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ConstructionSpecification32StructureConcrete

1. Scope
Theworkshallconsistoffurnishing,forming,placing,finishing,andcuringportlandcementconcrete
asrequiredtobuildthestructuresdescribedinsection24ofthisspecification.
2. Material
AggregatesshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecification522,AggregatesforPortland
CementConcrete,unlessotherwisespecified.Thegradingofcoarseaggregatesshallbeasspecifiedin
section24.
PortlandcementshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecification531,PortlandCement,
forthespecifiedtype.
FlyashshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecification532,MineralAdmixturesfor
Concrete.
AirentrainingadmixturesshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecification533,Chemical
AdmixturesforConcrete.Ifairentrainingcementisused,anyadditionalairentrainingadmixtureshall
beofthesametypeasthatinthecement.
Waterreducingand/orretardingadmixturesshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterial
Specification533,ChemicalAdmixturesforConcrete.
CuringcompoundshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecification534,ConcreteCuring
Compound.
PreformedexpansionjointfillershallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecification535,
PreformedExpansionJointFiller.
WaterstopsshallconformtotherequirementsofMaterialSpecifications537,NonmetallicWaterstops,
and538,MetalWaterstops,forthespecifiedkinds.
Waterusedinmixingandcuringconcreteshallbecleanandfreefrominjuriousamountsofoil,salt,
acid,alkali,organicmatter,orotherdeleterioussubstances.

3. Classofconcrete
Concreteforstructureconcreteshallbeclassifiedasfollows:
Classof
concrete

Maximumnet
watercontent
(gal/bag)

Minimum
cementcontent
(bags/yd3)

3000M

5.5

4000M

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4. Aircontentandconsistency
Unlessotherwisespecified,theslumpshallbe3to5inches.Ifairentrainmentisspecified,theair
content,byvolume,shallbe4to7percentofthevolumeoftheconcrete.Whenspecified,directed,or
approvedbytheengineer,awaterreducing,setretarding,orotheradmixtureshallbeused.Highrange,
waterreducingagents(superplasticizers)maybeusedtoincreaseworkability,reducewatercontent,
andcontrolconcretetemperatureinhotweather.Themaximumslumpafteraddinghighrangewater
reducingagentsshallbe7.5inches.
5. Designoftheconcretemix
Theproportionsoftheaggregatesshallbesuchastoproduceaconcretemixturethatworksreadilyinto
thecornersandanglesoftheformsandaroundreinforcementwhenconsolidated,butdoesnot
segregateorexudefreewaterduringconsolidation.
Flyashmaybeusedasapartialsubstitutionforportlandcementinanamountofnomorethan25
percent(byweight)ofthecementintheconcretemix,unlessotherwisespecified.
Beforetheconcreteisplaced,thecontractorshallfurnishthecontractingofficer,forapproval,a
statementofthematerialsandmixproportions(includingadmixtures,ifany)intendedforuse.The
statementshallincludeevidencesatisfactorytothecontractingofficerthatthematerialsandproportions
willproduceconcreteconformingtothisspecification.Thematerialsandproportionssostatedshall
constitutethe"jobmix."Afterajobmixhasbeenapproved,neitherthesource,character,orgradingof
theaggregatesnorthetypeorbrandofcementoradmixtureshallbechangedwithoutpriornoticetothe
contractingofficer.Ifsuchchangesarenecessary,noconcretecontainingsuchneworalteredmaterial
shallbeplaceduntilthecontractingofficerhasapprovedarevisedjobmix.

6. Inspectionandtesting
Theengineershallhavefreeentrytotheplantandequipmentfurnishingconcreteunderthecontract.
Properfacilitiesshallbeprovidedfortheengineertoinspectmaterials,equipment,andprocessesandto
obtainsamplesoftheconcrete.Alltestsandinspectionswillbeconductedsoasnottointerfere
unnecessarilywithmanufactureanddeliveryoftheconcrete.
7. Handlingandmeasurementofmaterial
Materialsshallbestockpiledandbatchedbymethodsthatpreventsegregationorcontaminationof
aggregatesandensureaccurateproportioningoftheingredientsofthemix.Exceptasotherwise
providedinsection8,cementandaggregatesshallbemeasuredasfollows:
Cementshallbemeasuredbyweightorinbagsof94poundseach.Whencementismeasuredinbags,
nofractionofabagshallbeusedunlessweighed.
Aggregatesshallbemeasuredbyweight.Mixproportionsshallbebasedonsaturated,surfacedry
weight.Thebatchweightofeachaggregateshallbetherequiredsaturated,surfacedryweightplusthe
weightofsurfacemoistureitcontains.
Watershallbemeasured,byvolumeorbyweight,toanaccuracywithin1percentofthetotalquantity
ofwaterrequiredforthebatch.

