .



, , , .. . , ,
. ,
.

1971 . , ,
, , , , .

. . , , . ,
, ,
, , , . , , , . , , , 30-50 , .

I.
1. ,

. , ,
, .
V a, b, c... . , , a b V
a + b,
1). a + b = b + a,

3). a + (b + c) = (a + b) + c,

2). a + 0 = a,

4). a + ( a) = 0,

0 . , ,
V V a,
5). () a = (a) ,

7). ( + ) a = a + a ,

6). (a + b) = a + b ,

8). 1 a = a .

. , ,
, . .
,
, , . (
)
, , , ( ).

, .
1. ,
n

P ( x ) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x 2 + K + cn x n ,
x[a, b]. ,
, n. , . , -, n, 5-8,
, .
2. 22
, ..

22, .. , 1 3, , ;


a b

c d

a b

c
d

, 5-8,
.
. N a1, a2, ..., aN ,
, :

1a1 + 2a2 + + NaN = 0.


5

, , .
, ,
i : 1 = 2 = ... = N = 0. , .
.
1. N ,
.

. a1, a2, ..., aN , ..


1a1 + 2a2 + + NaN = 0,
1 0. , 1, :

a1 =

a2 ... N aN ,
1
1

.
2. N , .
. N a1, a2, ..., aN -

a1 a2:
1a1 + 2a2 = 0, 12 + 22 0 .


1a1 + 2a2 + 0a3 + ... + 0aN .

, ,
, a1, a2, ..., aN .
3. N ,
.
. N a1, a2, ..., aN , -

, a1 = 0.
1a1 + 0a2 + 0a3 + ... + 0aN ,

1 0. , , , a1, a2, ..., aN .


6

/ .
3. . ,
r
r
r r
r
r
r
a b , a = kb , .. a kb = 0 . -

, . , : .
, ..
.
.
:
. , ,
, . ,
.
4. . ,
r r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r
a , b c , c = a + b , .. c a b = 0 .

, . ,
: .
, , , .
5. 22

1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
,
,
,

0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

. ,
1 0
0 1 0 0
0 0
+
+
+
=
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1

, = =
= = = 0. ..
.

6.

n, . ,

E0 ( x ) = 1 , E1 ( x ) = x , E2 ( x ) = x 2
. :
,

E0 ( x ) + E1 ( x ) + E2 ( x ) = 0

+ x + x2 = 0 .
x,
, . :
+ x + x 2 = 0,

+ 2 x = 0,

2 = 0,

, . ,
: = = = 0 , . , .
, ,
Ei ( x ) = x i ( i = 0, , n) .
. -

.
. N

N .
a1, a2, ..., aN V.
N. N 8

b V ( N + 1)
. , b
. .
, a1, a2, ..., aN V, b
.
0b + 1a1 + + NaN = 0
, ..
N + 1 N- . , 0 0,
,
a1, a2, ..., aN . 0
b :

b = 1a1 + ... + N aN ,
i = 1 0 ( ) b .
,
. , ,
b:

b = 1a1 + ... + N aN .
,

0 = (1 1)a1 + ... + ( N N )aN .


a1, a2, ..., aN , , . , i = i , ..
b . , .
.

. a b , ,
(a, b) ab, :
9

1). (a, b ) = (b, a ) ,

3). (a, b ) = (a, b ) , R ,

2). (a + b, c ) = (a, c ) + (b, c ) ,

4). (a, a ) > 0 a 0 , (a, a ) = 0 a = 0 .

,
.

. ( ) a a :

(a, a )

a=

, .
, N
N . , ei
(i = 1, , N) .
:

( e , e )=
i

ij

0, i j
, ij =
1, i = j

ij , (1823-1891). .

. m a1, a2, ...,


am m e1, e2, ..., em.
. e1 :

e1 =

a1
.
a1

, e1 .

e2 = a2 (a2 , e1 ) e1 .

10

, (e2 , e1 ) = 0 , .. e1. e2 = e2 e2 . , e1 e2,


e3 = a3 (a3 , e1 ) e1 (a3 , e2 ) e2 .
, e3 = e3 e3 .
e1, e2, ..., em, a1, a2, ..., am. .
, ,
: N .
. ,

N

a = ai ei
i =1

ej:
N

(e j , a) = e j , ai ei .
i =1


N
N

N
e j , ai ei = ai (e j , ei ) = ai ji = a j .
i =1
i =1

i =1

, ei :

ai = (ei , a ) .

(1)


. ,
N
N
N
N
N
N
N
(a, b ) = ai ei , b j e j = ai b j (ei , e j ) = ai b j ij = ai b j ij = ai bi .
j =1
i , j =1
i =1
j =1
i =1
i , j =1
i =1

, . ,
11

- , ,
N , , i j
1 N. , , ? ,
! .
. ,
, , .
. , , :

(a, b ) = (ai ei , b j e j ) = ai b j (ei , e j ) = ai b j ij = ai bi .

.
,
, ..
ai bi = a j b j = ak bk = ...
,
, ,

(a, b ) = (ai ei , b j e j ) ,

(a, b ) = (ai ei , bi ei ) .


, . , , . , .
, .
7. ,

.
; .
12

, , .
, , r
. i ,
r r
r r r
r r
r r
j , k , i = j = k = 1 (i , j ) = j , k =

( )

( )

rr
= k ,i = 0 .
8. 22 ,

:
1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

,
,
,
.
0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1

22 :
a1

a3

a2 b1
,
a4 b3

b2
= a1b1 + a2 b2 + a3b3 + a4 b4 .
b4

.
9.

n, x[a, b],
P ( x ) = c0 + c1 x + c2 x 2 + K + cn x n

n + 1.
:
E0 ( x ) = 1 , E1 ( x ) = x , E2 ( x ) = x 2 , ..., En ( x ) = x n .

-
:
b

(P1 ( x ), P2 ( x ) ) = P1 ( x ) P2 ( x )dx .
a

, Ei ( x ) = x i
, .
Ei ( x ) 13

,
. ,
e0 ( x ) :

e0 ( x ) =

E0 (x )
E0 (x )

e0 ( x ) =

1
.
ba


e1 ( x ) = E1 ( x ) (E1 ( x ), e0 ( x )) e0 ( x )

e1 ( x ) =

1
(2 x a b ) ,
2

:
e1 ( x ) =

(b a )

(a + b 2 x ) .

e2 ( x ) = E 2 ( x ) (E 2 ( x ), e0 ( x )) e0 ( x ) (E 2 ( x ), e1 ( x )) e1 ( x )
e2 ( x ) =

1
(6 x 2 6 x(a + b) + a 2 + 4ab + b 2 ) .
6

:
e2 ( x ) =

(b a ) 2
5

(a

+ 4ab + b 2 6(a + b )x + 6 x 2 ) .

( en(x))
-.

2. . ,

. ,
, r r
, i , j
r
k.
14

. 1.

, :

( )

r r r r
r r
a , b = a b cos a , b .

(2)

r
r
a c , r r
r r
[a , c ] a c ,

[ar, cr ]

r r
r r
= a c sin a , c ,

(3)

:
,
r
r
a c .
:
r
i
[ar, cr ] = a1
c1

. 2.

r
j
a2
c2

r
k
a3 .
c3

(4)

:
, -;

;

, :
rr r
r r r
r r r
i, j =k ,
j,k = i ,
k ,i = j .

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

.
r r r
a , b c
r r r
a , b , c ,

15

( ar, b , cr ) = ( ar, [b , cr ] ).
r

(5)

:
a1
r r r
a , b , c = b1
c1

( [ ])

a2
b2
c2

a3
b3 .
c3

(6)

:
, -;

;

, .
:
r r r
i , j,k = 1,
(7)
r
r r
, i , j k .

1.

r r r
, a , b , c . -

[ [ ]]

[ar, [b , cr ]] = b (ar, cr ) cr (ar, b ).


r

(8)

.
, , . .

16

3.


r r r
r
e1 , e2 , e3 a r
r
a1, a2 a3, .. a = a n e n . , , r r r
e1 , e2 , e3 .
r
r
a = a k e k . -

. 3.

. (1)
r r
r
ai = (ei, a ) . a
,
r r
r
r
r r
ai = ij a j
ai = (ei, a ) = (ei, a j e j ) = (ei, e j )a j = ij a j , ..
(9)
r r
ij = (ei, e j ) . ,
, :

ij = (ei, e j ) = ei e j cos ei, e j = cos ei, e j .


r r

r r

r r

(10)

:
r
r
ei = ij e j .

(11)


r
ek ,
(eri, erk ) = ( ij er j , erk ) (eri, erk ) = ij (er j , erk ) (eri, erk ) = ij jk (eri, erk ) = ik ,
.
, . (11)
:
17

(er, er ) = (

r
r
r r
e , jm em ) = ik jm (ek , em ) = ik jm km = ik jk .
r r
, , (ei, e j ) = ij . :
i

ik k

ik jk = ij .

