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ALGEBRA - Formulas & Shortcuts


5. Factor Theorem
(x a) is a factor of f(x) iff f(a) = 0 (where a is any constant)
e.g. f(x) = x3 + 6x2 19x 24
&
f(3) = 0
So (x 3) is a factor of f(x)

1. Algebraic Expression
Degree = 4
4x3 + 11x2y2 5y2 + 7xy -10
Term

Variables

Constant

Coefficient

2. Important Algebraic Identities


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)
(vii)
(viii)
(ix)
(x)
(xi)

(a + b) = a + 2ab + b
(a b)2 = a2 2ab + b2
(a + b)(a b) = a2 b2
(a + b)2 + (a b)2 = 2(a2 + b2)
(a + b)2 (a b)2 = 4ab
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca)
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2)
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2)
a3 + b3 + c3 3abc = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca)
If a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc

6. Some Important Results


(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

7. Linear Equation in One Variable


ax + b = 0

The value of x which satisfies f(x) = 0


4. Remainder Theorem
When any algebraic expression f(x) is divided by (x a),
the remainder is f(a) (where a is any constant)
e.g. f(x) = x3 + 6x2 19x 24 is divided by (x 2)
Remainder = f(2) = -30

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x = -b/a

8. Linear Equations in Two Variables


ax + by = c
px + qy = r
(i)

3. Zero/Roots of a Polynomial

xn + an is divisible by x + a if n is odd
xn + an is never divisible by x a
xn - an is divisible by x + a if n is even
xn - an is always divisible by x - a

a/p = b/q = c/r


Infinite Many Solutions
(Co-incident Lines l1 & l2)

(ii) a/p = b/q c/r


No Solution
(Parallel Lines l1 & l3)
(iii) a/p b/q
Unique Solution
(Intersecting Lines l1 & l4)

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9. Linear Equation in Three or More Variables
Solve eliminating the variables by taking two equations at a
time and reduce the number of variables subsequently
e.g. x + y + 2z = 1, 2x + y + z = -1, x y + z = 0
x = -1, y = 0 & z = 1

(i)

e.g. x + 10x 11 = 0
S = -10, P = -11
{( + )2 ( )2 = 4}
= -11, = 1
(iv) Discriminant Method

10. Quadratic Function/Equation


y = f(x) = ax2 + bx + c

f(x) = 0 (Equation)

Completing the Square Method

x = -b (b2 - 4ac)
2a

(Discriminant = b2 4ac)

D < 0, roots are imaginary or unreal

f(x) = ax2 + bx + c
= a[(x + b/2a)2 (b2 4ac)/4a2] = 0
e.g. x2 + 10x 11 = (x + 5)2 36 = 0
x = -11, 1
(ii) Splitting the Middle Term By Factorization Method

D = 0, roots are real and equal

f(x) = ax2 + bx + c = a(x - )(x - ) = 0


e.g. x2 + 10x 11 = (x + 11)(x 1) = 0
x = -11, 1
(iii) Sum & Product of Roots Method
If & are the roots,

D > 0 & D is a perfect square, roots are rational but


unequal

Sum of roots = + = -b/a


Product of roots = = c/a
Equation x2 - Sx + P = 0
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(i)

x = 1, y = 1
n
C0 + nC1 + nC2 + nC3 ++ nCn = 2n

(ii) x = 1, y = -1
n
C0 - nC1 + nC2 - nC3 + = 0
D > 0 & D is not a perfect square, roots are irrational
11. Cubic Equation

(iii) Adding/Subtracting (i) and (ii)


n
C0 + nC2 + nC4 + = nC1 + nC3 + nC5 + = 2n-1

14. Polynomial Expansion

ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0

(x + y + z + r terms)n

If , , be the roots of the equation


+ + = - b/a
+ + = c/a
= - d/a

No. of terms = n+r-1Cr-1


15. Common roots of two different polynomial
f(x) = (x 1)(x 2)(x 5)(x 6)(x 9)
g(x) = (x 1)(x 4)(x 7)(x 10)

12. Higher Degree Equation


k0xn + k1xn-1 ++ krxn-r ++ kn-1x1 + kn = 0
If , , , be the roots of the equation
+ + + + = - k1/k0
+ + + + + + = k2/k0
+ + + + = - k3/k0
Sum of Roots taken r at a time = (-1)r kr/k0
= kn/k0

