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Chapter I

Social media has been considered a positive factor for many
as it helps people stay connected with family and friends. When it
was invented, the inventors of social media networks would never
have dreamed of the impact social media would have on people.
Although social media is indeed a positive thing, it can become an
addiction and affect the daily lives of many people. For example,
when a person does nothing but log online and stay connected on
Facebook or Twitter, it disrupts their daily lives. This is addiction,
and it is a psychological problem. This essay will discuss a few
signs of social media addiction.
Many people, who are addicted to social networking, spend time
making sure their lives are perfect set up to post online. For
example, if every waking minute is designed to perfection, so that
it can be reflected on Instagram, Twitter or Facebook, this is a sign
of social media addiction. If a person considers how or what he or
she does and where he or she goes and how it will reflect on
social media, this person is so addicted to social media it is time
to take a step back and consider the consequences.
Gone are the days when things private were kept. private. Every
aspect of a persons life is on Facebook or Twitter from the time
the person wakes up to the time the person goes to sleep. Many
people upload themselves painting their finger and toenails,
having a crisis in life, even a funeral! This is called social media
addiction. If a person is unable to do a single thing, without
recording it on social media, this person is addicted to social
media. If every aspect of life is shared among friends, there is

very little time for that person to really enjoy whatever he or she
is doing, and this affects their lives.

Any person who cannot do his or her daily chores, and instead,
finds her/himself constantly on social media, is definitely addicted
to it. For example, housewives who leave their daily chores piling
up instead of dealing with them and are on Facebook or Twitter or
Instagram are addicted to social media. If work life is affected,
and employers are constantly on the persons back asking them
to do their jobs, and instead, they are on social media, these
people are suffering from social media addiction.
Spending hours on social media and losing sleep because of it, is
also a sign of social media addiction. There is a vast difference
between staying up to complete a chore or task and staying up to
make sure one does not miss a single minute of anything being
uploaded on social media. Lack of sleep can negatively affect a
persons energy levels and can affect a persons disposition too.
All this can affect life, negatively.
Social media addiction is real. It is a real psychological
problem. Any person, unable to, handle life because their social
media is out of order needs help. Any person whose life is
affected negatively because of social media needs to step back
and take a good look at their lives and get their priorities straight.
Social media is integrated technology that allows users to
generate their own content and share that content through
various connections.
Over the years this world has become more and more
technologically advanced. From the start of electricity to having
our whole day planned out in a click of a button. Social media has
become a way of life nowadays. Everything we touch, think about,
talk about can now be read or tweeted anywhere on the

computer or cell phone. Anything we are involved with is now

linked to a social network. Many people believe this can be a good
thing, but society has shown the many negative consequences it
has on our lives. Social networking has become widely used in the
young generations today. This has caused children and teenagers
to be more vulnerable to peer pressure and have an inadequate
capability for self-regulation. Clearly the use of social
broadcasting and technology should be restricted and supervised
by parents to help decrease the potentially negative outcomes of
social media.
Instagram and Facebook are commonly used social networks that
teenagers are constantly in touch with. You could say that
Facebook is doing a far more effective job than religion at
teaching us to 'love thy neighbor,' connecting us with random
strangers and 'friends' from distant lands (Adams). Furthermore,
Facebook has become widely popular and influential for
communication today. Facebook has more than a billion users.
Researchers found that an excessive use of social media aspects
may cause Facebook depression (Sifferlin). The authors
explained the misuse of social media is strongly associated with
apprehension, several forms of behavioral difficulties and
psychological conditions. Many of the disorders encompass:
antisocial personality disorder, bipolar disorder, passive
aggressiveness, narcissism, paranoia, and histrionic personality
disorder. It is incredible how a simple aspect of social media can
affect someone so strongly to the point where it becomes
medically and mentally concerned. I only say medically since
these are medical health disorders, however, none of these
disorders are involved with your physical aspects. They all disrupt
your mental system and change your entire mental aspects to
certain things.
With social media interactions today, it has created a very high
potential for cyber bullying. Cyber bullying is a major concern for