(12)

.
:

ik jk = ik kjT = ( T )ij
:

( )
T

ij

= ij

T = I

(13)

, , , :

1 = T

(14)

(13) T , T = I , ,

)ij = ij

ikT kj = ij

ki kj = ij .

(15)

(12) ; .
(9) . , (9)
ik :

ik ai = ik ij a j ik ai = kj a j ik ai = ak

ak = kiT ai

(16)

, .
10. ,

.
(9), (15):

18

(ar, b) = a b = a
r

r
a =

ij

(ar, ar ) ,

( )

r r
,b .
b
=

a
b
=

a
b
=
a
b
=
a
ik k
ij ik j k
jk j k
k k

, , ,

.
11. z

.
cos er , er

1 1

r r
= cos e2 , e1
cos er , er

3 1

r r
cos e1, e2
r r
cos e2 , e2
r r
cos e3 , e2

r r
cos e1, e3
r r
cos e2 , e3 .
r r
cos e3 , e3

z (. . 4)

cos

z = sin
0

sin
cos
0

0
0
1

. 4.

12. .
r
K a = 0, 2 , 2 . K, -

K 45 z,
r
c = 1 2 , 1 + 2 , 1 . .

10,
, :
r
c
r r
K (a , c ) ,
r
, a K r r
(a , c ) . , .
r
, c K ck = kiT ci ,
11.
, :
19

ck = kiT ci

c1

c2 =
c
3

c1

c2 .
c
3

r
c =

1 2 2
2
2

2
2
0 1 + 2 = 2 .
2
2

0
0
1 1 1

r r
, (a , c ) = 0 ( 2 ) + 2 2 + 2 1 = 4 .
2

4.

,
r r
. i , j ,
r
, i ,
r
r
r r
r r
i = i , j = j , k = k .


r
k
r r
j, k:
(17)

,
r
i ,
r r r
r r
j , k i , j , k :
r r r
r r r
i , j,k = 1
i , j , k = 1 .

, , .
. 5.

. r
r
r
a = {1, 2,1}, b = { 2,1, 2} c = {3, 0,3}.
r r
a, b :

[ ]

20

r
i

[ ]

r r
j k

[ar, br ] = 1

r
r
1 = 3i 3k ,

[ ]

r r
r r r
.. a , b = {3, 0,3}, , a , b = c . , :
r
r
r
a = { 1, 2, 1}, b = { 2, 1, 2}, c = { 3, 0, 3}.
r r
a , b :
r
r
r
i
j
k
r
r
r r
a , b = 1 2 1 = 3i 3k ,

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

1 2

[ ]

r r
r r r
.. a , b = {3, 0,3}, , a , b c . : ,
!

[ ]

r r
r
: a , b c -
r r
. , a , b
r
c . - ,
, r r
. a , b ,

[ ]

,
, . .
.

( ), .
( ),
( ).

21

[ ]

r r
r r
r
a , b c , a , b . r
r
r
r
S , v , a F , r
E .. ,
,
r r r
r r r
l = [r , mv ] K = r , F . , ,
r
r
,
r
H .

[ ]


, , ,
, . ,


. ,
.
r r r
: a , b = c , -

[ ]

. , r
r
, , v + , ,
.
.
(
) (). , -

- , , , , , ..,
. , , , , ,
22

; .
r r
, , , (v, )
r r
(E , H ).


I-1. ,

). 2 2;
). x [0, 1] ;
). (x, y);
). ?
, ,
, () .
r
r
r
r r
r r
r
I-2. a = 2i + 2 j k b = 2i j + 3k .
.
r
r r r
r r
r
I-3. p = 2a + 3b 5c , a , b c
r
r
r
r
, | a | = 1, | b | = 2 | c | = 3. p
r r r
r r r
r r
). a + b , (a + b + c ) .
). a , b , c ;
I-4. t ?
r
r
r
). a = {3, 6, 9} , b = {2, 5, 8} , c = {4, 7, t} ;
r
r
r
). a = {5, 8, 11} , b = {3, 5, 7} , c = {1, t , 3} ;
r
r
r
I-5. : a = {1, 1, 1} , b = {5, 3, 3} , c = {3, 1, 1} . r
, c , r r
a + b .
r
I-6. m = {11, 6, 5} r
r
p = {a, 2, 1} q = {8, 9, 4} ?

23

r
I-7. m = {9, 1}
r
r
u = {2, 1} v = {1, a} ? = 1.
r r r
I-8. a , b , c . -

.
I-9.
r
r
r
a x = {1, 0, 0} , a y = {0, 1, 0} , a z = {0, 0, 1} . :

). ;
). .
r r r r
r
I-10. , ((r a ) (r + a )) = 0 . r r
, a .

I-11. :

(ar cr ) (ar mr )
r r r r
([a n ] [c m]) = r r r r .
(n c ) (n m )
r r r
r r r
I-12. , [a [ p r ]] = [[a p ] r ]
( pr rr ) 0 ar rr .

(ar pr ) 0

I-13. :
r r r
r
r r r
r r r
a [b c ] + c [a b ] + b [c a ] = 0 .

] [

] [

I-14.

x y. .
I-15. , .
I-16. , ( -

) .
I-17.
r
a . ,

:
r
). a = { 1, 1, 3} , Ox 30;

r
). a = {0, 3, 3} , Ox 120;

24

r
). a = {2 2 , 2 2 , 2 2} , O 15;
r
). a = {0, 4, 4 2} , O 135;
r
). a = {0, 1, 4} , Oz 45;

r
). a = { 1, 3, 0} , Oz 120.
I-18. ,

, r
a . (
):
r
). a = {2, 0, 2} , Ox 45;
r
). a = { 2 , 1, 0} , Ox 150;
r
). a = {0, 1, 2} , O 60;
r
). a = {6, 3, 2 3} , O 150;
r
). a = { 3 2 , 1 2 , 1} , Oz 75;
r
). a = {1 2 , 1 + 2 , 3} , Oz 135.

I-19. K
r
a = { 1, 1, 1} . K, K 30 r
x, c = { 1, 2, 2} .

.
I-20. -

: K y 30
r
r
a = 1, 1, 3 , K z 45 b = 2 , 2 , 3 .

.
r
r
I-21. , m n ,
r
K m = { 2, 0, 2} , -

, K 60 x:
r
n = 1, 1, 3 .

25

I-22. -

: K y 60
r
( K) a = 1, 0, 3 , K z 45 (
r
K) b = 0, 2 , 1 . .

{
}

26

II.
1. .

. , ,
. ,
, ,
Ai B j . (9),
, 9 ,
AiBj = in jm An Bm

, Ai B j = Tij , Tij = in jmTnm . Tij , ,


. 27- Tijk = Ai B j C k , :
Tijk = in jm kl Tnml .

Tijk
.
, - :
. .
. 3R ,

R , 1 3, R
, :
Ti1,i2 ,K,iR = i1k1 i2k2 K iRkR Tk1 ,k2 ,K,kR
27

(18)

, , .
, (9) (16):
Ai = ij A j

Ak = kiT Ai

(19)

Bij 32 ,
. :
Bij = in jm Bnm

Bij = inT Tjm Bnm

(20)


.. N > 3.
13. -

Aij , :
1
0

A = 1 0
0 2 2

2 2.
0

,
z 135.

,
12.
, ,
. ,
T
Aij = in jm Anm = in Anm jm = in Anm mj
= ( A T )ij

A = A T

(21)

,
,

28

, . , i n Anm i- m- .
Aij .
, (21) ()
T (), (14),
A = T A

(22)

. (21):
2

A = 2
2

= 2
2

2
2
2
0

2
2
2
0

0
1

0
1

1 0
0 2 2

2
2

2
2

2
2 2
2

0
0

2
2

2
2

2
2

0
0
1

0
1 2


2
2 2 = 1 0


0 2 2 0

1. . ,
.
.
, :
Aijk + Bijk = Cijk .
,
Aijk Bijk , Cijk . , , Cijk
, , . , , Cijk Aijk Bijk 33,
, .
29

.

Cijk .
= Aijk
+ Bijk
=K
Cijk
Aijk Bijk .
K = in jm kl Anml + in jm kl Bnml = K

n, m l

:
K = in jm kl ( Anml + Bnml ) = in jm kl C nml .


= in jm kl Cnml ,
Cijk
. ,
,
. , .

14. ,
. , ,
Ai + B j = Cij .

( )

Cij ? , ,
. , Cij .
. . ,
( ) ,
. 30

, Cij ,
, .