Point of Intersection f(x) g(x) = 0


Common Roots f(x) = g(x) = 0

13. Binomial Expansion


(x + y)n = nC0 xn + nC1 xn-1 y1 + nC2 xn-2 y2 +
+ nCr xn-r yr ++ nCn yn
where, nCr = n!/(r! (n-r)!)
Tr+1 = nCr xn-r yr
No. of terms = n + 1

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[(r+1)th term]

16. Finding solutions of equations by intersection of graphs


e.g.

x.3x = 1

(x) (3-x) = 0

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c) Quadratic Functions
(x) (x a)(x b) 0, then b < x < a
(xi) (x a)(x b) 0, then x b & x a
(xii) x2 0
(xiii) If a > 1, a2 > a
0 < a < 1, a2 < a
(xiv) if x > 0 & a > b > 1,

then ax > bx

So x.3x = 1 has only one solution at point P


d) Higher Degree Polynomial
(xv) (x - )(x - )(x - )(x - )(x - ) > 0
(x - )(x - )(x - )(x - )(x - ) < 0
17. Inequalities
a) Linear Functions
(i)

If x > y, then (x a) > (y a)

(ii) If x > y, then ax > ay


ax < ay

if a positive
if a negative

(iii) If x > y, then 1/x < 1/y


1/x > 1/y

if a positive
if a negative

(iv) If x > y & a > b, then x + a > y + b


b) Absolute Value (Modulus)
(v) |x| a, then a x a
(vi) |x| a, then x -a & x a
(vii) |x + y| |x| + |y| (Triangle Inequality)
(viii) |x - y| |x| - |y|

Plot the graph and deduce the range of values for which
inequality satisfies and mark the answer.
e) Miscellaneous Type
(xvi) |y| + |x| 4

(ix) |x| - |y| |x y| |x| + |y|

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(xvii) f(x) = |x + 1| + |x + 2+ |x 1|

(iii) Absolute Value Function


y = f(x) = |x|

18. Functions
A function is a relation between a dependent variable y = f(x)
with independent variable x. For each value of x, there is one
and only one value of y. The values of x are called Domain
and values of y are known as Range
Types of Functions
(i) Constant Function
y = f(x) = a

(iv) Polynomial Functions


Quadratic Function
y = f(x) = x2

Cubic Function (x3)


y = f(x) = x3

(ii) Identity Function


y = f(x) = a
Rational Function
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y = f(x) = 1/x

(v) Greatest Integer Function


y = f(x) = [x]

(vi) Signum Function


1, if x > 0
y = f(x) = |x|/x = 0, if x = 0
(x 0) -1, if x < 0

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(vii) Stepped Function


x2, for x < -3
y = f(x) = 2x + 4, for -3 x 4
3x, for x > 4

(viii) Composite Function


e.g. f(x) = 3x + 5 & g(x) = 2x2
gof(x) = g(f(x)) = 2(3x + 5)2 = 18x2 + 60x + 50
fog(x) = f(g(x)) = 3(2x2) + 5 = 6x2 + 5
(ix) Iterative/Nested Functions
f(f(f(f(x)))) = fn(x) = f1(fn-1(x))
e.g. f(x) = 2x 1, f4(2) = f(f(f(f(2)))) = 17

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(x) Odd Function
f(-x) = - f(x)
e.g. x3 x

e.g. y = f(x) = 2x + 3, then x = (y-3)/2, so f-1(x) = (x-3)/2


(Function should be Injective/One-One)

Even Function
f(-x) = f(x)
e.g. x2 + 6

19. Exponentials
(i)

Exponential Series
ex = 1 + x/1! + x2/2! + x3/3! ++ xn/n! +
e = 1 + 1/1! + 1/2! + 1/3! + 1/4! +

(2 < e < 3)

