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d d b

&q.P .Engineering
A

andtheirexlensions
ls basedprincipallyon physics.chemistry,andmathematics.
Engineering
transterandratprocessr,
thermodynlmics,
solidandfluid mcchanics,
into malerialsscicnce,
analysis.
andsystems
to the nanutacturcor
irvoli'esditierenttasks.Il crn relerspccilically
Ensineering
asa profession
oi ensincs,nrachinetoolsandmachineparts.lt is alsousedlnorc senerallyio desc be
assembly
constructand forecaslthe
ot scientiiicprinciplesto dcsign,develop,
the crealiveapplication
procsses
'nanufacturins
andworks
bchavtuufol structurcs,appamtus,machines,
'l'hlunctionof soienlislsls
to dorthe)'muslsohiespccilic
to know rvhilelhalol ngineersis
(16),ncctronic(l7, 18) Minins(22)
(r21.civil(20,21),nlcctrical
secalsorCbenical
(l s).
Petrolcun(2l, ,),1),Production(1, 2), Construction

andarebasedon diffcrentpr"o.iesses
o/ rnr',co'nl, rcquircdiffcrcnt?qrifD@rt
Ditfcrcnt l),(,?.i/rds
Branches
ol cngintering
'l'lrct(tlowingwords/phftrscs
arcall lbllowedby'engineefing'
chemical . civil . electrical. electronlc. highway. hydraulic. industfial
mechanical. mining . petroleumproduction. production. structLlral
llquipmenlin cng'nccring
. machlne
tool . pump. turbine
boller. crane. gasenEline
in treatingmctals
Proccsscs
anneat. anodize. electroplate.forge . found. galvanize. gfind
harden. mint. plate. roll. soften. temper. tinplate

adjcciivccndingsi
Nolicclhc follo$,hrg
-al . chemioal. mechanioal. physical. structural
-ial . industrial
-ic . electronic. hydraullc
Noticeihe follo$,ingverbendings:
-en.harden.soften
jze. anodize. galvanize
Noticeihefollorvingnounswhich areaplurallbrmbut arc normallyusedlvilh a singularverb
mathematics. mechanics. physics . thermodynamics

ITFITTT
L

Maich the ldlolrins l'erbs n'ith the corrct definition,

forge
gavanize
gnn0

to melt metaland then pourit nto a form, e,g, ron components


to makethin sheetsof metalby passingit betweenlargero ers, e.g. steel
to shapemetalsby heatjngand then hammerng, e.g. horseshoes
to makematerialstoughby coolngthem slowy,e.g.gtass
to makesomethjngsofter,e.g. fibres
to heat andthen cool metas to obtainthe requiredhardnessand elasticity,
e,g, stee
to coverwth a thin layerof metalusingelectrolysis,
e.g. car cornponents
to protectlrom rustingby coatingin zinc,e.g.food cans
to givea metala protectlvecoat by usingit as an anodeif electrolysis,
e.g,car components
to polishor sharpenby rLtbblng
on a rolgh sLtrface,e.g. stone
to coverone metalwith a thin layerof another,e.g_silverplate

Complctethe lbllowins scntcnccsrith a lbrtn ot thc Bord in brackcts.


I In thc

dcvclopproccsscslbr produciis plastics.

(chcnislry)
llbrcs,urcdicincs.
clc. Ifonrsnnplcchcmic.rls.
2 l'foduoingstcclusinglhc llesscnlcr
proccss
is oncol lhc bcst-k olvn
proccsscs.
(induslry)
3 l\40s1

dovi0cs,lccd oil as a lubric ni. hncchtlnics)

.l |olkx'\'idglhc crrthqulrkc,cvofytruikliughadto bc inspoclcd


10sco$,trc1t1cr
it hadsulcrod
5 ( l c r t a i nc h c ) n i c r l s r c a d ( l e d1 og l L r o1 0

il. (lr rd)

lixclvalors ard pou,$sh(^icls arc 1r{'olypcs ol


w l ( , , r h r v , r , . ( J l l u vr , r ' o c l q f r ^ I r t ' l t ' j r o , r r J . \ n r i . r \ ' l