2. . R1
R2 R1 + R2 .
,

Ai B jk = Cijk .
, Cijk
. ,
, , , .
, Ai
B jk , , :
= Ai B jk = in An jm kl Bml = K
Cijk
, An Bml C nml :
K = in jm kl An Bml = in jm kl C nml .

:
= in jm kl C nml . , , Cijk
.

3. .
.
,
, .
, Aijkl
:

31

Aijkl kl = Aijkk .
Bij , . ,
Bij = Aijkk = K
Aijkl
= inT Tjm lk hk Anmlh
=K
K = inT Tjm klT khT Anmlh
k (12):
= inT Tjm Anmhh
= inT Tjm Bnm
,
K = inT Tjm lh Anmlh
. Bnm
Anmhh
. ,
: Bij = inT Tjm Bnm
, Bij , , .
Aijkl
, , Akjkl Aijjl : (, , Bij ). , , , Akjkj ,
, .. .
, , Sp Tr:
Sp(Aij ) Tr (Aij ) Aii

(23)

spur trace, ,
.

(15), , :
Sp(Aij ) = Aii = ij ik A jk = jk A jk = Akk = Sp(Aij )
32

Sp(Aij ) = Sp(Aij ) .

, , ,
Aijk Bkm = Cijm .
,
, Aijk Bnm , . ,
T
T
Cijm = Aijk Bkm = ipT Tjq krT Apqr ksT mt
Bst = ipT Tjq rk sk mt
Apqr Bst =

T
T
T
= ipT Tjq rs mt
Apqr Bst = ipT Tjq mt
Apqr Brt = ipT Tjq mt
C pqt ,
T
.. Cijm = ipT Tjq mt
C pqt ,

. , , ,
-, , , , , , -,
.
. NR

Ti1 ,i2 ,K,iR r ( r R ) Ai1 ,i2 ,K,ir Ti1 ,i2 ,K,iR Ai1 ,i2 ,K,ir
R r, Ti1 ,i2 ,K,iR R.
. ,
Aijk B j = Cik , Aijk Cik
. , Bj
.
. Cik ,
Cik = ij kn C jn . :
Cik = ij kn C jn = ij kn A jmn Bm = K
, Aijk ,
T
K = ij kn Tjp mq
nrT Apqr Bm = ij kn pj qm rn Apqr Bm = K

33

,
.
K = ip kr qm Apqr Bm = qm Bm Aiqk
Bq . , Cik = Aiqk
,

Bq = qm Bm Aiqk
Aiqk

(Bq qm Bm ) = 0 .
Aiqk

, , , Bq = qm Bm , .. Aiqk
Bi.

2.
Tij . (),
( ), ..
Tij = T ji

Tij

Tij = T ji Tij

. , ,
Fijkn = F jikn Fijkn = Fkjin ,
, Fijkn .
. , . ,
3 3. ,
,
. , ,
, , . .
34

, , ,
, ,
. , , . . Aij , Aij = A ji .
i = j, A jj = A jj ( j).
, A jj = 0 . ,

.
, ()
, .. . () , .. Tij = T ji . ,
, , , .. Tij = T ji . ,
Tij = in jm Tnm = in jm ( Tmn ) = jm in Tmn = T ji , .. Tij = T ji ,
. 13 . 28. ,
: - , .
.

.
. Tij .
, :

Tij =

Tij
2

Tij
2

Tij
2

Tij
2

T ji
2

T ji
2

Tij + T ji
2

Tij T ji
2

= S ij + Aij ,

S ij = (Tij + T ji ) 2 Aij = (Tij T ji ) 2 . ,


S ij =

Tij + T ji
2

T ji + Tij
2

= S ji , .. S ij ,
35

Aij =

Tij T ji
2

T ji Tij
2

= A ji , .. Aij .

, , Tij S ij Aij . .
15. -

Pij = 3
4

3
1
1

2
1
6

, S ij
Aij , Sp(Sij A jk ).
, , :
Sij =

Aij =

Pij + Pji
2
Pij Pji
2

1
1
= 3
2
4
1
1
= 3
2
4

4 1

1 1 = 3
1
6 3

2 1

1 + 3
6 2

3
1

2
1

1

3
6 2

3
4 0

1 1 = 0
1
6 1

1
1 0

3
1

3
0

0
6

0
0

Sij A jk = Dik . , :
D = S A . Dik:
1

Dik = 3
3

3
1
0

3 0

0 0
6 1

1 3

0
1 = 0
1 0 6
0

0 4 .
6 3

Sp (Sij A jk ) S kj A jk = Dkk , ..
Dik. . , Sp(Sij A jk ) = 0 .

36

16. , S kj A jk

. , S ij Aij .
S kj A jk = S jk ( Akj ) = S jk Akj = K
,
: j k,
k j ( j k),

K = S kj Ajk .
, S kj A jk = S kj Ajk , ,
, .. S kj A jk = 0 .

3.
. , .
, , . , , .
, , , . .
ij .
, ,
:

ij = in jm nm .

: in jm nm = in jn = ij .

37

ijk , - (1873-1941).

.
-: 27- :
123 = 312 = 231 = 1,

213 = 321 = 132 = 1.

(24)

ijk = in jm kl nml .
, :

in jm kl nml = i1 j 2 k 3 + i 3 j1 k 2 + i 2 j 3 k1 i 2 j1 k 3
i1 i 2 i 3
r r r
i 3 j 2 k1 i1 j 3 k 2 = j1 j 2 j 3 = (ei, e j , ek )
k1 k 2 k 3
(11). ,
:
;
, .
r r r
, (e1, e2 , e3 ) = 1 .
r r r
, (ei, e j , ek ) = ijk . ,

in jm kl nml = ijk .
, , - .

38

-
r
r
. , , a b
:
r
r r
a , b = ijk ei a j bk

[ ]

[ar, b ]
r

= ijk a j bk

(25)

, -, :

( ar, b , cr ) =
r

ijk

ai b j ck .

(26)

ijk lmn ,
. ,
:

ijk lmn

il im in
= jl jm jn .
kl km kn

ijn lmn = il jm im jl ,

imn lmn = 2 il ,

(27)

lmn lmn = 6.

(28)

(25) r r r
a , b , c . ,
r r r
a , b , c i .
r r
r r r
a , b , c i = ijk a j b , c k = ijk a j knm bn cm = ijk knm a j bn cm = K

[ [ ]]
[ [ ]]
[ [ ]]

[ ]

-
, k ,
(30):

K = ijk nmk a j bn cm = ( in jm im jn )a j bn cm = in jm a j bn cm im jn a j bn cm =
r r
r r
= a j bi c j a j b j ci = bi a j c j ci a j b j = bi (a , c ) ci a , b .

( )

[ar, [b , cr ]] = b (ar, cr ) c (ar, b ).


r

39

, r
ei i:
r r r r r r
r r r r
r r r
r r r
r r r
a , b , c i ei = bi ei (a , c ) ci ei a , b a , b , c = b (a , c ) c a , b .

[ [ ]]

( )

[ [ ]]

( )

(8).
r
r
17. A B :
1
Tik(1) = ik + Ai Bk + Ak Bi ,
2

Tik( 2 ) =

1
( Ai Bk Ak Bi ) ,
2

Tik( 3) = ikl ( Al + Bl ) .

: Tik(1)Tki( 2 ) , Tik( 2 )Tki( 3) Tik( 3)Tki(1) .


:
1
1
Tik(1)Tki( 2 ) = ik + Ai Bk + Ak Bi ( Ak Bi Ai Bk ) =
2
2
11
1

= ik Ak Bi ik Ai Bk + Ai Bk Ak Bi Ai Bk Ai Bk + Ak Bi Ak Bi Ak Bi Ai Bk =
22
2

r r2 r r
r r
r r 2
11 r r 1 r r
= A, B A, B + A, B A2 B 2 + A2 B 2 A, B = 0
22
2

) (

) (

, Tik(1)Tki( 2 ) = 0 . , , . ,
Tik(1) , Tik( 2 ) .
16 .
Tik( 3) , .. -
.
Tik( 3)Tki(1) .
Tik( 2 )Tki( 3) , , , kil Ai Bk Al ( kil Ai Bk Bl ),
, ,
. , Tik( 2 )Tki( 3) .

40

, II-
,
. , ,
.
II-
. ,
Anm Dk ,
: Dk = 1 knm Anm .
2
18. , Anm ,

0 1 2

Anm = 1 0 1 .
2 1 0

:
D1 = 1 1nm Anm = 1 (123 A23 + 132 A32 ) = 1 ( A23 A32 ) = 1 ( A23 + A23 ) = A23 = 1 .
2
2
2
2
r
, D2 = A31 = 2 D3 = A12 = 1 . , D = { 1, 2,1}.

