Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 158

<!

DOCTYPE html>
<html class="client-nojs" lang="en" dir="ltr">
<head>
<meta charset="UTF-8"/>
<title>Propositional calculus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</title>
<script>document.documentElement.className = document.documentElement.className.
replace( /(^|\s)client-nojs(\s|$)/, "$1client-js$2" );</script>
<script>(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set({"wgCanonicalN
amespace":"","wgCanonicalSpecialPageName":false,"wgNamespaceNumber":0,"wgPageNam
e":"Propositional_calculus","wgTitle":"Propositional calculus","wgCurRevisionId"
:734471582,"wgRevisionId":734471582,"wgArticleId":18154,"wgIsArticle":true,"wgIs
Redirect":false,"wgAction":"view","wgUserName":null,"wgUserGroups":["*"],"wgCate
gories":["Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2013","All artic
les with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases","Articles with specifically
marked weasel-worded phrases from October 2014","Articles needing additional ref
erences from March 2011","All articles needing additional references","Use dmy d
ates from May 2012","Propositional calculus","Systems of formal logic","Logical
calculi","Boolean algebra","Classical logic"],"wgBreakFrames":false,"wgPageConte
ntLanguage":"en","wgPageContentModel":"wikitext","wgSeparatorTransformTable":[""
,""],"wgDigitTransformTable":["",""],"wgDefaultDateFormat":"dmy","wgMonthNames":
["","January","February","March","April","May","June","July","August","September
","October","November","December"],"wgMonthNamesShort":["","Jan","Feb","Mar","Ap
r","May","Jun","Jul","Aug","Sep","Oct","Nov","Dec"],"wgRelevantPageName":"Propos
itional_calculus","wgRelevantArticleId":18154,"wgRequestId":"V91kJApAAD4AAONEJkA
AAACV","wgIsProbablyEditable":true,"wgRestrictionEdit":[],"wgRestrictionMove":[]
,"wgWikiEditorEnabledModules":{"toolbar":true,"dialogs":true,"preview":false,"pu
blish":false},"wgBetaFeaturesFeatures":[],"wgMediaViewerOnClick":true,"wgMediaVi
ewerEnabledByDefault":true,"wgVisualEditor":{"pageLanguageCode":"en","pageLangua
geDir":"ltr","usePageImages":true,"usePageDescriptions":true},"wgPreferredVarian
t":"en","wgMFDisplayWikibaseDescriptions":{"search":true,"nearby":true,"watchlis
t":true,"tagline":false},"wgRelatedArticles":null,"wgRelatedArticlesUseCirrusSea
rch":true,"wgRelatedArticlesOnlyUseCirrusSearch":false,"wgULSCurrentAutonym":"En
glish","wgNoticeProject":"wikipedia","wgCentralNoticeCookiesToDelete":[],"wgCent
ralNoticeCategoriesUsingLegacy":["Fundraising","fundraising"],"wgCategoryTreePag
eCategoryOptions":"{\"mode\":0,\"hideprefix\":20,\"showcount\":true,\"namespaces
\":false}","wgFlaggedRevsParams":{"tags":{"status":{"levels":1,"quality":2,"pris
tine":3}}},"wgStableRevisionId":null,"wgWikibaseItemId":"Q200694","wgCentralAuth
MobileDomain":false,"wgVisualEditorToolbarScrollOffset":0,"wgEditSubmitButtonLab
elPublish":false});mw.loader.state({"ext.globalCssJs.user.styles":"ready","ext.g
lobalCssJs.site.styles":"ready","site.styles":"ready","noscript":"ready","user.s
tyles":"ready","user.cssprefs":"ready","user":"ready","user.options":"loading","
user.tokens":"loading","ext.math.styles":"ready","ext.cite.styles":"ready","wiki
base.client.init":"ready","ext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.noscript":"read
y","ext.uls.nojs":"ready","ext.tmh.thumbnail.styles":"ready","ext.wikimediaBadge
s":"ready","mediawiki.legacy.shared":"ready","mediawiki.legacy.commonPrint":"rea
dy","mediawiki.sectionAnchor":"ready","mediawiki.skinning.interface":"ready","sk
ins.vector.styles":"ready","ext.globalCssJs.user":"ready","ext.globalCssJs.site"
:"ready"});mw.loader.implement("user.options",function($,jQuery,require,module){
mw.user.options.set({"variant":"en"});});mw.loader.implement("user.tokens",funct
ion ( $, jQuery, require, module ) {
mw.user.tokens.set({"editToken":"+\\","patrolToken":"+\\","watchToken":"+\\","cs
rfToken":"+\\"});/*@nomin*/;
});mw.loader.load(["mediawiki.page.startup","mediawiki.legacy.wikibits","ext.cen
tralauth.centralautologin","mmv.head","ext.visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.ini
t","ext.uls.interface","ext.quicksurveys.init","mw.MediaWikiPlayer.loader","mw.P
opUpMediaTransform","skins.vector.js"]);});</script>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/w/load.php?debug=false&amp;lang=en&amp;modules=ext
.cite.styles%7Cext.gadget.DRN-wizard%2CReferenceTooltips%2Ccharinsert%2Cextra-to

olbar-buttons%2Cfeatured-articles-links%2CrefToolbar%2Cswitcher%2Cteahouse%2Cwat
chlist-notice%7Cext.math.styles%7Cext.tmh.thumbnail.styles%7Cext.uls.nojs%7Cext.
visualEditor.desktopArticleTarget.noscript%7Cext.wikimediaBadges%7Cmediawiki.leg
acy.commonPrint%2Cshared%7Cmediawiki.sectionAnchor%7Cmediawiki.skinning.interfac
e%7Cskins.vector.styles%7Cwikibase.client.init&amp;only=styles&amp;skin=vector"/
>
<script async="" src="/w/load.php?debug=false&amp;lang=en&amp;modules=startup&am
p;only=scripts&amp;skin=vector"></script>
<meta name="ResourceLoaderDynamicStyles" content=""/>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="/w/load.php?debug=false&amp;lang=en&amp;modules=sit
e.styles&amp;only=styles&amp;skin=vector"/>
<meta name="generator" content="MediaWiki 1.28.0-wmf.18"/>
<meta name="referrer" content="origin-when-cross-origin"/>
<link rel="alternate" href="android-app://org.wikipedia/http/en.m.wikipedia.org/
wiki/Propositional_calculus"/>
<link rel="alternate" type="application/x-wiki" title="Edit this page" href="/w/
index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit"/>
<link rel="edit" title="Edit this page" href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_c
alculus&amp;action=edit"/>
<link rel="apple-touch-icon" href="/static/apple-touch/wikipedia.png"/>
<link rel="shortcut icon" href="/static/favicon/wikipedia.ico"/>
<link rel="search" type="application/opensearchdescription+xml" href="/w/opensea
rch_desc.php" title="Wikipedia (en)"/>
<link rel="EditURI" type="application/rsd+xml" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/api.ph
p?action=rsd"/>
<link rel="copyright" href="//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/"/>
<link rel="canonical" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propositional_calculus
"/>
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//login.wikimedia.org"/>
<link rel="dns-prefetch" href="//meta.wikimedia.org" />
</head>
<body class="mediawiki ltr sitedir-ltr mw-hide-empty-elt ns-0 ns-subject page-Pr
opositional_calculus rootpage-Propositional_calculus skin-vector action-view fea
ture-page-action-bar-v2">
<div id="mw-page-base" class="noprint"><
/div>
<div id="mw-head-base" class="noprint"></div>
<div id="content" class="mw-body" role="main">
<a id="top"></a>
- CentralNotice --></div>
</div>
positional calculus</h1>

<div id="siteNotice"><!<div class="mw-indicators">

<h1 id="firstHeading" class="firstHeading" lang="en">Pro

"bodyContent" class="mw-body-content">
"siteSub">From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia</div>
Sub"></div>
<div id="jump-to-nav" class="mw-jump">

<div id=
<div id=
<div id="content

Jump to:
<a href="#mw-head">navigation</a>,
<a href=
"#p-search">search</a>
</div>
<div id="mw-content-text" lang="en" dir="ltr" cl
ass="mw-content-ltr"><table class="vertical-navbox nowraplinks plainlist" style=
"float:right;clear:right;width:22.0em;margin:0 0 1.0em 1.0em;background:#f9f9f9;

border:1px solid #aaa;padding:0.2em;border-spacing:0.4em 0;text-align:center;lin


e-height:1.4em;font-size:88%">
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.2em 0.4em 0.2em;font-size:145%;line-height:1.2em"><a href="
/wiki/Rule_of_inference" title="Rule of inference">Transformation rules</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#eaeaff;;background:#ddf;font-size:110%; bor
der-bottom:1px #fefefe solid;"><strong class="selflink">Propositional calculus</
strong></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#eaeaff;"><a href="/wiki/Rule_of_inference"
title="Rule of inference">Rules of inference</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding-top:0.15em;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Modus_ponens" title="Modus ponens"><span title="AB, A ? B"><i>M
odus ponens</i></span></a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Modus_tollens" title="Modus tol
lens"><span title="AB, ?B ? ?A"><i>Modus tollens</i></span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Biconditional_introduction" title="Biconditional introduction
"><span title="AB, BA ? A?B">Biconditional introduction</span></a>&#160;/ <a href="/
wiki/Biconditional_elimination" title="Biconditional elimination">elimination</a
></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Conjunction_introduction" title="Conjunction introduction"><s
pan title="A, B ? AB">Conjunction introduction</span></a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Co
njunction_elimination" title="Conjunction elimination"><span title="AB ? A">elimin
ation</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disjunction_introduction" title="Disjunction introduction"><s
pan title="A ? AB">Disjunction introduction</span></a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Disju
nction_elimination" title="Disjunction elimination"><span title="AB, AC, BC ? C">elim
nation</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disjunctive_syllogism" title="Disjunctive syllogism"><span ti
tle="AB, ?A ? B">Disjunctive</span></a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Hypothetical_syllogi
sm" title="Hypothetical syllogism"><span title="AB, BC ? AC">Hypothetical syllogism</
pan></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Constructive_dilemma" title="Constructive dilemma"><span titl
e="AP, BQ, AB ? PQ">Constructive</span></a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Destructive_dilem
itle="Destructive dilemma"><span title="AP, BQ, ?P?Q ? ?A?B">Destructive dilemma</s
/a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Absorption_(logic)" title="Absorption (logic)"><span title="AB
? AAB">Absorption</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Modus_ponendo_tollens" title="Modus ponendo tollens">Modus po
nendo tollens</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#eaeaff;"><a href="/wiki/Rule_of_replacement
" title="Rule of replacement">Rules of replacement</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding-top:0.15em;">
<div class="hlist">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Associative_property" title="Associative property"><span titl
e="A(BC) = (AB)C">Associativity</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Commutative_property" title="Commutative property">Commutativ
ity</a></li>

<li><a href="/wiki/Distributive_property" title="Distributive property"><span ti


tle="A(BC) = (AB)(AC)">Distributivity</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_negation" title="Double negation"><span title="??A = A
">Double negation</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/De_Morgan%27s_laws" title="De Morgan's laws">De Morgan's laws
</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Transposition_(logic)" title="Transposition (logic)">Transpos
ition</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Material_implication_(rule_of_inference)" title="Material imp
lication (rule of inference)"><span title="AB ? ?AB">Material implication</span></a>
</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Exportation_(logic)" title="Exportation (logic)"><span title=
"(AB)C ? A(BC)">Exportation</span></a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tautology_(rule_of_inference)" title="Tautology (rule of infe
rence)">Tautology</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Negation_introduction" title="Negation introduction">Negation
introduction</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th style="padding:0.1em;background:#eaeaff;;background:#ddf;font-size:110%;"><a
href="/wiki/Predicate_logic" title="Predicate logic">Predicate logic</a></th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="padding:0 0.1em 0.4em;padding-top:0.15em;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Universal_generalization" title="Universal generalization">Un
iversal generalization</a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Universal_instantiation" title=
"Universal instantiation">instantiation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Existential_generalization" title="Existential generalization
">Existential generalization</a>&#160;/ <a href="/wiki/Existential_instantiation
" title="Existential instantiation">instantiation</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td style="text-align:right;font-size:115%">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Transformation_rules" title="Templat
e:Transformation rules"><abbr title="View this template">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Transformation_rules" title="Te
mplate talk:Transformation rules"><abbr title="Discuss this template">t</abbr></
a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.ph
p?title=Template:Transformation_rules&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this te
mplate">e</abbr></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p><b>Propositional calculus</b> (also called <b>propositional logic</b>, <b>sen
tential calculus</b>, <b>sentential logic</b>, or sometimes <b><a href="/wiki/Ze
roth-order_logic" title="Zeroth-order logic">zeroth-order logic</a></b>) is the
branch of <a href="/wiki/Mathematical_logic" title="Mathematical logic">mathemat
ical logic</a> concerned with the study of propositions (whether they are true o
r false) that are formed by other propositions with the use of <a href="/wiki/Lo

gical_connective" title="Logical connective">logical connectives</a>, and how th


eir value depends on the truth value of their components. Logical connectives ar
e found in natural languages. In English for example, some examples are "and" (<
a href="/wiki/Logical_conjunction" title="Logical conjunction">conjunction</a>),
"or" (<a href="/wiki/Logical_disjunction" title="Logical disjunction">disjuncti
on</a>), "not (<a href="/wiki/Negation" title="Negation">negation</a>) and "if" (b
ut only when used to denote <a href="/wiki/Material_conditional" title="Material
conditional">material conditional</a>).</p>
<p>The following is an example of a very simple inference within the scope of pr
opositional logic:</p>
<dl>
<dd>Premise 1: If it's raining then it's cloudy.</dd>
<dd>Premise 2: It's raining.</dd>
<dd>Conclusion: It's cloudy.</dd>
</dl>
<p>Both premises and the conclusion are propositions. The premises are taken for
granted and then with the application of <a href="/wiki/Modus_ponens" title="Mo
dus ponens">modus ponens</a> (an <a href="/wiki/Inference_rule" class="mw-redire
ct" title="Inference rule">inference rule</a>) the conclusion follows.</p>
<p>As propositional logic is not concerned with the structure of propositions be
yond the point where they can't be decomposed anymore by logical connectives, th
is inference can be restated replacing those <i>atomic</i> statements with state
ment letters, which are interpreted as variables representing statements:</p>
<dl>
<dd>Premise 1: <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" s
tyle="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>P</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle P\to Q}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
d7cad5b2c2991ae1dbded560c5d875fbf49fe8ea" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:7.229ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="P\to Q" /></span></dd>
<dd>Premise 2: <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" s
tyle="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>P</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle P}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b4dc73bf40314945ff376bd363916a738548d40a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.756ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="P" /></span></dd>
<dd>Conclusion: <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>Q</mi>

</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle Q}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8752c7023b4b3286800fe3238271bbca681219ed" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:1.849ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="Q" /></span></dd>
</dl>
<p>The same can be stated succinctly in the following way:</p>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>P</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>P</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle P\to Q,P\vdash Q}</a
nnotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
2f6b1bf712367f9c2db9774415f397953dda2fc8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:14.599ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="P\to Q,P\vdash Q" /></span></dd>
</dl>
<p>When <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> is interp
reted as It's raining and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</s
pan> as it's cloudy the above symbolic expressions can be seen to exactly correspond
with the original expression in natural language. Not only that, but they will
also correspond with any other inference of this <i>form</i>, which will be vali
d on the same basis that this inference is.</p>
<p>Propositional logic may be studied through a <a href="/wiki/Formal_system" ti
tle="Formal system">formal system</a> in which <a href="/wiki/Well-formed_formul
a" title="Well-formed formula">formulas</a> of a <a href="/wiki/Formal_language"
title="Formal language">formal language</a> may be <a href="/wiki/Interpretatio
n_(logic)" title="Interpretation (logic)">interpreted</a> to represent <a href="
/wiki/Propositions" class="mw-redirect" title="Propositions">propositions</a>. A
<a href="/wiki/Deductive_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Deductive system">s
ystem</a> of <a href="/wiki/Rule_of_inference" title="Rule of inference">inferen
ce rules</a> and <a href="/wiki/Axiom" title="Axiom">axioms</a> allows certain f
ormulas to be derived. These derived formulas are called <a href="/wiki/Theorem"
title="Theorem">theorems</a> and may be interpreted to be true propositions. A
constructed sequence of such formulas is known as a <i><a href="/wiki/Formal_pro
of" title="Formal proof">derivation</a></i> or <i>proof</i> and the last formula
of the sequence is the theorem. The derivation may be interpreted as proof of t
he proposition represented by the theorem.</p>
<p>When a <a href="/wiki/Formal_system" title="Formal system">formal system</a>
is used to represent formal logic, only statement letters are represented direct
ly. The natural language propositions that arise when they're interpreted are ou
tside the scope of the system, and the relation between the formal system and it
s interpretation is likewise outside the formal system itself.</p>
<p>Usually in <b>truth-functional propositional logic</b>, formulas are interpre

ted as having either a <a href="/wiki/Truth_value" title="Truth value">truth val


ue</a> of <i>true</i> or a truth value of <i>false</i>.<sup class="noprint Inlin
e-Template" style="margin-left:0.1em; white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wi
kipedia:Please_clarify" title="Wikipedia:Please clarify"><span title="The differ
ence between 'propositional calculus' in general and 'truth-functional propositi
onal logic' in particular should be made more clear. While in the former, a (der
ived) formula 'may be interpreted to be a true proposition', in the latter it ma
y be 'interpreted as having ... a truth value of true' - isn't that the same? (O
ctober 2013)">clarification needed</span></a></i>]</sup> Truth-functional propos
itional logic and systems <a href="/wiki/Isomorphism" title="Isomorphism">isomor
phic</a> to it, are considered to be <b><a href="/wiki/Zeroth-order_logic" title
="Zeroth-order logic">zeroth-order logic</a></b>.</p>
<p></p>
<div id="toc" class="toc">
<div id="toctitle">
<h2>Contents</h2>
</div>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-1"><a href="#History"><span class="tocnumber">1
</span> <span class="toctext">History</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-2"><a href="#Terminology"><span class="tocnumbe
r">2</span> <span class="toctext">Terminology</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-3"><a href="#Basic_concepts"><span class="tocnu
mber">3</span> <span class="toctext">Basic concepts</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-4"><a href="#Closure_under_operations"><span cl
ass="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">Closure under operations</span>
</a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-5"><a href="#Argument"><span class="tocnumber">
3.2</span> <span class="toctext">Argument</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-6"><a href="#Generic_description_of_a_propositi
onal_calculus"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">Generic de
scription of a propositional calculus</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-7"><a href="#Example_1._Simple_axiom_system"><s
pan class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">Example 1. Simple axiom sys
tem</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-8"><a href="#Example_2._Natural_deduction_syste
m"><span class="tocnumber">6</span> <span class="toctext">Example 2. Natural ded
uction system</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-9"><a href="#Basic_and_derived_argument_forms">
<span class="tocnumber">7</span> <span class="toctext">Basic and derived argumen
t forms</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-10"><a href="#Proofs_in_propositional_calculus"
><span class="tocnumber">8</span> <span class="toctext">Proofs in propositional
calculus</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-11"><a href="#Example_of_a_proof"><span class="
tocnumber">8.1</span> <span class="toctext">Example of a proof</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-12"><a href="#Soundness_and_completeness_of_the
_rules"><span class="tocnumber">9</span> <span class="toctext">Soundness and com
pleteness of the rules</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-13"><a href="#Sketch_of_a_soundness_proof"><spa
n class="tocnumber">9.1</span> <span class="toctext">Sketch of a soundness proof
</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-14"><a href="#Sketch_of_completeness_proof"><sp

an class="tocnumber">9.2</span> <span class="toctext">Sketch of completeness pro


of</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-15"><a href="#Another_outline_for_a_completenes
s_proof"><span class="tocnumber">9.3</span> <span class="toctext">Another outlin
e for a completeness proof</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-16"><a href="#Interpretation_of_a_truth-functio
nal_propositional_calculus"><span class="tocnumber">10</span> <span class="tocte
xt">Interpretation of a truth-functional propositional calculus</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-17"><a href="#Interpretation_of_a_sentence_of_t
ruth-functional_propositional_logic"><span class="tocnumber">10.1</span> <span c
lass="toctext">Interpretation of a sentence of truth-functional propositional lo
gic</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-18"><a href="#Alternative_calculus"><span class
="tocnumber">11</span> <span class="toctext">Alternative calculus</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-19"><a href="#Axioms"><span class="tocnumber">1
1.1</span> <span class="toctext">Axioms</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-20"><a href="#Inference_rule"><span class="tocn
umber">11.2</span> <span class="toctext">Inference rule</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-21"><a href="#Meta-inference_rule"><span class=
"tocnumber">11.3</span> <span class="toctext">Meta-inference rule</span></a></li
>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-22"><a href="#Example_of_a_proof_2"><span class
="tocnumber">11.4</span> <span class="toctext">Example of a proof</span></a></li
>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-23"><a href="#Equivalence_to_equational_logics"
><span class="tocnumber">12</span> <span class="toctext">Equivalence to equation
al logics</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-24"><a href="#Graphical_calculi"><span class="t
ocnumber">13</span> <span class="toctext">Graphical calculi</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-25"><a href="#Other_logical_calculi"><span clas
s="tocnumber">14</span> <span class="toctext">Other logical calculi</span></a></
li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-26"><a href="#Solvers"><span class="tocnumber">
15</span> <span class="toctext">Solvers</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-27"><a href="#See_also"><span class="tocnumber"
>16</span> <span class="toctext">See also</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-28"><a href="#Higher_logical_levels"><span clas
s="tocnumber">16.1</span> <span class="toctext">Higher logical levels</span></a>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-29"><a href="#Related_topics"><span class="tocn
umber">16.2</span> <span class="toctext">Related topics</span></a></li>
</ul>
</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-30"><a href="#References"><span class="tocnumbe
r">17</span> <span class="toctext">References</span></a></li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-31"><a href="#Further_reading"><span class="toc
number">18</span> <span class="toctext">Further reading</span></a>
<ul>
<li class="toclevel-2 tocsection-32"><a href="#Related_works"><span class="tocnu
mber">18.1</span> <span class="toctext">Related works</span></a></li>
</ul>

</li>
<li class="toclevel-1 tocsection-33"><a href="#External_links"><span class="tocn
umber">19</span> <span class="toctext">External links</span></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<p></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="History">History</span><span class="mw-editsec
tion"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=P
ropositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=1" title="Edit section: Histor
y">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="note" class="hatnote">Main article: <a href="/wiki/History_of_logic"
title="History of logic">History of logic</a></div>
<p>Although propositional logic (which is interchangeable with propositional cal
culus) had been hinted by earlier philosophers, it was developed into a formal l
ogic by <a href="/wiki/Chrysippus" title="Chrysippus">Chrysippus</a> in the 3rd
century BC<sup id="cite_ref-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-1">[1]</a><
/sup> and expanded by the <a href="/wiki/Stoics" class="mw-redirect" title="Stoi
cs">Stoics</a>. The logic was focused on <a href="/wiki/Proposition" title="Prop
osition">propositions</a>. This advancement was different from the traditional <
a href="/wiki/Syllogism" title="Syllogism">syllogistic logic</a> which was focus
ed on <a href="/wiki/Syllogisms#Terms_in_syllogism" class="mw-redirect" title="S
yllogisms">terms</a>. However, later in antiquity, the propositional logic devel
oped by the Stoics was no longer understood<sup class="noprint Inline-Template"
style="white-space:nowrap;">[<i><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Manual_of_Style/Words_t
o_watch#Unsupported_attributions" title="Wikipedia:Manual of Style/Words to watc
h"><span title="The material near this tag possibly uses too-vague attribution o
r weasel words. (October 2014)">who?</span></a></i>]</sup>. Consequently, the sy
stem was essentially reinvented by <a href="/wiki/Peter_Abelard" title="Peter Ab
elard">Peter Abelard</a> in the 12th century.<sup id="cite_ref-2" class="referen
ce"><a href="#cite_note-2">[2]</a></sup></p>
<p>Propositional logic was eventually refined using <a href="/wiki/Symbolic_logi
c" class="mw-redirect" title="Symbolic logic">symbolic logic</a>. The 17th/18thcentury mathematician <a href="/wiki/Gottfried_Leibniz" class="mw-redirect" titl
e="Gottfried Leibniz">Gottfried Leibniz</a> has been credited with being the fou
nder of symbolic logic for his work with the <a href="/wiki/Calculus_ratiocinato
r" title="Calculus ratiocinator">calculus ratiocinator</a>. Although his work wa
s the first of its kind, it was unknown to the larger logical community. Consequ
ently, many of the advances achieved by Leibniz were reachieved by logicians lik
e <a href="/wiki/George_Boole" title="George Boole">George Boole</a> and <a href
="/wiki/Augustus_De_Morgan" title="Augustus De Morgan">Augustus De Morgan</a> co
mpletely independent of Leibniz.<sup id="cite_ref-3" class="reference"><a href="
#cite_note-3">[3]</a></sup></p>
<p>Just as propositional logic can be considered an advancement from the earlier
syllogistic logic, <a href="/wiki/Gottlob_Frege" title="Gottlob Frege">Gottlob
Frege's</a> <a href="/wiki/Predicate_logic" title="Predicate logic">predicate lo
gic</a> was an advancement from the earlier propositional logic. One author desc
ribes predicate logic as combining "the distinctive features of syllogistic logi
c and propositional logic."<sup id="cite_ref-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite
_note-4">[4]</a></sup> Consequently, predicate logic ushered in a new era in log
ic's history; however, advances in propositional logic were still made after Fre
ge, including <a href="/wiki/Natural_deduction" title="Natural deduction">Natura
l Deduction</a>, <a href="/wiki/Method_of_analytic_tableaux" title="Method of an
alytic tableaux">Truth-Trees</a> and <a href="/wiki/Truth-table" class="mw-redir
ect" title="Truth-table">Truth-Tables</a>. Natural deduction was invented by <a
href="/wiki/Gerhard_Gentzen" title="Gerhard Gentzen">Gerhard Gentzen</a> and <a
href="/wiki/Jan_%C5%81ukasiewicz" title="Jan ?ukasiewicz">Jan ?ukasiewicz</a>. T
ruth-Trees were invented by <a href="/wiki/Evert_Willem_Beth" title="Evert Wille
m Beth">Evert Willem Beth</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-5" class="reference"><a href="#c
ite_note-5">[5]</a></sup> The invention of truth-tables, however, is of controve
rsial attribution.</p>