(ii) Exponential Function


(xi) Injective or One-One Function
A function f is injective from A to B iff f(x) = f(y) for x = y

y = f(x) = bx

(xii) Surjective or Onto Function


A function f is surjective iff for every y in B, there is atleast
one x in A such that f(x) = y
(xiii) Bijective (Injective + Surjective)
A function f is bijective if for every y in B, there is exactly
one x in A such that f(x) = y
(xiv) Into Function
A function f is into if there is atleast one y in B, which is
not connected with x in A

(iii) Properties of Exponentials


1) ax ay = ax+y

(a b)x = ax bx

2) a-x = 1/ax
3) ax/ay = ax-y
4) a0 = 1
0x = 0

00 = Not Defined

5) (ax)y = ax y
6)
(xv) Inverse of a Function
If y = f(x), then f-1(x) = y and now replacing x and y

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ax y

7) ax = bx

a=b

(x 0)

8) ax = ay

x = y (a 0, 1)

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a>b>1

10) ax > ay

x < y (0 < a < 1)

9) a > b

logb a

(x > 0)

9) loga x = 1/ logx a
10) loga b logb c = loga c
11) loga x > loga y

x > y (a > 1)

x < y (0 < a < 1)


x > y (a > 1)

20. Logarithms
(i)

Logarithmic Series
loge (1 + x) = x x2/2 + x3/3 (-1 < x 1)
loge 2 = 1 1/2 + 1/3 1/4 +

21. Transformations
y = f(x) = x2

(ii) Logarithmic Function


y

If b = x

y = logb x

(x > 0)

(i)

g(x) = f(x) + a = x2 + 4

h(x) = f(x) a = x2 4

(iii) Properties of Logarithms


1) loga (x y) = loga x + loga y
2) loga (x/y) = loga x loga y

(ii) g(x) = f(x a) = (x 4)2 h(x) = f(x + a) = (x + 4)2

3) loga xk = k loga x
4) logak x = 1/k loga x
5) loga a = 1
6) loga 1 = 0

(a0 = 1)

7) loga ax = x

aloga x = x

8) loga x = logb x
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(iii) g(x) = f(x a) + b = (x 4)2 + 4

(vi) g(x) = f(x) = |x + 4| (Water & Mirror Image)

y = f(x) = |x + 4|
(iv) g(x) = f(x) = |x + 4|

(Water Image)

22. Sequence & Series


(i)

Arithmetic Progression (AP)


a, a+d, a+2d, a+3d, a+4d,
a First Term

d Common Difference

Tn (nth term) = a + (n1) d = l (last term)


(v) g(x) = f(x) = |x + 4|

(Mirror Image)

Sn (sum of n terms) = n/2 (a + l)


= n/2 [2a + (n-1) d]
Arithmetic Mean = (a + b + c + d +)/n
Note-Three numbers in AP

a d, a, a + d

Four numbers in AP a 3d, a d, a + d, a + 3d


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(ii) Geometric Progression (GP)


a, ar, ar2, ar3, ar4,
a First Term
th

r Common Ratio
(n1)

Tn (n term) = ar

2)

(2n-1) = 1 + 3 + 5++ 2n-1 = n2

3)

(2n) = 2 + 4 + 6++ 2n = n(n+1)

4)

(n2) = 12 + 22 + 32 ++ n2 = n(n+1)(2n+1)
6
3
3
3
3
3
2
2
2
(n ) = 1 + 2 + 3 ++ n = n(n+1) = n (n+1)
2
4

Sn (sum of n terms) = a (1 rn) (r < 1)


(1 - r)

5)

= a (rn 1) (r > 1)
(r 1)

6)

S (infinite terns) =
=

a
(1 - r)

(r < 1)

(r > 1)

(an3 + bn2 + cn + d) = an3 + bn2 + cn + dn


(1 = n)

23. Co-ordinate Geometry

Geometric Mean = abcd


Note-Three numbers in GP

(i)

a/r, a, ar

Four numbers in AP a/r , a/r, ar, ar


3

Distance Formula
Distance between two
points (x1, y1) & (x2, y2)
= (x2 x1)2 + (y2 y1)2

