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CHAPTER 12

' I ' I I I - ~ ~ l l ~ s iI (( ),I ;I S~~ l, ~ L I I ~II;IV(:


,S
I)R:III.:k(>ti fro~r~
llisl~ol),11. L., ed. [l987] I h n d b o o k of
Ii~~~
,~I,~11~1~7111lt.ii~~ii
pd
.Sovicl!j oj ( h 7 r r i i (U~~ivcrsit,~
ol'lbro~\toPress, Toronto, Ontario,

SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC CONVERSION

( lllllllllll).

12.1.

Basic Features of Solar Cells and Solar Systems

Solar radiation can be converted into electrical energy directly, witholil. ; I . I I , ~ i i 1 1 ( * 1 .


mediate process at all, by the use of solar photovoltaic (PV) cells. 'I'llc:sc\ c,c,lls 1 \ 1 1 >
usually fabricated as flat discs, up to a few inches in diameter. Tllc ~ I , ( ~ V ; I . I I I , I I , ~ ~ , I ~
of this form of electricity generation, compared with thermal proccssvs ~ I I V ~ ~ V I I I J ~
the Second Law of Thermodynamics, are considerable. Advantages of l)l~ol.ovoll
ill1
generation include [I,2,3]:
(a) There are no moving parts so that little maintenance is reqi1irc:tl;
(b) They utilise an infinitely renewable (compared with the 111lllli1.11 li1;~s1);111)
and pollution-free power source;
(c) The cells are reliable and long-lasting, with no harmfiil w;lstc ~ ) r . o ~ l ~ ~ c . l , s ;
(d) There is no discernible health hazard;
(e) The cells are usually made of silicon, which is one of earth's ~iiosl.i ~ , l ) ~ r ~ l c l r ~ ~ l
and cheap materials;
(f) The cells can be used on site in remote locations, such as 1)1ioys; I . I I ( . I I O I ( ~ ( I
a t sea, or spacecraft in orbit;
(g) They have a high power-to-weight ratio, which is reqllirctl i l l ; I . ( ~ I . O : ; I I I I I . I >
applications;
llY
(h) They are manufactured and researched in a highly dcvclo~)c.(l,sc.ic.l~\,ili(.ic
based, well-funded industry, so that continual improvc:li~c~l~t,
01' 1)(*1.1i) I . I I I I I 1 1 1 1 %
can be expected.
t,h(: very I ; i r . ~ ( .i~~vc$:;l.tr
I I * I I ~ I 11
With this list of advantages above one can ~ir~tl(:rst;~~ltl
time and effort that has been, and still is, tl(:vot,c:tli,o so1i~1.
(:(,I1 O ( ~ V ( ~ ~ O ~ ) 11':;111111
III~~II~.
photovolt,nic convcrtcrs wcrc: :~vi~ilal)l(:
irlorc: c:l10;1.~)1~
t.llcy wo~rl(lc . o r t ~ l ~ l ~( .~I I~; I ~I I ~~~ ~, ( .l , y
t l ~ wl~ol(:
:
sc:(:li(: o r (:lc(-t,ri(,,it,y
~ t : ~ \ ( ~ ~ ~ i l(OK
, t , i111i(,ss
o ~ l < ~ ~ L I S I I I ~ I ~ I ~ (, 111fo1.t
I ~ I L . \ I I I ~ I I , I , I I~ , I I ~ - y
si,ill (2002) ~ ( ~ I I I ~ Is. (~~I vI ( ~ rt,i111os
; ~ , l l,oo ( ~ x 1 1 ~ ~ 11'01.1 s iIvI I~; I-, S S I I S I , , 1 1 1 1 1 , :II,I-vi;tI111* I f 1 1
sl)(.(.i;~lisc.(l
; ~ , l ~ ~ ~ l i c . ;: ~
; IlIiIo.11,s
~ lI ss l ) i ~ ( , ~ > ( . i~: ; o. li;~~ . l,'(l- ~, ,I (.OIIIIIIIIIII(.;I~IIIII : ; I : I ( . ~ I I I I : ; 1 1 1 1 4 1
( . ( - I . ~ , I I I I I ( I I ~ ~ ~ I I I I ~I I IY - I I : ;

I l l I 0 1 1 . . 1 ~ 1 ( . 1 Ill!:

~ 1 1 ~ ~ ~ 1I l 1 ; 1 1: ~ ( 1 1 1 .

11

I ,

Ill

,.~I.II
'

111

1111. 111:,l

1.11

I:,

Ilulfr~.r1r1.t

I . I ~ I; I 1 I ; ! \ ,

(11

:.,11.11

11.lI:.