<p>Within works by Frege<sup id="cite_ref-Truth_in_Frege_6-0" class="reference">


<a href="#cite_note-Truth_in_Frege-6">[6]</a></sup> and <a href="/wiki/Bertrand_
Russell" title="Bertrand Russell">Bertrand Russell</a>,<sup id="cite_ref-Russell
_Truth-Tables_7-0" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Russell_Truth-Tables-7"
>[7]</a></sup> one finds ideas influential in bringing about the notion of truth
tables. The actual 'tabular structure' (being formatted as a table), itself, is
generally credited to either <a href="/wiki/Ludwig_Wittgenstein" title="Ludwig
Wittgenstein">Ludwig Wittgenstein</a> or <a href="/wiki/Emil_Post" class="mw-red
irect" title="Emil Post">Emil Post</a> (or both, independently).<sup id="cite_re
f-Truth_in_Frege_6-1" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Truth_in_Frege-6">[6
]</a></sup> Besides Frege and Russell, others credited with having ideas precedi
ng truth-tables include Philo, Boole, <a href="/wiki/Charles_Sanders_Peirce" tit
le="Charles Sanders Peirce">Charles Sanders Peirce</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Ernst
_Schr%C3%B6der" title="Ernst Schr?der">Ernst Schr?der</a>. Others credited with
the tabular structure include ?ukasiewicz, Schr?der, <a href="/wiki/Alfred_North
_Whitehead" title="Alfred North Whitehead">Alfred North Whitehead</a>, <a href="
/wiki/William_Stanley_Jevons" title="William Stanley Jevons">William Stanley Jev
ons</a>, <a href="/wiki/John_Venn" title="John Venn">John Venn</a>, and <a href=
"/wiki/Clarence_Irving_Lewis" title="Clarence Irving Lewis">Clarence Irving Lewi
s</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-Russell_Truth-Tables_7-1" class="reference"><a href="#ci
te_note-Russell_Truth-Tables-7">[7]</a></sup> Ultimately, some have concluded, l
ike John Shosky, that "It is far from clear that any one person should be given
the title of 'inventor' of truth-tables.".<sup id="cite_ref-Russell_Truth-Tables
_7-2" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-Russell_Truth-Tables-7">[7]</a></sup
></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Terminology">Terminology</span><span class="mw
-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php
?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=2" title="Edit section
: Terminology">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>In general terms, a calculus is a <a href="/wiki/Formal_system" title="Formal
system">formal system</a> that consists of a set of syntactic expressions (<i><
a href="/wiki/Well-formed_formula" title="Well-formed formula">well-formed formu
las</a></i>), a distinguished subset of these expressions (axioms), plus a set o
f formal rules that define a specific <a href="/wiki/Binary_relation" title="Bin
ary relation">binary relation</a>, intended to be interpreted as <a href="/wiki/
Logical_equivalence" title="Logical equivalence">logical equivalence</a>, on the
space of expressions.</p>
<p>When the formal system is intended to be a <a href="/wiki/Logical_system" cla
ss="mw-redirect" title="Logical system">logical system</a>, the expressions are
meant to be interpreted as statements, and the rules, known to be <i>inference r
ules</i>, are typically intended to be truth-preserving. In this setting, the ru
les (which may include <a href="/wiki/Axioms" class="mw-redirect" title="Axioms"
>axioms</a>) can then be used to derive ("infer") formulas representing true sta
tements from given formulas representing true statements.</p>
<p>The set of axioms may be empty, a nonempty finite set, a countably infinite s
et, or be given by <a href="/wiki/Axiom_schema" title="Axiom schema">axiom schem
ata</a>. A <a href="/wiki/Formal_grammar" title="Formal grammar">formal grammar<
/a> recursively defines the expressions and well-formed formulas of the <a href=
"/wiki/Formal_language" title="Formal language">language</a>. In addition a <a h
ref="/wiki/Semantics" title="Semantics">semantics</a> may be given which defines
truth and <a href="/wiki/Valuation_(logic)" title="Valuation (logic)">valuation
s</a> (or <a href="/wiki/Interpretation_(logic)" title="Interpretation (logic)">
interpretations</a>).</p>
<p>The <a href="/wiki/Formal_language" title="Formal language">language</a> of a
propositional calculus consists of</p>
<ol>
<li>a set of primitive symbols, variously referred to as <i><a href="/wiki/Atomi
c_formula" title="Atomic formula">atomic formulas</a></i>, <i>placeholders</i>,
<i>proposition letters</i>, or <i>variables</i>, and</li>
<li>a set of operator symbols, variously interpreted as <i><a href="/wiki/Logica

l_operator" class="mw-redirect" title="Logical operator">logical operators</a></


i> or <i>logical connectives</i>.</li>
</ol>
<p>A <i><a href="/wiki/Well-formed_formula" title="Well-formed formula">well-for
med formula</a></i> is any atomic formula, or any formula that can be built up f
rom atomic formulas by means of operator symbols according to the rules of the g
rammar.</p>
<p>Mathematicians sometimes distinguish between propositional constants, proposi
tional variables, and schemata. Propositional constants represent some particula
r proposition, while propositional variables range over the set of all atomic pr
opositions. Schemata, however, range over all propositions. It is common to repr
esent propositional constants by <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:it
alic;">A</span>, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>,
and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">C</span>, proposition
al variables by <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span>,
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span>, and <span class=
"texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">R</span>, and schematic letters are of
ten Greek letters, most often <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:itali
c;"></span>, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>, and <spa
n class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Basic_concepts">Basic concepts</span><span cla
ss="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/ind
ex.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=3" title="Edit s
ection: Basic concepts">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></s
pan></h2>
<p>The following outlines a standard propositional calculus. Many different form
ulations exist which are all more or less equivalent but differ in the details o
f:</p>
<ol>
<li>their language, that is, the particular collection of primitive symbols and
operator symbols,</li>
<li>the set of axioms, or distinguished formulas, and</li>
<li>the set of inference rules.</li>
</ol>
<p>Any given proposition may be represented with a letter called a 'propositiona
l constant', analogous to representing a number by a letter in mathematics, for
instance, <span class="texhtml"><i>a</i> = 5</span>. All propositions require ex
actly one of two truth-values: true or false. For example, let <span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> be the proposition that it is rain
ing outside. This will be true (<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ita
lic;">P</span>) if it is raining outside and false otherwise (<span class="texht
ml">?<i>P</i></span>).</p>
<ul>
<li>We then define <a href="/wiki/Truth-functional" class="mw-redirect" title="T
ruth-functional">truth-functional</a> operators, beginning with negation. <span
class="texhtml">?<i>P</i></span> represents the negation of <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span>, which can be thought of as the denia
l of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span>. In the exam
ple above, <span class="texhtml">?<i>P</i></span> expresses that it is not raini
ng outside, or by a more standard reading: "It is not the case that it is rainin
g outside." When <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span>
is true, <span class="texhtml">?<i>P</i></span> is false; and when <span class="
texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> is false, <span class="texhtml
">?<i>P</i></span> is true. <span class="texhtml">??<i>P</i></span> always has t
he same truth-value as <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</
span>.</li>
<li>Conjunction is a truth-functional connective which forms a proposition out o
f two simpler propositions, for example, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fontstyle:italic;">P</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;
">Q</span>. The conjunction of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital

ic;">P</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span>


is written <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span>, and expresses that ea
ch are true. We read <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span> for "<span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> and <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span>". For any two propositions, there are
four possible assignments of truth values:
<ol>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> is true and <
span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is true</li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> is true and <
span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is false</li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> is false and
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is true</li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> is false and
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is false</li>
</ol>
</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>The conjunction of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</
span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is true
in case 1 and is false otherwise. Where <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fontstyle:italic;">P</span> is the proposition that it is raining outside and <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is the proposition that
a cold-front is over Kansas, <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span> is t
rue when it is raining outside and there is a cold-front over Kansas. If it is n
ot raining outside, then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P
Q</span> is false; and if there is no cold-front over Kansas, then <span class="
texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span> is false.</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li>Disjunction resembles conjunction in that it forms a proposition out of two
simpler propositions. We write it <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span>,
and it is read "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span>
or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span>". It expresses
that either <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> or <
span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is true. Thus, in
the cases listed above, the disjunction of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fon
t-style:italic;">P</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:itali
c;">Q</span> is true in all cases except 4. Using the example above, the disjunc
tion expresses that it is either raining outside or there is a cold front over K
ansas. (Note, this use of disjunction is supposed to resemble the use of the Eng
lish word "or". However, it is most like the English <a href="/wiki/Inclusive_di
sjunction" class="mw-redirect" title="Inclusive disjunction">inclusive</a> "or",
which can be used to express the truth of at least one of two propositions. It
is not like the English <a href="/wiki/Exclusive_disjunction" class="mw-redirect
" title="Exclusive disjunction">exclusive</a> "or", which expresses the truth of
exactly one of two propositions. That is to say, the exclusive "or" is false wh
en both <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> and <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> are true (case 1). An
example of the exclusive or is: You may have a bagel or a pastry, but not both.
Often in natural language, given the appropriate context, the addendum "but not
both" is omitted but implied. In mathematics, however, "or" is always inclusive
or; if exclusive or is meant it will be specified, possibly by "xor".)</li>
<li>Material conditional also joins two simpler propositions, and we write <span
class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span>, which is read "if <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar" style
="font-style:italic;">Q</span>". The proposition to the left of the arrow is cal
led the antecedent and the proposition to the right is called the consequent. (T
here is no such designation for conjunction or disjunction, since they are commu

tative operations.) It expresses that <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-sty


le:italic;">Q</span> is true whenever <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-sty
le:italic;">P</span> is true. Thus it is true in every case above except case 2,
because this is the only case when <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style
:italic;">P</span> is true but <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;">Q</span> is not. Using the example, if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">P</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ita
lic;">Q</span> expresses that if it is raining outside then there is a cold-fron
t over Kansas. The material conditional is often confused with physical causatio
n. The material conditional, however, only relates two propositions by their tru
th-valueswhich is not the relation of cause and effect. It is contentious in the l
iterature whether the material implication represents logical causation.</li>
<li>Biconditional joins two simpler propositions, and we write <span class="texh
tml"><i>P</i> ? <i>Q</i></span>, which is read "<span class="texhtml mvar" style
="font-style:italic;">P</span> if and only if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="
font-style:italic;">Q</span>". It expresses that <span class="texhtml mvar" styl
e="font-style:italic;">P</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style
:italic;">Q</span> have the same truth-value, thus <span class="texhtml mvar" st
yle="font-style:italic;">P</span> if and only if <span class="texhtml mvar" styl
e="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is true in cases 1 and 4, and false otherwise.</
li>
</ul>
<p>It is extremely helpful to look at the <a href="/wiki/Truth_table" title="Tru
th table">truth tables</a> for these different operators, as well as the <a href
="/wiki/Method_of_analytic_tableaux" title="Method of analytic tableaux">method
of analytic tableaux</a>.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Closure_under_operations">Closure under operat
ions</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</
span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;sect
ion=4" title="Edit section: Closure under operations">edit</a><span class="mw-ed
itsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Propositional logic is closed under truth-functional connectives. That is to
say, for any proposition <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></s
pan>, <span class="texhtml">?<i></i></span> is also a proposition. Likewise, for a
ny propositions <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> and
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>, <span class="texhtm
l"><i></i> <i></i></span> is a proposition, and similarly for disjunction, condition
l, and biconditional. This implies that, for instance, <span class="texhtml"><i></
i> <i></i></span> is a proposition, and so it can be conjoined with another proposi
tion. In order to represent this, we need to use parentheses to indicate which p
roposition is conjoined with which. For instance, <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i>
<i>Q</i> <i>R</i></span> is not a well-formed formula, because we do not know if
we are conjoining <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span> with <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">R</span> or if we are conjoining <spa
n class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> with <span class="tex
html"><i>Q</i> <i>R</i></span>. Thus we must write either <span class="texhtml">(
<i>P</i> <i>Q</i>) <i>R</i></span> to represent the former, or <span class="texhtm
l"><i>P</i> (<i>Q</i> <i>R</i>)</span> to represent the latter. By evaluating the
truth conditions, we see that both expressions have the same truth conditions (w
ill be true in the same cases), and moreover that any proposition formed by arbi
trary conjunctions will have the same truth conditions, regardless of the locati
on of the parentheses. This means that conjunction is associative, however, one
should not assume that parentheses never serve a purpose. For instance, the sent
ence <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> (<i>Q</i> <i>R</i>)</span> does not have the s
ame truth conditions of <span class="texhtml">(<i>P</i> <i>Q</i>) <i>R</i></span>,
so they are different sentences distinguished only by the parentheses. One can
verify this by the truth-table method referenced above.</p>
<p>Note: For any arbitrary number of propositional constants, we can form a fini
te number of cases which list their possible truth-values. A simple way to gener
ate this is by truth-tables, in which one writes <span class="texhtml mvar" styl

e="font-style:italic;">P</span>, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:it


alic;">Q</span>, ..., <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Z</s
pan>, for any list of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">k</s
pan> propositional constantsthat is to say, any list of propositional constants wi
th <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">k</span> entries. Below
this list, one writes <span class="texhtml">2<sup><i>k</i></sup></span> rows, a
nd below <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> one fill
s in the first half of the rows with true (or T) and the second half with false
(or F). Below <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> one
fills in one-quarter of the rows with T, then one-quarter with F, then one-quar
ter with T and the last quarter with F. The next column alternates between true
and false for each eighth of the rows, then sixteenths, and so on, until the las
t propositional constant varies between T and F for each row. This will give a c
omplete listing of cases or truth-value assignments possible for those propositi
onal constants.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Argument">Argument</span><span class="mw-edits
ection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title
=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=5" title="Edit section: Argu
ment">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The propositional calculus then defines an <i><a href="/wiki/Argument" title=
"Argument">argument</a></i> to be a set of propositions. A valid argument is a s
et of propositions, the last of which follows fromor is implied bythe rest. All othe
r arguments are invalid. The simplest valid argument is <a href="/wiki/Modus_pon
ens" title="Modus ponens">modus ponens</a>, one instance of which is the followi
ng set of propositions:</p>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mtable columnalign="right left" rowspacing="4pt" columnspacing="1em"
rowlines="none solid">
<mtr>
<mtd>
<mn>1.</mn>
</mtd>
<mtd>
<mi>P</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
</mtd>
</mtr>
<mtr>
<mtd>
<mn>2.</mn>
</mtd>
<mtd>
<mi>P</mi>
</mtd>
</mtr>
<mtr>
<mtd>
<mo>&#x2234;<!-- --></mo>
</mtd>
<mtd>
<mi>Q</mi>
</mtd>
</mtr>

</mtable>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\begin{array}{rl}1.
&amp;P\to Q\\2.&amp;P\\\hline \therefore &amp;Q\end{array}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
2426295bdefbf66f3d3461886a37efc8561ed3b1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -4.671ex; width:13.992ex; height:10.5
09ex;" alt="{\begin{array}{rl}1.&amp;P\to Q\\2.&amp;P\\\hline \therefore &amp;Q\
end{array}}" /></span></dd>
</dl>
<p>This is a set of three propositions, each line is a proposition, and the last
follows from the rest. The first two lines are called premises, and the last li
ne the conclusion. We say that any proposition <span class="texhtml mvar" style=
"font-style:italic;">C</span> follows from any set of propositions <span><span c
lass="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>P</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>P</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (P_{1},...,P_{n})}</
annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
d65a886c08c12a5bad28743275a9533d8b655a90" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.345ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(P_{1},...,P_{n})" /></span>, if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">C</span> must be true whenever every member of the set <span><
span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;">
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>P</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">

<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>P</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (P_{1},...,P_{n})}</
annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
d65a886c08c12a5bad28743275a9533d8b655a90" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.345ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(P_{1},...,P_{n})" /></span> is true. In the argument above, for any
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span> and <span class="
texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span>, whenever <span class="texhtml
"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:itali
c;">P</span> are true, necessarily <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:
italic;">Q</span> is true. Notice that, when <span class="texhtml mvar" style="f
ont-style:italic;">P</span> is true, we cannot consider cases 3 and 4 (from the
truth table). When <span class="texhtml"><i>P</i> <i>Q</i></span> is true, we can
not consider case 2. This leaves only case 1, in which <span class="texhtml mvar
" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is also true. Thus <span class="texhtml mv
ar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is implied by the premises.</p>
<p>This generalizes schematically. Thus, where <span class="texhtml mvar" style=
"font-style:italic;"></span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;"></span> may be any propositions at all,</p>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mtable columnalign="right left" rowspacing="4pt" columnspacing="1em"
rowlines="none solid">
<mtr>
<mtd>
<mn>1.</mn>
</mtd>
<mtd>
<mi>&#x03C6;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mtd>
</mtr>
<mtr>
<mtd>
<mn>2.</mn>
</mtd>

<mtd>
<mi>&#x03C6;<!-- --></mi>
</mtd>
</mtr>
<mtr>
<mtd>
<mo>&#x2234;<!-- --></mo>
</mtd>
<mtd>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mtd>
</mtr>
</mtable>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\begin{array}{rl}1.
&amp;\varphi \to \psi \\2.&amp;\varphi \\\hline \therefore &amp;\psi \end{array}
}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ad7d3c7885e4f5ede73b8f660e22c7ba2aee5ec4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -4.671ex; width:13.441ex; height:10.5
09ex;" alt="{\begin{array}{rl}1.&amp;\varphi \to \psi \\2.&amp;\varphi \\\hline
\therefore &amp;\psi \end{array}}" /></span></dd>
</dl>
<p>Other argument forms are convenient, but not necessary. Given a complete set
of axioms (see below for one such set), modus ponens is sufficient to prove all
other argument forms in propositional logic, thus they may be considered to be a
derivative. Note, this is not true of the extension of propositional logic to o
ther logics like <a href="/wiki/First-order_logic" title="First-order logic">fir
st-order logic</a>. First-order logic requires at least one additional rule of i
nference in order to obtain <a href="/wiki/Completeness_(logic)" title="Complete
ness (logic)">completeness</a>.</p>
<p>The significance of argument in formal logic is that one may obtain new truth
s from established truths. In the first example above, given the two premises, t
he truth of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is no
t yet known or stated. After the argument is made, <span class="texhtml mvar" st
yle="font-style:italic;">Q</span> is deduced. In this way, we define a deduction
system to be a set of all propositions that may be deduced from another set of
propositions. For instance, given the set of propositions <span><span class="mwe
-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="ht
tp://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>P</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>R</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>P</mi>

<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>R</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A=\{P\lor Q,\neg Q\l
and R,(P\lor Q)\to R\}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
adeb42b254daa2e53c646b0bc4ca393d6de03c4e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:36.699ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="A=\{P\lor Q,\neg Q\land R,(P\lor Q)\to R\}" /></span>, we can define
a deduction system, <span class="texhtml"></span>, which is the set of all proposi
tions which follow from <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A<
/span>. <a href="/wiki/Deduction_theorem#Virtual_rules_of_inference" title="Dedu
ction theorem">Reiteration</a> is always assumed, so <span><span class="mwe-math
-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://
www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>P</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>R</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>P</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>R</mi>
<mo>&#x2208;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0393;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle P\lor Q,\neg Q\land
R,(P\lor Q)\to R\in \Gamma }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ee7347989e4af68621f3556f71200aa0cfbba0aa" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:33.805ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="P\lor Q,\neg Q\land R,(P\lor Q)\to R\in \Gamma " /></span>. Also, fro
m the first element of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</
span>, last element, as well as modus ponens, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="
font-style:italic;">R</span> is a consequence, and so <span><span class="mwe-mat
h-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http:/
/www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>R</mi>

<mo>&#x2208;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0393;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle R\in \Gamma }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8352bb57140cb71ecb96b32c3c328b11463dcd35" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:6.089ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="R\in \Gamma " /></span>. Because we have not included sufficiently com
plete axioms, though, nothing else may be deduced. Thus, even though most deduct
ion systems studied in propositional logic are able to deduce <span><span class=
"mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns
="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>P</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>P</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>Q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (P\lor Q)\leftrighta
rrow (\neg P\to Q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3ad862b103437f908a58b008703464bea93a1ef2" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:22.273ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(P\lor Q)\leftrightarrow (\neg P\to Q)" /></span>, this one is too we
ak to prove such a proposition.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Generic_description_of_a_propositional_calculu
s">Generic description of a propositional calculus</span><span class="mw-editsec
tion"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=P
ropositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=6" title="Edit section: Generi
c description of a propositional calculus">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-b
racket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>A <b>propositional calculus</b> is a <a href="/wiki/Formal_system" title="For
mal system">formal system</a> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math
-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Ma
thML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow>
<mo>(</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>)</mo>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}={\mat
hcal {L}}\left(\mathrm {A} ,\ \Omega ,\ \mathrm {Z} ,\ \mathrm {I} \right)}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3e15506ad1558e11faf181d5719dada2ffa706c4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.153ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}={\mathcal {L}}\left(\mathrm {A} ,\ \Omega ,\ \mathrm {
Z} ,\ \mathrm {I} \right)" /></span>, where:</p>
<ul>
<li>The <i>alpha set</i> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-math
ml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
>
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span> is a finite set of elements called <i>proposit
ion symbols</i> or <i><a href="/wiki/Propositional_variable" title="Propositiona
l variable">propositional variables</a></i>. Syntactically speaking, these are t
he most basic elements of the formal language <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml
-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.
org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
9027196ecb178d598958555ea01c43157d83597c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.614ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}" /></span>, otherwise referred to as <i><a href="/wiki/
Atomic_formula" title="Atomic formula">atomic formulas</a></i> or <i>terminal el
ements</i>. In the examples to follow, the elements of <span><span class="mwe-ma
th-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http:
//www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span> are typically the letters <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">q</span>, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;
">r</span>, and so on.</li>
<li>The <i>omega set</i> <span class="texhtml"></span> is a finite set of elements
called <i><a href="/wiki/Operation_(mathematics)" title="Operation (mathematics
)">operator symbols</a></i> or <i><a href="/wiki/Logical_connective" title="Logi
cal connective">logical connectives</a></i>. The set <span class="texhtml"></span>
is <a href="/wiki/Partition_of_a_set" title="Partition of a set">partitioned</a
> into disjoint subsets as follows:</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">

<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>&#x2026;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>j</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>&#x2026;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>m</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega =\Omega _{0}\
cup \Omega _{1}\cup \ldots \cup \Omega _{j}\cup \ldots \cup \Omega _{m}.}</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
9a27894933c2a5316fe6051dadc7d6eafcde048d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -1.005ex; width:35.364ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega =\Omega _{0}\cup \Omega _{1}\cup \ldots \cup \Omega _{j}\cup \
ldots \cup \Omega _{m}." /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>In this partition, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml
-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>j</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{j}}</annota

tion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a8484eda05a8236c53d99ab2ee1b3911f1bb1a42" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -1.005ex; width:2.606ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\Omega _{j}" /></span> is the set of operator symbols of <i><a href="/
wiki/Arity" title="Arity">arity</a></i> <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-s
tyle:italic;">j</span>.</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>In the more familiar propositional calculi, <span class="texhtml"></span> is t
ypically partitioned as follows:</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{1}=\{\lnot
\},}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a10c1cdba7209c59d10c8bcb597904f287ffe8e5" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.423ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega _{1}=\{\lnot \}," /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x2286;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{2}\subseteq
\{\land ,\lor ,\to ,\leftrightarrow \}.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0194ca43d149946a3e509b689d91e2db8b669d8a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.785ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega _{2}\subseteq \{\land ,\lor ,\to ,\leftrightarrow \}." /></spa
n></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>A frequently adopted convention treats the constant <a href="/wiki/Logical_v
alue" class="mw-redirect" title="Logical value">logical values</a> as operators
of arity zero, thus:</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mn>0</mn>
<mo>,</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>

<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{0}=\{0,1\}.