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Admixturesshallbemeasuredwithinalimitofaccuracyof3percent.

8. Mixersandmixing
Concreteshallbeuniformandthoroughlymixedwhendeliveredtotheworksite.Variationsinslump
ofmorethan1inchwithinabatchareconsideredevidenceofinadequatemixingandshallbecorrected
byincreasingmixingtimeorotheracceptablealternative.
Forstationarymixers,themixingtimeafterallcementandaggregatesareinthemixerdrumshallbe
notlessthan1.5minutes.Whenconcreteismixedinatruckmixer,thenumberofrevolutionsofthe
drumorbladesatmixingspeedshallbenotlessthan70normorethanl00.
Unlessotherwisespecified,volumetricbatchingandcontinuousmixingattheconstructionsiteare
permitted.Toproduceconcretemeetingthespecifiedproportioninganduniformityrequirements,the
batchingandmixingequipmentshallconformtotherequirementsofASTMSpecificationC685and
shallbedemonstratedbytestswiththejobmixbeforetheconcreteisplaced.Concretemadebythis
methodshallbeproduced,inspected,andcertifiedinconformancewithsections6,7,8,13,and14of
ASTMSpecificationC685.
Nomixingwaterinexcessoftheamountcalledforbythejobmixshallbeaddedtotheconcreteduring
mixingorhaulingorafterarrivalatthedeliverypoint.

9. Forms
Formsshallbeofwood,plywood,steel,orotherapprovedmaterialandshallbemortartight.Theforms
andassociatedfalseworkshallbesubstantialandunyieldingandshallbeconstructedsothatthe
finishedconcretewillconformtothespecifieddimensionsandcontours.Formsurfacesshallbesmooth
andfreefromholes,dents,sags,orotherirregularities.Formsshallbecoatedwithanonstainingform
releaseagentbeforebeingsetintoplace.
Metaltiesoranchorageswithintheformsshallbeequippedwithcones,sheboltsorotherdevicesthat
permittheirremovaltoadepthofatleast1inchwithoutinjurytotheconcrete.Tiesdesignedtobreak
offbelowthesurfaceoftheconcreteshallnotbeusedwithoutcones.
Alledgesthatwillbeexposedtoviewwhenthestructureiscompletedshallbechamfered,unless
finishedwithmoldingtoolsasspecifiedinSectionl8.

10. Preparationofformsandsubgrade
Priortoplacementofconcrete,theformsandsubgradeshallbefreeofchips,sawdust,debris,water,
ice,snow,extraneousoil,mortar,orotherharmfulsubstancesorcoatingsandthetemperatureofall
surfacestobeincontactwiththenewconcreteshallbenotbelessthan40 degreesFahrenheit.Anyoil
onthereinforcingsteelorothersurfacesrequiredtobebondedtotheconcreteshallberemoved.Rock
surfacesshallbecleanedbyairwatercutting,wetsandblasting,orwirebrushscrubbing,asnecessary,
andshallbewettedimmediatelybeforeplacementofconcrete.Theearthsurfaceshallbefirmand
damp.Placementofconcreteonmud,driedearth,oruncompactedfillorfrozensubgradeisnot
permitted.
Itemstobeembeddedintheconcreteshallbepositionedaccuratelyandanchoredfirmly.

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Weepholesinwallsorslabsshallbeformedwithnonferrousmaterial.