I l l l . 11.1 I l l

l l ~ l ~ l l l l l ~l , ll l ~ ~ , 1 ~ 1 1 l ~ I ~\ vl ; l ll, l~

IIIII~;II~.;I)

; l l I ~ ; l ~

I:.

\v;11 I '

~ ' I l ~ . ; ~ I \

01

Ill

IIO\L'l*I

1:;

1l:il~lI.

'liIII:;

~ l , l \ V l ~ \l v l l l , l l l l l l ~: ; l l l : l l ~ i l l : ~ l l l ; l l , i l l l l

I0110 \V/III'! \.1111l1: I I , ~ I I I ( . ; I I


I00

01' IO:):,,

(./li(.i~*ll(.~

~ l ~ l l l l l ~~ ~ l~l l! l ~ l ) , ~ l ~ ~ l l ~~l ll ~~: l l <\\,;1.1,1,s.

I / I I I I I Ii ~
~ iI: I
i I 01' 1~11~1~l,ri1.il.y
I'IOIII ~0lil.r~)l~oI,ovolt;ii(;
(~;Ilsvt~rieswitlrly TI^ 107J
\ v ; I : ~ Y;:\i)~),/~)(>;l.k
w;~.l,l..I5.y 1!)77, till(: l,o vil.~t,Iyillcreased research, the cost
\11:111
(11111)11(~110
$ 1 r)/l)(';~.l<
\v;~,l,l,,(.;~.llillg
1111.111(:rt,o $'10/~1eitkwatt in 1983. In the:
I I 1
I0 :II I
I
I
o $2 1
w i t , 2 The (lecreasing cost of PV
1 1 " I I I I I I I - . ; I I I ( 1 1.11(, wo~~I(Iwi(l(~
growt,ll i l l L11cir 1isc: are illustrated in Fig. 12.1 (41.
l 11111111: :'I )Oil
glol);~li11s~illk:dt~i~sc:
of P V gweration excwcled 1 GW (1000 MW)
1 1 1 1 . 1 1 I.>;I I ~ I I I ( ' . 'I'II(~ (.ost.s oj. P V systcills llow (2002) vary between US$6 arltl
1 I:!: 1 :! 1 1 1 . 1 ~v;I,II,,
~ ( ~ S I I I ~ i~ l lI I(.osi.s
~
for PV-generated electricity from US$0.25/kWtl
1
S I . O / W I . A t t.l~(:s('( : o s ~1 ~ ~ P~V111%
s
econonlic advantage, for
1 1 1 1 1 'III,:I
I I I 111:; 1l.01 1 1 I.III.;I.~ I ~ o ~ ~ s c l ~to
o l ttfeleco~ll
ls
repeater stations, over batteries ant1
* ' I I ! ~ . I I I ( ' J:~.III*I.;I.I.III.
scst.swlltrrc. nlil.i~~s
c:loc:tricity is unavailable [4].
1 1 1 I
1 0 I * * (.o~tll)(~(.it~iv(,
will1 (:oaventional generation the cost of electricitfly
' 11.1 I \ , # . I l I I I t.ol)slltlli~r.s
1111lstI I O W (2002) be around $0.07 per k w h in the USA alltl
1,'; j 1 1 . 1 Ii\Yll i l l (:I.(,;I.~. 13rit,;l.in. 'I'llis c:nergy cost corresponds to an installed cost,

Roottops (Japan, Gz~tnany)


Remote habltat~onal

1'111

l i 1 8 -

III:.I

I 1 11

1.1

( ,051 JIL~I w.111($/Wp)

M W Shipped

Fig. 12.2.

Forecast market growth in the PV industry [5]

for solar cell arrays of $0.15-$0.3 per peak watt. When maintenance: ~ I , I I ( I i 1 1 1 . ( - 1 1 ' : , 1
upon capital costs are added (probably more than doubling the pricc pcr ~)(':~.li
witl.1.)
the cost of solar-photovoltaic-generated electricity is found to be still sc~vc~l.;~,l
I.~IIII.:.
the cost of conventional generation, using fossil fuels. A relevant nunlerii!;~.l( S X ~ I I I I ~ ~ ~ I .
is given as Example 12.9, in Sec. 12.8.
Figure 12.2 shows a forecast of the anticipated growth of PV mark(:t O I ) I ) O I . ~ . I I I I I
ties. Over 800 MW of new PV generation (equivalent t o a largc convcl~l.io~~i~,l
IIIIWI.I
plant) is expected t o he added each year. The largest area of gmwt11 is c l x ( ~ c + c , l ( , ~ l
t o be in grid-tied systems. Large scale P V power generation schelncs will ~ ) r . o l ~ I: I ~Y l
remain in the demonstration phase [4,5].
12.3.