}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8245f2d5fdba6068e70f652a8de0472f1c1523f1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.252ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega _{0}=\{0,1\}." /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>Some writers use the <a href="/wiki/Tilde" title="Tilde">tilde</a> (~), or N
, instead of <span class="texhtml">?</span>; and some use the <a href="/wiki/Amp
ersand" title="Ampersand">ampersand</a> (&amp;), the prefixed K, or <span><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22C5;<!-- ? --></mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \cdot }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ba2c023bad1bd39ed49080f729cbf26bc448c9ba" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: 0.418ex; margin-bottom: -0.589ex; wid
th:0.657ex; height:1.176ex;" alt="\cdot " /></span> instead of <span><span class
="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmln
s="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \wedge }</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1caa4004cb216ef2930bb12fe805a76870caed94" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.561ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="\wedge " /></span>. Notation varies even more for the set of logical v
alues, with symbols like {false, true}, {F, T}, or <span><span class="mwe-math-m
athml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://ww
w.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x22A5;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x22A4;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{\bot ,\top \}}</an
notation>

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3e83949fab3b4d13316e215d0d4c373de8cd2664" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.027ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\{\bot ,\top \}" /></span> all being seen in various contexts instead
of {0, 1}.</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li>The <i>zeta set</i> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathm
l-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
>
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {Z} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
faf96082c4b2e79d67626f995ae571403f51b5da" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.431ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\mathrm {Z} " /></span> is a finite set of <i>transformation rules</i>
that are called <i><a href="/wiki/Inference_rule" class="mw-redirect" title="In
ference rule">inference rules</a></i> when they acquire logical applications.</l
i>
<li>The <i>iota set</i> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathm
l-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
>
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {I} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fe7a69180f25bbb4c73e091f97c7c5f9941ed17b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.85ex; height:2.176e
x;" alt="\mathrm {I} " /></span> is a finite set of <i>initial points</i> that a
re called <i><a href="/wiki/Axiom" title="Axiom">axioms</a></i> when they receiv
e logical interpretations.</li>
</ul>
<p>The <i>language</i> of <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mat
hml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML
" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>

</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
9027196ecb178d598958555ea01c43157d83597c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.614ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}" /></span>, also known as its set of <i>formulas</i>, <
i><a href="/wiki/Well-formed_formula" title="Well-formed formula">well-formed fo
rmulas</a></i>, is <a href="/wiki/Inductive_definition" class="mw-redirect" titl
e="Inductive definition">inductively defined</a> by the following rules:</p>
<ol>
<li>Base: Any element of the alpha set <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/199
8/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span> is a formula of <span><span class="mwe-math-ma
thml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www
.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
9027196ecb178d598958555ea01c43157d83597c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.614ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}" /></span>.</li>
<li>If <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>

</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>&#x2026;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>j</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p_{1},p_{2},\ldots ,
p_{j}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f6530a5997aa5cf664e065e8a74dbdb9f4fabda2" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -1.005ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:12.913ex; height:2.343ex;" alt="p_{1},p_{2},\ldots ,p_{j}" /></span> are formu
las and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="d
isplay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>f</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle f}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
132e57acb643253e7810ee9702d9581f159a1c61" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:1.289ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="f" /></span> is in <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-mathmathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Mat
hML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>j</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{j}}</annota
tion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a8484eda05a8236c53d99ab2ee1b3911f1bb1a42" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -1.005ex; width:2.606ex; height:2.843

ex;" alt="\Omega _{j}" /></span>, then <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline


mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/199
8/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow>
<mo>(</mo>
<mi>f</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<msub>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>&#x2026;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<msub>
<mi>p</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>j</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>)</mo>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \left(f(p_{1},p_{2},
\ldots ,p_{j})\right)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
05f0e28134d016b10ff1f781a7e292cc88302140" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -1.005ex; width:17.783ex; height:3.00
9ex;" alt="\left(f(p_{1},p_{2},\ldots ,p_{j})\right)" /></span> is a formula.</l
i>
<li>Closed: Nothing else is a formula of <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inli
ne mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1
998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}}</ann
otation>

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
9027196ecb178d598958555ea01c43157d83597c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.614ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}" /></span>.</li>
</ol>
<p>Repeated applications of these rules permits the construction of complex form
ulas. For example:</p>
<ol>
<li>By rule 1, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is
a formula.</li>
<li>By rule 2, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" s
tyle="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg p}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
e2b198c79234d926cbee42c0f271d903ea55dc21" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.741ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="\neg p" /></span> is a formula.</li>
<li>By rule 1, <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is
a formula.</li>
<li>By rule 2, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" s
tyle="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\neg p\lor q)}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fcee02bf5a98334cf83c910057126050219248dd" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:8.244ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(\neg p\lor q)" /></span> is a formula.</li>
</ol>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Example_1._Simple_axiom_system">Example 1. Sim
ple axiom system</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsectionbracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=e
dit&amp;section=7" title="Edit section: Example 1. Simple axiom system">edit</a>
<span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Let <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}_{1}={
\mathcal {L}}(\mathrm {A} ,\Omega ,\mathrm {Z} ,\mathrm {I} )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
47c386ef62f20e806febcf268c4ec9a104b238b1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.085ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}_{1}={\mathcal {L}}(\mathrm {A} ,\Omega ,\mathrm {Z} ,\
mathrm {I} )" /></span>, where <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-mat
h-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/M
athML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe
-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Ma
th/MathML" >
<semantics>

>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega }</annotation

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
24b0d5ca6f381068d756f6337c08e0af9d1eeb6f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.689ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\Omega " /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math
-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Ma
thML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {Z} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
faf96082c4b2e79d67626f995ae571403f51b5da" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.431ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\mathrm {Z} " /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe
-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Ma
th/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {I} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fe7a69180f25bbb4c73e091f97c7c5f9941ed17b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.85ex; height:2.176e
x;" alt="\mathrm {I} " /></span> are defined as follows:</p>
<ul>
<li>The alpha set <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y
" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>

</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span>, is a finite set of symbols that is large enou
gh to supply the needs of a given discussion, for example:</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} =\{p,q,r
,s,t,u\}.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4e5174b14ad727030cd30bee57a14fb609ec2906" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.698ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} =\{p,q,r,s,t,u\}." /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li>Of the three connectives for conjunction, disjunction, and implication (<spa
n><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none
;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>

<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \wedge ,\lor }</anno


tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
39290a51b8b8488c4151db4a332f0242cd10d60b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:4.166ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\wedge ,\lor " /></span>, and <span class="texhtml"></span>), one can be
taken as primitive and the other two can be defined in terms of it and negation
(<span class="texhtml">?</span>).<sup id="cite_ref-Wernick_8-0" class="referenc
e"><a href="#cite_note-Wernick-8">[8]</a></sup> Indeed, all of the logical conne
ctives can be defined in terms of a <a href="/wiki/Sole_sufficient_operator" cla
ss="mw-redirect" title="Sole sufficient operator">sole sufficient operator</a>.
The biconditional (<span class="texhtml">?</span>) can of course be defined in t
erms of conjunction and implication, with <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inl
ine mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/
1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a\leftrightarrow b}<
/annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ba5f67ecaaf372f31c59164df274736205c8278c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:5.873ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="a\leftrightarrow b" /></span> defined as <span><span class="mwe-math-m
athml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://ww
w.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (a\to b)\land (b\to
a)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1741d2435f83e87737d235a5592c213ed9444dd0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:17.999ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(a\to b)\land (b\to a)" /></span>.</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>Adopting negation and implication as the two primitive operations of a propo
sitional calculus is tantamount to having the omega set <span><span class="mwe-m

ath-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http


://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega =\Omega _{1}\
cup \Omega _{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ea62d7043f5caf4662322271d72fb79fb048fcc7" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:12.891ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\Omega =\Omega _{1}\cup \Omega _{2}" /></span> partition as follows:<
/dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{1}=\{\lnot
\},}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a10c1cdba7209c59d10c8bcb597904f287ffe8e5" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.423ex; height:2.84

3ex;" alt="\Omega _{1}=\{\lnot \}," /></span></dd>


<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{2}=\{\to \}
.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
be1ec38a19c43954cbb90f29d72fa5bfbed4ad98" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:11.196ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega _{2}=\{\to \}." /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li>An axiom system discovered by <a href="/wiki/Jan_%C5%81ukasiewicz" title="Ja
n ?ukasiewicz">Jan ?ukasiewicz</a> formulates a propositional calculus in this l
anguage as follows. The axioms are all <a href="/wiki/Substitution_instance" cla
ss="mw-redirect" title="Substitution instance">substitution instances</a> of:</l
i>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<ul>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to (q\to p))}</an

notation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3632552e3cdfa38a9bea40d0f1bd11d6cb169b50" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:14.349ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\to (q\to p))" /></span></li>
</ul>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<ul>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to (q\to r))\to
((p\to q)\to (p\to r)))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
18d1accf7604719ee5806d79b62d76d0d0b25ac4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:40.546ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\to (q\to r))\to ((p\to q)\to (p\to r)))" /></span></li>
</ul>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>

<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd>
<ul>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((\neg p\to \neg q)\
to (q\to p))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
63322156327eb476688e94e28c2490b1fc9b1702" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:24.006ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((\neg p\to \neg q)\to (q\to p))" /></span></li>
</ul>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<ul>
<li>The rule of inference is <a href="/wiki/Modus_ponens" title="Modus ponens">m
odus ponens</a> (i.e., from <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;
">p</span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" s
tyle="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b805a61fbd9b41cd2976ebec792d73a0ebea0e81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843

ex;" alt="(p\to q)" /></span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-styl


e:italic;">q</span>). Then <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-ma
thml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathM
L" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a\lor b}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a07a2a1dfb9a1620c981095b788e4113d2ae2ed5" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:4.841ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="a\lor b" /></span> is defined as <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-in
line mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org
/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg a\to b}</annota
tion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
447dda4fb3a38ddd676f07f0340e0177e6f042db" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:7.434ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\neg a\to b" /></span>, and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998
/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a\land b}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff8a40f76f4fd75aa92b1a78e44fb7f76ab6ed70" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:4.841ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="a\land b" /></span> is defined as <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-i
nline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.or
g/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>

<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>a</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>b</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg (a\to \neg b)}<
/annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3aa1634a74a762ce76ed9e83cd7d1226c5fc20cb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.825ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\neg (a\to \neg b)" /></span>. This system is used in <a href="/wiki/
Metamath" title="Metamath">Metamath</a> <a rel="nofollow" class="external text"
href="http://us.metamath.org/mpegif/mmset.html#scaxioms">set.mm</a> formal proof
database.</li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Example_2._Natural_deduction_system">Example 2
. Natural deduction system</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-ed
itsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&am
p;action=edit&amp;section=8" title="Edit section: Example 2. Natural deduction s
ystem">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Let <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">L</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>,</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>

</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {L}}_{2}={
\mathcal {L}}(\mathrm {A} ,\Omega ,\mathrm {Z} ,\mathrm {I} )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
735cecc77a6dbc4e9bfe0a867072e0efdc8dd918" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.085ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="{\mathcal {L}}_{2}={\mathcal {L}}(\mathrm {A} ,\Omega ,\mathrm {Z} ,\
mathrm {I} )" /></span>, where <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-mat
h-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/M
athML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe
-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Ma
th/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega }</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
24b0d5ca6f381068d756f6337c08e0af9d1eeb6f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.689ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\Omega " /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math
-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Ma
thML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {Z} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
faf96082c4b2e79d67626f995ae571403f51b5da" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.431ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\mathrm {Z} " /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe
-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Ma

th/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {I} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fe7a69180f25bbb4c73e091f97c7c5f9941ed17b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:0.85ex; height:2.176e
x;" alt="\mathrm {I} " /></span> are defined as follows:</p>
<ul>
<li>The alpha set <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y
" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff6366939c4ebbd4e8494d0dedc54c4b8dd7135a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} " /></span>, is a finite set of symbols that is large enou
gh to supply the needs of a given discussion, for example:
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">A</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>t</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>u</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>

</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {A} =\{p,q,r
,s,t,u\}.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4e5174b14ad727030cd30bee57a14fb609ec2906" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.698ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\mathrm {A} =\{p,q,r,s,t,u\}." /></span></dd>
</dl>
</li>
<li>The omega set <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y
" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega =\Omega _{1}\
cup \Omega _{2}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ea62d7043f5caf4662322271d72fb79fb048fcc7" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:12.891ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\Omega =\Omega _{1}\cup \Omega _{2}" /></span> partitions as follows:
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{1}=\{\lnot
\},}</annotation>

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a10c1cdba7209c59d10c8bcb597904f287ffe8e5" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.423ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega _{1}=\{\lnot \}," /></span></dd>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x03A9;<!-- --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Omega _{2}=\{\land
,\lor ,\to ,\leftrightarrow \}.}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
30aad3ad9f24ec95550e00b11b2f625007cf2b2e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.785ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\Omega _{2}=\{\land ,\lor ,\to ,\leftrightarrow \}." /></span></dd>
</dl>
</li>
</ul>
<p>In the following example of a propositional calculus, the transformation rule
s are intended to be interpreted as the inference rules of a so-called <i><a hre
f="/wiki/Natural_deduction_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Natural deduction
system">natural deduction system</a></i>. The particular system presented here h
as no initial points, which means that its interpretation for logical applicatio
ns derives its <a href="/wiki/Theorem" title="Theorem">theorems</a> from an empt
y axiom set.</p>
<ul>
<li>The set of initial points is empty, that is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mat
hml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.
w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">I</mi>
</mrow>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi class="MJX-variant">&#x2205;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>

<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {I} =\varnot


hing }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4afb7696f5bff103ae12e86de6fa45440dbaba76" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:5.778ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\mathrm {I} =\varnothing " /></span>.</li>
<li>The set of transformation rules, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline m
we-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/
Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">Z</mi>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \mathrm {Z} }</annot
ation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
faf96082c4b2e79d67626f995ae571403f51b5da" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.431ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\mathrm {Z} " /></span>, is described as follows:</li>
</ul>
<p>Our propositional calculus has ten inference rules. These rules allow us to d
erive other true formulas given a set of formulas that are assumed to be true. T
he first nine simply state that we can infer certain well-formed formulas from o
ther well-formed formulas. The last rule however uses hypothetical reasoning in
the sense that in the premise of the rule we temporarily assume an (unproven) hy
pothesis to be part of the set of inferred formulas to see if we can infer a cer
tain other formula. Since the first nine rules don't do this they are usually de
scribed as <i>non-hypothetical</i> rules, and the last one as a <i>hypothetical<
/i> rule.</p>
<p>In describing the transformation rules, we may introduce a metalanguage symbo
l <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display
: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash }</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a0c0d30cf8cb7dba179e317fcde9583d842e80f6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.431ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\vdash " /></span>. It is basically a convenient shorthand for saying
"infer that". The format is <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-m
athml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Math
ML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0393;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>

</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Gamma \vdash \psi }
</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a27a6c9717bd96aeec6ebe23cf9d76a1a3d82971" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.708ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\Gamma \vdash \psi " /></span>, in which <span class="texhtml"></span> i
s a (possibly empty) set of formulas called premises, and <span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is a formula called conclusion. The transf
ormation rule <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" st
yle="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x0393;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \Gamma \vdash \psi }
</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a27a6c9717bd96aeec6ebe23cf9d76a1a3d82971" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.708ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\Gamma \vdash \psi " /></span> means that if every proposition in <spa
n class="texhtml"></span> is a theorem (or has the same truth value as the axioms)
, then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is also a the
orem. Note that considering the following rule <a href="/wiki/Conjunction_introd
uction" title="Conjunction introduction">Conjunction introduction</a>, we will k
now whenever <span class="texhtml"></span> has more than one formula, we can alway
s safely reduce it into one formula using conjunction. So for short, from that t
ime on we may represent <span class="texhtml"></span> as one formula instead of a
set. Another omission for convenience is when <span class="texhtml"></span> is an
empty set, in which case <span class="texhtml"></span> may not appear.</p>
<dl>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Negation_introduction" title="Negation introduction">Negation
introduction</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b805a61fbd9b41cd2976ebec792d73a0ebea0e81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to q)" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwemath-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Mat

h/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to \neg q)}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
72c74d14db648d3eb4c441b8071741aaef126ebd" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:9.275ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to \neg q)" /></span>, infer <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inl
ine mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/
1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg p}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
e2b198c79234d926cbee42c0f271d903ea55dc21" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.741ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="\neg p" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{(p\to q),(p\to \ne
g q)\}\vdash \neg p}</annotation>

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
720d0c37392c616df777c7dde978496d645a2a91" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:25.842ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\{(p\to q),(p\to \neg q)\}\vdash \neg p" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/w/index.php?title=Negation_elimination&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink
=1" class="new" title="Negation elimination (page does not exist)">Negation elim
ination</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg p}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
e2b198c79234d926cbee42c0f271d903ea55dc21" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.741ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="\neg p" /></span>, infer <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe
-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Ma
th/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to r)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0b70bebff1ed61e4f65a512ea61f2a8849d044d5" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.694ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to r)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{\neg p\}\vdash (p\

to r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
51e7588327b13f33b0e1a9d6d57029624b9b6250" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:15.501ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\{\neg p\}\vdash (p\to r)" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Double_negative_elimination" class="mw-redirect" title="Doubl
e negative elimination">Double negative elimination</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg \neg p}</annota
tion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
61fb44bd43a9328064cdf2b5d70b91f0843ae54d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:4.301ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="\neg \neg p" /></span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-s
tyle:italic;">p</span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg \neg p\vdash p}
</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
2a4dc1d21a9ff681325eb6fdc0bc8950a1f3c24f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:8.202ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\neg \neg p\vdash p" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Conjunction_introduction" title="Conjunction introduction">Co
njunction introduction</a></dt>
<dd>From <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <spa
n class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>, infer <span><span cl
ass="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math x
mlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>

</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)}</annotat

ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1c6e5ae2dd581f95af0ba40f3d09b0d7d9f5e497" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.683ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\land q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{p,q\}\vdash (p\lan
d q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffc965c92212f65946c1624275321d5f7769edba" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:15.054ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\{p,q\}\vdash (p\land q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Conjunction_elimination" title="Conjunction elimination">Conj
unction elimination</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)}</annotat
ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1c6e5ae2dd581f95af0ba40f3d09b0d7d9f5e497" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.683ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\land q)" /></span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-st
yle:italic;">p</span>.</dd>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">

<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)}</annotat

ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1c6e5ae2dd581f95af0ba40f3d09b0d7d9f5e497" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.683ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\land q)" /></span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-st
yle:italic;">q</span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)\vdash p}<
/annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a0665b0a9606a1ced373dd66abd55e3cc078e3c7" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.584ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\land q)\vdash p" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathmlinline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.o
rg/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)\vdash q}<
/annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
2c10f27d977c39a95211031a47e6401864ed818f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.484ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\land q)\vdash q" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Disjunction_introduction" title="Disjunction introduction">Di
sjunction introduction</a></dt>
<dd>From <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>, infer <

span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: n


one;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\lor q)}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
60f80b50074862b4c84850b692661ba67f49d40a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.683ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\lor q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>From <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>, infer <
span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: n
one;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\lor q)}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
60f80b50074862b4c84850b692661ba67f49d40a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.683ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\lor q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p\vdash (p\lor q)}</
annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
54768af02f843eaea9e5675bedfca7072011200e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:10.663ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="p\vdash (p\lor q)" /></span> and <span><span c

lass="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math


xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle q\vdash (p\lor q)}</
annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
98e16538ec3d6d314ea8f35aa026b245356a2c07" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.484ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="q\vdash (p\lor q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Disjunction_elimination" title="Disjunction elimination">Disj
unction elimination</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\lor q)}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
60f80b50074862b4c84850b692661ba67f49d40a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:6.683ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\lor q)" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe
-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Ma
th/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to r)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0b70bebff1ed61e4f65a512ea61f2a8849d044d5" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.694ex; height:2.843

ex;" alt="(p\to r)" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwemath-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Mat
h/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (q\to r)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
5b915a57512bbcb7bace630a8aa2a3207e84e06e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.594ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(q\to r)" /></span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-styl
e:italic;">r</span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{p\lor q,p\to r,q\t
o r\}\vdash r}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6bc0eb4f08c68e043385a53c668aab1100dfa93d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:24.695ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\{p\lor q,p\to r,q\to r\}\vdash r" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Biconditional_introduction" title="Biconditional introduction
">Biconditional introduction</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

n>

<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)}</annotatio

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b805a61fbd9b41cd2976ebec792d73a0ebea0e81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to q)" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwemath-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Mat
h/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (q\to p)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
36e5438d9c5ff7177a6db191b9494388a519a01e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(q\to p)" /></span>, infer <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline m
we-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/
Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1d0529d17f35a432e0622afbfd52a6a7a1fb9098" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>q</mi>

<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>


<mi>p</mi>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{p\to q,q\to p\}\vd
ash (p\leftrightarrow q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4f600279af526594bd33de4b6b1c564a93486bfd" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:25.595ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\{p\to q,q\to p\}\vdash (p\leftrightarrow q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Biconditional_elimination" title="Biconditional elimination">
Biconditional elimination</a></dt>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1d0529d17f35a432e0622afbfd52a6a7a1fb9098" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)" /></span>, infer <span><span class="mwe-math-mat
hml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.
w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b805a61fbd9b41cd2976ebec792d73a0ebea0e81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>From <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >

<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1d0529d17f35a432e0622afbfd52a6a7a1fb9098" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)" /></span>, infer <span><span class="mwe-math-mat
hml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.
w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (q\to p)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
36e5438d9c5ff7177a6db191b9494388a519a01e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(q\to p)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
\vdash (p\to q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
cbc95b4dfa2bdd93efec984213bca64926988202" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.15ex; height:2.843

ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)\vdash (p\to q)" /></span> and <span><span class="


mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns=
"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
\vdash (q\to p)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10ed0fa571fd3a22a1e69d79680587399becf7d1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.15ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)\vdash (q\to p)" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Modus_ponens" title="Modus ponens">Modus ponens</a> (conditio
nal elimination)&#160;</dt>
<dd>From <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <spa
n><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none
;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b805a61fbd9b41cd2976ebec792d73a0ebea0e81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to q)" /></span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-styl
e:italic;">q</span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>

<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>


<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \{p,p\to q\}\vdash q
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
92352e6898d1af1b88dfa4a2cd670e78e0af9bb8" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:14.256ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\{p,p\to q\}\vdash q" /></span>.</dd>
<dt><a href="/wiki/Conditional_proof" title="Conditional proof">Conditional proo
f</a> (conditional introduction)&#160;</dt>
<dd>From [accepting <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</spa
n> allows a proof of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</sp
an>], infer <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" styl
e="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)}</annotatio
n>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b805a61fbd9b41cd2976ebec792d73a0ebea0e81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.715ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to q)" /></span>.</dd>
<dd>That is, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\vdash q)\vdash (p
\to q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
5a2174ef026b2a4db9a80c8d0c5f535ae8c0e21e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:17.247ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\vdash q)\vdash (p\to q)" /></span>.</dd>

</dl>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Basic_and_derived_argument_forms">Basic and de
rived argument forms</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsect
ion-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;acti
on=edit&amp;section=9" title="Edit section: Basic and derived argument forms">ed
it</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p><span id="propcalc_table"></span></p>
<table style="margin:auto;" class="wikitable">
<tr>
<th colspan="3">Basic and Derived Argument Forms</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Name</th>
<th>Sequent</th>
<th>Description</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Modus_Ponens" class="mw-redirect" title="Modus Ponens">Modus
Ponens</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land p)\vd
ash q}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
e718ce4ec77f4e099094d7e89bacc112c6754294" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:17.119ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land p)\vdash q" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>; therefore <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">q</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Modus_Tollens" class="mw-redirect" title="Modus Tollens">Modu
s Tollens</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>

<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>


<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land \neg
q)\vdash \neg p}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
e7ae31de8933f036da05b3e54fce242079989424" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:20.24ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land \neg q)\vdash \neg p" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; not <span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; therefore not <span class="texhtm
l mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Hypothetical_Syllogism" class="mw-redirect" title="Hypothetic
al Syllogism">Hypothetical Syllogism</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land (q\to
r))\vdash (p\to r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6419a065bbb8e2b35b636e171a6891e3b3ce541e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:30.146ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land (q\to r))\vdash (p\to r)" /></span></td>