11. Conveying
Concreteshallbedeliveredtothesiteanddischargedintotheformswithinl1/2hoursafterthe
introductionofthecementtotheaggregates.Inhotweatherorunderconditionscontributingtoquick
stiffeningoftheconcrete,thetimebetweentheintroductionofthecementtotheaggregatesand
dischargeshallnotexceed45minutes.
Theengineermayallowalongertime,providedthesettingtimeoftheconcreteisincreaseda
correspondingamountbytheadditionofanapprovedsetretardingadmixture.Inanycase,concrete
shallbeconveyedfromthemixertotheformsasrapidlyaspracticablebymethodsthatprevent
segregationoftheaggregatesandassurenolossofmortaroccurs.

12. Placing
Concreteshallnotbeplaceduntilthesubgrade,forms,steelreinforcement,andembeddeditemshave
beeninspectedandapproved.Noconcreteshallbeplacedexceptinthepresenceoftheengineer.The
contractorshallgivereasonablenoticetotheengineereachtimeconcreteistobeplaced.Suchnotice
shallprovidesufficienttimefortheengineertoinspectthesubgrade,forms,steelreinforcement,and
otherpreparationsforcompliancewiththespecifications.Otherpreparationsinclude,butarenot
limitedto,theconcretemixingplant;deliveryequipmentsystem;placing,finishing,andcuring
equipmentandsystem;scheduleofwork;workforce;andheatingorcoolingfacilities,ifapplicable.
Deficienciesaretobecorrectedbeforeconcreteisdeliveredforplacing.
Theconcreteshallbedepositedascloselyaspossibletoitsfinalpositionintheforms.Itshallbe
workedintothecornersandanglesoftheformsandaroundallreinforcementandembeddeditemsina
mannertopreventsegregationofaggregatesorexcessivelaitance.Formedconcreteshallbeplacedin
horizontallayersnotmorethan20inchesthick.Concreteshallnotbedroppedmorethan5feet
verticallyunlesssuitableequipmentisusedtopreventsegregation.Whenhighrangewaterreducing
agentsareused,theconcreteshallnotbeallowedtodropmorethan10feet.Hoppersandchutes,pipes,
or"elephanttrunks"shallbeusedasnecessarytopreventsegregationandthesplashingofmortaronthe
formsandreinforcingsteelabovethelayerbeingplaced.
Immediatelyaftertheconcreteisplacedintheforms,itshallbeconsolidatedbyspading,handtamping,
orvibrationasnecessarytoensureasmoothsurfaceanddenseconcrete.Eachlayershallbe
consolidatedtoensuremonolithicbondwiththeprecedinglayer.Ifthesurfaceofalayerofconcretein
placesetstothedegreethatitwillnotflowandmergewiththesucceedinglayerwhenspadedor
vibrated,thecontractorshalldiscontinueplacingconcreteandshallmakeaconstructionjointaccording
totheprocedurespecifiedinsection13.
Ifplacingisdiscontinuedwhenanincompletehorizontallayerisinplace,theunfinishedendofthe
layershallbeformedbyaverticalbulkhead.

13. Constructionjoints
Constructionjointsshallbemadeatthelocationsshownonthedrawings.Ifconstructionjointsare
neededthatarenotshownonthedrawings,theyshallbeplacedinlocationsapprovedbytheengineer.
Whereafeatheredgewouldbeproducedataconstructionjoint,asinthetopsurfaceofaslopingwall,

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aninsertformshallbeusedsothattheresultingedgethicknessoneithersideofthejointisnotlessthan
6inches.
Inwallsandcolumns,aseachliftiscompleted,thetopsurfaceshallbeimmediatelyandcarefully
protectedfromanyconditionthatmightadverselyaffectthehardeningoftheconcrete.
Steeltyingandformconstructionadjacenttoconcreteinplaceshallnotbestarteduntiltheconcretehas
curedatleast12hours.Beforenewconcreteisdepositedonoragainstconcretethathashardened,the
formsshallberetightened.Newconcreteshallnotbeplaceduntilthehardenedconcretehascuredat
least12hours.
Thesurfaceofconstructionjointsshallbecleanedofallunsatisfactoryconcrete,laitance,coatings,or
debrisbywashingandscrubbingwithawirebrushorwirebroomorbyothermeansapprovedbythe
engineer.Thesurfaceshallbekeptmoistforatleast1hourbeforethenewconcreteisplaced.