Physical Nature of Semiconductor Materials [6]

Materials that are commonly used as semiconductors, such as silic.ol1 i1.11(1 J : ( ~ I . I I I I I


nium, are found to lie in the fourth column of the Periodic ?'able nf I < ~ ~ ( : I I I ( : '1'111.
III.~.
outer layer of electrons, somctimes called the valence shell, in t,l~t:1lo11r 1 1 1 o ~ I01~ ' l
the atom consists of four electrons which enable a pure crystal o f ~ ~ ~ i ~ t , ( ! l . i1i0l . l I ~ I I I I I
tight covalent bonds. The nuclei consist of protons ancl 11c11trollss~lrl~rr
I ~ I I ~ 1.1
: I 1.111,
respective atomic mass units. Quantum shells of clect,rons slirro~~tltl
1~1.1.11 I I I I I ~ \ I - I I : I
so that the total number of electrons is equal t,o tall(:i~.l,olnic:
IIIIIIII)(~I. ~I.I)(I ( I ( ~ ~ . ~ ~ I . I I I ~ I I ( ~ :
the place in the Periodic Tntjlc of E1(?111(:11t.s.
The c,ov:~l(!l~t,
lxwiing in
\i\,l,t,i(x: ()I' 11, 1)11v(! (,r,vsl,itlis l , i y , l ~ l ,111 L l ~ i ~ ~l ,- I I I ~ I ~ I V I ~ I
IIIIII-II (!~i(:rgyis II(:(Y!SS;L~Y
i l l or(l(:r 00 II.(~I'
i1.11 ( - I ( ~ I . I . I . o I ~ 1'1.0111 1 . 1 1 ( ~11o11(1
i l l 1 1 1 I I I ~ I . I ( ~11.
* IIVIII~
i ~ , l ) l ( 1'01.
>
( ~ I I ~ I , I ( .. ;~I I, I~. I~. . ~ ~ I I ~ ~I ',I,I I , I > S ( , I I I ~ ( , I , I I , I I I , , [ , ~ I I I I ~ I . ~ , I 1111:;
*I
I I I I V I * ::III.II 1 1 i j ~ , I 1 I I * : ; I : ; I , I Y I I y
I,IIII.I. I . I I ( * ~I I I . I * i11s11li1.l.1
1 1 : ; I I ~ ,1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I * I I I ~ I I ' I ~ I I I I I C . ' l ' l ~ t ,; I ~ I ~ I I I ~ ~ ~ I I . I 01
I I I I11 \ ' I I I I I I I ~ ,1 1~f .~1 111111
t,I1(1

I ! I l l

1I

l l l l l l l l l l ,

IIIIIIII

11~111,".1

"1

1 1 1 1 ~ . \Y111111I

1 IlII:.I.

lIllI\'

4 . 1 I I I \ ~ I , I 1, 1111l.1, S ( * I I I I I ~IIIIIII.I,I
.~
11. I I I ~ I , I , I I I . ~ ; I , I I'ro111
;I, l i g l ~ l ~ - s ~ : ~ ~
I)III,
s i lgrossly
~ i v ~ : i~~(:ffiI ~ I ~ ~ I ~ I . I . ~ II ,~ ~~ I II ~\ ~, VI * I . ~ , (I ~I II I. O :I,101,111
SII~I,:I.III(>
l'or 11s~:
ill I , ~ ~ L L I s ~ s ~or
, ~ l)k~ot(~v(~lt,:ii~
~s
I.:I~III.III(> 01' I I I I I ( . I I I ~ i j ; l ~ t -(r. I I I . I . ( ~ I I ( . ~:;~.~)i~.(:il.,y,
it, is ll(:(:(:ssiLry t , ~il~crcilscthe con-

'1'11

II,III

c-If!:,

~ , I I ~ I ~ I - I I ( ~'I'llis
, ~ . (yi1,Il IN: IIOII(: l),y i ~ ~ ( : r ( > it~1s1i~
cIlcrgy
~ ~ g of the outer shell
S111.11I I I O I lili(:;1.1.io11
(:ill1 I)(: il,(,llic~c;(l
I)y ;L very complcx industrial process
IS 1 1 1 ~ V I 11s
I
"(lol)i111:",
wllc~rc,l)yo l . l ~ c~i~atic:ri;~ls,
~
lyi~lgin the third or fifth column of
I 1 1 1 . 1'c.l ~ o ~ l i 'I:LIJI(>,
c.
i l l , ( : c:o~lll)illotl
wit11 t,hu puro sen~iconductor. This revolutioni1.r \, I J I (.:Ili IJII.I
JII!!;~I
w;l.s ~)io~lc:c:rc:(l
i ~ t11c
t Bell Tc:lephone Laboratories in New Jersey,
IP:411, I l l I L I l l ~ I!)5Os.
\,I~I:>IOII

I.II.~.I,I

I 111.:.