teenagers today. Cyber bullying is a different form of physical

bullying. It incorporates the uses of social media to damage of
tease another person. As it stands today, it is a lot easier to for
people to go beyond limitations and do things they would not
normally do if they were in a face-to-face setting. Cyber bullying
can include harming someone by deliberately publishing
embarrassing and hurtful content about another person on the
Internet (Cybersmart). It can also include spreading speculations
about someone in hopes to impart animosity in the minds of
others. Many of these younger adults do not realize there are
legal implications to these actions that can stem to civil to
criminal behavior. For example, there was a very viral Instagram
page titled The Miami Purge that posted pictures of girls naked,
exposing them to all of their followers. It was a very popular case
of cyber bullying in Miami, however, the kid who made the page
was fortunately caught due to the great works of technology. On
Instagram, when you post a photo, there is an option where you
can geotag the location of where you posted the photo.
This certain person was foolish enough to geotag his location to
be discovered by every follower of the account and later on to be
discovered by cops who showed up at his house a couple days
after the viral epidemic.
Not only do psychiatric problems arise with the overuse of
technology but an addiction with the Internet can also become an
issue. Internet addiction is commonly explained as an extreme
use of the Internet, which can indicate to distress along with
interfering with day-to-day performance. This causes a high
prevalence in depression, generalized anxiety, attention deficit
hyperactivity disorder and maladaptive behaviors in teenagers
and young adults. Today's society has changed. It is not surprising
to find children as young as eight years old to have cell phones,
tablets, and laptops. The devices have give people in all age
groups the ability to access social networks but unfortunately it

raises the ability to develop Internet addiction. Many people have

lost touch with face to face interaction, have gained or lost
weight, and spend less time and energy on their family due to
their dependence on social media. Mentioned in the article
Antisocial Networking: How Technology May Be Affecting Kid's
Friendships the use of social media in children and teens has
risen to more than six hours a day. Unfortunately with the
heightened use of the Internet is that it has caused children and
young adults to lose their time to focus on academics.
Social Networking Sites are virtual communities where users
can create individual public profiles, interact with real-life friends,
and meet other people based on shared interests. SNSs are webbased services that allow individuals to:
(1) Construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded
(2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a
And (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those
made by others within the system. The focus is placed on
established networks, rather than on networking, which implies
the construction of new networks.

A. The purpose of this study was to survey the present
conditions of adolescents' Internet use and to investigate

the relations of Internet addiction to depression, social

anxiety and problems in peer relationship.
B. To identify some causes and types of pain of using social
C. Ethical issues of treating social media addiction.



How do these factors affect a persons behavior?

What are the factors that affect persons behavior in
connection to social media addiction?


This study to delimited to the impact of social media to

peoples behavior of Tarlac Agricultural University 2016. Subject
of the study are students of Tarlac Agricultural University.

The respondents are 15 belonging at the age bracket of 1523.


The following terminologies were defined to provide further clarity

to the study:
SOCIAL MEDIA. websites and applications that enable users to
create and share content or to participate in social networking
ADDICTION. It refers to the habitual performance of an action
DEFENSITIZATION. Less of sensitivity and feelings
ANXIETY. a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically
about an imminent event or something with an uncertain
EFFECT. It is something thatis produce by an agent or it is also a
FACTOR. One of several elements of cause their produce a result
MEAN. A place where nobody can manage and control.
SYNDROME. Characteristics of pattern of signs and symptoms.
VIOLENCE. A great forms of feelings, conduct, passions, and

Chapter II

Discussion and Conclusions

The aim of this literature review was to present an overview of the

emergent empirical research relating to usage of an addiction to
social networks on the Internet. Initially, SNSs were defined as
virtual communities offering their members the possibility to
make use of their inherent Web 2.0 features, namely networking
and sharing media content. The history of SNSs dates back to the
late 1990s, suggesting that they are not as new as they may
appear in the first place. With the emergence of SNSs such
as Facebook, overall SNS usage has accelerated in such a way
that they are considered a global consumer phenomenon. Today,
more than 500 million users are active participants in
the Facebook community alone and studies suggest that between
55% and 82% of teenagers and young adults use SNSs on a
regular basis. Extracting information from peers SNS pages is an
activity that is experienced as especially enjoyable and it has
been linked with the activation of the appetitive system, which in
turn is related to addiction experience.
In terms of sociodemographics, the studies presented indicate
that overall, SNS usage patterns differ. Females appear to use
SNS in order to communicate with members of their peer group,
whereas males appear to use them for the purposes of social
compensation, learning, and social identity gratifications.
Furthermore, men tend to disclose more personal information on
SNS sites relative to women. Also, more women were found to
use MySpace specifically relative to men. Moreover, usage
patterns were found to differ between genders as a function of
personality. Unlike women with neurotic traits, men with neurotic
traits were found to be more frequent SNS users. In addition to
this, it was found that males were more likely to be addicted to
SNS games specifically relative to females. This is in line with the