14. Expansionandcontractionjoints
Expansionandcontractionjointsshallbemadeonlyatlocationsshownonthedrawings.
Exposedconcreteedgesatexpansionandcontractionjointsshallbecarefullytooledorchamfered,and
thejointsshallbefreeofmortarandconcrete.Jointfillershallbeleftexposedforitsfulllengthwith
cleanandtrueedges.
Preformedexpansionjointfillershallbeheldfirmlyinthecorrectpositionastheconcreteisplaced.
Whenopenjointsarespecified,theyshallbeconstructedbytheinsertionandsubsequentremovalofa
woodenstrip,metalplate,orothersuitabletemplateinsuchamannerthatthecornersoftheconcrete
arenotchippedorbroken.Theedgesofopenjointsshallbefinishedwithanedgingtoolbeforethe
jointstripsareremoved.

15. Waterstops
Waterstopsshallbeheldfirmlyinthecorrectpositionastheconcreteisplaced.Jointsinmetal
waterstopsshallbesoldered,brazed,orwelded.Jointsinrubberorplasticwaterstopsshallbe
cemented,welded,orvulcanizedasrecommendedbythemanufacturer.
16. Removalofforms
Formsshallnotberemovedwithouttheapprovaloftheengineer.Formsshallberemovedinsucha
wayastopreventdamagetotheconcrete.Supportsshallberemovedinamannerthatpermitsthe
concretetotakethestressesofitsownweightuniformlyandgradually.
17. Finishingformedsurfaces
Immediatelyaftertheformsareremoved:
a. Allfinsandirregularprojectionsshallberemovedfromexposedsurfaces.
b. Theholesproducedonallsurfacesbytheremovalofformties,conebolts,andsheboltsshallbe
cleaned,wetted,andfilledwithadrypackmortar.Themortarwillconsistofonepartportland
cement,threepartssandthatwillpassaNo.16sieve,andjustsufficientwatertoproducea
consistencysuchthatthefillingisatthepointofbecomingrubberywhenthematerialissolidly
packed.

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18. Finishingunformedsurfaces
Allexposedsurfacesoftheconcreteshallbeaccuratelyscreededtogradeandthenfloatfinished,unless
specifiedotherwise.
Excessivefloatingortrowelingofsurfaceswhiletheconcreteissoftisnotpermitted.
Addingdrycementorwatertothesurfaceofthescreededconcretetoexpeditefinishingisnotallowed.
Jointsandedgesonunformedsurfacesthatwillbeexposedtoviewshallbechamferedorfinishedwith
moldingtools.

19. Curing
Concreteshallbepreventedfromdryingforacuringperiodofatleast7daysafteritisplaced.Exposed
surfacesshallbekeptcontinuouslymoistfortheentireperiod,oruntilcuringcompoundisappliedas
specifiedbelow.Moistureshallbemaintainedbysprinkling,flooding,orfogspraying,orbycovering
withcontinuouslymoistenedcanvas,clothmats,straw,sand,orotherapprovedmaterial.Woodforms
leftinplaceduringthecuringperiodshallbekeptcontinuouslywet.Aformedsurfaceshallbe
thoroughlywettedimmediatelyafterformsareremovedandshallbekeptwetuntilpatchingandrepairs
arecompleted.Waterorcoveringshallbeappliedinsuchawaythattheconcretesurfaceisnoteroded
orotherwisedamaged.
Concrete,exceptatconstructionjoints,maybecoatedwiththeapprovedcuringcompoundinsteadof
continuedapplicationofmoisture,exceptasotherwisespecifiedinsection24.Thecompoundshallbe
sprayedonthemoistconcretesurfaceassoonasfreewaterhasdisappeared,butshallnotbeappliedto
anysurfaceuntilpatching,repairs,andfinishingofthatsurfacearecompleted.Thecompoundshallbe
appliedatauniformrateofnotlessthan1gallonper175squarefeetofsurfaceandshallforma
continuousadherentmembraneovertheentiresurface.Curingcompoundshallbethoroughlymixed
beforeapplyingandcontinuouslyagitatedduringapplication.Curingcompoundshallnotbeappliedto
asurfacerequiringbondtosubsequentlyplacedconcrete,suchasconstructionjoints,shearplates,
reinforcingsteel,andotherembeddeditems.Ifthemembraneisdamagedduringthecuringperiod,the
damagedareashallberesprayedattherateofapplicationspecifiedabove.Anysurfacecoveredbythe
membraneshallnotbetraffickedunlessprotectedfromwear.