4. II-
, r
: Tij A j = Bi . , , , ( A
r
B ) , ..
Tij A j = Ai .

(29)

r
A () , () . (29) :
Tij A j = Ai

Tij Aj ij A j = 0

41

(T

ij

ij )A j = 0 .

. , :

det ( Tij ij ) = 0 .

(30)

.
(1) , ( 2 ) , ( 3)
r
r
r
A(1) , A( 2 ) , A( 3) .
, .
, ,
. , ,
, . , ,
, .
.

. , , , .
.
Tij , (1) , ( 2 ) , ( 3) r
r
r
A(1) , A( 2 ) , A( 3) , Tij A j = Ai .
, , , ,
,
.
:

42

Tij A j = Ai


Tij A j = Ai
Ai , Ai ,

0 = ( ) Ai ,
2

( = ).
Tij :
Tij Aj Ai = T ji Aj Ai = Tij Ai A j .
i j

r
r
A(1) , A( 2 ) , (1) ( 2 ) , (1) ( 2 ) . :
Tij A(j1) = (1) Ai(1)

(2)
(2) (2)
Tij A j = Ai
, Ai( 2 ) ,
Ai(1) . ,
r r
0 = ((1) ( 2 ) ) A(1) , A( 2 ) ,

(1) ( 2 ) , , r r
: A(1) , A( 2 ) = 0 .

, ,
, ,

.
, -

, . ,
: -

43

.
19. -

,
1 1 0

M ij = 1 10 3 .
0 3 1

r
A = {a, b, c} M ij , . (29),
:
a
1 1 0 a

1 10 3 b = b
c
0 3 1 c

1
0 a 0
1

10
3 b = 0 .
1
0
3
1 c 0

( )

:
1

10

=0

(1 )2 (10 ) 10(1 ) = 0 .

, 1 = 0 , 2 = 1 3 = 11 .
( ),
M ij . , 1 = 0 :
1 1 0 a 0

1
10
3
b = 0

0 3 1 c 0

a + b = 0

3b + c = 0

a = b

c = 3b

,
r
: A1 = b{ 1, 1, 3}. ,
r
r
A2 = c{ 3, 0, 1} A3 = a{1, 10, 3}. -,
.

44

r
Ai . , , r
ei :
r
r
r
A3
A1
A2
r
r
r
1
1
{ 1, 1, 3}, e2 = r =
{ 3, 0, 1}, e3 = r = 1 {1, 10, 3} .
e1 = r =
11
10
110
A3
A1
A2

r
r
b c A1 A2 ,
r
a A3 :
r
, ei , ..
r
r r
e3 = [e1,e2 ].
r r
r
e1 e2 e3
[er1, er2 ] = 1 1 1 3 = 1 (er1 + 10er2 + 3er3 ) ,
110
110
3 0 1
. ,

r
e3 =

1
{1, 10, 3} .
110

r
, ei , M ij
:
0 0 0

M ij = 0 1 0 .
0 0 11

.
,
Tij xi x j = 1

(31)

,
. , , ,

45

Sij
Aij :
Tij xi x j = (Sij + Aij )xi x j = Sij xi x j + Aij xi x j = Sij xi x j .
123
=0

, .
,
X 1 , X 2 , X 3 :

1 X + 2 X + 3 X = 1
2
1

2
2

2
3

X 32
X 12
X 22
+
+
=1
1
1
1

(32)

,
, , ,
1

1 , 1 2 , 1 3 . 1 = 2 -

, 1 = 2 = 3 ,
.
, Mij 19 :

1 1 0

M ij = 1 10 3
0 3 1

x 2 + 2 xy + 10 y 2 + 6 yz + z 2 = 1 .

0 0 0

M ij = 0 1 0
0 0 11

X 22 + 11X 32 = 1 .

,
.

46

5.
, , .
(30) ,
:

T
3 2 (T11 + T22 + T33 ) + 22
T32

T23
T33

T11

T13

T31 T33

T11 T12
T12
T21 T22
T22
T31 T32

T11
T21

T13
T23 = 0 .
T33

Tij ,
, .. . , ,
.. . .

I 1 = T11 + T22 + T33 Sp(Tij ) ,

I2 =

T22

T23

T32

T33

T11

T13

T31 T33

T11

T12

T21 T22

T11
,

T12

I 3 = T21 T22
T31

T32

T13
T23 .

(33)

T33

, , .
.
,
:

I 1 = 1 + 2 + 3 ,

I 2 = 12 + 2 3 + 31 ,

I 3 = 12 3 .

, , I 1 , I 2 I 3 . ,
:

I 12 2 I 2 = T112 + T222 + T332 + 2T12T21 + 2T13T31 + 2T23T32 = Tij T ji .

47


II-1.
Aij . ,
:

1 0 2

). Aij = 0 1 0 , Ox 30;
2 0 1

). Aij = 1

1
1 , Oy 45;

2
1
1

1
0

). Aij = 1 0
0 2 2

2 2 , Oz 135.
0
0

II-2. ,
, Aij . (
):

). Aij = 3

3 1

1 0 , Ox 60;

0 1

3 0
3

). Aij = 4 0
0 , O 120;

3
0
3

2 2 3 0

). Aij = 0
0
4 , Oz 30.

0 4 0

II-3.

48

2 1 0

Tik = 1 1 0 .
0 0 1

Oz , T12 ?
Tik ?

II-4. , Aij + Bij , , Aij Bij ,


.

r r
r
II-5. , ij A j B n C n , A , B C
.

II-6.
M ijk = Ai B jk . , Ai B jk I-
II- . , M ijk III- .

II-7. Rnkml IV- . , Dnl = R nkkl II- .


II-8.
r
Fk H n = Tkn , Tkn II- , F . , H n .

II-9.
Ai Bik = C k . ,
r
r
). Bik II- , A C ;
r
). Ai , Bik II- , C .

II-19.
F = Aij B jk C ki . ,
). F , Aij , B jk , C ki ;
). B jk , F , Aij , C ki .
49

II-20.

Tnkm = Ami Rink . ,


). Ami II- , Tnkm Rink III- ;
). Rink III- , Tnkm Ami III- II-
.

II-21.
S k = Am Tmknl R nl . ,
). Am , S k , Tmknl Rnl IV- II- ;
). Tmknl IV- , S k Am , Rnl II-
;
). Rnl II- , S k Am , Tmknl IV-
.

II-22. II- III- Pik Rnml . I-, III- V-


.

II-23.
Dij x i x j ,
). Dij = D ji ;

). Dij = D ji .

II-24. Ai , B j , C k .
). ;
). II- ;
). III- .

II-25. , , .

II-26. II- :

50

2 0 1

Tij = 1 1 0 .
3 4 2

r
r
: A = { 2, 1, 3} B = { 1, 1, 3} . :
2

). Tij ij Ai B j .
5

r
r
II-27. , A B
). Tij Ai B j ;

). Tij ij Tnn ;
5

. K, r
r
A = { 1, 1, 2} K B = { 0, 2, 1}

K', K Oz 90.

II-28. , Ai B j
. K',
r
r
A = { 1, 0, 2} B = {1, 2, 3} K , K K':

0 1 0

ik = 1 0 0 .
0 0 1

II-29.
r
r
A = { 1, 2, 1} B = { 2, 3, 4} . Tij = Ai B j ijk Ak
.

II-30.
0 2
1

Tij = 1 1 2
0
0 4

r
r
A = { 1, 1, 1} B = { 0, 2, 1} :
1

). Tij ij Tll Ai B j ;
4

). Tij ij An .

51

r
r
II-31. A = { 1, 2, 1} B = { 3, 2, 4} .
.

II-32. II- :

1 0 1

Pij = 2 1 1 .
3 1 4

S ij Aij . Sp ( S in Anj ) .

II-33. Fij ,
4 3 2

Fij = 3
1 0 ,
4 2 6

S ij Aij . Gij = S ij 1 ij Fnn . ?


3

II-34. H ij ,
1 0 2

H ij = 6 1 1 ,
2 3 4

S ij

Aij .

S ij Aij .

II-35. :
0 1 3

Cij = 1 2 0 .
3 0 1

:
). ik Cik ;

). ijk C jk ?
52

r
r
II-36. B = { 1, 1, 2} C = { 0, 2, 1} . :
). ik Bi Ck ;

). ijk B j Ck ?

r
II-37. A {1, 2, 3}. : ikl klm Am .

II-38. Tik K, , Tik , K'


{1, 2, 1}, K' :

0 1 0

ik = 0 0 1 .
1 0 0

II-39.
. .