<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span


class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; if <span class="texht
ml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar" sty
le="font-style:italic;">r</span>; therefore, if <span class="texhtml mvar" style
="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style
:italic;">r</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Disjunctive_syllogism" title="Disjunctive syllogism">Disjunct
ive Syllogism</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\lor q)\land \neg
p)\vdash q}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b568f7af03c0c71a3f12c5b8dd1a80359e019c65" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:17.648ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\lor q)\land \neg p)\vdash q" /></span></td>
<td>Either <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or <sp
an class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>, or both; not <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>; therefore, <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Constructive_dilemma" title="Constructive dilemma">Constructi
ve Dilemma</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>s</mi>

<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land (r\to
s)\land (p\lor r))\vdash (q\lor s)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f10f552191f535c0912419950c4b2d9efc2f5ba2" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:38.333ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land (r\to s)\land (p\lor r))\vdash (q\lor s)" /></span></t
d>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; and if <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">s</span>; but <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font
-style:italic;">p</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;
">r</span>; therefore <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</s
pan> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">s</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Destructive_dilemma" title="Destructive dilemma">Destructive
Dilemma</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>

<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land (r\to
s)\land (\neg q\lor \neg s))\vdash (\neg p\lor \neg r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
082ed3c4f255aa4af20a4bd7eb4233c8f7a1071b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:44.576ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land (r\to s)\land (\neg q\lor \neg s))\vdash (\neg p\lor \
neg r)" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; and if <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">s</span>; but not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="
font-style:italic;">q</span> or not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style
:italic;">s</span>; therefore not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:i
talic;">p</span> or not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r<
/span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>Bidirectional Dilemma</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>s</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>

<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land (r\to
s)\land (p\lor \neg s))\vdash (q\lor \neg r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4af3f354fe025bd0bb2d0c74d19ea7f218a0f8c0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:41.455ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land (r\to s)\land (p\lor \neg s))\vdash (q\lor \neg r)" />
</span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; and if <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">s</span>; but <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font
-style:italic;">p</span> or not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ita
lic;">s</span>; therefore <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">
q</span> or not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span></
td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Conjunction_elimination" title="Conjunction elimination">Simp
lification</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)\vdash p}<
/annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a0665b0a9606a1ced373dd66abd55e3cc078e3c7" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.584ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\land q)\vdash p" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> are true; therefore <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Logical_conjunction" title="Logical conjunction">Conjunction<
/a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>q</mi>

<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p,q\vdash (p\land q)
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
709afc672607de0171c41eb25c5ce256d138e282" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:12.787ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="p,q\vdash (p\land q)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> are true separately; there
fore they are true conjointly</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Logical_disjunction" title="Logical disjunction">Addition</a>
</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p\vdash (p\lor q)}</
annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
54768af02f843eaea9e5675bedfca7072011200e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:10.663ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="p\vdash (p\lor q)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true; ther
efore the disjunction (<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</
span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is true
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Distributive_property" title="Distributive property">Composit
ion</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\to q)\land (p\to
r))\vdash (p\to (q\land r))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b615022bda1dcf1227a1c08c628aada076144d42" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:35.75ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="((p\to q)\land (p\to r))\vdash (p\to (q\land r))" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>; and if <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">r</span>; therefore if <span class="texhtml mvar" st
yle="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true then <span class="texhtml mvar" style=
"font-style:italic;">q</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:i
talic;">r</span> are true</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/De_Morgan%27s_laws" title="De Morgan's laws">De Morgan's Theo
rem</a> (1)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>

<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg (p\land q)\vdas


h (\neg p\lor \neg q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b5ba4031d1b54ccbae36739f8e061d7409da4731" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:20.77ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\neg (p\land q)\vdash (\neg p\lor \neg q)" /></span></td>
<td>The negation of (<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</sp
an> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv
. to (not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or not
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/De_Morgan%27s_laws" title="De Morgan's laws">De Morgan's Theo
rem</a> (2)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg (p\lor q)\vdash
(\neg p\land \neg q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
53b11c95b4b53fbf10b0b5da5de9d9b4842aebd9" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:20.77ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\neg (p\lor q)\vdash (\neg p\land \neg q)" /></span></td>
<td>The negation of (<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</sp
an> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv.
to (not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and not
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Commutative_property" title="Commutative property">Commutatio
n</a> (1)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>

<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\lor q)\vdash (q\l
or p)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ca93348719e95e47d204c10aa0efd75d14b4cec1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:16.087ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\lor q)\vdash (q\lor p)" /></span></td>
<td>(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or <span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv. to (<span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar
" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Commutative_property" title="Commutative property">Commutatio
n</a> (2)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land q)\vdash (q\
land p)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
92f08307b3fd630f8b09e3f863af5835f41282d1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:16.087ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\land q)\vdash (q\land p)" /></span></td>
<td>(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv. to (<span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> and <span class="texhtml mv
ar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Commutative_property" title="Commutative property">Commutatio
n</a> (3)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
\vdash (q\leftrightarrow p)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
589981935ee28fdb99010ab82b7e4d6c54620f21" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.15ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)\vdash (q\leftrightarrow p)" /></span></td>
<td>(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is equiv. to
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv. to (<
span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is equiv. to <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span>)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Associative_property" title="Associative property">Associatio
n</a> (1)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\lor (q\lor r))\vd
ash ((p\lor q)\lor r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/

24af9aee97f5bae3e9d873654bd994da2100ea96" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:27.052ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\lor (q\lor r))\vdash ((p\lor q)\lor r)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or (<span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> or <span class="texhtml mv
ar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>) is equiv. to (<span class="texhtml mvar
" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fontstyle:italic;">q</span>) or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;
">r</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Associative_property" title="Associative property">Associatio
n</a> (2)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land (q\land r))\
vdash ((p\land q)\land r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f3e01f4bb1e4c2b228ad0865181eb3aa82304f40" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:27.052ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\land (q\land r))\vdash ((p\land q)\land r)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and (<span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> and <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>) is equiv. to (<span class="texhtml mv
ar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">q</span>) and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ita
lic;">r</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Distributive_property" title="Distributive property">Distribu
tion</a> (1)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">

<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">


<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\land (q\lor r))\v
dash ((p\land q)\lor (p\land r))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4166fc9632d94252ace796e96e41c4ebd8cc83fb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:32.655ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\land (q\lor r))\vdash ((p\land q)\lor (p\land r))" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and (<span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> or <span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>) is equiv. to (<span class="texhtml mva
r" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fon
t-style:italic;">q</span>) or (<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;">p</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>
)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Distributive_property" title="Distributive property">Distribu
tion</a> (2)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>

<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\lor (q\land r))\v
dash ((p\lor q)\land (p\lor r))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
5d3e9f3e87a4e9ba3db7af4f221b3ecde1ac20df" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:32.655ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\lor (q\land r))\vdash ((p\lor q)\land (p\lor r))" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or (<span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> and <span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>) is equiv. to (<span class="texhtml mva
r" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font
-style:italic;">q</span>) and (<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;">p</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>)
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Double_negative_elimination" class="mw-redirect" title="Doubl
e negative elimination">Double Negation</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p\vdash \neg \neg p}
</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0878ca469a135d36959823281cfc87aa75d6b1eb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:8.281ex; height:2.509ex;" alt="p\vdash \neg \neg p" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is equivalent
to the negation of not <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p<
/span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Transposition_(logic)" title="Transposition (logic)">Transpos
ition</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >

<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)\vdash (\neg
q\to \neg p)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
e555816ccbdde01ff5d0a920603827e878238582" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:21.272ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\to q)\vdash (\neg q\to \neg p)" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is equiv. to if not <s
pan class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> then not <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Material_implication_(rule_of_inference)" title="Material imp
lication (rule of inference)">Material Implication</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to q)\vdash (\neg
p\lor q)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
be71a7c4930ab4e646485d7bc479d0dc666fc4a1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.68ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(p\to q)\vdash (\neg p\lor q)" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then <span

class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is equiv. to not <span


class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or <span class="texhtm
l mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Material_equivalence" class="mw-redirect" title="Material equ
ivalence">Material Equivalence</a> (1)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
\vdash ((p\to q)\land (q\to p))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1df89540f366fd02056dcab93751ff7e05317028" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:30.288ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)\vdash ((p\to q)\land (q\to p))" /></span></td>
<td>(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> iff <span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv. to (if <span c
lass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true then <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is true) and (if <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is true then <span class="te
xhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Material_equivalence" class="mw-redirect" title="Material equ
ivalence">Material Equivalence</a> (2)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>

<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
\vdash ((p\land q)\lor (\neg p\land \neg q))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
870257b25f89e8b9e2eb7ea3262f6ef7fc95c48b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:31.347ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)\vdash ((p\land q)\lor (\neg p\land \neg q))" /><
/span></td>
<td>(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> iff <span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv. to either (<sp
an class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span class="tex
html mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> are true) or (both <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">q</span> are false)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Material_equivalence" class="mw-redirect" title="Material equ
ivalence">Material Equivalence</a> (3)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>

<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\leftrightarrow q)
\vdash ((p\lor \neg q)\land (\neg p\lor q))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8641bba33fff164062c71f4e9b6f29951ab130f6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:31.347ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\leftrightarrow q)\vdash ((p\lor \neg q)\land (\neg p\lor q))" /></
span></td>
<td>(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> iff <span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span>) is equiv to., both (<spa
n class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or not <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is true) and (not <span class="
texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is true)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Exportation_(logic)" title="Exportation (logic)">Exportation<
/a><sup id="cite_ref-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-9">[9]</a></sup></
td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle ((p\land q)\to r)\vd
ash (p\to (q\to r))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fbb60d0eb18ee7f17a0708421b59fc94be91eb57" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:30.146ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="((p\land q)\to r)\vdash (p\to (q\to r))" /></span></td>
<td>from (if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> are true then <sp
an class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span> is true) we can prov
e (if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> is true the

n <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span> is true, if <sp


an class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true)</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Exportation_(logic)" title="Exportation (logic)">Importation<
/a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>q</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>r</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (p\to (q\to r))\vdas
h ((p\land q)\to r)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3582deb17f8485a5fd69a68f24f57275f2b49141" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:30.146ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(p\to (q\to r))\vdash ((p\land q)\to r)" /></span></td>
<td>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> then (if <
span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> then <span class="
texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">r</span>) is equivalent to if <span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and <span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;">q</span> then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="
font-style:italic;">r</span></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Tautology_(rule_of_inference)" title="Tautology (rule of infe
rence)">Tautology</a> (1)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>

<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p\vdash (p\lor p)}</
annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fd2e65de3b6b30964d06b6ebb5531559e27a0111" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:10.763ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="p\vdash (p\lor p)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true is eq
uiv. to <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true o
r <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Tautology_(rule_of_inference)" title="Tautology (rule of infe
rence)">Tautology</a> (2)</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle p\vdash (p\land p)}<
/annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
9321b67f5e270a2ac4968376e585924f709316b4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; margin-left: -0.079ex; widt
h:10.763ex; height:2.843ex;" alt="p\vdash (p\land p)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true is eq
uiv. to <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true a
nd <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Law_of_excluded_middle" title="Law of excluded middle">Tertiu
m non datur (Law of Excluded Middle)</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash (p\lor \neg p

)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
34acb6a72aa2d8bd27a9f3e7a2b33c7a30b8b937" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:10.42ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\vdash (p\lor \neg p)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> or not <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is true</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><a href="/wiki/Law_of_noncontradiction" title="Law of noncontradiction">Law
of Non-Contradiction</a></td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>p</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash \neg (p\land
\neg p)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f2d7ab87b3558f3091c8e4547f54ddebf36b5d04" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:11.98ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\vdash \neg (p\land \neg p)" /></span></td>
<td><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> and not <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> is false, is a true st
atement</td>
</tr>
</table>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Proofs_in_propositional_calculus">Proofs in pr
opositional calculus</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsect
ion-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;acti
on=edit&amp;section=10" title="Edit section: Proofs in propositional calculus">e
dit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>One of the main uses of a propositional calculus, when interpreted for logica
l applications, is to determine relations of logical equivalence between proposi
tional formulas. These relationships are determined by means of the available tr
ansformation rules, sequences of which are called <i>derivations</i> or <i>proof
s</i>.</p>
<p>In the discussion to follow, a proof is presented as a sequence of numbered l
ines, with each line consisting of a single formula followed by a <i>reason</i>
or <i>justification</i> for introducing that formula. Each premise of the argume
nt, that is, an assumption introduced as an hypothesis of the argument, is liste
d at the beginning of the sequence and is marked as a "premise" in lieu of other
justification. The conclusion is listed on the last line. A proof is complete i
f every line follows from the previous ones by the correct application of a tran
sformation rule. (For a contrasting approach, see <a href="/wiki/Method_of_analy
tic_tableaux" title="Method of analytic tableaux">proof-trees</a>).</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Example_of_a_proof">Example of a proof</span><
span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href

="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=11" titl
e="Edit section: Example of a proof">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket
">]</span></span></h3>
<ul>
<li>To be shown that <span class="texhtml"><i>A</i> <i>A</i></span>.</li>
<li>One possible proof of this (which, though valid, happens to contain more ste
ps than are necessary) may be arranged as follows:</li>
</ul>
<table style="margin:auto;" class="wikitable">
<tr>
<th colspan="3">Example of a Proof</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Number</th>
<th>Formula</th>
<th>Reason</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>1</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
7daff47fa58cdfd29dc333def748ff5fa4c923e3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="A" /></span></td>
<td>premise</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>2</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\lor A}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
31940c78d50bd53d7a2a8e89351754385ec6daeb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:6.1ex; height:2.343ex
;" alt="A\lor A" /></span></td>
<td>From (1) by disjunction introduction</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>3</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >

<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (A\lor A)\land A}</a
nnotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6e1774dc1f83c8fd656bd1c5bf1d8d4bf4c77354" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.277ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(A\lor A)\land A" /></span></td>
<td>From (1) and (2) by conjunction introduction</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>4</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
7daff47fa58cdfd29dc333def748ff5fa4c923e3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.754ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="A" /></span></td>
<td>From (3) by conjunction elimination</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>5</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\vdash A}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6627a49a818281679e6699d646d0fd6a2ddd34fe" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:6.228ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="A\vdash A" /></span></td>
<td>Summary of (1) through (4)</td>
</tr>

<tr>
<td>6</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash A\to A}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a20720173dd81a25520d06a3d798d0eb0689a582" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:9.208ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\vdash A\to A" /></span></td>
<td>From (5) by conditional proof</td>
</tr>
</table>
<p>Interpret <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\vdash A}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6627a49a818281679e6699d646d0fd6a2ddd34fe" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:6.228ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="A\vdash A" /></span> as "Assuming <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">A</span>, infer <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:i
talic;">A</span>". Read <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathm
l-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
>
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash A\to A}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a20720173dd81a25520d06a3d798d0eb0689a582" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:9.208ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="\vdash A\to A" /></span> as "Assuming nothing, infer that <span class=

"texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> implies <span class="texhtml


mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>", or "It is a tautology that <span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> implies <span class="texht
ml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>", or "It is always true that <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> implies <span class="te
xhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>".</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Soundness_and_completeness_of_the_rules">Sound
ness and completeness of the rules</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span clas
s="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_cal
culus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=12" title="Edit section: Soundness and complet
eness of the rules">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span>
</h2>
<p>The crucial properties of this set of rules are that they are <i><a href="/wi
ki/Soundness" title="Soundness">sound</a></i> and <i>complete</i>. Informally th
is means that the rules are correct and that no other rules are required. These
claims can be made more formal as follows.</p>
<p>We define a <i>truth assignment</i> as a <a href="/wiki/Function_(mathematics
)" title="Function (mathematics)">function</a> that maps propositional variables
to <b>true</b> or <b>false</b>. Informally such a truth assignment can be under
stood as the description of a possible <a href="/wiki/State_of_affairs_(philosop
hy)" title="State of affairs (philosophy)">state of affairs</a> (or <a href="/wi
ki/Possible_world" title="Possible world">possible world</a>) where certain stat
ements are true and others are not. The semantics of formulas can then be formal
ized by defining for which "state of affairs" they are considered to be true, wh
ich is what is done by the following definition.</p>
<p>We define when such a truth assignment <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font
-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies a certain <a href="/wiki/Well-formed_formula"
title="Well-formed formula">well-formed formula</a> with the following rules:</
p>
<ul>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies the
propositional variable <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P<
/span> <a href="/wiki/If_and_only_if" title="If and only if">if and only if</a>
<span class="texhtml"><i>A</i>(<i>P</i>) = true</span></li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies <sp
an class="texhtml">?<i></i></span> if and only if <span class="texhtml mvar" style
="font-style:italic;">A</span> does not satisfy <span class="texhtml mvar" style
="font-style:italic;"></span></li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies <sp
an class="texhtml">(<i></i> <i></i>)</span> if and only if <span class="texhtml mvar
style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies both <span class="texhtml mvar" s
tyle="font-style:italic;"></span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style
:italic;"></span></li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies <sp
an class="texhtml">(<i></i> <i></i>)</span> if and only if <span class="texhtml mvar
style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies at least one of either <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> or <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;"></span></li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies <sp
an class="texhtml">(<i></i> <i></i>)</span> if and only if it is not the case that <
pan class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies <span cla
ss="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> but not <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span></li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies <sp
an class="texhtml">(<i></i> ? <i></i>)</span> if and only if <span class="texhtml mv
ar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> satisfies both <span class="texhtml mvar
" style="font-style:italic;"></span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-st
yle:italic;"></span> or satisfies neither one of them</li>
</ul>
<p>With this definition we can now formalize what it means for a formula <span c

lass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> to be implied by a certain


set <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> of formulas.
Informally this is true if in all worlds that are possible given the set of form
ulas <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> the formula
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> also holds. This lea
ds to the following formal definition: We say that a set <span class="texhtml mv
ar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> of well-formed formulas <i>semantically
entails</i> (or <i>implies</i>) a certain well-formed formula <span class="texht
ml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> if all truth assignments that satisfy
all the formulas in <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</spa
n> also satisfy <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>.</p>
<p>Finally we define <i>syntactical entailment</i> such that <span class="texhtm
l mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is syntactically entailed by <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> if and only if we can deriv
e it with the inference rules that were presented above in a finite number of st
eps. This allows us to formulate exactly what it means for the set of inference
rules to be sound and complete:</p>
<p><b>Soundness:</b> If the set of well-formed formulas <span class="texhtml mva
r" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> syntactically entails the well-formed for
mula <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> then <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> semantically entails <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>.</p>
<p><b>Completeness:</b> If the set of well-formed formulas <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> semantically entails the well-formed f
ormula <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> then <span cl
ass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span> syntactically entails <sp
an class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>.</p>
<p>For the above set of rules this is indeed the case.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Sketch_of_a_soundness_proof">Sketch of a sound
ness proof</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracke
t">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&am
p;section=13" title="Edit section: Sketch of a soundness proof">edit</a><span cl
ass="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>(For most <a href="/wiki/Logical_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Logical s
ystem">logical systems</a>, this is the comparatively "simple" direction of proo
f)</p>
<p>Notational conventions: Let <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;">G</span> be a variable ranging over sets of sentences. Let <span class="tex
html mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A, B</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">C</span> range over sentences. For "<span class="tex
html mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> syntactically entails <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>" we write "<span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> proves <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">A</span>". For "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="fon
t-style:italic;">G</span> semantically entails <span class="texhtml mvar" style=
"font-style:italic;">A</span>" we write "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="fontstyle:italic;">G</span> implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ita
lic;">A</span>".</p>
<p>We want to show: <span class="texhtml">(<i>A</i>)(<i>G</i>)</span> (if <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> proves <span class="tex
html mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>, then <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">G</span> implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">A</span>).</p>
<p>We note that "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span>
proves <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>" has an in
ductive definition, and that gives us the immediate resources for demonstrating
claims of the form "If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</
span> proves <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>, the
n ...". So our proof proceeds by induction.</p>
<div>

<ol style="list-style-type:upper-roman">
<li>Basis. Show: If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</spa
n> is a member of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span>
, then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> implies <s
pan class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>.</li>
<li>Basis. Show: If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</spa
n> is an axiom, then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</sp
an> implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>.</li>
<li>Inductive step (induction on <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:it
alic;">n</span>, the length of the proof):
<div>
<ol style="list-style-type:lower-alpha">
<li>Assume for arbitrary <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G
</span> and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> that
if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> proves <span c
lass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> in <span class="texhtml
mvar" style="font-style:italic;">n</span> or fewer steps, then <span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> implies <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">A</span>.</li>
<li>For each possible application of a rule of inference at step <span class="te
xhtml"><i>n</i> + 1</span>, leading to a new theorem <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;">B</span>, show that <span class="texhtml mvar" style=
"font-style:italic;">G</span> implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-sty
le:italic;">B</span>.</li>
</ol>
</div>
</li>
</ol>
</div>
<p>Notice that Basis Step II can be omitted for <a href="/wiki/Natural_deduction
" title="Natural deduction">natural deduction</a> systems because they have no a
xioms. When used, Step II involves showing that each of the axioms is a (semanti
c) <a href="/wiki/Logical_truth" title="Logical truth">logical truth</a>.</p>
<p>The Basis steps demonstrate that the simplest provable sentences from <span c
lass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> are also implied by <spa
n class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span>, for any <span class=
"texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span>. (The proof is simple, since
the semantic fact that a set implies any of its members, is also trivial.) The I
nductive step will systematically cover all the further sentences that might be
provableby considering each case where we might reach a logical conclusion using a
n inference ruleand shows that if a new sentence is provable, it is also logically
implied. (For example, we might have a rule telling us that from "<span class="
texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>" we can derive "<span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" s
tyle="font-style:italic;">B</span>". In III.a We assume that if <span class="tex
html mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> is provable it is implied. We als
o know that if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> is
provable then "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> o
r <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>" is provable. W
e have to show that then "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">
A</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>" too
is implied. We do so by appeal to the semantic definition and the assumption we
just made. <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> is pro
vable from <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span>, we as
sume. So it is also implied by <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;">G</span>. So any semantic valuation making all of <span class="texhtml mvar
" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> true makes <span class="texhtml mvar" styl
e="font-style:italic;">A</span> true. But any valuation making <span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> true makes "<span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo

nt-style:italic;">B</span>" true, by the defined semantics for "or". So any valu


ation which makes all of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G
</span> true makes "<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</spa
n> or <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>" true. So "
<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> or <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>" is implied.) Generally, the In
ductive step will consist of a lengthy but simple <a href="/wiki/Proof_by_cases"
class="mw-redirect" title="Proof by cases">case-by-case analysis</a> of all the
rules of inference, showing that each "preserves" semantic implication.</p>
<p>By the definition of provability, there are no sentences provable other than
by being a member of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</sp
an>, an axiom, or following by a rule; so if all of those are semantically impli
ed, the deduction calculus is sound.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Sketch_of_completeness_proof">Sketch of comple
teness proof</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-brac
ket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&
amp;section=14" title="Edit section: Sketch of completeness proof">edit</a><span
class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>(This is usually the much harder direction of proof.)</p>
<p>We adopt the same notational conventions as above.</p>
<p>We want to show: If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</
span> implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>, th
en <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> proves <span c
lass="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>. We proceed by <a href="
/wiki/Contraposition" title="Contraposition">contraposition</a>: We show instead
that if <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> does <b>
not</b> prove <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> the
n <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> does <b>not</b>
imply <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>.</p>
<div>
<ol style="list-style-type:upper-roman">
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> does not prov
e <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>. (Assumption)</
li>
<li>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> does not p
rove <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>, then we can
construct an (infinite) <b>Maximal Set</b>, <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>
?</sup></span>, which is a superset of <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-st
yle:italic;">G</span> and which also does not prove <span class="texhtml mvar" s
tyle="font-style:italic;">A</span>.
<div>
<ol style="list-style-type:lower-latin">
<li>Place an ordering on all the sentences in the language (e.g., shortest first
, and equally long ones in extended alphabetical ordering), and number them <spa
n class="texhtml">(<i>E</i><sub>1</sub>, <i>E</i><sub>2</sub>, ...)</span></li>
<li>Define a series <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G<sub>
n</sub></span> of sets <span class="texhtml">(<i>G</i><sub>0</sub>, <i>G</i><sub
>1</sub>, ...)</span> inductively:
<div>
<ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman">
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>G</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>

>

</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>G</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle G_{0}=G}</annotation