I lcrc is an cxtractfroma sDccch


mrde by a carecrsadi'isorro a sroupot sludcntschoosingther
Iltnrc courscsof sludyat universi(]r0)mplctcthcspccchby choosingoncof thc i!,ordstionl
. cheraical. civil . physics
machines. highway. mechanical
.
.
e'ectrical develop. production eleclronic
Engineering
students
shouldhavean understanding
of maths,(a)_
and
pharmaceuticals,
chemistry,Workjngwith
food, mineralprocessingand chemical
manufacturing,
a (b)_
engineeris tra nedto understand,design,control,and
investigate
materialfows. lf you enjoyproblemsolvlngand find projectssuch as the
ChannelTunnelandthe ThreecorgesDamjnteresting,(c)_
engineering
may
be for you, Youwill producecreativedesignsat an economicalpdcewhilepayingdue
concernto the envifonment,lf yourinterestis in roadbuildingthen you maydecideto
fololva specalizedcoursein (d)
engineering.
Bystudying
and (f)
engineering
you learnaboutthe destgnof
completesystems,such as computers,controlle|s,powerand transDortsvstems.
engineersplan,designand (h)_
a wide rangeof things:
washingmachines,cars and spacecraft.(i)
engineersworkvery closely
wjth mechanicalengineers,to makenew productsat the rightprice,on time and jn the
correctquantity.As wel as designlngand selecting(j)
theyalso organizepeopleandfinance.

25

K ffi Construction
o

!)

Construction
mcaDsthe erctionor dsscmbly
ot largcstrucrures,
pdmarilythoser,r,hich
provi.te
sheltcr,suchasconnercial andresidcntialbuildings.Iialsoincludesmajor$,orkssuchasships.
aircraft.andpublic\'\,or1$
suchasroads,darns,andbridges.
'r he majorclcmcntsol a buildirs includcl
ihe lbundation.I'hich supportsthe buildlngandgivcsit stabitiry
the structurc,wlich suppoflsall the inposedlolds and transmitsthcm 1(]rhetourdatioD
lhe cxtcriorwalls,\'vhichmayormay nol bepart of theprimarysupportinsstfucrurc
lhe intcriorpartilions.ivhichalsonay or lnay not bc part of thcprimarystructurc
lhc cnvironmntal-control
systems.
includiis thc heatins.\,cntilating,air conditioning.
lishting,andaco(sticalsystcms
thc power.watersupply.aDd{'astcdisposalsystcms

/o/^-tr .,o,st,rctio,rarcmanyandvrfied,rangingrfolnarchireclsro painrcrs.Ho'!ever,evcry


buildingnccdsa solid/i)rlxLr&non which thc srn(1 ," canbecrcctcd,payingspcciatatrcnrion
lo thc ll-l{dor rvrdlswhichrvill nccdto withstandthc clcmnts.

lobsin construotion
. carpenter.electriclan.mason. painter
architect
plasterer
. plumber. quantitysurveyor.
roofer
'lhc Io nda(ions
c a i s s o n. d e e p . m a t . p i l e
reinforcedconcrete . shailow . spreadfooting

. column. floor. gkder


beam . braclngconnection
rigidconnection. roof . truss . wall
'Ihe cxtcriorwalls
curtainwall . exteriorskin . load-bearing
wall . nonload-bearing
wall
.
roofingfelt . sound-deadening
material vapourbarrier

34

Construclwrfe is a LIScoDrpanywhich
provi.lescollaborationsolutionsto
conslruotion coDrpaDics
to help them
achievebusinesssucccssby incfedsirg
productir'lill improving risk management
and reducing costs.Look al Lhediagram
oppositervlich showsrheir areasof
dotivityl

rIGqGT
Choosthc concct n'ofd in the tbllow'ns sentences.
l

A lllt roof is usually covcrcdin roolln s lelt/skin forprolection asainsrthe weather.

2 Roomsin a building are dividcd by interior supports/partitions.


I To prevenl wrter cntcring thc cavity of Lhewall, moisture bro.iers arc Lrsedon ihe external
su hce and vapolrr/insulatingbarricrs are usedon thc inte )alracc.

4 Thc assenrbly/structurcof a bulldjng translersallthcloads aolins onthc buitding ro rhc


ground.
5 Thc vntilntins/acousticalsystcllrprovidesIreshai..
6 Sound-dadeninB/,barricr
nlatcrial is uscd to rcduce sound passinsfron onc room Lornother.
7 l hc foundationsli)r a sliyscrapcrbuildins nust bc decp/shallow.
8 A sprcadfooting/caissonpiers js/rrc uscd whcD thc soil is rrah.