1 1 0

). Aij = 1 4 3 ;
0 3 1

0 1 1

). Dij = 1 1 1 ;
1 1 0

4 1 2

). Bij = 1 0 0 ;
2 0 0

0
1 2

). E ij = 2 1 1 ;
0 1 1

4
1 0

). C ij = 0 1 3 ;
4 3 1

8 6 0

). Fij = 6 11 6 .
0 6 14

53

III.
1.

. ,
, , .
,
, , ..
, , , , .
r
r
j E -

ik : E i = ik j k .
() () , . ,
1. ,
, . , , ,
, .
, (.. ) .
r
r
, , j = E
, , 1


. , ,
.. (. 2010 .).
54

r
r
j E . :

jn = nk Ek .
r
r
j E nk . ,

.

r
r
P E :

Pi = ij E j ,
ij .

ij :

ij = ij + 4 ij ,

Di = ij E j .
.
r
I
r
H -

ij :
I i = ij H j .
r
r
B H :

Bi = ij H j .
ij = ij + 4 ij , . - ,
, ( ) . -

55

,
.
,
.
, , : T , ij
( ):

ij = ij T ,
ij , .
,
.
r
P ij d ijk ,

:
Pi = d ijk jk .
d ijk , 18 .
, .
. ij :

jk = d ijk Ei .
20. , ,

(. . 6) R >> a

56

(R ) =
r

Dij Ri R j
2R 5

r
Ri - R , Dij

N ( N = 3):
Dij = q (3 xi xj xn xn ij ),
N

=1

xi i- - -

. 6.

. , :
;
, -

()

r
R -

.
, Dij , ,
. , Sp Dij = =1 q (3 xi xi 3xn xn ) = 0 , , N

, , D11 + D22 = D33 .


, . 6. , , Dij ,
, D11 = D22 . ,
, , D11 :
D11 = q (3 x1 x1 xn xn ) = q ( x3 ) = q ( a 2 ) + 2q 0 + q ( a 2 ) = 2qa 2 .
N

=1

=1

,
2qa 2

Dij = 0
0

0
2qa 2
0

57

.
4qa 2
0
0

r 2qa 2 (R12 + R22 ) + 4qa 2 R32


R =
2R5
, ,

()

( R, ) =

qa 2
(3 cos 2 1) .
3
R

,
2qa 2
(R, ) = 3 P2 (cos ) ,
R
P2 (cos ) .
21.

, ij .
r
(r ) :

r
ij
= 4q (r ) ,
xi x j

r
(r ) - (. ).

ij

2
r
= 4q (r ) .
xi x j

ij :

2
2
2
r
(
).

r
+
+
2
3
x32
x22
x12

xi = xi
2
= 4q
xi 2

i ,

1 x1 ) ( 2 x2 ) ( 3 x3 ).

- (x ) = ( x ) ,
r
(r ) =

4q

1 2 3

58

(r ) ,

(r ) =

1 2 3

1
2
1

2
2

x32

, . , 1 2 3 = det ij , 1 1 , 1 2 ,
1 3 ij1 . ,
q

(r ) =

1
det ij mn
xm xn

2.

( ) , .
,
(. . 7). ,
:
r
r r
r
dr = dR + [d , r ].
r
d , -

, .
dt,
, , :
r r
r r
v = V + [, r ] .
59

. 7.


. , N , :
r
N
m v2
.
T =
2
=1
, , ,
. , ,
, ;
,
. , :
r
r
r
r r 2
r r2
r r r
mv2
m (V + [, r ])
mV 2
m[ , r ]
=
T =
.
=
+ m (V , [, r ]) +
2
2
2
2
- . , , r
V 2 , :
r
r
r
mV 2 V 2
M V 2
2 = 2 m = 2 .
M = m . , .
- :

r
r r r
r r
r r r
r r mr
r M

, , rC ).
(
)
(
)
(
[
]
m
V
,

,
r
V
,

,
m
r
M
V
,

,
M
V
=
=
=

r
rC - ,
.
r
( ), rC ,
.

60


r r2
[ ,r ] :
[r , rr ]2 = [r , rr ]n2 = nik i xk njl j xl = ( ij kl il kj )i xk j xl = ( ij xk2 xi x j )i j .

r r2
m( ij xk2 xi x j )i j 1
m[ , r ]
= i j I ij ,
2 =
2
2


I ij = m( ij xk2 xi x j ).

(34)

, : I ij = I ji .
:

r
M V 2 1
T=
+ i j I ij ,
2
2
,
.
,
,
:
I ij = ( ij xn2 xi x j )dV .

(35)

,
.
,
, . , i j I ij 2 ,
I 2 2 . ,
1
1
i j I ij = I 2
2
2

I=

i j
I
ij

61

I = ni n j I ij

(36)

. 8.

r
n , .
22.

3m, 4m 5m, (.
. 8). .
.
,
,
.
. , , ,
. 8. :
xC =

mx = 5m 3a + 3m ( a ) = 12ma = a ,
3m + 4m + 5m
12m
m

62

yC =

my = 4m 3a = 12ma = a .
m 3m + 4m + 5m 12m

, (, ).
.
, , , (. . 8).
, I ij = m ( ij xn2 xi x j ). , ,
. ,
I11 = m (11 xn2 x1 x1 ) = m (x12 + x22 + x32 x12 ) = m ( y 2 + z 2 ).
( I ij !),

m( y 2 + z 2 )

I ij = myx
mzx

mxy
m(x 2 + z 2 )
mzy

mxz

myz .
m(x 2 + y 2 )

z = 0,
:

my
mxy

I ij =

mxy
mx 2
0

0
.
m(x 2 + y 2 )

,
:

mx , my
2

mxy .

mx

= 5m (2a ) + 4m ( a ) + 3m ( 2a ) = 36ma 2

my

= 5m ( a ) + 4m (2a ) + 3m ( a ) = 24ma 2

mxy = 5m 2a ( a ) + 4m ( a )2a + 3m ( 2a )( a ) = 12ma


, :
63

24ma 2 12ma 2

I ij = 12ma 2 36ma 2
0
0

0
2 1 0

2
0 = 12ma 1 3 0 .
0 0 5
60ma 2

(. . 2, 4). , ,

I12 = I 21 . , z;
I 33 = 60ma 2 . ,

: I1, 2 = 6 5 5 ma 2
I 3 = 60ma 2 . ,

{a

, a y , a z } -

:
ay =

1 5
ax , az = 0.
2

5 5

1
r
5+ 5
e1 =
10

5+ 5

1
r
5 5 .
e2 =
10

, xOy. ,
, I 3 = 60ma 2 , z:

0
r
e3 = 0 .
1

. 8.

64


III-1. ,

0
3 2

ij = 2 4 2 ,
0 2 5

r
E . :
ij ;
r
r
P D ,
r
, E ;
:
r
). E = E 0 { 2, 1, 2} ;

r
). E = E 0 { 2, 2, 1} .
r
r
, D E .

III-2. ,

kn = 2

2 0

4 1 ,

1 2

r
H . :
ik ;
r
r
I B , r
, H .
:
r
). H = H 0 { 1, 2 , 1} ;

r
). H = H 0 { 2 , 1, 1} .
r
r
, B H .

III-3. ,

jk

1
2 0

= 0 0 2 1 ,
1 1 1

65

r
E .
r
j , ,
r r
, q = j E ,

. :
r
r
). E = E 0 { 1, 2, 1} ;
). E = E 0 { 1, 1, 0} .
III-4. -

, . 9.
,
.

. 9.

III-5. n,


r
H , ij ,
. ,
r
r
F = v .

66

IV.
1. .

, . ,
, , , ,
, , ..
.

, , .
, p,
r
, , p(r , t )
. ,
. , , , ,
..

r
(r ) , .. .
r
(r ) . , xi . , :
T
x j ( jk xk )

=
=
= Tjk ki
= ij
xi x j xi x j xi
x j
x j

r
r
(r )
(r )
.
= ij
xi
x j

, ,
, , xi

67

grad =

r r r
i +
j+
k,
x
y
z


grad . ,
grad i =

xi

(37)

: , .