(iii) Harmonic Progression (HP)

(ii) Section Formula

a, b, c are in HP

The point that divide the line joining two given points
(x1, y1) & (x2, y2) in the ratio m : n

then 1/a, 1/b, 1/c are in AP


Harmonic Mean = 2ab/(a+b)
Harmonic Mean =
(iv) AM GM HM

(for two numbers)

n
1/a + 1/b + 1/c + 1/d+
(for positive numbers)

(x, y) = mx2 nx1 , my2 ny1


mn
mn

(+) Internally
() Externally

(iii) Mid Point Formula


(x, y) = x1 + x2 , y1 + y2
2
2
(x1,y1)

(v) Special Series


1)

n = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 ++ n = n(n+1)
2

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(iv) Centroid of a Triangle

(x, y) = x1 + x2 + x3 , y1 + y2 + y3
(x2,y2)

a
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(x3,y3)

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y = mx + c

(v) Incentre of a Triangle


(x, y) = ax1 + bx2 + cx3 , ay1 + by2 + cy3
a+b+c
a+b+c

(vi) Area of Triangle


= 1/2 [x1(y2 y3) + x2(y3 y1) + x3(y1 y2)]

c) Two-Point Form
y y1 = y2 y1 (x x1)
x2 x1

y y1 = m(x x1)
d) Two-Intercept Form
x/a + y/b = 1

(x) Distance of a point (x1,y1) from a line ax + by + c = 0


d = ax1 + by1 + c
(a2 + b2)
(xi) Distance between two parallel lines
a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 & a2x + b2y +c2 = 0

(vii) Parallelogram

d=

(x, y) = x1 + x3 , y1 + y3 = x2 + x4 , y2 + y4
2
2
2
2
(x2,y2)

(x3,y3)

c1 c2
(a2 + b2)

(xii) Equation of Circle


(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2
r

(x,y)
(x1,y1)

(h,k)
(x4,y4)

(viii) Slope of a Line


m = y2 y1 = tan
x2 x1
m1 = m2
m1 m2 = -1

(x1 x2)

(parallel lines)
(perpendicular lines)

(ix) Equation of a Line


a) Slope-Intercept Form
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b) Point-Slope Form

Maxima & Minima


(i)

Quadratic Expression

(Completing the Square Root)

f(x) = ax2 + bx + c = a[(x + b/2a)2 (b2 4ac)/4a2]


a) Case I: a > 0
f(x) = maximum
f(x) = minimum [-D/4a]

when x = maximum
when x = -b/2a
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Arithmetic Mean = AM = (a1 + a2 + a3 + .... + an)/n
Geometric Mean = GM = (a1 a2 a3 ......... an)1/n
Harmonic Mean = HM = n/[(1/a1) + (1/a2) + (1/a3)
+... +(1/an)]
a) AM > GM > HM (if all the numbers are not equal)
b) Case II: a < 0
f(x) = minimum
f(x) = maximum [-D/4a]

b) AM = GM = HM (if all the numbers are equal)


when x = maximum
when x = -b/2a

(ii) Discriminant Method


2

e.g. f(x) = 2x + 3x + 4 = m (say)


x2 + x + 3
x2(m 2) + x(m 3) + (3m 4) = 0
1 m 23/11
(Discriminant > 0)

(v) Graphical Method


a) Plot the graph of the given equation and find maximum or
minimum value.
e.g. f(x) = min (2 - 3x, x - 1)
max f(x) = -1 for x = 1

(iii) Sum-Product Method


a) For a, b, c, d > 0 & a + b + c + d + = constant,
a b c d = maximum when a = b = c = d =
ax + by = Sum,

find max. xm yn

ax = by = S
m
n
(m+n)

b) Find min. |x-a| + |x-b| + |x-c|

b) For a, b, c, d > 0 & a b c d = constant,


a + b + c + d + = minimum when a = b = c = d =
xm yn = Product, find min. ax + by
ax/m = by/n
(iv) Applications of AP, GP and HP :

Minimum value would be either at a, b, c or avg.(a,b,c)

For positive real numbers, a1, a2, a3, ..., an

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