Label lhc lbllow'Ds diaSramsusing wordslion thc opposiiepasc,

I
l

llcre is pn( of a tcxt abourhouscbuikhrs,Completc


thc lcxl with wordstroDrthe opposjrcpag-.
l'h$c xrc two r

in netlrods ofbuilding

horses.In one. sohl Mlls knorvn N

crlcuhles cxrctLy holv nNch oithcsc


Dltefiak wi]l be Deedcdfif tlrc bril.ltug.
Then, drc grouDd is dug olr rrd rhc

coDstmdcd."l hq' nryforr drc lloos rrd


the ruofofdrc blilding. Ii ihe other a

hu,l,l,,,g
( f.)

fnmework ofstccl.

nber or coDcreteis

uoode,l struclurcs,(g)

const.ucrcd.The frr

e crr be covered or

clt ar

fillcd in wjdr llghtweight m:terirl.


Whcr buildin!. r house,dre
(b)
thc site r1d makes a tl:n ofrhc siTc
an.l shapeof dre plot ofllnd. Ncxt, dr

thcc srone.(h)
consrNct drc rool rnd

(D
ral ceilingsrvith phsrer.Orcc rhc
buildhs hasbeenconrdcrcd,

(c)

elccffi.al crble. ind (k)

dnwing ofd,c buildnig,drd gns


nrfofnr.rionaboutthe n teriJs rrhich are
t o b c u s c d . A( d )_

n\ul

pipes lirf hQting nnd Mter. Fnrilly

ceilnrgsof drc buildnrg.

35

1
trff.} civilengineering
A

'lhe lerm
civil engineeringdescribcscngineerius s,ofk pcrfornd bi. civilians fof non-nilitary
purposes.In generalit describesthc prolessn)nol desiguinsand cxccuting sirucirral Norks lbr
the gereral public an.llhe communal environment. Cn'il cnginccring covcrsdjllcrcnt arcasof
cnginccriDs.includnrg lhe desisn an.l construction of iargc biLildlngs,roads,bridgs.cnnals,
railway lincs, airports.$atcr'supply systems,dauN. irrigalion. harboars. docl(s.aqueducb. and

The civjl clrsnreerneeds lhorou8h hro\'\nedgeol survcyins. of thc propcrticsand ncchanics ol


construdion malerials.r)l lhc mechanicsol structurcs and soils,and of hldraulics and 0uid
cch.nics. lt ay civil ensi|lecrn)gilclulcs lhe pfodnction and distribution ol cncrgy. thc
dc\,clopurcDtol aircralt rrrd aitn)ris, thc construction ol chenricalprocessplanis rnd nucle.rr
powcr sta(ions.rnd watcr dcsalinati(nr.

:
r\ rangc ol .nj/ orgtrilt't14 l(xrs rUklfrlrrllrrrri/ js usc(lin thc fonslrudion of roirds.l,,jdt.s and

cambeT. crown . cuvert . kerb/curb . macadam


main . rnanhole ! metal . pavement . pedestrlancrossing
pothole . sewer . soft shouder . tarmac . underdrain

llridscs
a r c h' b a s c u l e .c a b e . c a n t i e v e r c. a p p e r. c r o s s o v e r . l f t
. s p a n . s u s p e n d e r ' s ! s p e n s i o n .s w i n g . v i a d u c t
footbrdge
(l n.ls,rivcn.n(lolh$ w.lcrwals
a q u e d u c. t b a r r a g e . d a m . d i k e . d r a i n a g e
flume . lock . padde . pler r sluice
. \latermain. weir . well
watercoutse
CivilcnginccringtoolsandcquipmcDt
buldozer . dredger . earthmover. excavator
plategirder . pylon . roadroller . shovel

ol thc famousGolL' G.rlr/)tltc in SanFrancisco:


Herearethe vilrl st.rlistics

Tota lengthof brjdge

2,737 m

Lengthof main span

1,2y.^..

width of br dge

'
27 .l1.

oi suspension
span

1,966m
343 m

of roadbetweencurbs

19m

Widtlrof pa
Deepestfoundationd
Tota weightof bridge,

11

447,000tons

@
1

Namethe bridgesopposite.
Choos
Iiom the fblft'wnr8.
masonryarcn

swing
#]
I l,r.{0?.L

.iA 4.

lfilHrtl

clapper

!)