( ), :
r r r
=i
+ j
+k .
x
y
z

grad .

r
23. (r ) = r
r
r r
(r ) = (a , r ) .
grad i r =

=
xi xi

xn2 =

xi
xm xm
2 1
x
x
=
2
=

=
.
m
m
mi
2r
xi
r
r
2 xn2 xi
1

r
grad r = r r .
r r

grad i (a , r ) =
a j x j = a j ij = ai ,
xi

r r r
grad (a , r ) = a .
r
24. E ,
r
d .
r
r
r
, E = grad (r ) , (r ) . , ,
r r
r
r
(r ) = d , r r 3 . grad (r ) :

( )

68

(d , rr ) =
r

grad i

( )

r r
r r 1 1
r r 3 r
1 r r
d,r
,
,
,r 4
=
+
=
d
r
d
r
d
x
d
=
+

j j
r 3 xi
r xi
xi r 3
xi r 3 r 3 xi
=

( ) ( )

( )

( )

( )

r r 3 xi d i
r r xi
1
d
d

d
,
r
=

3
,r 5 .
j ij
r3
r4 r r3
r

,
r
(
d,r ) d
grad
=
r

r3

r r rr
3 d,r 5 ,
r3
r

( )

,
r
r r rr d
r r
E (r ) = 3 d , r 5 3 .
r
r

( )

,
.

r r
. A(r )
r
div A , :

r r r A
div A = , A i
(38)
xi
r r
. A(r )
r
rot A , :

[ ]

r r r r
r

rot A = ei , A i ei ijk
Ak
(39)
x j
r r
r r
, rot A 0 , A(r )
r
, div A 0 , .
25. r r
r
A(r ) = r r .

r
r
r
rxi = xi
div rr = (, rr ) =
+ r ii = xi i + 3r = 4r .
r
xi
xi
xj

r
r
+ r jk = 0
rot i rr = [, rr ]i = ijk
rxk = ijk xk
x j
r

69

r r
rot rr = 0 .

r r
r
, A(r ) = r r .
r
26. H ,
r
.
, , r r
r r
, : A(r ) = [ , r ] r 3 .
r
r
H = rot A .
r r
r [r , rr ]
[ , r ]k
xm
rot i A = , 3 = ijk
3 = ijk knm n
=
r i
x j r
x j r 3

mj 3 x j xm
xx
r r x

= n in3 + 3 i 5 n = 3( , r ) 5i 3i ,
= ( in jm im jn ) n 3
5
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r r r
r
r r
.. H = 3 ( , r )r r 5 r 3 . , div ([ , r ] r 3 ) = 0 .
,
, , . , ,
, :
2
div grad = (, ) = 2 = ,
xi

2
2
2
,
+
+
x 2 y 2 z 2

. ,

r
r
2
rot grad = [, ] = ei ijk
= 0,
x j xk
j k, - . ,
.
, :
70

r r
r r 2 Aj
grad div A(r ) = , A = ei
.
xi x j

( [ ])

r r
r
2 Ak
div rot A(r ) = , , A = ijk
= 0,
x j xk
, . , :
r r
r
r
r
r
r
rot rot A(r ) = , , A = , A (, ) A = grad div A A .

[ [ ]] ( )

, .
, , . .

r
r
r
r
27. div A = div A + A, grad , A
.
:

r
r
r

( Ai ) = Ai + Ai = div A + A, grad .
div A =
xi
xi
xi
.

( )

( )

r r r
r r
r
r
r
28. , A B = B div A + A, B , A B .
, , , , , r r
r r
, A B div A B . i- -

( )

(, A) B = x (A B ) = B Ax
r

+ Aj

71

r r

Bi = Bi div A + A, Bi ,
x j

r r r
r r
r
, A B = B div A + A, B , .
.
r
. - A
r
() V r
P , ..
r r r
A =V + P,
r r
r
rot P = 0 div V = 0 .
? , ,
r
r
r
div A = div P . P
r
: P = grad . ,
.
r
r
div grad = div A

= div A .
. .

r r
1 div A(r )
r
(r ) = r r dV ,
4
r r

r r
r
1
div A(r )
P = grad r r dV .
4
r r

r
r
, , rot A = rot V . r
V
r
, , B ,
r
r
r
r
rot A = rot rot B = grad div B B .
r
, B , :
72

r
r
B = rot A ,

r r
r r
1 rot A(r )
B(r ) =
r r dV .
4 r r
,
r r
r 1
rot A(r )
rot r r dV .
V=
4
r r

r r
r r
, P(r ) A(r )
r
, div A , r
r r
V (r ) rot A . , :

r r
r r
r r
1
rot A(r )
1
div A(r )
rot r r dV
grad r r dV .
A(r ) =
4
4
r r
r r
,
r
(r ) . r
r
( E B )

r
div E = 4 ,
r
r
1 B
,
rot E =
c t

r
div B = 0 ,

r
r 4 r 1 E
j+
rot B =
c
c t

r r
j = 0 ( ),
r
r
E t = B t = 0 ( ). r
, B , r
E :

73

r
r
r r
rp r
r r
(r ) r
(r ) (r r ) r
E (r ) = E (r ) = grad r r dr =
r r 3 dr .
r r
r r
, r
. , (r ) = 0 .
r r
r r
, , E (r , t ) B(r , t ) (-

) , ..
r r r
r
(r ) = 0 j (r ) = 0 . r r
r r
r r
r r
, : E (r ) E v (r ) B(r ) B v (r ) .

r
, div B = 0
. , .

2. .

, ,
, , . .
r r
A(r ) ,
(. . 10).
N ,
r
li ,

. 10
74

r
r r
r
Ai , li , Ai , li .
r
N r
i =1 Ai , li .

N , r r
A(r ) :
r
(
A
, l )
r

i =1

( Ar, dl ).
r

, ,
r r
A
, dl = (Ax dx + Ay dy + Az dz ).

, .
, :

( Ar, dl ).
r

r
r
, , A F , ( ),
,
.
. (, )
,
. (,
) ,
.

75

,
,

. ,
r r
A(r ) S (. . 11).
N ,
. 11.

S i ,

r
ni .
r r
r
Ai , ni S i , Ai ,
r r
N
, i =1 Ai , ni S i .

N ,
r r
A(r ) S
:
r
(A , n )S
N

i =1

r
(
,
A
n
)dS = (A, dS ),
r

r r
dS = n dS . , ,

(A, dS ) = (A dydz + A dzdx + A dxdy ).


r

S ,
r r
A(r ) :
r r
A
, dS .

S (r )dS , (r )

. S ,

, , 76

dx dy dz . , ( x, y, z ) , S :
r r
(

r
)dS .
S

, , :
r

(r )dS = ( (x + dx, y, z ) (x, y, z ))i dydz +

r
+ ( ( x, y + dy, z ) ( x, y, z )) j dxdz +
r
+ ( ( x, y, z + dz ) ( x, y, z )) k dxdy =
r r r
dxdydz .
= i
+ j
+k

x
y
z

. 12.


, S. ,
r r
(

r
)dS = grad dV .
S

(40)

,
:

grad dV = grad M V ,

grad M , (x, y, z)
, V , S. , ,
, :

77

(r )dS

grad = lim S

(41)

V 0

(41) .
(41), ,

r
d
S

= lim S
V 0

(42)

, :
r r
A
S , dS
r
div A = lim
V 0
V

[ Ar, dSr ]

r
rot A = lim S

V 0

(43)

, (40).
(43)
:

(A, dS ) = div A dV .
r

(A, dS ) = div A dV
r

(44)

..
, . -.

:

( Ar, dl ) = (rot Ar, dSr )


r

78

(45)

, , .
29.
r
dl ,
C

.
r
A ,

) ( ( ) )

r
r r
r r

r r
r

A, dl = A, dl = rot A , dS = ijk
Ak ni dS = A, [n , grad ]dS .
x j
S
S

S
C
C
,
r

dl = [n, grad ]dS ,

r
n .

3.
,
xi (i = 1, 2, 3), qi (i = 1, 2, 3), .
. x1, x2, x3 q1, q2, q3. , qi :
q i = q i ( x1 , x 2 , x 3 )

xi = xi (q1 , q2 , q3 ) .

, , ,
..

79

q1

q1

x1
(q1 , q 2 , q 3 ) q 2

x1
( x1 , x 2 , x 3 )
q 3
x1

q 2
q 3

q1

x 2

q 2

x 2

q 2

x 2

x 3
x 3

0.

(46)

x 3

q i = const (i = 1, 2, 3) , .

r
r
r
ei =
q i

(47)

. , :
r x r x r x r
ei = 1 i + 2 j + 3 k .
qi
qi
qi

x
x
r
H i | ei | = 1 + 2
q i
q i

x
+ 3 ,

q i

(48)


(17951870). r
ni :

r
ei
r
ni =
Hi

r
| ni | = 1 .

(49)

r
ei , ..

(er , er ) = H
i

2
i

ij ,

. , , .

80

ds 2 , r
- dr ,

r
r
r
r r
ds 2 = dr 2 = ( ei dqi , e j dq j ) = ( ei , e j ) dqi dq j g ij dqi dq j ,

(50)

r r
g ij = (ei , e j ) . , :
H 12

g ij = 0
0

0 .
H 32

0
H 22
0

(51)


.
:
2
d 1 = g 22 g 33 g 23
dq 2 dq3 ,

d 2 = g11 g 33 g132 dq1dq3 ,

d 3 = g11 g 22 g dq1dq 2 .
2
12

(52)


dV = J dq1 dq 2 dq 3 ,

(53)

r r r
J = (e1 , e2 , e3 ) ( (18041851)).
: J = det g ij . , .
30. -

, , z
(. . 13).
:

81

x = cos

y = sin
z = z

:
ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 + dz 2 =
= (d cos sin d ) +
2

+ (d sin + cosd ) + dz 2
2

ds 2 = d 2 + 2 d 2 + dz 2 , . 13.