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0b4036ff4fee42dac481058ff4a2b3018692c2d2" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:7.845ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="G_{0}=G" /></span></li>
<li>If <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>G</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<msub>
<mi>E</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle G_{k}\cup \{E_{k+1}\
}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
36a8ffe078f6106c777c6b2ce2c7c34b516db41d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.809ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="G_{k}\cup \{E_{k+1}\}" /></span> proves <span class="texhtml mvar" st
yle="font-style:italic;">A</span>, then <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inlin
e mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/19
98/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>G</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>
<mi>G</mi>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle G_{k+1}=G_{k}}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
84383245f66ca4da4281bcbae52462addac9f3c4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:11.091ex; height:2.67
6ex;" alt="G_{k+1}=G_{k}" /></span></li>
<li>If <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>G</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<msub>
<mi>E</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle G_{k}\cup \{E_{k+1}\
}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
36a8ffe078f6106c777c6b2ce2c7c34b516db41d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.809ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="G_{k}\cup \{E_{k+1}\}" /></span> does <b>not</b> prove <span class="t
exhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>, then <span><span class="mwe-ma
th-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http:
//www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>G</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>=</mo>
<msub>

<mi>G</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x222A;<!-- --></mo>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">{</mo>
<msub>
<mi>E</mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>k</mi>
<mo>+</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo fence="false" stretchy="false">}</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle G_{k+1}=G_{k}\cup \{
E_{k+1}\}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6fc24e8bce3a370af6646547d99bf0b88f47820d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:20.967ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="G_{k+1}=G_{k}\cup \{E_{k+1}\}" /></span></li>
</ol>
</div>
</li>
<li>Define <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> as the union of all
the <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G<sub>n</sub></span>.
(That is, <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> is the set of all t
he sentences that are in any <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic
;">G<sub>n</sub></span>.)</li>
<li>It can be easily shown that
<div>
<ol style="list-style-type:lower-roman">
<li><span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> contains (is a superset of
) <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</span> (by (b.i));</li
>
<li><span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> does not prove <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> (because if it proves <span
class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span> then some sentence was
added to some <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G<sub>n</sub
></span> which caused it to prove <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:i
talic;">A</span>; but this was ruled out by definition); and</li>
<li><span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> is a Maximal Set with resp
ect to <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>: If any mo
re sentences whatever were added to <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></
span>, it would prove <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</s
pan>. (Because if it were possible to add any more sentences, they should have b
een added when they were encountered during the construction of the <span class=
"texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G<sub>n</sub></span>, again by definit
ion)</li>
</ol>
</div>
</li>
</ol>
</div>
</li>
<li>If <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> is a Maximal Set with r

espect to <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A</span>, then i


t is <b>truth-like</b>. This means that it contains <span class="texhtml mvar" s
tyle="font-style:italic;">C</span> only if it does <b>not</b> contain <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">?C</span>; If it contains <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">C</span> and contains "If <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">C</span> then <span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>" then it also contains <span class="tex
html mvar" style="font-style:italic;">B</span>; and so forth.</li>
<li>If <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span> is truth-like there is
a <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span>-Canonical valuation of the l
anguage: one that makes every sentence in <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</
sup></span> true and everything outside <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</su
p></span> false while still obeying the laws of semantic composition in the lang
uage.</li>
<li>A <span class="texhtml"><i>G</i><sup>?</sup></span>-canonical valuation will
make our original set <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">G</
span> all true, and make <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">A
</span> false.</li>
<li>If there is a valuation on which <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-styl
e:italic;">G</span> are true and <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:it
alic;">A</span> is false, then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:ital
ic;">G</span> does not (semantically) imply <span class="texhtml mvar" style="fo
nt-style:italic;">A</span>.</li>
</ol>
</div>
<p><a href="/wiki/Q.E.D." title="Q.E.D.">QED</a></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Another_outline_for_a_completeness_proof">Anot
her outline for a completeness proof</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span cl
ass="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_c
alculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=15" title="Edit section: Another outline for
a completeness proof">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></sp
an></h3>
<p>If a formula is a <a href="/wiki/Tautology_(logic)" title="Tautology (logic)"
>tautology</a>, then there is a <a href="/wiki/Truth_table" title="Truth table">
truth table</a> for it which shows that each valuation yields the value true for
the formula. Consider such a valuation. By mathematical induction on the length
of the subformulas, show that the truth or falsity of the subformula follows fr
om the truth or falsity (as appropriate for the valuation) of each propositional
variable in the subformula. Then combine the lines of the truth table together
two at a time by using "(<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P
</span> is true implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S<
/span>) implies ((<span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">P</span>
is false implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span>
) implies <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">S</span>)". Keep
repeating this until all dependencies on propositional variables have been elim
inated. The result is that we have proved the given tautology. Since every tauto
logy is provable, the logic is complete.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Interpretation_of_a_truth-functional_propositi
onal_calculus">Interpretation of a truth-functional propositional calculus</span
><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a hr
ef="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=16" ti
tle="Edit section: Interpretation of a truth-functional propositional calculus">
edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>An <b>interpretation of a truth-functional propositional calculus</b> <span><
span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;">
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span> is an <a href="/wiki/Assignment_(mathematica
l_logic)" class="mw-redirect" title="Assignment (mathematical logic)">assignment
</a> to each <a href="/wiki/Propositional_variable" title="Propositional variabl
e">propositional symbol</a> of <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-mat
h-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/M
athML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span> of one or the other (but not both) of the <a
href="/wiki/Truth_value" title="Truth value">truth values</a> <a href="/wiki/Tr
uth" title="Truth">truth</a> (<b>T</b>) and <a href="/wiki/False_(logic)" title=
"False (logic)">falsity</a> (<b>F</b>), and an assignment to the <a href="/wiki/
Logical_connective" title="Logical connective">connective symbols</a> of <span><
span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;">
<math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span> of their usual truth-functional meanings. An
interpretation of a truth-functional propositional calculus may also be express
ed in terms of <a href="/wiki/Truth_tables" class="mw-redirect" title="Truth tab

les">truth tables</a>.<sup id="cite_ref-metalogic_10-0" class="reference"><a hre


f="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
<p>For <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>n</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle n}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a601995d55609f2d9f5e233e36fbe9ea26011b3b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.405ex; height:1.676
ex;" alt="n" /></span> distinct propositional symbols there are <span><span clas
s="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xml
ns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msup>
<mn>2</mn>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msup>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2^{n}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8226f30650ee4fe4e640c6d2798127e80e9c160d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:2.399ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="2^{n}" /></span> distinct possible interpretations. For any particular
symbol <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="d
isplay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffd2487510aa438433a2579450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.24ex; height:1.676e
x;" alt="a" /></span>, for example, there are <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml
-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.
org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msup>
<mn>2</mn>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>

>

<mo>=</mo>
<mn>2</mn>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2^{1}=2}</annotation

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1a8fa6b2a667bd0f236b70179dbf1fbc9a0accb1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:6.516ex; height:2.676
ex;" alt="2^{1}=2" /></span> possible interpretations:</p>
<ol>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffd2487510aa438433a2579450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.24ex; height:1.676e
x;" alt="a" /></span> is assigned <b>T</b>, or</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffd2487510aa438433a2579450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.24ex; height:1.676e
x;" alt="a" /></span> is assigned <b>F</b>.</li>
</ol>
<p>For the pair <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffd2487510aa438433a2579450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.24ex; height:1.676e
x;" alt="a" /></span>, <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml
-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>

</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f11423fbb2e967f986e36804a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.008ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="b" /></span> there are <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-m
ath-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math
/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msup>
<mn>2</mn>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>=</mo>
<mn>4</mn>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2^{2}=4}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
544566e539538b9b5d5f9106712550b2c80da685" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:6.516ex; height:2.676
ex;" alt="2^{2}=4" /></span> possible interpretations:</p>
<ol>
<li>both are assigned <b>T</b>,</li>
<li>both are assigned <b>F</b>,</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffd2487510aa438433a2579450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.24ex; height:1.676e
x;" alt="a" /></span> is assigned <b>T</b> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathm
l-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3
.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f11423fbb2e967f986e36804a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.008ex; height:2.176

ex;" alt="b" /></span> is assigned <b>F</b>, or</li>


<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>a</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle a}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ffd2487510aa438433a2579450ab2b3d557e5edc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.24ex; height:1.676e
x;" alt="a" /></span> is assigned <b>F</b> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathm
l-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3
.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>b</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle b}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f11423fbb2e967f986e36804a8ae4271734917c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.008ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="b" /></span> is assigned <b>T</b>.<sup id="cite_ref-metalogic_10-1" cl
ass="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup></li>
</ol>
<p>Since <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="
display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span> has <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inlin
e mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/19
98/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2135;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>

</msub>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \aleph _{0}}</annota
tion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
721cd7f8c15a2e72ad162bdfa5baea8eef98aab1" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.492ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\aleph _{0}" /></span>, that is, <a href="/wiki/Denumerably_infinite"
class="mw-redirect" title="Denumerably infinite">denumerably</a> many propositio
nal symbols, there are <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml
-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msup>
<mn>2</mn>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<msub>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x2135;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>0</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
</mrow>
</msup>
<mo>=</mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="fraktur">c</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle 2^{\aleph _{0}}={\ma
thfrak {c}}}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
bc50cc3f50a7c94e56a7ad951b84b32bc63a7a1c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:7.278ex; height:2.676
ex;" alt="2^{\aleph _{0}}={\mathfrak {c}}" /></span>, and therefore <a href="/wi
ki/Cardinality_of_the_continuum" title="Cardinality of the continuum">uncountabl
y many</a> distinct possible interpretations of <span><span class="mwe-math-math
ml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w
3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/

10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span>.<sup id="cite_ref-metalogic_10-2" class="ref
erence"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Interpretation_of_a_sentence_of_truth-function
al_propositional_logic">Interpretation of a sentence of truth-functional proposi
tional logic</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-brac
ket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&
amp;section=17" title="Edit section: Interpretation of a sentence of truth-funct
ional propositional logic">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span>
</span></h3>
<div role="note" class="hatnote">Main article: <a href="/wiki/Interpretation_(lo
gic)" title="Interpretation (logic)">Interpretation (logic)</a></div>
<p>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> and <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> are <a href="/wiki/Formula_(ma
thematical_logic)" class="mw-redirect" title="Formula (mathematical logic)">form
ulas</a> of <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" styl
e="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inlin
e mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/19
98/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> is an interpretation
of <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displa
y: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {P}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
10d6ec962de5797ba4f161c40e66dca74ae95cc6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.714ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="{\mathcal {P}}" /></span> then:</p>
<ul>
<li>A sentence of propositional logic is <i>true under an interpretation</i> <sp
an><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: non
e;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> iff <span><span class
="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmln
s="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> assigns the truth val
ue <b>T</b> to that sentence. If a sentence is <a href="/wiki/Logical_truth" tit
le="Logical truth">true</a> under an interpretation, then that interpretation is
called a <i>model</i> of that sentence.</li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is <i>false unde
r an interpretation</i> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathm
l-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
>

<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> iff <span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is not true under <span><span class="
mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns=
"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span>.<sup id="cite_ref-met
alogic_10-3" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup><
/li>
<li>A sentence of propositional logic is <i>logically valid</i> if it is true un
der every interpretation</li>
</ul>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A8;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \models \phi }</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
447cc02ab5989f729f270027aab0a05d83d607e3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:4.066ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\models \phi " /></span> means that <span class="texhtml mvar" style="
font-style:italic;"></span> is logically valid</dd>

</dl>
<ul>
<li>A sentence <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> of pr
opositional logic is a <i><a href="/wiki/Logical_consequence" title="Logical con
sequence">semantic consequence</a></i> of a sentence <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;"></span> iff there is no interpretation under which <spa
n class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is true and <span class=
"texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is false.</li>
<li>A sentence of propositional logic is <i><a href="/wiki/Consistency" title="C
onsistency">consistent</a></i> iff it is true under at least one interpretation.
It is inconsistent if it is not consistent.</li>
</ul>
<p>Some consequences of these definitions:</p>
<ul>
<li>For any given interpretation a given formula is either true or false.<sup id
="cite_ref-metalogic_10-4" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[
10]</a></sup></li>
<li>No formula is both true and false under the same interpretation.<sup id="cit
e_ref-metalogic_10-5" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</
a></sup></li>
<li><span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is false for a g
iven interpretation iff <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathm
l-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"
>
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg \phi }</annotat
ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
d3977176cb0f5057b3dcc1cfeae7d80dcb9c9ee0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.957ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\neg \phi " /></span> is true for that interpretation; and <span class
="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is true under an interpretation
iff <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="disp
lay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg \phi }</annotat
ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
d3977176cb0f5057b3dcc1cfeae7d80dcb9c9ee0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.957ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\neg \phi " /></span> is false under that interpretation.<sup id="cite
_ref-metalogic_10-6" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a
></sup></li>
<li>If <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> and <span><sp
an class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><m
ath xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >

<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to \psi )}</a
nnotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c518614f62fa06cbf314a77644b569b3dc3f761d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:8.374ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(\phi \to \psi )" /></span> are both true under a given interpretation
, then <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is true under
that interpretation.<sup id="cite_ref-metalogic_10-7" class="reference"><a href
="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup></li>
<li>If <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mo>&#x22A8;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \models _{\mathrm {P
} }\phi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
3bc11f4bfe328b7ac0a8a9bfe6fb611d14904a2e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:5.425ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\models _{\mathrm {P} }\phi " /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-mat
h-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http:/
/www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mo>&#x22A8;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>

<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \models _{\mathrm {P
} }(\phi \to \psi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
91c8db2c6c207416a322a2d9fb79de2cf09d2dfc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.404ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\models _{\mathrm {P} }(\phi \to \psi )" /></span>, then <span><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mo>&#x22A8;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \models _{\mathrm {P
} }\psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
7a952436df8ad7e3f87d0f0eeeac21597859344b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:5.553ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\models _{\mathrm {P} }\psi " /></span>.<sup id="cite_ref-metalogic_10
-8" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup></li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \neg \phi }</annotat
ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
d3977176cb0f5057b3dcc1cfeae7d80dcb9c9ee0" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:2.957ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\neg \phi " /></span> is true under <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml
-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.
org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>

</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> iff <span class="texh
tml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is not true under <span><span class="
mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns=
"http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span>.</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to \psi )}</a
nnotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c518614f62fa06cbf314a77644b569b3dc3f761d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:8.374ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(\phi \to \psi )" /></span> is true under <span><span class="mwe-mathmathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://w
ww.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>

<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann


otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> iff either <span clas
s="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is not true under <span><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span> or <span class="texht
ml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> is true under <span><span class="mwe-m
ath-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http
://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi class="MJX-tex-caligraphic" mathvariant="script">I</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle {\mathcal {I}}}</ann
otation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
0e9730a0ada0426927ff64141eb9f505eca132d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; margin-left: -0.058ex; widt
h:1.561ex; height:2.176ex;" alt="{\mathcal {I}}" /></span>.<sup id="cite_ref-met
alogic_10-9" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></sup><
/li>
<li>A sentence <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span> of pr
opositional logic is a semantic consequence of a sentence <span class="texhtml m
var" style="font-style:italic;"></span> iff <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inl
ine mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/
1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to \psi )}</a
nnotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c518614f62fa06cbf314a77644b569b3dc3f761d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:8.374ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(\phi \to \psi )" /></span> is <a href="/wiki/Logically_valid" class="
mw-redirect" title="Logically valid">logically valid</a>, that is, <span><span c
lass="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math
xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<msub>
<mo>&#x22A8;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \models _{\math
rm {P} }\psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
beb2beda49e878ad025765b035055fb1407072bb" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:7.594ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="\phi \models _{\mathrm {P} }\psi " /></span> iff <span><span class="mw
e-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="h
ttp://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mo>&#x22A8;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi mathvariant="normal">P</mi>
</mrow>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \models _{\mathrm {P
} }(\phi \to \psi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/

91c8db2c6c207416a322a2d9fb79de2cf09d2dfc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:12.404ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\models _{\mathrm {P} }(\phi \to \psi )" /></span>.<sup id="cite_refmetalogic_10-10" class="reference"><a href="#cite_note-metalogic-10">[10]</a></s
up></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Alternative_calculus">Alternative calculus</sp
an><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a
href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=18"
title="Edit section: Alternative calculus">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-b
racket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>It is possible to define another version of propositional calculus, which def
ines most of the syntax of the logical operators by means of axioms, and which u
ses only one inference rule.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Axioms">Axioms</span><span class="mw-editsecti
on"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Pro
positional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=19" title="Edit section: Axioms"
>edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Let <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>, <span class=
"texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>, and <span class="texhtml mvar"
style="font-style:italic;"></span> stand for well-formed formulas. (The well-forme
d formulas themselves would not contain any Greek letters, but only capital Roma
n letters, connective operators, and parentheses.) Then the axioms are as follow
s:</p>
<table style="margin:auto;" class="wikitable">
<tr>
<th colspan="3">Axioms</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<th>Name</th>
<th>Axiom Schema</th>
<th>Description</th>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>THEN-1</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \to (\chi \to \
phi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
cdf4057314dab0db321847fb7dc83a6da7052a2f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:13.337ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\phi \to (\chi \to \phi )" /></span></td>
<td>Add hypothesis <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></span>,
implication introduction</td>
</tr>
<tr>

<td>THEN-2</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to (\chi \to
\psi ))\to ((\phi \to \chi )\to (\phi \to \psi ))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c7ec9bb31145adaf5c6c700d9f1d1705a879a43c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:41.064ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(\phi \to (\chi \to \psi ))\to ((\phi \to \chi )\to (\phi \to \psi ))
" /></span></td>
<td>Distribute hypothesis <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"></
span> over implication</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>AND-1</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \land \chi \to
\phi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/

b35ddeed77d309690f145d9e739746d398928b54" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:10.475ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi \land \chi \to \phi " /></span></td>
<td>Eliminate conjunction</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>AND-2</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \land \chi \to
\chi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
5a7cb22e60caa0dfc47adca9a0c07846d78bac0b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:10.545ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi \land \chi \to \chi " /></span></td>
<td>&#160;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>AND-3</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \to (\chi \to (
\phi \land \chi ))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
964542155fb82b362c1efaebd8ccbfc0cef3ac4d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.225ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\phi \to (\chi \to (\phi \land \chi ))" /></span></td>
<td>Introduce conjunction</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>OR-1</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ

ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >


<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \to \phi \lor \
chi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
95ed0f42810a415fd72726bdba62bd8703314d06" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:10.475ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi \to \phi \lor \chi " /></span></td>
<td>Introduce disjunction</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>OR-2</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \chi \to \phi \lor \
chi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
66c2685417da149fb756ce019d3515263eedc2fc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:10.545ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\chi \to \phi \lor \chi " /></span></td>
<td>&#160;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>OR-3</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to \psi )\to
((\chi \to \psi )\to (\phi \lor \chi \to \psi ))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
5f1b2f882322aee1ee7ceb6475a1985aa3bee135" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:38.33ex; height:2.843
ex;" alt="(\phi \to \psi )\to ((\chi \to \psi )\to (\phi \lor \chi \to \psi ))"
/></span></td>
<td>Eliminate disjunction</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>NOT-1</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to \chi )\to
((\phi \to \neg \chi )\to \neg \phi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
dc3df9dab10e015fc31e871b89fd2a2298212e90" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:30.229ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(\phi \to \chi )\to ((\phi \to \neg \chi )\to \neg \phi )" /></span><
/td>
<td>Introduce negation</td>
</tr>
<tr>

<td>NOT-2</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \to (\neg \phi
\to \chi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8f7f65ad3a1146ede774940a02971863ffa223ca" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:14.897ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="\phi \to (\neg \phi \to \chi )" /></span></td>
<td>Eliminate negation</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>NOT-3</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \lor \neg \phi
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
87dc7b2a3892721a44cce8ce9eaa58e10482b691" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:6.946ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi \lor \neg \phi " /></span></td>
<td>Excluded middle, classical logic</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>IFF-1</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \leftrightarro
w \chi )\to (\phi \to \chi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
21f7a700da6f817e4a60fb7545f03ca9112eca8e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:20.257ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(\phi \leftrightarrow \chi )\to (\phi \to \chi )" /></span></td>
<td>Eliminate equivalence</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>IFF-2</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \leftrightarro
w \chi )\to (\chi \to \phi )}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c466b2df133a8a47459d9925b3052f50f8cfab43" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:20.257ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(\phi \leftrightarrow \chi )\to (\chi \to \phi )" /></span></td>
<td>&#160;</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>IFF-3</td>
<td><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>

<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2194;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (\phi \to \chi )\to
((\chi \to \phi )\to (\phi \leftrightarrow \chi ))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ff86860151feae70cfebb97d3f04bc5b6e37d470" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:34.028ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(\phi \to \chi )\to ((\chi \to \phi )\to (\phi \leftrightarrow \chi )
)" /></span></td>
<td>Introduce equivalence</td>
</tr>
</table>
<ul>
<li>Axiom THEN-2 may be considered to be a "distributive property of implication
with respect to implication."</li>
<li>Axioms AND-1 and AND-2 correspond to "conjunction elimination". The relation
between AND-1 and AND-2 reflects the commutativity of the conjunction operator.
</li>
<li>Axiom AND-3 corresponds to "conjunction introduction."</li>
<li>Axioms OR-1 and OR-2 correspond to "disjunction introduction." The relation
between OR-1 and OR-2 reflects the commutativity of the disjunction operator.</l
i>
<li>Axiom NOT-1 corresponds to "reductio ad absurdum."</li>
<li>Axiom NOT-2 says that "anything can be deduced from a contradiction."</li>
<li>Axiom NOT-3 is called "<a href="/wiki/Law_of_excluded_middle" title="Law of
excluded middle">tertium non datur</a>" (<a href="/wiki/Latin" title="Latin">Lat
in</a>: "a third is not given") and reflects the semantic valuation of propositi
onal formulas: a formula can have a truth-value of either true or false. There i
s no third truth-value, at least not in classical logic. <a href="/wiki/Intuitio
nistic_logic" title="Intuitionistic logic">Intuitionistic logicians</a> do not a
ccept the axiom NOT-3.</li>
</ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Inference_rule">Inference rule</span><span cla
ss="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/ind
ex.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=20" title="Edit
section: Inference rule">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></
span></h3>
<p>The inference rule is <a href="/wiki/Modus_ponens" title="Modus ponens">modus
ponens</a>:</p>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>

<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi ,\ \phi \to \ch
i \vdash \chi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1b04d6ec55879b9dc88eeb1458ec4710012bfb2c" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:13.693ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi ,\ \phi \to \chi \vdash \chi " /></span>.</dd>
</dl>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Meta-inference_rule">Meta-inference rule</span
><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a hr
ef="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=21" ti
tle="Edit section: Meta-inference rule">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-brac
ket">]</span></span></h3>
<p>Let a demonstration be represented by a sequence, with hypotheses to the left
of the <a href="/wiki/Turnstile_(symbol)" title="Turnstile (symbol)">turnstile<
/a> and the conclusion to the right of the turnstile. Then the <a href="/wiki/De
duction_theorem" title="Deduction theorem">deduction theorem</a> can be stated a
s follows:</p>
<dl>
<dd><i>If the sequence</i>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>

<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ \phi _{2
},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
7e8a7a714483dff834f30bbb5df221cbd1cc9d32" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:22.88ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ \phi _{2},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \psi " /></span>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
<dd><i>has been demonstrated, then it is also possible to demonstrate the sequen
ce</i>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ \phi _{2
},\ ...,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \chi \to \psi }</annotation>

</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
69f6ef39e54630c5619bad4a8f72bc296e9d4c81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:24.88ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ \phi _{2},\ ...,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \chi \to \psi " /></span
>.</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<p>This deduction theorem (DT) is not itself formulated with propositional calcu
lus: it is not a theorem of propositional calculus, but a theorem about proposit
ional calculus. In this sense, it is a <a href="/wiki/Meta-theorem" class="mw-re
direct" title="Meta-theorem">meta-theorem</a>, comparable to theorems about the
soundness or completeness of propositional calculus.</p>
<p>On the other hand, DT is so useful for simplifying the syntactical proof proc
ess that it can be considered and used as another inference rule, accompanying m
odus ponens. In this sense, DT corresponds to the natural <a href="/wiki/Conditi
onal_proof" title="Conditional proof">conditional proof</a> inference rule which
is part of the first version of propositional calculus introduced in this artic
le.</p>
<p>The converse of DT is also valid:</p>
<dl>
<dd><i>If the sequence</i>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>

</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ \phi _{2
},\ ...,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \chi \to \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
69f6ef39e54630c5619bad4a8f72bc296e9d4c81" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:24.88ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ \phi _{2},\ ...,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \chi \to \psi " /></span
></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
<dd><i>has been demonstrated, then it is also possible to demonstrate the sequen
ce</i>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ \phi _{2
},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
7e8a7a714483dff834f30bbb5df221cbd1cc9d32" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:22.88ex; height:2.509

ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ \phi _{2},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \psi " /></span>
</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<p>in fact, the validity of the converse of DT is almost trivial compared to tha
t of DT:</p>
<dl>
<dd><i>If</i>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ ...,\ \p
hi _{n}\vdash \chi \to \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
33e85f6f1ea693428771308be5db483f8af1c27f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:20.797ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ ...,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \chi \to \psi " /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
<dd><i>then</i>
<dl>
<dd>1: <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>

</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ ...,\ \p
hi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \chi \to \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c5fa1b49424f807f6d9f855a5af6356772d03faf" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:23.888ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \chi \to \psi " /></span></
dd>
<dd>2: <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>

<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ ...,\ \p
hi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \chi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
f5694c88dd0ed307b1f2516edcbe500498baa57a" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:18.74ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \chi " /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
<dd><i>and from (1) and (2) can be deduced</i>
<dl>
<dd>3: <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="di
splay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>.</mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ ...,\ \p
hi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
8e6e986b2d0ac1fd2b980b03a0a5963e18d93f95" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:18.798ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ ...,\ \phi _{n},\ \chi \vdash \psi " /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
<dd><i>by means of modus ponens, Q.E.D.</i></dd>
</dl>
<p>The converse of DT has powerful implications: it can be used to convert an ax
iom into an inference rule. For example, the axiom AND-1,</p>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ

ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >


<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash \phi \wedge \
chi \to \phi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
259168209a9063fcfcb1e9d086ac2016fd801560" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:12.551ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\vdash \phi \wedge \chi \to \phi " /></span></dd>
</dl>
<p>can be transformed by means of the converse of the deduction theorem into the
inference rule</p>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi \wedge \chi \vd
ash \phi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ce0b21297d5cfd3c915d163fda429af39b0836c3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:9.571ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi \wedge \chi \vdash \phi " /></span></dd>
</dl>
<p>which is <a href="/wiki/Conjunction_elimination" title="Conjunction eliminati
on">conjunction elimination</a>, one of the ten inference rules used in the firs
t version (in this article) of the propositional calculus.</p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Example_of_a_proof_2">Example of a proof</span
><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a hr
ef="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=22" ti
tle="Edit section: Example of a proof">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-brack
et">]</span></span></h3>
<p>The following is an example of a (syntactical) demonstration, involving only
axioms THEN-1 and THEN-2:</p>
<p><b>Prove:</b> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y"
style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\to A}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4fbf720da5a9387e23c628079fbc3e021399c911" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:7.132ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="A\to A" /></span> (Reflexivity of implication).</p>
<p><b>Proof:</b></p>
<ol>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (A\to ((B\to A)\to A
))\to ((A\to (B\to A))\to (A\to A))}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a699584bb3b5096e0ff031e20738b2cc6b3a7102" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:57.631ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(A\to ((B\to A)\to A))\to ((A\to (B\to A))\to (A\to A))" /></span>
<dl>
<dd>Axiom THEN-2 with <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathmla11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi =A,\chi =B\to A
,\psi =A}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
adc9df168edf7fe6426b8f6a7babd2dfbc837e15" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:26.46ex; height:2.676
ex;" alt="\phi =A,\chi =B\to A,\psi =A" /></span></dd>
</dl>
</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\to ((B\to A)\to A)
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
6aa00669c103583ca3f122b828cc438f7325501e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:21.569ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="A\to ((B\to A)\to A)" /></span>
<dl>
<dd>Axiom THEN-1 with <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathmla11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>A</mi>

<mo>,</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi =A,\chi =B\to A
}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4f300858193f4cf9ab286753108c7ab90e40e11e" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:19.03ex; height:2.676
ex;" alt="\phi =A,\chi =B\to A" /></span></dd>
</dl>
</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (A\to (B\to A))\to (
A\to A)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
82b16b819f3a2d8c09588b77d0e38ab272148d35" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:28.777ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(A\to (B\to A))\to (A\to A)" /></span>
<dl>
<dd>From (1) and (2) by modus ponens.</dd>
</dl>
</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>

<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\to (B\to A)}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ba8692a5036a11936ef451eadfda6c4039a56249" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:14.361ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="A\to (B\to A)" /></span>
<dl>
<dd>Axiom THEN-1 with <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathmla11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>A</mi>
<mo>,</mo>
<mi>&#x03C7;<!-- --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>B</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi =A,\chi =B}</an
notation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b13dde93ca48afaa5cbfe84b187e5469c25f3e76" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:13.652ex; height:2.67
6ex;" alt="\phi =A,\chi =B" /></span></dd>
</dl>
</li>
<li><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>A</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>A</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle A\to A}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
4fbf720da5a9387e23c628079fbc3e021399c911" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:7.132ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="A\to A" /></span>
<dl>
<dd>From (3) and (4) by modus ponens.</dd>
</dl>
</li>
</ol>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Equivalence_to_equational_logics">Equivalence
to equational logics</span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsect
ion-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;acti
on=edit&amp;section=23" title="Edit section: Equivalence to equational logics">e

dit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>The preceding alternative calculus is an example of a <a href="/wiki/Hilbertstyle_deduction_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Hilbert-style deduction syste
m">Hilbert-style deduction system</a>. In the case of propositional systems the
axioms are terms built with logical connectives and the only inference rule is m
odus ponens. Equational logic as standardly used informally in high school algeb
ra is a different kind of calculus from Hilbert systems. Its theorems are equati
ons and its inference rules express the properties of equality, namely that it i
s a congruence on terms that admits substitution.</p>
<p>Classical propositional calculus as described above is equivalent to <a href=
"/wiki/Boolean_algebra_(logic)" class="mw-redirect" title="Boolean algebra (logi
c)">Boolean algebra</a>, while <a href="/wiki/Intuitionistic_logic" title="Intui
tionistic logic">intuitionistic propositional calculus</a> is equivalent to <a h
ref="/wiki/Heyting_algebra" title="Heyting algebra">Heyting algebra</a>. The equ
ivalence is shown by translation in each direction of the theorems of the respec
tive systems. Theorems <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml
-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
72b1f30316670aee6270a28334bdf4f5072cdde4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:1.396ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi " /></span> of classical or intuitionistic propositional calculus
are translated as equations <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-mathmathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Mat
hML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mn>1</mn>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi =1}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
fbeaac176545364b710d70d6cb83b314eb9cc4f3" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.678ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="\phi =1" /></span> of Boolean or Heyting algebra respectively. Convers
ely theorems <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" sty
le="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x=y}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/

409a91214d63eabe46ec10ff3cbba689ab687366" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="x=y" /></span> of Boolean or Heyting algebra are translated as theorem
s <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display
: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (x\to y)\land (y\to
x)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a7607d382dfdb5edd4708e37428927d5507886d4" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:18.515ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(x\to y)\land (y\to x)" /></span> of classical or intuitionistic calc
ulus respectively, for which <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-mathmathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/Mat
hML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2261;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\equiv y}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
344d00ea5455ff5454015cc1f00cf534be450a03" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="x\equiv y" /></span> is a standard abbreviation. In the case of Boolea
n algebra <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style=
"display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x=y}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
409a91214d63eabe46ec10ff3cbba689ab687366" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"

aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.009


ex;" alt="x=y" /></span> can also be translated as <span><span class="mwe-math-m
athml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://ww
w.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mo stretchy="false">(</mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi mathvariant="normal">&#x00AC;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">)</mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle (x\land y)\lor (\neg
x\land \neg y)}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
b9a473643787f3d43daa58723cbe28245f90fffc" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.838ex; width:19.573ex; height:2.84
3ex;" alt="(x\land y)\lor (\neg x\land \neg y)" /></span>, but this translation
is incorrect intuitionistically.</p>
<p>In both Boolean and Heyting algebra, inequality <span><span class="mwe-math-m
athml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://ww
w.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\leq y}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c07a0bc023490be1c08e6c33a9cdc93bec908224" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\leq y" /></span> can be used in place of equality. The equality <spa
n><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none
;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x=y}</annotation>
</semantics>

</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
409a91214d63eabe46ec10ff3cbba689ab687366" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.009
ex;" alt="x=y" /></span> is expressible as a pair of inequalities <span><span cl
ass="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math x
mlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\leq y}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c07a0bc023490be1c08e6c33a9cdc93bec908224" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\leq y" /></span> and <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-m
ath-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math
/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>x</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle y\leq x}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
7de6a6e4f44d9dfcbfaadbdcf388d4b8a6fed109" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="y\leq x" /></span>. Conversely the inequality <span><span class="mwe-m
ath-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http
://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\leq y}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c07a0bc023490be1c08e6c33a9cdc93bec908224" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\leq y" /></span> is expressible as the equality <span><span class="m
we-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="
http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">

<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>x</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\land y=x}</annotat

ion>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
adfaa089cf83ea4a0a51a015855c9d6115899cac" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:9.548ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="x\land y=x" /></span>, or as <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/199
8/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2228;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
<mo>=</mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\lor y=y}</annotati
on>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
1861fb8f5462d58180bf88a418f76fd78daca12d" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:9.374ex; height:2.343
ex;" alt="x\lor y=y" /></span>. The significance of inequality for Hilbert-style
systems is that it corresponds to the latter's deduction or <a href="/wiki/Enta
ilment" class="mw-redirect" title="Entailment">entailment</a> symbol <span><span
class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><mat
h xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \vdash }</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
a0c0d30cf8cb7dba179e317fcde9583d842e80f6" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.338ex; width:1.431ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="\vdash " /></span>. An entailment</p>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>

<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x2026;<!-- --></mo>
<mo>,</mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1},\ \phi _{2
},\ \dots ,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
73e99a394f366d6a20d1005e4c2ad23128fb872b" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:20.164ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi _{1},\ \phi _{2},\ \dots ,\ \phi _{n}\vdash \psi " /></span></dd
>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<p>is translated in the inequality version of the algebraic framework as</p>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>1</mn>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mn>2</mn>

</mrow>
</msub>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x2026;<!-- --></mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x2227;<!-- --></mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<msub>
<mi>&#x03D5;<!-- ? --></mi>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mi>n</mi>
</mrow>
</msub>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>&#x03C8;<!-- --></mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle \phi _{1}\ \land \ \
phi _{2}\ \land \ \dots \ \land \ \phi _{n}\ \ \leq \ \ \psi }</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
90c728ba536ae9c1e33e019ee99545eb2fe7de52" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:29.263ex; height:2.50
9ex;" alt="\phi _{1}\ \land \ \phi _{2}\ \land \ \dots \ \land \ \phi _{n}\ \ \l
eq \ \ \psi " /></span></dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<p>Conversely the algebraic inequality <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/199
8/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\leq y}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c07a0bc023490be1c08e6c33a9cdc93bec908224" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\leq y" /></span> is translated as the entailment</p>
<dl>
<dd>
<dl>
<dd><span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="displ
ay: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">

<mi>x</mi>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\ \vdash \ y}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ec50bc335fedc96c855795c6a1c7f84825f7cf98" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:6.388ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\ \vdash \ y" /></span>.</dd>
</dl>
</dd>
</dl>
<p>The difference between implication <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline
mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998
/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo stretchy="false">&#x2192;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\to y}</annotation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
43570cdee5baeaebcf546338f77cf67c27a7344f" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:6.131ex; height:2.176
ex;" alt="x\to y" /></span> and inequality or <a href="/wiki/Entailment" class="
mw-redirect" title="Entailment">entailment</a> <span><span class="mwe-math-mathm
l-inline mwe-math-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3
.org/1998/Math/MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mo>&#x2264;<!-- --></mo>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\leq y}</annotation
>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
c07a0bc023490be1c08e6c33a9cdc93bec908224" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:5.615ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\leq y" /></span> or <span><span class="mwe-math-mathml-inline mwe-ma
th-mathml-a11y" style="display: none;"><math xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/
MathML" >
<semantics>
<mrow class="MJX-TeXAtom-ORD">
<mstyle displaystyle="true" scriptlevel="0">
<mi>x</mi>
<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mo>&#x22A2;<!-- ? --></mo>

<mtext>&#xA0;</mtext>
<mi>y</mi>
</mstyle>
</mrow>
<annotation encoding="application/x-tex">{\displaystyle x\ \vdash \ y}</anno
tation>
</semantics>
</math></span><img src="https://wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/
ec50bc335fedc96c855795c6a1c7f84825f7cf98" class="mwe-math-fallback-image-inline"
aria-hidden="true" style="vertical-align: -0.671ex; width:6.388ex; height:2.509
ex;" alt="x\ \vdash \ y" /></span> is that the former is internal to the logic w
hile the latter is external. Internal implication between two terms is another t
erm of the same kind. Entailment as external implication between two terms expre
sses a metatruth outside the language of the logic, and is considered part of th
e <a href="/wiki/Metalanguage" title="Metalanguage">metalanguage</a>. Even when
the logic under study is intuitionistic, entailment is ordinarily understood cla
ssically as two-valued: either the left side entails, or is less-or-equal to, th
e right side, or it is not.</p>
<p>Similar but more complex translations to and from algebraic logics are possib
le for natural deduction systems as described above and for the <a href="/wiki/S
equent_calculus" title="Sequent calculus">sequent calculus</a>. The entailments
of the latter can be interpreted as two-valued, but a more insightful interpreta
tion is as a set, the elements of which can be understood as abstract proofs org
anized as the morphisms of a <a href="/wiki/Category_(mathematics)" title="Categ
ory (mathematics)">category</a>. In this interpretation the cut rule of the sequ
ent calculus corresponds to composition in the category. Boolean and Heyting alg
ebras enter this picture as special categories having at most one morphism per h
omset, i.e., one proof per entailment, corresponding to the idea that existence
of proofs is all that matters: any proof will do and there is no point in distin
guishing them.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Graphical_calculi">Graphical calculi</span><sp
an class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="
/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=24" title=
"Edit section: Graphical calculi">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]
</span></span></h2>
<table class="metadata plainlinks ambox ambox-content ambox-Unreferenced" role="
presentation">
<tr>
<td class="mbox-image">
<div style="width:52px"><a href="/wiki/File:Question_book-new.svg" class="image"
><img alt="" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-n
ew.svg/50px-Question_book-new.svg.png" width="50" height="39" srcset="//upload.w
ikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new.svg/75px-Question_book-ne
w.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/99/Question_book-new
.svg/100px-Question_book-new.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="512" data-file-height=
"399" /></a></div>
</td>
<td class="mbox-text"><span class="mbox-text-span">This section <b>does not <a h
ref="/wiki/Wikipedia:Citing_sources" title="Wikipedia:Citing sources">cite</a> a
ny <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Verifiability" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">sourc
es</a></b>. <span class="hide-when-compact">Please help improve this section by
<a href="/wiki/Help:Introduction_to_referencing_with_Wiki_Markup/1" title="Help:
Introduction to referencing with Wiki Markup/1">adding citations to reliable sou
rces</a>. Unsourced material may be challenged and <a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Veri
fiability#Burden_of_evidence" title="Wikipedia:Verifiability">removed</a>.</span
> <small><i>(March 2011)</i></small> <small class="hide-when-compact"><i>(<a hre
f="/wiki/Help:Maintenance_template_removal" title="Help:Maintenance template rem
oval">Learn how and when to remove this template message</a>)</i></small></span>
</td>
</tr>

</table>
<p>It is possible to generalize the definition of a formal language from a set o
f finite sequences over a finite basis to include many other sets of mathematica
l structures, so long as they are built up by finitary means from finite materia
ls. What's more, many of these families of formal structures are especially well
-suited for use in logic.</p>
<p>For example, there are many families of <a href="/wiki/Graph_(discrete_mathem
atics)" title="Graph (discrete mathematics)">graphs</a> that are close enough an
alogues of formal languages that the concept of a calculus is quite easily and n
aturally extended to them. Indeed, many species of graphs arise as <i><a href="/
wiki/Parse_graph" class="mw-redirect" title="Parse graph">parse graphs</a></i> i
n the syntactic analysis of the corresponding families of text structures. The e
xigencies of practical computation on formal languages frequently demand that te
xt strings be converted into <a href="/wiki/Pointer_structure" class="mw-redirec
t" title="Pointer structure">pointer structure</a> renditions of parse graphs, s
imply as a matter of checking whether strings are well-formed formulas or not. O
nce this is done, there are many advantages to be gained from developing the gra
phical analogue of the calculus on strings. The mapping from strings to parse gr
aphs is called <i><a href="/wiki/Parsing" title="Parsing">parsing</a></i> and th
e inverse mapping from parse graphs to strings is achieved by an operation that
is called <i><a href="/wiki/Graph_traversal" title="Graph traversal">traversing<
/a></i> the graph.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Other_logical_calculi">Other logical calculi</
span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><
a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=25
" title="Edit section: Other logical calculi">edit</a><span class="mw-editsectio
n-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Propositional calculus is about the simplest kind of logical calculus in curr
ent use. It can be extended in several ways. (<a href="/wiki/Term_logic" title="
Term logic">Aristotelian "syllogistic" calculus</a>, which is largely supplanted
in modern logic, is in <i>some</i> ways simpler C but in other ways more complex
C than propositional calculus.) The most immediate way to develop a more complex
logical calculus is to introduce rules that are sensitive to more fine-grained
details of the sentences being used.</p>
<p><a href="/wiki/First-order_logic" title="First-order logic">First-order logic
</a> (a.k.a. first-order predicate logic) results when the "atomic sentences" of
propositional logic are broken up into <a href="/wiki/Singular_term" title="Sin
gular term">terms</a>, <a href="/wiki/Variable_(mathematics)" title="Variable (m
athematics)">variables</a>, <a href="/wiki/Predicate_(logic)" class="mw-redirect
" title="Predicate (logic)">predicates</a>, and <a href="/wiki/Quantifier_(logic
)" title="Quantifier (logic)">quantifiers</a>, all keeping the rules of proposit
ional logic with some new ones introduced. (For example, from "All dogs are mamm
als" we may infer "If Rover is a dog then Rover is a mammal".) With the tools of
first-order logic it is possible to formulate a number of theories, either with
explicit axioms or by rules of inference, that can themselves be treated as log
ical calculi. <a href="/wiki/Arithmetic" title="Arithmetic">Arithmetic</a> is th
e best known of these; others include <a href="/wiki/Set_theory" title="Set theo
ry">set theory</a> and <a href="/wiki/Mereology" title="Mereology">mereology</a>
. <a href="/wiki/Second-order_logic" title="Second-order logic">Second-order log
ic</a> and other <a href="/wiki/Higher-order_logic" title="Higher-order logic">h
igher-order logics</a> are formal extensions of first-order logic. Thus, it make
s sense to refer to propositional logic as <i>"zeroth-order logic"</i>, when com
paring it with these logics.</p>
<p><a href="/wiki/Modal_logic" title="Modal logic">Modal logic</a> also offers a
variety of inferences that cannot be captured in propositional calculus. For ex
ample, from "Necessarily <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p
</span>" we may infer that <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;"
>p</span>. From <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:italic;">p</span> w
e may infer "It is possible that <span class="texhtml mvar" style="font-style:it
alic;">p</span>". The translation between modal logics and algebraic logics conc

erns classical and intuitionistic logics but with the introduction of a unary op
erator on Boolean or Heyting algebras, different from the Boolean operations, in
terpreting the possibility modality, and in the case of Heyting algebra a second
operator interpreting necessity (for Boolean algebra this is redundant since ne
cessity is the De Morgan dual of possibility). The first operator preserves 0 an
d disjunction while the second preserves 1 and conjunction.</p>
<p><a href="/wiki/Many-valued_logic" title="Many-valued logic">Many-valued logic
s</a> are those allowing sentences to have values other than <i>true</i> and <i>
false</i>. (For example, <i>neither</i> and <i>both</i> are standard "extra valu
es"; "continuum logic" allows each sentence to have any of an infinite number of
"degrees of truth" between <i>true</i> and <i>false</i>.) These logics often re
quire calculational devices quite distinct from propositional calculus. When the
values form a Boolean algebra (which may have more than two or even infinitely
many values), many-valued logic reduces to classical logic; many-valued logics a
re therefore only of independent interest when the values form an algebra that i
s not Boolean.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Solvers">Solvers</span><span class="mw-editsec
tion"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title=P
ropositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=26" title="Edit section: Solve
rs">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<p>Finding solutions to propositional logic formulas is an <a href="/wiki/NP-com
plete" class="mw-redirect" title="NP-complete">NP-complete</a> problem. However,
practical methods exist (e.g., <a href="/wiki/DPLL_algorithm" title="DPLL algor
ithm">DPLL algorithm</a>, 1962; <a href="/wiki/Chaff_algorithm" title="Chaff alg
orithm">Chaff algorithm</a>, 2001) that are very fast for many useful cases. Rec
ent work has extended the <a href="/wiki/SAT_solver" class="mw-redirect" title="
SAT solver">SAT solver</a> algorithms to work with propositions containing <a hr
ef="/wiki/Arithmetic_expression" class="mw-redirect" title="Arithmetic expressio
n">arithmetic expressions</a>; these are the <a href="/wiki/SMT_solver" class="m
w-redirect" title="SMT solver">SMT solvers</a>.</p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="See_also">See also</span><span class="mw-edits
ection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?title
=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=27" title="Edit section: See
also">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div role="navigation" aria-label="Portals" class="noprint portal plainlist trig
ht" style="margin:0.5em 0 0.5em 1em;border:solid #aaa 1px">
<ul style="display:table;box-sizing:border-box;padding:0.1em;max-width:175px;bac
kground:#f9f9f9;font-size:85%;line-height:110%;font-style:italic;font-weight:bol
d">
<li style="display:table-row"><span style="display:table-cell;padding:0.2em;vert
ical-align:middle;text-align:center"><a href="/wiki/File:Logic_portal.svg" class
="image"><img alt="icon" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7
c/Logic_portal.svg/32px-Logic_portal.svg.png" width="32" height="24" class="novi
ewer" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/7c/Logic_portal.s
vg/48px-Logic_portal.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thum
b/7/7c/Logic_portal.svg/64px-Logic_portal.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="287" data
-file-height="218" /></a></span><span style="display:table-cell;padding:0.2em 0.
2em 0.2em 0.3em;vertical-align:middle"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Logic" title="Porta
l:Logic">Logic portal</a></span></li>
</ul>
</div>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Higher_logical_levels">Higher logical levels</
span><span class="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><
a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=28
" title="Edit section: Higher logical levels">edit</a><span class="mw-editsectio
n-bracket">]</span></span></h3>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/First-order_logic" title="First-order logic">First-order logi
c</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Second-order_propositional_logic" title="Second-order proposi

tional logic">Second-order propositional logic</a></li>


<li><a href="/wiki/Second-order_logic" title="Second-order logic">Second-order l
ogic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Higher-order_logic" title="Higher-order logic">Higher-order l
ogic</a></li>
</ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Related_topics">Related topics</span><span cla
ss="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/ind
ex.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=29" title="Edit
section: Related topics">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></
span></h3>
<div>
<table class="multicol" role="presentation" style="border-collapse: collapse; pa
dding: 0; border: 0; background:transparent; width:100%;">
<tr>
<td style="text-align: left; vertical-align: top;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean_algebra_(logic)" class="mw-redirect" title="Boolean a
lgebra (logic)">Boolean algebra (logic)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean_algebra_(structure)" title="Boolean algebra (structur
e)">Boolean algebra (structure)</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean_algebra_topics" class="mw-redirect" title="Boolean al
gebra topics">Boolean algebra topics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean_domain" title="Boolean domain">Boolean domain</a></li
>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean_function" title="Boolean function">Boolean function</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean-valued_function" title="Boolean-valued function">Bool
ean-valued function</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Categorical_logic" title="Categorical logic">Categorical logi
c</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Combinational_logic" title="Combinational logic">Combinationa
l logic</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Combinatory_logic" title="Combinatory logic">Combinatory logi
c</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Conceptual_graph" title="Conceptual graph">Conceptual graph</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Disjunctive_syllogism" title="Disjunctive syllogism">Disjunct
ive syllogism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Entitative_graph" title="Entitative graph">Entitative graph</
a></li>
</ul>
</td>
<td style="text-align: left; vertical-align: top;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Equational_logic" title="Equational logic">Equational logic</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Existential_graph" title="Existential graph">Existential grap
h</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Frege%27s_propositional_calculus" title="Frege's propositiona
l calculus">Frege's propositional calculus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Implicational_propositional_calculus" title="Implicational pr
opositional calculus">Implicational propositional calculus</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Intuitionistic_propositional_calculus" class="mw-redirect" ti
tle="Intuitionistic propositional calculus">Intuitionistic propositional calculu
s</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Jean_Buridan" title="Jean Buridan">Jean Buridan</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Laws_of_Form" title="Laws of Form">Laws of Form</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Logical_graph" title="Logical graph">Logical graph</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Logical_NOR" title="Logical NOR">Logical NOR</a></li>