finding that males in general are a population at risk for

developing an addiction to playing online games.
The only study that assessed age differences in usage indicated
that the latter in fact varies as a function of age. Specifically,
silver surfers (i.e., those over the age of 60 years) have a
smaller circle of online friends that differs in age relative to
younger SNS users. Based on the current empirical knowledge
that has predominantly assessed young teenage and student
samples, it appears unclear whether older people use SNSs
excessively and whether they potentially become addicted to
using them. Therefore, future research must aim at filling this gap
in knowledge.
Next, the motivations for using SNSs were reviewed on the basis
of needs and gratifications theory. In general, research suggests
that SNSs are used for social purposes. Overall, the maintenance
of connections to offline network members was emphasized
rather than the establishment of new ties. With regards to this,
SNS users sustain bridging social capital through a variety of
heterogeneous connections to other SNS users. This appeared to
be beneficial for them with regards to sharing knowledge and
potential future possibilities related to employment and related
areas. In effect, the knowledge that is available to individuals via
their social network can be thought of as collective intelligence.
Collective intelligence extends the mere idea of shared knowledge
because it is not restricted to knowledge shared by all members
of a particular community. Instead, it denotes the aggregation of
each individual members knowledge that can be accessed by
other members of the respective community. In this regard, the
pursuit of weak ties on SNSs is of great benefit and thus coincides
with the satisfaction of the members needs. At the same time, it
is experienced as gratifying. Therefore, rather than seeking
emotional support, individuals make use of SNSs in order to
communicate and stay in touch not only with family and friends,
but also with more distant acquaintances, therefore sustaining
weak ties with potentially advantageous environments. The
benefits of large online social networks may potentially lead

people to excessively engage in using them, which, in turn, may

purport addictive behaviors.
As regards personality psychology, certain personality traits were
found to be associated with higher usage frequency that may be
associated with potential abuse and/or addiction. Of those,
extraversion and introversion stand out because each of these is
related to more habitual participation in social networks on the
Internet. However, the motivations of extraverts and introverts
differ in that extraverts enhance their social networks, whereas
introverts compensate for the lack of real life social networks.
Presumably, the motivations for higher SNS usage of people who
are agreeable and conscientious may be related to those shared
by extraverts, indicating a need for staying connected and
socializing with their communities. Nevertheless, of those, high
extraversion was found to be related to potential addiction to
using SNS, in accordance with low conscientiousness.
The dissimilar motivations for usage found for members scoring
high on the respective personality trait can inform future research
into potential addiction to SNSs. Hypothetically, people who
compensate for scarce ties with their real life communities may
be at greater risk to develop addiction. In effect, in one study,
addictive SNS usage was predicted by looking for a sense of
belongingness in this community, which supports this conjecture.
Presumably, the same may hold true for people who score high on
neuroticism and narcissism, assuming that members of both
groups tend to have low self-esteem. This supposition is informed
by research indicating that people use the Internet excessively in
order to cope with everyday stressors. This may serve as a
preliminary explanation for the findings regarding the negative
correlates that were found to be associated with more frequent
SNS usage.
Overall, the engagement in particular activities on SNSs, such as
social searching, and the personality traits that were found to be
associated with greater extents of SNS usage may serve as an
anchor point for future studies in terms of defining populations
who are at risk for developing addiction to using social networks

on the Internet. Furthermore, it is recommended that researchers

assess factors that are specific to SNS addiction, including the
pragmatics, attraction, communication and expectations of SNS
use because these may predict the etiology of SNS addiction as
based on the addiction specificity etiology framework. Due to the
scarcity of research in this domain with a specific focus on SNS
addiction specificity and comorbidity, further empirical research is
necessary. Moreover, researchers are encouraged to pay close
attention to the different motivations of introverts and extraverts
because each of those appears to be related to higher usage
frequency. What is more, investigating the relationship of
potential addiction with narcissism seems to be a fruitful area for
empirical research. In addition to this, motivations for usage as
well as a wider variety of negative correlates related to excessive
SNS use need to be addressed.
In addition to the above mentioned implications and suggestions
for future research, specific attention needs to be paid to
selecting larger samples which are representative of a broader
population in order to increase the respective studys external
validity. The generalizability of results is essential in order to
demarcate populations at risk for developing addiction to SNSs.
psychophysiological studies in order to assess the phenomenon
from a biological perspective. Furthermore, clear-cut and
validated addiction criteria need to be assessed. It is insufficient
to limit studies into addiction to assessing just a few criteria. The
demarcation of pathology from high frequency and problematic
usage necessitates adopting frameworks that have been
established by the international classification manuals. Moreover,
in light of clinical evidence and practice, it appears essential to
pay attention to the significant impairment that SNS addicts
experience in a variety of life domains as a consequence of their
abusive and/or addictive behaviors.
Similarly, the results of data based on self-reports are not
sufficient for diagnosis because research suggests that they may
be inaccurate. Conceivably, self-reports may be supplemented
with structured clinical interviews and further case study evidence
as well as supplementary reports from the users significant
others. In conclusion, social networks on the Internet are

iridescent Web 2.0 phenomena that offer the potential to become

part of, and make use of, collective intelligence. However, the
latent mental health consequences of excessive and addictive use
are yet to be explored using the most rigorous scientific methods.


Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health
problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country
comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS)
screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and
addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366
adolescents aged 1218 years were recruited from six Asian
countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and
the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire
on their Internet use in the 20122013 school year. Internet
addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and
the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations
in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were
examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is
62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover,
participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39%
in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents
reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is
highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the
CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among
adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is
prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

Eric W.T. Ngai is an Associate Head and Professor in the

Department of Management and Marketing at The Hong Kong
Polytechnic University. His current research interests are in the
areas of e-commerce, supply chain management, decision
support systems, and social media technology and applications.
He has over 120 refereed international journal publications,
including MIS
Quarterly, Journal

Management, Decision Support Systems, IEEE Transactions on

and Production
Management. He is an Associate Editor of Information &
Management and serves on the editorial board of three other
international journals. Prof. Ngai has attained an h-index of 22,
and received 1,380 citations, ISI Web of Science.

Spencer C.S. Tao is the Chief Executive Officer at the Hong Kong
Federation of Innovative Technologies and Manufacturing
Industries (FITMI). He has held various executive management
positions at different academic and commercial organizations. His
research interests include social media technology and strategic
Karen Ka-Leung Moon is an Associate Professor at Seoul
National University, Department of Textiles, Merchandising, and
Fashion Design, Republic of Korea. Dr. Moon has worked in the
fashion industry as a designer, R&D researcher, merchandiser,
and retail entrepreneur. She has also worked as a faculty member
at various tertiary education institutions, including Hong Kong
Vocational Training Council, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University,
and Hanyang University. Her professional expertise and research
interests embrace fashion business, supply chain management,
implementation of innovative technologies, and consumer
behavior. She has over 50 publications in peer-reviewed
international journals, including IJPE, IJOPM, EJOR, IMDS, JOTI, IJPR,

Naven Pillai, a Digital marketing enthusiast, entrepreneur,
brand strategist said Social media is powerful forces man has
ever unleashed upon himself.It is because social media allows you

to connect with your current customers. On the other hand, it

allows you to acquire more customers. Social media became so
powerful as 90% of people spending most of their time on social

Chapter III
This chapter presents the methods of research, the instruct, and
the procedure used in gathering data, the sources of data, the

sampling design, and the statistical treatment used in interpreting

the data.
The following search terms as well as their derivatives were
entered: social network, online network, addiction, compulsive,
excessive, use, abuse, motivation, personality, and comorbidity.
Studies were included if they: included empirical data, made
reference to usage patterns, motivations for usage, personality
traits of users, negative consequences of use, addiction, and
comorbidity and specificity. A total of 43 empirical studies were
identified from the literature, five of which specifically assessed
SNS addiction.

The present study used the descriptive method of research which
was the most appropriate method for this kind of study of study
descriptive method is a study in which a body of data is collected,
recorded, tallied, organized presented analyze and interpreted.

Procedure Potential items to be included in the Facebook
addiction scale were constructed for the six basic components of
addiction proposed by Brown (1993) and Griffiths (1996).

Three items for each component were chosen. Wording was

similar to that used in the diagnostic criteria for pathological
gambling (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and in the
Game Addiction Scale (Lemmens, Valkenburg, & Peter, 2009).
These items were included in a self-report questionnaire with

additional questions about demography, Facebook activity,

personality, and sleep habits.
The questionnaire was distributed at undergraduate lectures in
psychology at the University of Bergen, Norway, to engineering
students at Bergen College, and students at the Royal Norwegian
Naval Academy during the spring of 2011. Questionnaire
completion took approximately 20 minutes. No monetary or other
material incentives were offered in return for participation.
Response rate was 95%. Questionnaires were coded with unique
numbers that students were asked to note and keep for later readministration of some of the questions. They were not informed
which questions Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale 505 would be
re-administered. Three weeks after the first questionnaire was
administered, the 18 items were re-administered to 36.2% of
these undergraduates. Participants were asked to write the
unique number code on the questionnaire for administrative use
in identifying which students answered questions twice.

Internet addiction has been identified as a pathological
behavior, but its symptoms may be found in normal populations,
placing it within the scope of conventional theories of media
conceptualizations of gratifications specific to the Internet to
uncover seven gratification factors: Virtual Community,
Compensation, Diversion, Personal Status, and Relationship
Maintenance. With no parallel in prior research, Virtual
Community might be termed a "new" gratification. Virtual
Community, Monetary Compensation, Diversion, and Personal
Status gratifications accounted for 28% of the variance in Internet
Addiction Tendency. The relationship between Internet addiction
and gratifications was discussed in terms of the formation of
media habits and the distinction between content and process



Presented to:
Ms. Abigail Officiar

Presented by:

enez, Rojet
Gultiano, Antoinette
Manuel, Reymart
o, Jaja
artin, Rochelle


August 2016