H1 = 1 ,

H2 =

H 3 = 1 . ,
1

g ij = 0
0

2
0

0 ,
1

dV = d d dz .

4.

, , ,
, . .

r r
, i , j
r
r r
r
r
r
k E1 , E2 E3 , , r = xi Ei .

r
ei , (47).
82

r
, (r ) .
grad =

r q j r
Ei =
Ei =
grad q j
q j
xi
q j xi

grad q j
qi
r
dx j = (grad qi , dr ) .
x j

dqi =

r r
(47) dr = ek dqk ,
r
dqi = (grad qi , ek )dqk .
, , ,

(grad qi , erk ) = ik .

(eri , erk ) = H i2 ik ,

r
r
ei
ni
grad qi = 2 =
.
Hi
Hi
:
1 r
nj
j =1 H j q j
3

grad =

(54)

,
grad f =

f r
1 f r f r
e +
e + e .

z z

(43). , , (q1 , q2 , q3 ) dq1 , dq2 dq3 (. . 14).

83

.
r
A . ,
. ,
(51)
(52) ()

A1 H 2 H 3 (q1 + dq1 , q2 , q3 )dq2 dq3 , -

. 14.

: A1 H 2 H 3 (q1 , q2 , q3 )dq2 dq3 .


,

( A1 H 2 H 3 ) dq1dq2 dq3 .
q1
,
:

( A1 H 2 H 3 ) + ( A2 H 1 H 3 ) + ( A3 H 1 H 2 )dq1dq2 dq3 .
q2
q3
q1

dV = H 1 H 2 H 3 dq1dq2 dq3 ,
:

r
div A =

( A1 H 2 H 3 ) + ( A2 H 1 H 3 ) + ( A3 H 1 H 2 )
H 1 H 2 H 3 q1
q2
q3

(55)

84

r
H 1n1
r
rot A =

H 1 H 2 H 3 q1
H 1 A1

r
H 2 n2

r
H 3 n3

q2

q3

H 2 A2

H 3 A3

(56)

,
:
r 1
(A ) + 1 A + Az ,
div A =


z
r 1 Az A
rot A =

r A Az
n +

A
r
1
n + (A )

r
n z .

. = div grad (54) (55)


=

H 2 H 3 H 1 H 3 H 1 H 2
1

H 1 H 2 H 3 q1 H 1 q1 q2 H 2 q2 q3 H 3 q3

(57)


IV-1. :
). grad (1 r ) ;

r
). div (r r ) ;

r
). rot (r r ) .

r
IV-2. E , :
q
). = ;
x

). = Ae x ;

). = ln kr ;

q
). = e a ( ).
r

IV-3. .

85

). = Az 2 ;

rr

e ( a r )
). =
;
r
r r
r r
). = ( a , r ) sin b , r ;

( )

r r
). = r ( c , r ) ;
3

r r2
). = [a , r ] ;

r r3
(
a, r )
). =
;

r2
r r r
). = r , ar , b .

r
IV-4. A .
r r
r r
r r r rn
r r r
). A = [a , r ];
). A = c sin k , r ;
). A = r ( a , r ) ;
r ar r
r r r
r r r
). A = , r ;
). A = [a , r ] tg r 2 ;
). A = [a , r ] sin r ;
r
r [ar, rr ]
r ar r r r
r rr (cr ,rr )
). A = r r ;
). A = , r , b c .
). A = e ;
( a, r )
r
r

( )

( )

IV-5. :
). grad ( , ) = grad + grad ;
r r
r
r
r
r
). div A, B = B, rot A A, rot B ;
r r
r
r
r
r
r r
r r
). rot A, B = B, A A, B + A div B B div A ;
r r
r
r
r
r
r
r r
r
). grad A, B = B, A + A, B + B, rot A + A, rot B ;
r
r r
r r
r
r
r r
). C , grad A, B = A, C , B + B, C , A ;
r
r
r
r r
r
r r
). A, , B = A, B + A, rot B A div B ;
r r r
r
r r
r
r
r r
). , A , B = A div B A, B A, rot B B, rot A ;

[ ] (
[ ] (
( ) (
(
( ))
[[ ] ] (
[[ ] ]

) (
)
( )
( ) [
] [
( ) ) ( ( ) )
[
]
( ) [
] [

(
)

). ( , ) = + 2(grad , grad ) + .

IV-6. , Bk = Tik xi I- ,
,
). Tik = xi C k ;

). Tik = r 2 x i C k .

IV-7. , C = Bk xk ,
r r r r
r
, B = r ( a , r ) , a = {a 0 , 0, 0} .
r
r
r
r
r
IV-8. , A A = A rot A , A 2 = const .

IV-9. :
r
). grad (a , grad ) ;
r
). grad (r , grad ) ;

r
). rot [a , grad ] ;
r
). rot [r , grad ] .
86

( )

r r
IV-10. = d , r r 3 :
r
r
). grad div ( r ) ;
). rot rot ( r ) ;

IV-11. :
r
a
r
). a , rot ;
r

r r
a, b
). rot
;
r

( )

r r2
r r
). div ([r , a ], r ) + k , r ;

[ ]

[ ])

(
(
(

r r
1
r r
r
). div [a , r ] + b , r + ( r , ) ;
r
r
r
r
r
2
). ( r , ) r + div 2 ( r , grad r 2 ) .
r

r 2
). r 3 ( a , ) r ;

IV-12. :
r
). div (r ) r ;

r
). rot r A(r ) ;
r
). div A(r ) r n ;
r
). rot A(r ) r n .

r
). rot (r ) r ;
r
). div r A(r ) ;

). div grad .

)
)

r
IV-13. (r ) , div (r ) r = 0 .

IV-14. - h.

IV-15. - h.

IV-16.

(grad , rot A) dV
r

IV-17.
r r r
). r a , dS ,

).

r r
(a, r )dS ,
S

r
a .

IV-18.
r
r r
). dS ,
). a , dS ,

r r r
). b a , dS ,
S

r r
a , b , , .
87

IV-19. :
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
A
,
rot
rot
B

B
,
rot
rot
A
dV
=
B
,
rot
A

A
,
rot
B
dS .

((

) (

([

))

] [

])

r
r
IV-20. V A div A = 0
S An = 0 . ,
r
A
dV = 0 .
V

IV-21. II-
-:
Tik
V xi dV = S Tik dSi .
(: -
r
Ai = Tik d k , d .)

IV-22. , :

[ br, [, ar ]]dV + [[ar, ], br ]dV = [[nr, ar ], br ]dS ,

r r
r
a , b , n .
r
IV-23. B = q
r
r
). B
r
). div B
-.
r
r J rr r
( J = const )
IV-24. A =
r
r
). A
r
). rot A

IV-25. , :

88

). ni =

( )

1
r r r r
). (a , n ) b , n =
4

1
ni d ,
4

r r
r
(a , n )(b , n )d ,
r

1
1
ni n j d ,
ni n j nk nl d ,
). ni n j nk nl =

4
4
r r
r r
n = r r , a b , d = sin dd ). ni n j =

d = 4 .

IV-26. .

IV-27. r
(r ) :
). = a ln ;

). = c ( sin cos ) ;

). = kr 2 ;

). = br 2 sin .

IV-28.
r
E = { E , E , E z }.
r a

). E = , 0, 0 ;

r
). E = { b , 0, 0} ;

r
). E = k { cos , sin , 0}.

IV-29.
:
r
r a r , 0 r R ,
E= 3
aR rr, r R .
r 3

IV-30.
r
r
A = { A , A , Az }. div A .
r 1

). A = 0, H 0 , 0 ;

r
). A = A0 { z 2 , 0, z 2 };

r
). A = { 0, 0, B ln };

z4
). A = A0 z 2 , z 3 ,
;
4

89

r
sin cos
1
). A = A0 2 , 2 , .
z

r C

). A = , 0, 0 ;

IV-31.
r
r
A = { Ar , A , A }. div A .
r
2 cos sin
,
, 0 ;
). A = A0
2
2r 2
r

r
). A = A0 { r , 0, a + r sin } ;

r
2
cos
, , ;
). A = A0
r
r

r
). A = A0 { 2r + a cos , a sin , r cos };

r
2 cos sin
). A = A0
, 3 , 0 ;
3
r

r
). A = A0 { r sin , r cos , r cos 2 }.