,Af )h.ffi@w
2

What isbeing dcscfibed?Chooseliom the words on th opporitc pasc.


l This structurc is buill acrossa rii'cr to holdbackthc walcr io prcducc powcr,inprorrc
Davigationorconlrol oodinr..

2 This struclurc is built along thc tranlisof n rivcl or along lhc corsl to hold back $'atcr aDd
prcvcnl oodiDg.
I This carrics a road or raih'!'dyacrosswatcr
4 'l'his cafrics $'alcf (caDalof ri!rcr) acrosslaDd.usually ovcr a v.rllcy.
5 ' l ' h cs c c l k r ro I a c r n r l i v h e f ct h c w a l c r l c v c lc h r n g e sl o r a i s cb o a t sl r o m o n c l c v c l1 ot h c n e x r .
6 l hcsc Ilow wlrtor lo ll(^'r,in (n out in ofdcr to chungothc $'r!1crlcvcl in l cllnll.
7

dccp holc ir) lhc groLrndwhcfc pcoplccan gct lvatcr.

8 l hcscurc dLrguDdcfgrl)urd lbf foads and faihvtlys.


9 lL'hish lhc poccss ol rcnlovjrrgsal! llun sca walcf.
lO llhis largc po$crlulvchlclc uscsa largc bladc lo inovc carlh and rocirs.
II

Ihis nrachiDcor ship is uscd lor rcnrovirg sand and mLrdliorn thc botl(nn ol a rivcr or a

l 2 ' l h j s n r a c h i D ci s u s c dl o r r o l l i n gl r l n a co r a s p h a l ft l a l o d n f o . r ds u r l i r c c .

A civilcnginccr is showing an intcrnational visit{'r rrcu nd. Con)pleicthe text w'th unds l}onr
&xrls lronr thc oppositcpaae.

Here we are on one of our town strcets.As


you can seethe road is not flat, it has a
(a)-.
This is to itllowraii wrrcr !o

edsedwith (f) stones.The black


surlhce we usc nowad.rysis a variery of
()-.
It wasinventedby a ma of

run or the surfacand into lhe drains at


lhe side. The highest part of the road is
the (b) _
in the cenrre. A
lc)
cnu\rns $asle\aLer runs
below thc surfaceof the roid. At ccltain
points along the road you'll find large
(d)
which ailo\\' engineersto so

thr! Damewhosecompanywas latcr called


Tarmac.As you can secthis road needsto
be resurlaccd.There are a number of
(h) following the heavyrain u'e
hrd lastmonthNo\ herewe areon a (l)

down and inspectelectricilyand ielephone


cablcswhich also rLln below the.oad. On

road
out of tow1. Thcrc ar no pavementshere.
Grassis allowedio grow alongthe edgesand
providesaO__.OveL

eirher side of the road ihere is a raised


(e) for pedestdanswhich is

thereyou can seea (k)


a smallstrean urder the road.

canying
45

ffi 3lLcivilengineering2
o

The functions of cii'il cnginccrsfall into three oategorics:


L beforeconstrLrction({casibilitystudics,site investisations.anddsign).
2. during construction (dcalingwith cllcnls, consulting cngineers.ard conlraclors),
3. altcl coDstruction(mainlenance).
ny major civil ensineeringprojecl startswith a leasib'litystudy to asscssboth lin{ncial rnd
enginee.jngaspecls.lluringthc fcasjbilitystudy a prelininary site invesligationis carried out.
Oncea schemehas been approved,r Dorc cj{tcnsirinvcstigationis usually rrecessaryto
evaluatethe load'bcarins qualitics aud stability ol lhe ground. This lield is calleil soilmcchanics.
'fhc
dcsign ol cusinccring worlis lnay rcquire I l)e applicationol prir)ciplesol hldrau I'cs.
thcrnodynamics and nuclarphysics.Dufing thc conslrrctn)n phase,a consultjns cDginccris
oltcn cDrploycdlo bc rcsponsiblclbr dcsignot lhc lvorks. supplyir)sspccilications,drawinss, and
Icgaldocumcnls lo gctcompctitivc lndertfjccs.In a turnl(cy (n.packagcconlfact thc building
contractor undcrtakcslo llnalrcc. dcsign.slrccily.coustrucl. rnd conrnissiou thc r'r'holcprojcct.
Maintenance is uonnally c.rfricd oLrtby tlrc ortractor:rs pr ot lhe agrccDlcDt:if thcrc arc
m ir)lcn llcc pfoblc rs. il is thc resp(n)sibilityol thc c()nlfrctof to p<ryior any [cccssirry !Mnt.