20. Removalandreplacementorrepair
Whenconcreteishoneycombed,damaged,orotherwisedefective,thecontractorshallremoveand
replacethestructureorstructuralmembercontainingthedefectiveconcreteor,wherefeasible,correct
orrepairthedefectiveparts.Thecontractingofficerdeterminestherequiredextentofremoval,
replacement,orrepair.Beforestartingrepairwork,thecontractorshallobtainthecontractingofficer's
approvaloftheplanforrepairs.Thecontractorshallperformallrepairworkinthepresenceofthe
engineer.
21. Concretingincoldweather
Concreteshallnotbemixednorplacedwhenthedailyminimumatmospherictemperatureislessthan
40degreesFahrenheitunlessfacilitiesareprovidedtopreventtheconcretefromfreezing.Theuseof
acceleratorsorantifreezecompoundsisnotallowed.

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22. Concretinginhotweather
Thecontractorshallapplyeffectivemeanstomaintainthetemperatureoftheconcretebelow90degrees
Fahrenheitduringmixing,conveying,andplacing.
23. Measurementandpayment
Foritemsofworkforwhichspecificunitpricesareestablishedinthecontract,concreteismeasuredto
theneatlinesshownonthedrawingsandthevolumeofconcreteiscomputedtothenearest0.lcubic
yard.Measurementofconcreteplacedagainstthesidesofanexcavationwithoutusingintervening
formsismadeonlytotheneatnessorpaylimitsshownonthedrawings.Nodeductioninvolumeis
madeforchamfers,roundedorbevelededges,orforanyvoidorembeddeditemthatislessthan5
cubicfeetinvolume.
Paymentforeachitemofstructureconcreteismadeatthecontractunitpriceorthecontractlumpsum;
whicheverisapplicableforthatitem.Suchpaymentconstitutesfullcompensationforalllabor,
material,equipment,transportation,tools,forms,falsework,bracing,andallotheritemsnecessaryand
incidentaltothecompletionoftheworkexceptitemslistedforpaymentelsewhereinthecontract.
Compensationforanyitemofworkdescribedinthecontract,butnotlistedinthebidschedule,is
includedinthepaymentfortheitemofworktowhichitismadesubsidiary.Suchitemsandtheitemsto
whichtheyaremadesubsidiaryareidentifiedinsection24ofthisspecification.

24. Itemsofworkandconstructiondetails
Work shall be done in accordance with NRCS Plans and Specifications.
This specification shall be used for all reinforced concrete within the Construction Plans.
Reinforcing steel shall be US Grade 60, or higher, deformed bars. Reinforcing steel shall be
free from loose rust, concrete, form oil, grease, paint, or other deleterious coating. No
welding or heating of steel shall be permitted.
Minimum splice length shall be as shown on the plans. If minimum splice is not shown on the
drawings, the following minimum(s) shall be applied:
#4
19 inches
#5
24 inches
(ACI and CRSI Manuals of Standard Practice)

NRCS shall be contacted 24 hours prior to concrete placement.


Concrete shall be 4000 psi Type II Portland cement with 4-7% air entraining. Coarse
aggregates meet AASHTO #67.
No mixing water in excess of the amount called for by the job mix shall be added to the
concrete during mixing or hauling or after arrival at the delivery point.
Concrete shall be vibrated. Vibrator head shall be kept vertical when inserted into concrete
and shall penetrate at least six (6) inches into previous layer.
Curing compound shall be applied to concrete surfaces. Curing compound shall be applied

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after free water has disappeared, and within 24 hours of pour. Curing compound shall not be
applied at construction joints.
Heavy equipment may not be operated within 3 feet of new concrete wall. Compaction within
3 feet will be by means of hand tamping or small handheld tamping or vibrating equipment.
Backfilling and compaction of fill adjacent to new concrete walls shall not begin in less than
ten (10) days after concrete placement. Backfill material shall be free of large stones and
debris.

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