IV-32. , = 4 ,
). = Bz 2 ;

). = Be z ;
). = 4

0
cos x cos y cos z .
2 + 2 + 2

IV-33. ( , , z ) ,
). =

). = k ln ;

). = a cos ;

). = c 2 ;
). = k ( 2 + z 2 )

). =

a
.
sin

IV-34. ( r , , ) ,
). =

a
;
r

). = cr cos ;

). = cr 2 ;

). = ar 2 cos sin ;

). = kr sin ;

). =

90

k
( sin + cos ) .
r


I-4. ). t = 10, ). t = 2.
I-6. a = 1.
I-12 I-13. : (8).

I-14. x =

II-3. = arctg

cos

sin

cos

sin , y = 0
sin
cos

0
1
0

sin

0 .
cos

1 5
+ k , k = 0 k = 1 . 2

3m 5

Tik = 0

3 5
2

= arctg 2 + n , n = 0,..., 3 .
2
2

n.

II-25. (21):
A = A T ,
, det A = det ( A T ) = det det A det T .
T = I , det A = det A , . , .
8 0

II-26. ). 25, ). 5 3
15 20

0 , ). 21.
8

II-35. ). 1, ). 0.
II-37. {2, 4, 6} (. (28)).
91

r
r
r r
r r
III-1. ). D = E0 { 8, 12, 12} , P = E0 4 { 6, 11, 10} , cos D E = 13 3 22 , cos P E =
r r r r
r
= 43 3 257 , ). D = E , P = 0 . D
r
, E
ij : A{ 2, 2, 1} , B{ 1, 2, 2} C{ 2, 1, 2} . 1 = 1 , 2 = 7 3 = 4 . A, B C .
r r r r
III-2. . ). B = H , I = 0 . r
r
B , H -

ij : A{ 2 , 1, 1} , B{ 1, 0, 2}
C{ 2 , 3, 1} . 1 = 1 , 2 = 2
3 = 5 . A, B C .

III-4.
, , :

). :
3 1 0

I ij = 4ma 2 1 1 0 .
0 0 4

I1, 2 = 4ma 2 2 2 , I 3 = 16ma 2 , :


92

r
e1, 2 =

1 2

1
42 2

0
1

0
r
e3 = 0 .
1

). :
3

I ij = 2ma 2 3
0

3
9
0

0 .
12

I1, 2 = 4ma 2 3 m 3 , I 3 = 24ma 2 , :


r
e1, 2 =

2 3

m1
2 2 3

0
1

0
r
e3 = 0 .
1

III-5.
r
r
H = {0, 0, H } E = { E x , E y , 0} :
eH
&
mv x = c v y + eE x v x

eH
mv& y =
v x + eE y v y

c
:

~
m
v x (t ) = v0 e cos(t + ) + v1

t
v y (t ) = v0 e m sin(t + ) + v~2

v~1 v~2 :
e(~E x + E y )
~
v1 =
m (1 + ~ 2 )

e( E x + ~E y )
~
v2 =
.
m (1 + ~ 2 )

: ~ = m , = eH mc .

93

, v~1 v~2 :
, v0 , .

1T
ji = lim nvi (t )dt = nv~i ,
T T
0
, ji = ij E j ,
~
ne
ij =

m (1 + ~ 2 ) 1

1
.
~

, r
r
ij = ji ij (H ) = ji ( H ).
r
IV-1. ). r r 3 , ). 2 r , ). 0.
r r
r r r
r r
r r r
r
r r2
r
IV-3. ). e (a ,r ) r 3 (r 2 a r ), ). 3r (c , r ) r + r 3c , ). (a , r ) r 2 (3a 2 (a , r ) r r 2 ),
r r r r r
r r
r
r r r
r r
r
r r r
). a sin b , r + b (a , r ) cos b , r , ). 2[[a , r ], a ] , ). r r r , a , b + r a , b .

( )

( )

) [ ]

r r

IV-4. ). div[a , r ] =
ijk a j xk = ijk a j ik = 0 ,
xi

r r
rot i [a , r ] = ijk
knm an xm = ijk knm an jm = ijk njk an = 2 in an = 2ai ,
x j
r r
r r r r
r r
r r
r
r rn
r r n 1 r r
.. rot[a , r ] = 2a . ). k , c cos k , r , k , c cos k , r , ). (a , r ) (3 + n ) , n (a , r ) [a , r ] .
r
, : A
[ar, rr ] f (r ) , :

( ) ( )[ ] ( )

r r

x
div ([a , r ] f (r )) =
ijk a j xk f (r ) = ijk a j ik f (r ) + xk f (r ) i = 0
xi
r

r r
knm an xm f (r ) = ijk knm an jm f (r ) + xm f (r ) j =
rot i ([a , r ] f (r )) = ijk
x j
r

x r r

= ( in jm im jn )an jm f (r ) + xm f (r ) j = 2ai f (r ) + ai r i (a , r ) f (r ) .
r
r

r r
r
r r r r
, rot ([a , r ] f (r )) = 2af (r ) + (ar r (a , r ) r ) f (r ) .
94

r r
r r
r r
r r
r r r r
r r2
). e (c ,r ) (2 r + (c , r ) r ) , e (c ,r ) r [c , r ] , ). 0, a (a , r ) + r a 2 (a , r ) ,
r r r
r r r
r r r r r
r r r r r
). b , a , c r (r , a , c ) r , b r 3 , b , [a , c ] r [r , [a , c ]] r , b r 3 .

IV-16.

( )

(grad , rot A) dV = x
r

ijk

( )

Ak

Ak
dV =

ijk x dV =
x
x j

i
j
V
r r

A
= div ijk k dV = rotA, dS
x j
V
S

IV-17. ).

2 Ak
ijk
= 0.
xi x j
r
r r r r r
r
r a , dS = I (a ) . , I = a , -

S (

r r
. (I , a ) :
r
r
r
(I , ar ) = (ar, rr ) ar, dS = ar (ar, rr ), dS = div(ar (ar, rr ))dV = ar 2V .

) (

r r
r
, (I , a ) = a 2 . , = V, ,
r r r r
r
a , dS = aV .

). . ,

IV-18. ).

r r
r
S (a , r )dS = aV .
r r

S dS = I (I , A), A r

(I , A) = (A , dS ) = div (A )dV = A, grad dV ,


r r

r
I = grad dV . ,
V

27.
). ,

r
r
r
r

(
[
]
)
(
[
]
)
[
]
=
=
=

A
,
a
,
d
S
d
S
,
A
,
a
div
A
,
a
dV
A
,
rot
a
dV ,

r r

95

r r
r
[
a
, dS ] = rot a dV . ()
S

IV-5.
r
r
). b , a dV
V

( )

IV-25. ). , , ni , ni = 0 .
). ni n j . , , ni n j = ij , . ni2 = ii = 3 ni2 = 1, = 1 3 . , ni n j = ij 3 .

( )

( )

r r r r
r r
). (a , n ) b , n = ai ni b j n j = ai b j ni n j = a , b 3 .
). ni n j nk nl , :
ni n j nk nl = ( ij kl + ik jl + il jk ). ni2 nk2 = 1 = 1 15 .
, ni n j nk nl = ( ij kl + ik jl + il jk ) 15 .

IV-26. H r = 1 , H = r , H = r sin .

96


-
:
0, x a,
, x = a,

(x a ) =

(x a )dx = 1 .

(1)
(2)

, x = a ( ).
,
-:

(x a ) f (x )dx = f (a ) ,

(3)

1
,
( xi )

(4)

( (x ))dx =
i =1

( (x )) f (x )dx =
i =1

f ( xi )
.
( xi )

(5)

(4) (5) xi ( i = 1,K, n ) ( x ) = 0 , , f ( x )


.
-
1
(x a ) =
2

ik ( x a )

dk

(6)

-:

(x a ) =

1, x a,
d
( x a ) , ( x a ) =
dx
0, x < a.
97

(7)

- ,
. ,

(x ) =

lim
0

+ x2
2

(8)

-, ,
-:

(r a ) = ( x a x ) ( y a y ) ( z a z ) .
r

(9)

,
r

(r a ) f (r )dV = f (a )

(10)

r
, , a ,
V . -
, , , r
r
: (r ) = q (r ) .

98


1. .. , .. , , ., , 1972 .
2. .. , , .,
, 1965 .
3. .. , .. , , ., , 1966 .
4. .. -, , ., , 1963 .
5. .. , .. , , ., , 1970 .
6. .. ., , .,
, 1972 .
7. . , , ., , 1974 .
8. .. , , ., , 1976 .

99

I.

1. ,

2. . ,

14

3.

17

4.

20

II.

23

27

1. .

27

2.

34

3.

37

4. II-

41

47

48

III.

54

1.

54

2.

59

65

IV.

67

1. .

100

67


2. .

74

3.

79

4.

82

85

91

97

99

101



. ..
603950, , . , 23.
08.11.2012