Nor looli {Llthc lbllorvnlg sl lcrncnts aboul lhc prc conslfuctn)n phasc.
1'rolinrinaryIcasibilitystudyl
A scficsol slopsby i"'hich all lhc atlribulcs ol cucl) propos l ro Drarkcd,rcsultiDgin ti{o or lhfcc

Se(ondaryIcasibilily siudy:
A proccss10dclcrnjnc lhc bcsl ol lhc t$,o or thrcc |cnrajnirg schcmcs.llough dinrcnsnnrs fc
pul onlo thc slnrclurc al this slago,ir o(icf lhrt nroronccuflttc cosling syrlem can bc

|easibility study lircnDs:


c o s l . a e s t h l i c a p p c a.l n r a i n l c n a n c e . c c o l o g y . d i s r u p l i o n

llilncnslims ard quanlilics ol nratcrialsarc roughly analysedand calculatiorlsarc pcrlbfnc.l 1(,


slimnle priccsand conslruclion needs.
Dctailcd designl
Ai this slagcof thc dcsigrrothcr laciors are coDsidcrcd,sLrchas the exacl scolosy of thc arca.
To dctcrminc this, borcholesand ldal pits dre sunli.
Altcr all calculationshavc bccn r'r'orlicdoul exaclly and chcckcd,dctailedtechn'crl drawinss are
donc.Thc rcsuli of thcsc calculationsis alinished dcsignn'hich can be built lionr the drawirgs
produccd.ODccthc dctailcddcsign is complele,construction can begin.

ReadIhe list of the /srcftial dutiesm r.spotisibil:iLi'ls


of a ci\il cnginccr bcloi'r':
10providedetriled tacl linding, researchaDd analysis
1{)providesupport for lessexperiencedstalT
to developcomputer nodels. including dctaile.land potertially complcxsprcadsheelandlyses
to assist$'ith ensasemcntplanning activitiesincludirg thc dcvclopmcnlol (lrali rvork pl.ns
and budsets
to prcparc clicnt communicationsfor senior levelrcvicw

46

Matchthe tbllowinss'ordsandphrascsr\'iththcir dcnnitions.


feasibillVsiudy
site investigation

building
or instailation
whichis bullt,supplied,
or tnstatted
completeand readyto operate
activitiescarriedout afterthe projectto ensureproblems

o
o

0)

detailedplanof proposedstructures
dimensions
andmeasurements
extensiveinvestgationto evaluatethe toadbearingqualities
and stabilityof the ground
techricaldrawings

invesUgation
to assessbothfinanciaand englneering
aspectsof a project

commissiona project
costingsystem

offer of a bid for ar engineering


contract
procedureto monitorthe costs of a projectso that
n-ranagement
can get nformationon development
proposed
studyol the
locationto assessgeolos/of the area
to ordera planto be carriedout

tumkeyproject

phrseol construction.
I'ut tht lbllowinshshsinlothcapproprirtc
consulting
engineer
communlcations
withclient . extensive
siteinvestlgation
corsultingengineercontactwithcontractors.
feasibility
study. detailed
design
. employment
maintenance
of consulting
engineer. preliminary
siteinvestigation

BeforeconstrucUon

Duringconstruction

l he folloq'ing cxtract is from a ltter written by n qualilied civil engineerin rcsponscto ajob
advertiscmcnt.Compllethe extract by unscramblins thc Ictiers in brackcts.

I an wriliDs iD coDnectioD
with thejob advenisehen!lor a civil(a) _
apPedrcdin today\ ctl

(reDigccn),
which

t sri?eert?s.

i havea degreein (b)_


0nlntiasid)e.sineering.Arter graduation,I workedfor four ycaB at
LockeEDsniceBin lbe field of (c)
(onscorutitcn)
consulrins.Durins my time there.I
specixlizcd
in (d)_(ilansc)
prcpantion and coDstruction(e)_
(ehdnsstrllc).Ian
parncxhrly interested
in I1leopportuDiticsto futher developmy skilh, especially
in lhe folloving areas:
. developnertof (f)_
(idfar) lvork plans
. {C)
(eiis)invesrisarions
. preparutioD
ot (h)_(rictel)
connunicalions

l\9
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