<li><a href="/wiki/Logical_value" class="mw-redirect" title="Logical value">Logi


cal value</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
<td style="text-align: left; vertical-align: top;">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Operation_(mathematics)" title="Operation (mathematics)">Oper
ation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Paul_of_Venice" title="Paul of Venice">Paul of Venice</a></li
>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peirce%27s_law" title="Peirce's law">Peirce's law</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Peter_of_Spain_(author)" class="mw-redirect" title="Peter of
Spain (author)">Peter of Spain</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Propositional_formula" title="Propositional formula">Proposit
ional formula</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Symmetric_difference" title="Symmetric difference">Symmetric
difference</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Truth_function" title="Truth function">Truth function</a></li
>
<li><a href="/wiki/Truth_table" title="Truth table">Truth table</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Walter_Burley" title="Walter Burley">Walter Burley</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/William_of_Sherwood" title="William of Sherwood">William of S
herwood</a></li>
</ul>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="References">References</span><span class="mw-e
ditsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index.php?t
itle=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=30" title="Edit section:
References">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></span></h2>
<div class="reflist columns references-column-width" style="-moz-column-width: 3
0em; -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
<ol class="references">
<li id="cite_note-1"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-1">^</
a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external tex
t" href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ancient/">Ancient Logic (Stanfo
rd Encyclopedia of Philosophy)</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-2"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-2">^</
a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Marenbon,
John (2007). <i>Medieval philosophy: an historical and philosophical introducti
on</i>. Routledge. p.&#160;137.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_i
d=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3APropositional+calculus&amp;rft.aufirst=John&am
p;rft.aulast=Marenbon&amp;rft.btitle=Medieval+philosophy%3A+an+historical+and+ph
ilosophical+introduction&amp;rft.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=137&
amp;rft.pub=Routledge&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class
="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-3"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-3">^</
a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external tex
t" href="http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/leibniz-logic-influence/#Con">Leibniz
's Influence on 19th Century Logic</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-4"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-4">^</
a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Hurley, P
atrick (2007). <i>A Concise Introduction to Logic 10th edition</i>. Wadsworth Pu
blishing. p.&#160;392.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3A
sid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3APropositional+calculus&amp;rft.aufirst=Patrick&amp;rft.
aulast=Hurley&amp;rft.btitle=A+Concise+Introduction+to+Logic+10th+edition&amp;rf
t.date=2007&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.pages=392&amp;rft.pub=Wadsworth+Publishin
g&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style

="display:none;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-5"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-5">^</
a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Beth, Evert W.; "Semantic entailment
and formal derivability", series: Mededlingen van de Koninklijke Nederlandse Aka
demie van Wetenschappen, Afdeling Letterkunde, Nieuwe Reeks, vol. 18, no. 13, No
ord-Hollandsche Uitg. Mij., Amsterdam, 1955, pp. 309C42. Reprinted in Jaakko Inti
kka (ed.) <i>The Philosophy of Mathematics</i>, Oxford University Press, 1969</s
pan></li>
<li id="cite_note-Truth_in_Frege-6"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#c
ite_ref-Truth_in_Frege_6-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-Tr
uth_in_Frege_6-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a></span> <span class="reference-t
ext"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://frege.brown.edu/heck/p
df/unpublished/TruthInFrege.pdf">Truth in Frege</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Russell_Truth-Tables-7"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a hr
ef="#cite_ref-Russell_Truth-Tables_7-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="
#cite_ref-Russell_Truth-Tables_7-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cit
e_ref-Russell_Truth-Tables_7-2"><sup><i><b>c</b></i></sup></a></span> <span clas
s="reference-text"><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://digitalc
ommons.mcmaster.ca/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1219&amp;context=russelljournal">
Russell's Use of Truth-Tables</a></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-Wernick-8"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_re
f-Wernick_8-0">^</a></b></span> <span class="reference-text">Wernick, William (1
942) "Complete Sets of Logical Functions," <i>Transactions of the American Mathe
matical Society</i> <b>51</b>, pp. 117C132.</span></li>
<li id="cite_note-9"><span class="mw-cite-backlink"><b><a href="#cite_ref-9">^</
a></b></span> <span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation web">Toida, Shu
nichi (2 August 2009). <a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.
cs.odu.edu/~toida/nerzic/content/logic/prop_logic/implications/implication_proof
.html">"Proof of Implications"</a>. <i>CS381 Discrete Structures/Discrete Mathem
atics Web Course Material</i>. Department Of Computer Science, <a href="/wiki/Ol
d_Dominion_University" title="Old Dominion University">Old Dominion University</
a><span class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved <span class="nowrap">10 March</
span> 2010</span>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%
2Fen.wikipedia.org%3APropositional+calculus&amp;rft.atitle=Proof+of+Implications
&amp;rft.aufirst=Shunichi&amp;rft.aulast=Toida&amp;rft.date=2009-08-02&amp;rft.g
enre=unknown&amp;rft_id=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cs.odu.edu%2F~toida%2Fnerzic%2Fcontent%
2Flogic%2Fprop_logic%2Fimplications%2Fimplication_proof.html&amp;rft.jtitle=CS38
1+Discrete+Structures%2FDiscrete+Mathematics+Web+Course+Material&amp;rft_val_fmt
=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Ajournal" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none
;">&#160;</span></span></span></li>
<li id="cite_note-metalogic-10"><span class="mw-cite-backlink">^ <a href="#cite_
ref-metalogic_10-0"><sup><i><b>a</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_
10-1"><sup><i><b>b</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-2"><sup><i>
<b>c</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-3"><sup><i><b>d</b></i></
sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-4"><sup><i><b>e</b></i></sup></a> <a hr
ef="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-5"><sup><i><b>f</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_refmetalogic_10-6"><sup><i><b>g</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-7
"><sup><i><b>h</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-8"><sup><i><b>i
</b></i></sup></a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-9"><sup><i><b>j</b></i></sup>
</a> <a href="#cite_ref-metalogic_10-10"><sup><i><b>k</b></i></sup></a></span> <
span class="reference-text"><cite class="citation book">Hunter, Geoffrey (1971).
<i>Metalogic: An Introduction to the Metatheory of Standard First-Order Logic</
i>. University of California Pres. <a href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Nu
mber" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Sp
ecial:BookSources/0-520-02356-0" title="Special:BookSources/0-520-02356-0">0-520
-02356-0</a>.</cite><span title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.
wikipedia.org%3APropositional+calculus&amp;rft.aufirst=Geoffrey&amp;rft.aulast=H
unter&amp;rft.btitle=Metalogic%3A+An+Introduction+to+the+Metatheory+of+Standard+
First-Order+Logic&amp;rft.date=1971&amp;rft.genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=0-520-023560&amp;rft.pub=University+of+California+Pres&amp;rft_val_fmt=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Ak

ev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;">&#160;</span></span><


/span></li>
</ol>
</div>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="Further_reading">Further reading</span><span c
lass="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/i
ndex.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=31" title="Edi
t section: Further reading">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span
></span></h2>
<ul>
<li>Brown, Frank Markham (2003), <i>Boolean Reasoning: The Logic of Boolean Equa
tions</i>, 1st edition, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, MA. 2nd edition, Do
ver Publications, Mineola, NY.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Chen_Chung_Chang" title="Chen Chung Chang">Chang, C.C.</a> an
d <a href="/wiki/Howard_Jerome_Keisler" title="Howard Jerome Keisler">Keisler, H
.J.</a> (1973), <i>Model Theory</i>, North-Holland, Amsterdam, Netherlands.</li>
<li>Kohavi, Zvi (1978), <i>Switching and Finite Automata Theory</i>, 1st edition
, McGrawCHill, 1970. 2nd edition, McGrawCHill, 1978.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Robert_R._Korfhage" title="Robert R. Korfhage">Korfhage, Robe
rt R.</a> (1974), <i>Discrete Computational Structures</i>, Academic Press, New
York, NY.</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Joachim_Lambek" title="Joachim Lambek">Lambek, J.</a> and Sco
tt, P.J. (1986), <i>Introduction to Higher Order Categorical Logic</i>, Cambridg
e University Press, Cambridge, UK.</li>
<li>Mendelson, Elliot (1964), <i>Introduction to Mathematical Logic</i>, D. Van
Nostrand Company.</li>
</ul>
<h3><span class="mw-headline" id="Related_works">Related works</span><span class
="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/index
.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=32" title="Edit se
ction: Related works">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></spa
n></h3>
<ul>
<li><cite class="citation book"><a href="/wiki/Douglas_Hofstadter" title="Dougla
s Hofstadter">Hofstadter, Douglas</a> (1979). <i><a href="/wiki/G%C3%B6del,_Esch
er,_Bach" title="G?del, Escher, Bach">G?del, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Bra
id</a></i>. <a href="/wiki/Basic_Books" title="Basic Books">Basic Books</a>. <a
href="/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Bo
ok Number">ISBN</a>&#160;<a href="/wiki/Special:BookSources/978-0-465-02656-2" t
itle="Special:BookSources/978-0-465-02656-2">978-0-465-02656-2</a>.</cite><span
title="ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004&amp;rfr_id=info%3Asid%2Fen.wikipedia.org%3APropositio
nal+calculus&amp;rft.aufirst=Douglas&amp;rft.aulast=Hofstadter&amp;rft.btitle=G%
C3%B6del%2C+Escher%2C+Bach%3A+An+Eternal+Golden+Braid&amp;rft.date=1979&amp;rft.
genre=book&amp;rft.isbn=978-0-465-02656-2&amp;rft.pub=Basic+Books&amp;rft_val_fm
t=info%3Aofi%2Ffmt%3Akev%3Amtx%3Abook" class="Z3988"><span style="display:none;"
>&#160;</span></span></li>
</ul>
<h2><span class="mw-headline" id="External_links">External links</span><span cla
ss="mw-editsection"><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">[</span><a href="/w/ind
ex.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=edit&amp;section=33" title="Edit
section: External links">edit</a><span class="mw-editsection-bracket">]</span></
span></h2>
<ul>
<li><a href="/w/index.php?title=Kevin_C._Klement&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1"
class="new" title="Kevin C. Klement (page does not exist)">Klement, Kevin C.</a>
(2006), "Propositional Logic", in James Fieser and Bradley Dowden (eds.), <i><a
href="/wiki/Internet_Encyclopedia_of_Philosophy" title="Internet Encyclopedia o
f Philosophy">Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy</a></i>, <a rel="nofollow" cla
ss="external text" href="http://www.iep.utm.edu/p/prop-log.htm">Eprint</a>.</li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.qedeq.org/current/d

oc/math/qedeq_formal_logic_v1_en.pdf">Formal Predicate Calculus</a>, contains a


systematic formal development along the lines of <a href="/wiki/Propositional_ca
lculus#Alternative_calculus" title="Propositional calculus">Alternative calculus
</a></li>
<li><i><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://www.fecundity.com/lo
gic/">forall x: an introduction to formal logic</a></i>, by <a href="/w/index.ph
p?title=P.D._Magnus&amp;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="P.D. Magnu
s (page does not exist)">P.D. Magnus</a>, covers formal semantics and <a href="/
wiki/Proof_theory" title="Proof theory">proof theory</a> for sentential logic.</
li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="http://logicinaction.org/docs/
ch2.pdf">Chapter 2 / Propositional Logic</a> from <a rel="nofollow" class="exter
nal text" href="http://logicinaction.org">Logic In Action</a></li>
<li><a rel="nofollow" class="external text" href="https://www.nayuki.io/page/pro
positional-sequent-calculus-prover">Propositional sequent calculus prover</a> on
Project Nayuki. (<i>note</i>: implication can be input in the form <tt>!X|Y</tt
>, and a sequent can be a single formula prefixed with <tt>&gt;</tt> and having
no commas)</li>
</ul>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Classical_logic" style="p
adding:3px">
<table class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-s
pacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit">
<tr>
<th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="3">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Classical_logic" title="Template:Cla
ssical logic"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transpar
ent;border:none;">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Template_talk:Classical_logic&am
p;action=edit&amp;redlink=1" class="new" title="Template talk:Classical logic (p
age does not exist)"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:non
e transparent;border:none;">t</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.ph
p?title=Template:Classical_logic&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this templat
e" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</abbr></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div id="Classical_logic" style="font-size:114%"><a href="/wiki/Classical_logic"
title="Classical logic">Classical logic</a></div>
</th>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td colspan="2" class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="width:100%;padding:0
px;padding-left:75px;">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Law_of_excluded_middle" title="Law of excluded middle">Law of
excluded middle</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Double_negative_elimination" class="mw-redirect" title="Doubl
e negative elimination">Double negative elimination</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Law_of_noncontradiction" title="Law of noncontradiction">Law
of noncontradiction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Principle_of_explosion" title="Principle of explosion">Princi
ple of explosion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monotonicity_of_entailment" title="Monotonicity of entailment

">Monotonicity of entailment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Idempotency_of_entailment" title="Idempotency of entailment">
Idempotency of entailment</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Commutativity_of_conjunction" title="Commutativity of conjunc
tion">Commutativity of conjunction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/De_Morgan%27s_laws" title="De Morgan's laws">De Morgan's laws
</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Principle_of_bivalence" title="Principle of bivalence">Princi
ple of bivalence</a></li>
</ul>
<ul>
<li><strong class="selflink">Propositional logic</strong></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Predicate_logic" title="Predicate logic">Predicate logic</a><
/li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
<td class="navbox-image" rowspan="1" style="width:0%;padding:0px 0px 0px 2px">
<div><a href="/wiki/File:Logic.svg" class="image"><img alt="Law of noncontradict
ion" src="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Logic.svg/75px-Log
ic.svg.png" width="75" height="25" srcset="//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/comm
ons/thumb/e/e7/Logic.svg/113px-Logic.svg.png 1.5x, //upload.wikimedia.org/wikipe
dia/commons/thumb/e/e7/Logic.svg/150px-Logic.svg.png 2x" data-file-width="85" da
ta-file-height="28" /></a></div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Formal_fallacies" style="
padding:3px">
<table class="nowraplinks hlist collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="bo
rder-spacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit">
<tr>
<th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Formal_fallacy" title="Template:Form
al fallacy"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none transparen
t;border:none;">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Formal_fallacy" title="Template
talk:Formal fallacy"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;background:no
ne transparent;border:none;">t</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.ph
p?title=Template:Formal_fallacy&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this template
" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</abbr></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div id="Formal_fallacies" style="font-size:114%"><a href="/wiki/Formal_fallacy"
title="Formal fallacy">Formal fallacies</a></div>
</th>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2">
<div>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Masked_man_fallacy" class="mw-redirect" title="Masked man fal
lacy">Masked man fallacy</a></li>

</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">In <strong class="selflink">propositional l
ogic</strong></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;
border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Affirming_a_disjunct" title="Affirming a disjunct">Affirming
a disjunct</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Affirming_the_consequent" title="Affirming the consequent">Af
firming the consequent</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Denying_the_antecedent" title="Denying the antecedent">Denyin
g the antecedent</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Argument_from_fallacy" title="Argument from fallacy">Argument
from fallacy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/False_dilemma" title="False dilemma">False dilemma</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">In <a href="/wiki/Quantifier_(logic)" title
="Quantifier (logic)">quantificational logic</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px
;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Existential_fallacy" title="Existential fallacy">Existential
fallacy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Affirming_the_consequent" title="Affirming the consequent">Il
licit conversion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Proof_by_example" title="Proof by example">Proof by example</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quantifier_shift" title="Quantifier shift">Quantifier shift</
a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Syllogistic_fallacy" title="
Syllogistic fallacy">Syllogistic fallacy</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd" style="text-align:left;border-left-width:2px;
border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Affirmative_conclusion_from_a_negative_premise" title="Affirm

ative conclusion from a negative premise">Affirmative conclusion from a negative


premise</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fallacy_of_exclusive_premises" title="Fallacy of exclusive pr
emises">Exclusive premises</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Existential_fallacy" title="Existential fallacy">Existential<
/a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Modal_scope_fallacy" title="Modal scope fallacy">Necessity</a
></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fallacy_of_four_terms" title="Fallacy of four terms">Four-ter
m fallacy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Illicit_major" title="Illicit major">Illicit major</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Illicit_minor" title="Illicit minor">Illicit minor</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Negative_conclusion_from_affirmative_premises" title="Negativ
e conclusion from affirmative premises">Negative conclusion from affirmative pre
mises</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Fallacy_of_the_undistributed_middle" title="Fallacy of the un
distributed middle">Undistributed middle</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td class="navbox-abovebelow" colspan="2">
<div>
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Category:Formal_fallacies" title="Category:Formal fallacies">
Other types of formal fallacy</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/List_of_fallacies" title="List of fallacies">List of fallacie
s</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div role="navigation" class="navbox" aria-labelledby="Mathematical_logic" style
="padding:3px">
<table class="nowraplinks collapsible autocollapse navbox-inner" style="border-s
pacing:0;background:transparent;color:inherit">
<tr>
<th scope="col" class="navbox-title" colspan="2">
<div class="plainlinks hlist navbar mini">
<ul>
<li class="nv-view"><a href="/wiki/Template:Mathematical_logic" title="Template:
Mathematical logic"><abbr title="View this template" style=";;background:none tr
ansparent;border:none;">v</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-talk"><a href="/wiki/Template_talk:Mathematical_logic" title="Temp
late talk:Mathematical logic"><abbr title="Discuss this template" style=";;backg
round:none transparent;border:none;">t</abbr></a></li>
<li class="nv-edit"><a class="external text" href="//en.wikipedia.org/w/index.ph
p?title=Template:Mathematical_logic&amp;action=edit"><abbr title="Edit this temp
late" style=";;background:none transparent;border:none;">e</abbr></a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div id="Mathematical_logic" style="font-size:114%"><a href="/wiki/Mathematical_
logic" title="Mathematical logic">Mathematical logic</a></div>
</th>

</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">General</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-widt
h:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_language" title="Formal language">Formal language</a><
/li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formation_rule" title="Formation rule">Formation rule</a></li
>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_system" title="Formal system">Formal system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Deductive_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Deductive system
">Deductive system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_proof" title="Formal proof">Formal proof</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_semantics_(logic)" class="mw-redirect" title="Formal s
emantics (logic)">Formal semantics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Well-formed_formula" title="Well-formed formula">Well-formed
formula</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Set_(mathematics)" title="Set (mathematics)">Set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Element_(mathematics)" title="Element (mathematics)">Element<
/a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Class_(set_theory)" title="Class (set theory)">Class</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Classical_logic" title="Classical logic">Classical logic</a><
/li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Axiom" title="Axiom">Axiom</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Natural_deduction" title="Natural deduction">Natural deductio
n</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rule_of_inference" title="Rule of inference">Rule of inferenc
e</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Finitary_relation" title="Finitary relation">Relation</a></li
>
<li><a href="/wiki/Theorem" title="Theorem">Theorem</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Logical_consequence" title="Logical consequence">Logical cons
equence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Axiomatic_system" title="Axiomatic system">Axiomatic system</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Type_theory" title="Type theory">Type theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Symbol_(formal)" title="Symbol (formal)">Symbol</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Syntax_(logic)" title="Syntax (logic)">Syntax</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Theory_(mathematical_logic)" title="Theory (mathematical logi
c)">Theory</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Term_logic" title="Term logi
c">Traditional logic</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-wid
th:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Proposition" title="Proposition">Proposition</a></li>

<li><a href="/wiki/Inference" title="Inference">Inference</a></li>


<li><a href="/wiki/Argument" title="Argument">Argument</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Validity" title="Validity">Validity</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Cogency" class="mw-redirect" title="Cogency">Cogency</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Syllogism" title="Syllogism">Syllogism</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Square_of_opposition" title="Square of opposition">Square of
opposition</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Venn_diagram" title="Venn diagram">Venn diagram</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group">
<div style="padding:0.1em 0;line-height:1.2em;"><strong class="selflink">Proposi
tional<br />
calculus</strong><br />
<a href="/wiki/Boolean_algebra" title="Boolean algebra">Boolean logic</a></div>
</th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-widt
h:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Boolean_function" title="Boolean function">Boolean functions<
/a></li>
<li><strong class="selflink">Propositional calculus</strong></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Propositional_formula" title="Propositional formula">Proposit
ional formula</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Logical_connective" title="Logical connective">Logical connec
tives</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Truth_table" title="Truth table">Truth tables</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Predicate_logic" title="Pred
icate logic">Predicate logic</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-wid
th:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/First-order_logic" title="First-order logic">First-order</a><
/li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Quantifier_(logic)" title="Quantifier (logic)">Quantifiers</a
></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Predicate_(mathematical_logic)" title="Predicate (mathematica
l logic)">Predicate</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Second-order_logic" title="Second-order logic">Second-order</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Monadic_predicate_calculus" title="Monadic predicate calculus
">Monadic predicate calculus</a></li>
</ul>
</div>

</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Naive_set_theory" title="Nai
ve set theory">Naive set theory</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-widt
h:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Set_(mathematics)" title="Set (mathematics)">Set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Empty_set" title="Empty set">Empty set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Enumeration" title="Enumeration">Enumeration</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Extensionality" title="Extensionality">Extensionality</a></li
>
<li><a href="/wiki/Finite_set" title="Finite set">Finite set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Infinite_set" title="Infinite set">Infinite set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Subset" title="Subset">Subset</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Power_set" title="Power set">Power set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Countable_set" title="Countable set">Countable set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Uncountable_set" title="Uncountable set">Uncountable set</a><
/li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recursive_set" title="Recursive set">Recursive set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Domain_of_a_function" title="Domain of a function">Domain</a>
</li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Range_(mathematics)" title="Range (mathematics)">Range</a></l
i>
<li><a href="/wiki/Map_(mathematics)" title="Map (mathematics)">Map</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Function_(mathematics)" title="Function (mathematics)">Functi
on</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Binary_operation" title="Binary operation">Relation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Ordered_pair" title="Ordered pair">Ordered pair</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Set_theory" title="Set theor
y">Set theory</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-wid
th:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Foundations_of_mathematics" title="Foundations of mathematics
">Foundations of mathematics</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Zermelo%E2%80%93Fraenkel_set_theory" title="ZermeloCFraenkel s
et theory">ZermeloCFraenkel set theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Axiom_of_choice" title="Axiom of choice">Axiom of choice</a><
/li>
<li><a href="/wiki/General_set_theory" title="General set theory">General set th
eory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Kripke%E2%80%93Platek_set_theory" title="KripkeCPlatek set the
ory">KripkeCPlatek set theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Von_Neumann%E2%80%93Bernays%E2%80%93G%C3%B6del_set_theory" ti
tle="Von NeumannCBernaysCG?del set theory">Von NeumannCBernaysCG?del set theory</a><

/li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Morse%E2%80%93Kelley_set_theory" title="MorseCKelley set theor
y">MorseCKelley set theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Tarski%E2%80%93Grothendieck_set_theory" title="TarskiCGrothend
ieck set theory">TarskiCGrothendieck set theory</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Model_theory" title="Model t
heory">Model theory</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-widt
h:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Structure_(mathematical_logic)" title="Structure (mathematica
l logic)">Model</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Interpretation_(logic)" title="Interpretation (logic)">Interp
retation</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Non-standard_model" title="Non-standard model">Non-standard m
odel</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Finite_model_theory" title="Finite model theory">Finite model
theory</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Truth_value" title="Truth value">Truth value</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Validity" title="Validity">Validity</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Proof_theory" title="Proof t
heory">Proof theory</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-even hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-wid
th:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_proof" title="Formal proof">Formal proof</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Deductive_system" class="mw-redirect" title="Deductive system
">Deductive system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Formal_system" title="Formal system">Formal system</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Theorem" title="Theorem">Theorem</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Logical_consequence" title="Logical consequence">Logical cons
equence</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Rule_of_inference" title="Rule of inference">Rule of inferenc
e</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Syntax_(logic)" title="Syntax (logic)">Syntax</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
<tr style="height:2px">
<td colspan="2"></td>
</tr>

<tr>
<th scope="row" class="navbox-group"><a href="/wiki/Computability_theory" title=
"Computability theory">Computability<br />
theory</a></th>
<td class="navbox-list navbox-odd hlist" style="text-align:left;border-left-widt
h:2px;border-left-style:solid;width:100%;padding:0px">
<div style="padding:0em 0.25em">
<ul>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recursion" title="Recursion">Recursion</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recursive_set" title="Recursive set">Recursive set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Recursively_enumerable_set" title="Recursively enumerable set
">Recursively enumerable set</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Decision_problem" title="Decision problem">Decision problem</
a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Church%E2%80%93Turing_thesis" title="ChurchCTuring thesis">Chu
rchCTuring thesis</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Computable_function" title="Computable function">Computable f
unction</a></li>
<li><a href="/wiki/Primitive_recursive_function" title="Primitive recursive func
tion">Primitive recursive function</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<!-- Saved in parser cache with key enwiki:pcache:idhash:18154-0!*!0!!en!4!*!mat
h=5 and timestamp 20160829001335 and revision id 734471582
-->
<noscript><img src="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:CentralAutoLogin/start?type=
1x1" alt="" title="" width="1" height="1" style="border: none; position: absolut
e;" /></noscript></div>
<div class="printfooter"
>
Retrieved from "<a dir="ltr" hre
f="https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;oldid=7
34471582">https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;
oldid=734471582</a>"
</div>
<div id="catlinks" class="catlinks" data-mw="int
erface"><div id="mw-normal-catlinks" class="mw-normal-catlinks"><a href="/wiki/H
elp:Category" title="Help:Category">Categories</a>: <ul><li><a href="/wiki/Categ
ory:Propositional_calculus" title="Category:Propositional calculus">Propositiona
l calculus</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Systems_of_formal_logic" title="C
ategory:Systems of formal logic">Systems of formal logic</a></li><li><a href="/w
iki/Category:Logical_calculi" title="Category:Logical calculi">Logical calculi</
a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Boolean_algebra" title="Category:Boolean alge
bra">Boolean algebra</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Classical_logic" title=
"Category:Classical logic">Classical logic</a></li></ul></div><div id="mw-hidden
-catlinks" class="mw-hidden-catlinks mw-hidden-cats-hidden">Hidden categories: <
ul><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Wikipedia_articles_needing_clarification_from_Oct
ober_2013" title="Category:Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October
2013">Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2013</a></li><li><a
href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_with_specifically_marked_weasel-worded_phrase
s" title="Category:All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases">
All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases</a></li><li><a href=
"/wiki/Category:Articles_with_specifically_marked_weasel-worded_phrases_from_Oct
ober_2014" title="Category:Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phras
es from October 2014">Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases fr
om October 2014</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Articles_needing_additional_

references_from_March_2011" title="Category:Articles needing additional referenc


es from March 2011">Articles needing additional references from March 2011</a></
li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:All_articles_needing_additional_references" title
="Category:All articles needing additional references">All articles needing addi
tional references</a></li><li><a href="/wiki/Category:Use_dmy_dates_from_May_201
2" title="Category:Use dmy dates from May 2012">Use dmy dates from May 2012</a><
/li></ul></div></div>
<div class="visualClear"></div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="mw-navigation">
<h2>Navigation menu</h2>
<div id="mw-head">

<div id=
"p-personal" role="navigation" class="" aria-labelledby="p-personal-label">
<h3 id="p-personal-label">Person
al tools</h3>
<ul>
<li id="pt-anonuserpage"
>Not logged in</li><li id="pt-anontalk"><a href="/wiki/Special:MyTalk" title="Di
scussion about edits from this IP address [n]" accesskey="n">Talk</a></li><li id
="pt-anoncontribs"><a href="/wiki/Special:MyContributions" title="A list of edit
s made from this IP address [y]" accesskey="y">Contributions</a></li><li id="ptcreateaccount"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Special:CreateAccount&amp;returnto=Pr
opositional+calculus" title="You are encouraged to create an account and log in;
however, it is not mandatory">Create account</a></li><li id="pt-login"><a href=
"/w/index.php?title=Special:UserLogin&amp;returnto=Propositional+calculus" title
="You're encouraged to log in; however, it's not mandatory. [o]" accesskey="o">L
og in</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div id=
"left-navigation">
<div id="p-namespaces" role="navigation" class="vectorTabs" aria-labelledby="p-n
amespaces-label">
<h3 id="p-namespaces-label">Name
spaces</h3>
<ul>
<li id="ca-nstab-main" class="selected"><span><a href="/wiki/Propositional_calc
ulus" title="View the content page [c]" accesskey="c">Article</a></span></li>
<li id="ca-talk"><span><a href="/wiki/Talk:Propositional_calculus" title="Disc
ussion about the content page [t]" accesskey="t" rel="discussion">Talk</a></span
></li>
</ul>

</div>

<div id="p-variants" role="navigation" class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet" aria-labe


lledby="p-variants-label">
<h3 id="p-variants-label">
href="#"></a>

<span>Variants</span><a
</h3>
<div class="menu">
<ul>

</ul>
</div>

</div>

<div id="right-navigation">

</div>

<div id="p-views" role="navigation" class="vectorTabs" aria-labelledby="p-viewslabel">


<h3 id="p-views-label">Views</h3
>
<ul>
<li id="ca-view" class="selected"><span><a href="/wiki/Propositional_calculus" >
Read</a></span></li>
<li id="ca-edit"><span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;ac
tion=edit" title="Edit this page [e]" accesskey="e">Edit</a></span></li>
<li id="ca-history" class="collapsible"><span><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propos
itional_calculus&amp;action=history" title="Past revisions of this page [h]" ac
cesskey="h">View history</a></span></li>
</ul>

</div>

<div id="p-cactions" role="navigation" class="vectorMenu emptyPortlet" aria-labe


lledby="p-cactions-label">
<h3 id="p-cactions-label"><span>
More</span><a href="#"></a></h3>
<div class="menu">
<ul>
</ul>
</div>
<div id="p-search" role="search">
>Search</label>

searchform">

</div>

<h3>

<label for="searchInput"

</h3>
<form action="/w/index.php" id="

<div id="simpleSearch">
<input type="search" nam
e="search" placeholder="Search" title="Search Wikipedia [f]" accesskey="f" id="s
earchInput"/><input type="hidden" value="Special:Search" name="title"/><input ty
pe="submit" name="fulltext" value="Search" title="Search Wikipedia for this text
" id="mw-searchButton" class="searchButton mw-fallbackSearchButton"/><input type
="submit" name="go" value="Go" title="Go to a page with this exact name if it ex
ists" id="searchButton" class="searchButton"/>
</div>
</form>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="mw-panel">
<div id="p-logo" role="banner"><a class="mw-wiki

-logo" href="/wiki/Main_Page" title="Visit the main page"></a></div>


<div class="portal" role="naviga
tion" id='p-navigation' aria-labelledby='p-navigation-label'>
<h3 id='p-navigation-label'>Navigation</h3>
<div class="body">

<ul>
<li id="n-mainpage-description">
<a href="/wiki/Main_Page" title="Visit the main page [z]" accesskey="z">Main pag
e</a></li><li id="n-contents"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Contents" title="Guides to b
rowsing Wikipedia">Contents</a></li><li id="n-featuredcontent"><a href="/wiki/Po
rtal:Featured_content" title="Featured content C the best of Wikipedia">Featured
content</a></li><li id="n-currentevents"><a href="/wiki/Portal:Current_events" t
itle="Find background information on current events">Current events</a></li><li
id="n-randompage"><a href="/wiki/Special:Random" title="Load a random article [x
]" accesskey="x">Random article</a></li><li id="n-sitesupport"><a href="https://
donate.wikimedia.org/wiki/Special:FundraiserRedirector?utm_source=donate&amp;utm
_medium=sidebar&amp;utm_campaign=C13_en.wikipedia.org&amp;uselang=en" title="Sup
port us">Donate to Wikipedia</a></li><li id="n-shoplink"><a href="//shop.wikimed
ia.org" title="Visit the Wikipedia store">Wikipedia store</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="portal" role="navigation" id='p-interaction'
aria-labelledby='p-interaction-label'>
<h3 id='p-interaction-label'>Interaction</h3>
<div class="body">

<ul>
<li id="n-help"><a href="/wiki/H
elp:Contents" title="Guidance on how to use and edit Wikipedia">Help</a></li><li
id="n-aboutsite"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Find out about Wikipedi
a">About Wikipedia</a></li><li id="n-portal"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:Community_
portal" title="About the project, what you can do, where to find things">Communi
ty portal</a></li><li id="n-recentchanges"><a href="/wiki/Special:RecentChanges"
title="A list of recent changes in the wiki [r]" accesskey="r">Recent changes</
a></li><li id="n-contactpage"><a href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contact
_us" title="How to contact Wikipedia">Contact page</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="portal" role="navigation" id='p-tb' aria-lab
elledby='p-tb-label'>
<h3 id='p-tb-label'>Tools</h3>
<div class="body">

<ul>
<li id="t-whatlinkshere"><a href
="/wiki/Special:WhatLinksHere/Propositional_calculus" title="List of all English
Wikipedia pages containing links to this page [j]" accesskey="j">What links her
e</a></li><li id="t-recentchangeslinked"><a href="/wiki/Special:RecentChangesLin
ked/Propositional_calculus" title="Recent changes in pages linked from this page
[k]" accesskey="k">Related changes</a></li><li id="t-upload"><a href="/wiki/Wik
ipedia:File_Upload_Wizard" title="Upload files [u]" accesskey="u">Upload file</a
></li><li id="t-specialpages"><a href="/wiki/Special:SpecialPages" title="A list
of all special pages [q]" accesskey="q">Special pages</a></li><li id="t-permali
nk"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;oldid=734471582" titl
e="Permanent link to this revision of the page">Permanent link</a></li><li id="t
-info"><a href="/w/index.php?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;action=info" title
="More information about this page">Page information</a></li><li id="t-wikibase"

><a href="https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q200694" title="Link to connected data r


epository item [g]" accesskey="g">Wikidata item</a></li><li id="t-cite"><a href=
"/w/index.php?title=Special:CiteThisPage&amp;page=Propositional_calculus&amp;id=
734471582" title="Information on how to cite this page">Cite this page</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="portal" role="navigation" id='p-coll-print_e
xport' aria-labelledby='p-coll-print_export-label'>
<h3 id='p-coll-print_export-label'>Print/export</h3>
<div class="body">

<ul>
<li id="coll-create_a_book"><a h
ref="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&amp;bookcmd=book_creator&amp;referer=Propos
itional+calculus">Create a book</a></li><li id="coll-download-as-rdf2latex"><a h
ref="/w/index.php?title=Special:Book&amp;bookcmd=render_article&amp;arttitle=Pro
positional+calculus&amp;returnto=Propositional+calculus&amp;oldid=734471582&amp;
writer=rdf2latex">Download as PDF</a></li><li id="t-print"><a href="/w/index.php
?title=Propositional_calculus&amp;printable=yes" title="Printable version of thi
s page [p]" accesskey="p">Printable version</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="portal" role="navigation" id='p-wikibase-oth
erprojects' aria-labelledby='p-wikibase-otherprojects-label'>
<h3 id='p-wikibase-otherprojects-label'>In other project
s</h3>
<div class="body">

<ul>
<li class="wb-otherproject-link
wb-otherproject-commons"><a href="https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Pr
opositional_logic" hreflang="en">Wikimedia Commons</a></li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
<div class="portal" role="navigation" id='p-lang' aria-l
abelledby='p-lang-label'>
<h3 id='p-lang-label'>Languages</h3>
<div class="body">

<ul>
<li class="interlanguage-link in
terwiki-af"><a href="https://af.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proposisionele_logika" title=
"Proposisionele logika C Afrikaans" lang="af" hreflang="af">Afrikaans</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ar"><a href="https://ar.wikipedia.org/wiki/
%D8%AD%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%A8_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%82%D8%B6%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A7" title="????
??????? C Arabic" lang="ar" hreflang="ar">???????</a></li><li class="interlangua
ge-link interwiki-be"><a href="https://be.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%BE%D0%B3%
D1%96%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8F%D
1%9E" title="? ? C Belarusian" lang="be" hreflang="be">
be-x-old.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%97%D1%8C%D0%BB%D1%96%D1%87%D1%8D%D0%BD%D1%8C%D0%
BD%D0%B5_%D0%B2%D1%8B%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D1%8C%D0%BD%D1%8F%D1%9
E" title="? ? C (
cional C Catalan" lang="ca" hreflang="ca">Catal</a></li><li class="interlanguage-li
nk interwiki-cs"><a href="https://cs.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%BDrokov%C3%A1_logik
a" title="Vyrokov logika C Czech" lang="cs" hreflang="cs">?e?tina</a></li><li class
="interlanguage-link interwiki-cy"><a href="https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhesym
eg_osodiadol" title="Rhesymeg osodiadol C Welsh" lang="cy" hreflang="cy">Cymraeg<

/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-de"><a href="https://de.wikipedi


a.org/wiki/Aussagenlogik" title="Aussagenlogik C German" lang="de" hreflang="de">
Deutsch</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-et"><a href="https://et.
wikipedia.org/wiki/Lauseloogika" title="Lauseloogika C Estonian" lang="et" hrefla
ng="et">Eesti</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-el"><a href="https
://el.wikipedia.org/wiki/%CE%A0%CF%81%CE%BF%CF%84%CE%B1%CF%83%CE%B9%CE%B1%CE%BA%
CF%8C%CF%82_%CE%BB%CE%BF%CE%B3%CE%B9%CF%83%CE%BC%CF%8C%CF%82" title="??
ss="interlanguage-link interwiki-es"><a href="https://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3
%B3gica_proposicional" title="Lgica proposicional C Spanish" lang="es" hreflang="es
">Espa?ol</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-eu"><a href="https://e
u.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logika_proposizional" title="Logika proposizional C Basque"
lang="eu" hreflang="eu">Euskara</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwikifa"><a href="https://fa.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D8%AD%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%A8_%DA%AF%D8%B2
%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%87%E2%80%8C%D8%A7%DB%8C" title="???? ???????? C Persian" lang="fa
" hreflang="fa">?????</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-fr"><a hre
f="https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcul_des_propositions" title="Calcul des prop
ositions C French" lang="fr" hreflang="fr">Fran?ais</a></li><li class="interlangu
age-link interwiki-ko"><a href="https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EB%AA%85%EC%A0%9C
_%EB%85%BC%EB%A6%AC" title="?? ?? C Korean" lang="ko" hreflang="ko">???</a></li><
li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hy"><a href="https://hy.wikipedia.org/wik
i/%D4%B1%D5%BD%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%B5%D5%A9%D5%B6%D5%A5%D6%80%D5%AB_%D5%BF%D6%80%D5%A
1%D5%B4%D5%A1%D5%A2%D5%A1%D5%B6%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%A9%D5%B5%D5%B8%D6%82%D5%B6" title
="?????????? ??????????????? C Armenian" lang="hy" hreflang="hy">???????</a></li>
<li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hi"><a href="https://hi.wikipedia.org/wi
ki/%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%9C%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%9E%E0%A
4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%95_%E0%A4%95%E0%A4%B2%E0%A4%A8" title="???
?????????? ??? C Hindi" lang="hi" hreflang="hi">??????</a></li><li class="interla
nguage-link interwiki-id"><a href="https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalkulus_propos
isional" title="Kalkulus proposisional C Indonesian" lang="id" hreflang="id">Baha
sa Indonesia</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-it"><a href="https:
//it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logica_proposizionale" title="Logica proposizionale C Ita
lian" lang="it" hreflang="it">Italiano</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link int
erwiki-he"><a href="https://he.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D7%AA%D7%97%D7%A9%D7%99%D7%91
_%D7%94%D7%A4%D7%A1%D7%95%D7%A7%D7%99%D7%9D" title="????? ??????? C Hebrew" lang=
"he" hreflang="he">?????</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-ky"><a
href="https://ky.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%BE%D0%B3%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%BB%D
1%8B%D0%BA_%D1%81%D2%AF%D0%B9%D0%BB%D3%A9%D3%A9" title=" ??? C Kyr
anguage-link interwiki-la"><a href="https://la.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logica_proposi
tionalis" title="Logica propositionalis C Latin" lang="la" hreflang="la">Latina</
a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-lt"><a href="https://lt.wikipedia
.org/wiki/Teigini%C5%B3_logika" title="Teigini? logika C Lithuanian" lang="lt" hr
eflang="lt">Lietuvi?</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-hu"><a href
="https://hu.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%8Dt%C3%A9letlogika" title="tletlogika C Hungarian
" lang="hu" hreflang="hu">Magyar</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki
-nl"><a href="https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propositielogica" title="Propositiel
ogica C Dutch" lang="nl" hreflang="nl">Nederlands</a></li><li class="interlanguag
e-link interwiki-ja"><a href="https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%91%BD%E9%A1%8C%E
8%AB%96%E7%90%86" title="} C Japanese" lang="ja" hreflang="ja">Z</a></li><li c
uage-link interwiki-no"><a href="https://no.wikipedia.org/wiki/Setningslogikk" t
itle="Setningslogikk C Norwegian" lang="no" hreflang="no">Norsk bokm?l</a></li><l
i class="interlanguage-link interwiki-nn"><a href="https://nn.wikipedia.org/wiki
/Utsegnslogikk" title="Utsegnslogikk C Norwegian Nynorsk" lang="nn" hreflang="nn"
>Norsk nynorsk</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pl"><a href="http
s://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachunek_zda%C5%84" title="Rachunek zda C Polish" lang="p
l" hreflang="pl">Polski</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-pt"><a h
ref="https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/L%C3%B3gica_proposicional" title="Lgica proposi
cional C Portuguese" lang="pt" hreflang="pt">Portugus</a></li><li class="interlangu
age-link interwiki-ru"><a href="https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9B%D0%BE%D0%B3
%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0_%D0%B2%D1%8B%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D1%8B%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%
D0%B8%D0%B9" title=" C Russian" lang="ru" hreflang="r

simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propositional_logic" title="Propositional logic C Simpl


e English" lang="simple" hreflang="simple">Simple English</a></li><li class="int
erlanguage-link interwiki-sk"><a href="https://sk.wikipedia.org/wiki/V%C3%BDroko
v%C3%A1_logika" title="Vyrokov logika C Slovak" lang="sk" hreflang="sk">Sloven?ina<
/a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sl"><a href="https://sl.wikipedi
a.org/wiki/Propozicijska_logika" title="Propozicijska logika C Slovenian" lang="s
l" hreflang="sl">Sloven??ina</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sr"
><a href="https://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%98%D1%81%D0%BA%D0%B0%D0%B7%D0%BD%D0%
B8_%D1%80%D0%B0%D1%87%D1%83%D0%BD" title=" C Serbian" lang="sr" h
uage-link interwiki-fi"><a href="https://fi.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propositiologiikk
a" title="Propositiologiikka C Finnish" lang="fi" hreflang="fi">Suomi</a></li><li
class="interlanguage-link interwiki-sv"><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Satslogik" title="Satslogik C Swedish" lang="sv" hreflang="sv">Svenska</a></li><l
i class="interlanguage-link interwiki-th"><a href="https://th.wikipedia.org/wiki
/%E0%B9%81%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%84%E0%B8%B9%E0%B8%A5%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%AA%E0%B9%
80%E0%B8%8A%E0%B8%B4%E0%B8%87%E0%B8%9B%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B0%E0%B8%9E%E0%B8%88%E0%B8
%99%E0%B9%8C" title="??????????????????? C Thai" lang="th" hreflang="th">???</a><
/li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-uk"><a href="https://uk.wikipedia.or
g/wiki/%D0%A7%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8F_%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%81%D0%BB
%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BB%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%8C" title=" C Ukrai
i"><a href="https://vi.wikipedia.org/wiki/M%E1%BB%87nh_%C4%91%E1%BB%81_to%C3%A1n
_h%E1%BB%8Dc" title="M?nh ?? ton h?c C Vietnamese" lang="vi" hreflang="vi">Ti?ng Vi
?t</a></li><li class="interlanguage-link interwiki-zh"><a href="https://zh.wikip
edia.org/wiki/%E5%91%BD%E9%A2%98%E9%80%BB%E8%BE%91" title=" C Chinese" lang="zh" h
="zh"></a></li><li class="uls-p-lang-dummy"><a href="#"></a></li>
</ul>
<div class='after-portlet after-portlet-lang'><s
pan class="wb-langlinks-edit wb-langlinks-link"><a href="https://www.wikidata.or
g/wiki/Q200694#sitelinks-wikipedia" title="Edit interlanguage links" class="wbceditpage">Edit links</a></span></div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div id="footer" role="contentinfo">
<ul id="footer-info">
<li id="footer-info-lastmod"> This page was last modified on 14 August 2016, at
15:48.</li>
<li id="footer-info-copyright">Text is available under the <a rel="license" href
="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Text_of_Creative_Commons_Attribution-ShareAl
ike_3.0_Unported_License">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License</a><a
rel="license" href="//creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/" style="display:no
ne;"></a>;
additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the <a href="//wik
imediafoundation.org/wiki/Terms_of_Use">Terms of Use</a> and <a href="//wikimedi
afoundation.org/wiki/Privacy_policy">Privacy Policy</a>. Wikipedia? is a registe
red trademark of the <a href="//www.wikimediafoundation.org/">Wikimedia Foundati
on, Inc.</a>, a non-profit organization.</li>
</ul>
<ul id="footer-places">
<li id="footer-places-privacy"><a href="https://wikimediafoundation.org/wiki/Pri
vacy_policy" class="extiw" title="wmf:Privacy policy">Privacy policy</a></li>
<li id="footer-places-about"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:About" title="Wikipedia:Ab
out">About Wikipedia</a></li>
<li id="footer-places-disclaimer"><a href="/wiki/Wikipedia:General_disclaimer" t
itle="Wikipedia:General disclaimer">Disclaimers</a></li>

<li id="footer-places-contact"><a href="//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Contac


t_us">Contact Wikipedia</a></li>
<li id="footer-places-developers"><a href="https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Specia
l:MyLanguage/How_to_contribute">Developers</a></li>
<li id="footer-places-cookiestatement"><a href="https://wikimediafoundation.org/
wiki/Cookie_statement">Cookie statement</a></li>
<li id="footer-places-mobileview"><a href="//en.m.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?titl
e=Propositional_calculus&amp;mobileaction=toggle_view_mobile" class="noprint sto
pMobileRedirectToggle">Mobile view</a></li>
</ul>
<ul id="footer-icons" class="noprint">
<li id="footer-copyrightico">

<a href="https://wikimed
iafoundation.org/"><img src="/static/images/wikimedia-button.png" srcset="/stati
c/images/wikimedia-button-1.5x.png 1.5x, /static/images/wikimedia-button-2x.png
2x" width="88" height="31" alt="Wikimedia Foundation"/></a>
</li>
<li id="footer-poweredbyico">

<a href="//www.mediawiki
.org/"><img src="/static/images/poweredby_mediawiki_88x31.png" alt="Powered by M
ediaWiki" srcset="/static/images/poweredby_mediawiki_132x47.png 1.5x, /static/im
ages/poweredby_mediawiki_176x62.png 2x" width="88" height="31"/></a>
</li>
</ul>
<div style="clear:both"></div>
</div>
<script>(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.loader.lo
ad(["ext.math.scripts","ext.cite.a11y","mediawiki.toc","mediawiki.action.view.po
stEdit","site","mediawiki.user","mediawiki.hidpi","mediawiki.page.ready","mediaw
iki.searchSuggest","ext.gadget.teahouse","ext.gadget.ReferenceTooltips","ext.gad
get.watchlist-notice","ext.gadget.DRN-wizard","ext.gadget.charinsert","ext.gadge
t.refToolbar","ext.gadget.extra-toolbar-buttons","ext.gadget.switcher","ext.gadg
et.featured-articles-links","mmv.bootstrap.autostart","ext.visualEditor.targetLo
ader","ext.eventLogging.subscriber","ext.wikimediaEvents","ext.navigationTiming"
,"ext.uls.eventlogger","ext.uls.init","ext.uls.interlanguage","ext.centralNotice
.geoIP","ext.centralNotice.startUp"]);});</script>
<script>(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.set( {
"wgPageParseReport": {
"limitreport": {
"cputime": "0.800",
"walltime": "1.516",
"ppvisitednodes": {
"value": 6646,
"limit": 1000000
},
"ppgeneratednodes": {
"value": 0,
"limit": 1500000
},
"postexpandincludesize": {
"value": 113461,
"limit": 2097152
},

"templateargumentsize": {
"value": 3701,
"limit": 2097152
},
"expansiondepth": {
"value": 12,
"limit": 40
},
"expensivefunctioncount":
"value": 4,
"limit": 500
},
"timingprofile": [
"100.00% 351.036
" 21.01% 73.768
" 17.39% 61.042
" 16.25% 57.031
" 15.14% 53.131
" 8.42% 29.551
" 8.37% 29.383
" 8.19% 28.762
" 8.03% 28.185
" 7.94% 27.858
]

1
1
1
1
4
1
2
3
6
1

-total",
Template:Reflist",
Template:Clarify",
Template:Fix-span",
Template:Cite_book",
Template:Transformation_rules",
Template:Delink",
Template:Category_handler",
Template:Ordered_list",
Template:Replace"

},
"scribunto": {
"limitreport-timeusage": {
"value": "0.108",
"limit": "10.000"
},
"limitreport-memusage": {
"value": 3940859,
"limit": 52428800
}
},
"EntityAccessCount": 0,
"cachereport": {
"origin": "mw1270",
"timestamp": "20160829001336",
"ttl": 2592000,
"transientcontent": false
}

}
} );});</script><script>(window.RLQ=window.RLQ||[]).push(function(){mw.config.se
t({"wgBackendResponseTime":88,"wgHostname":"mw1267"});});</script>
</body>
</html>