(b)

(a)

I . . I

~ ; I Y ) ~ L ~( -(. ~
" I~

~ ~ impurities
ptor)

1 I I 1 111. I 1 1 , )I.I.:;S of' t l o l ) i l l g , ~ L ~ ~ ~ofI IaI selected


S
impurity material are substituted for
01' 1 . 1 1 1 , ~ J I I Is. ( ~
! ~ l ~ i ( : o ~ ~ cmaterial
i l ~ c t o r within its semiconductor crystal
I
.
(\l:~.lr~ri:~.ls
s11c41;I.S I~oroll,aluminum, galliurn and indium lie in the third
I I I ~ I I I I I I I 1 1 ) 1 . 1 1 1 , I'(*rio(li(:
'I'i1.1)1(1
~ L I are
I ~ characterised by having three electro~~s
in
I 1 1 1 . 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1'1. :il~l'll~.I ~ ~ ( . o r p o r a t of
i o ~(say)
~
a boron atom into a latticc of silicon
1111,111:~ I I . S I I I ~ S
i l l :\.I\(:lli~:t,t,lii~tis depicted in Fig. 12.3(a). The impurity atom
11,1111:.
( 1 1 1 1 ~ .1.11\~;1.1(:11(.
1)011(1s
wit11 i~cijacelltatoms. In the fourth side, however, no
I I I I I~I I I 1 1 \( I.I(Y.I,I.I J I I is i~.~i~il;~l)lt!
to I)olld with the semiconductor electron and a "hole"
, I ~ B ~ I I , I I I : I; I I 1111. II)(.;I,(,~I)II OE t,l~(:111issingelectron. Such incomplete bonding can be
( 1 1 I . I I I ~ ~ : Yl 1.1 I II.(.II~.
( , I ~ r o l ~ g l tl lo~~cc:rystal.
~t
Group-3 or trivalent impurities are called
1 1.1
11 I 11 i l l 11 )~~r.il.ic%s
I)(:(' ~ I.IIS[!
1,llc:y have the capability of accepting free electrons. The
111
!III-:I I i l J I I oI':I. 111 ) I . c t ~ \ I . i i r . I tlifk:rc~~cc
across the crystal will cause a migration of holes.
1 ) 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ :. I 1 1 1 r l . 1 ~ s(>lllic:o~~tl~~c:tol.
111at(:rialwith acceptor impurity forms a p t y p c
( I 11 I ' . I I I V I * ) sc~~~ric~c
)~~tl~lc:t.ol.
i l l wllic.11 t,llc! holes are called majority carriers and the frcc
1 . 1 t - 1 I I I 111:; : I I . I ~ (.;I,II(YI
111i11ori1.y
c:;l.rric:rs.
. l ~ ~ l l lI I ~( OsI I I : ;

Fig. 12.3, Planar representation of doped semiconductor lattice: (a) acceptor impurity, (11)
impurity (from [ 6 ] ) .

11011~11

donor impurity forms an n-type (negative) semiconductor in which thc: ~ I ( , ( . III II : .~ I


are called majority carricrs and the holes are called minorit,y carriers, whii:l~is 1,111.
opposite way round from acceptor-impurity-doped material.
Because of doping, the high intrinsic resistivity of pure semiconductor ~lii~l*:~~iil~l
is markedly reduced and doped materials are adequate conductors of electric ~ : I I I I ( ~ I I ~ , .
In this book the term "semiconductor" should always be taken to mean the chqrrl,
commercially available materials now so abundantly used in the electronics ii~(l~lslry.

12.4.

Photovoltaic Materials

31

sl11.11
;t.s ;~.r.sor~ic.,
~ ) l ~ o s l ~ h o;ultl
r r ~ ttntin~ony
s
lie in the fifth column of th(:
'1.11 4 , I 1 1 1 . '1'11 1 ; I . I I ~ ;I.I.(:
~
c:l~i~~-;~.c~l.c~risc.cl
I)y having fivc c~lcctronsill their outer shc]ls,
I \ , I I I I ~ I I I I I , 101. (.III.III~(.:I.~
~.c%;l.c.l,io~~s.
I~~c.orl)ori~.tioi~
o f (say) a p l ~ o s ~ ~ latom
~ a r ~int,o
~ s 11.
111 I
~ ~ , I - I . I I I : I . I I ~ I I I;III ~ , I J I I I SY ( ~ S \ I ~ \i, S~ ~i L I (:fF(:(:i,
I
l,l~:~t,is (I(:pi(.i,(:(l
ill Fig. 12.:$(l)).'1'\1(1
I I I I I ~ I I11 \, I I ~ . I I I I II'OI~IIIS I ~ I I (I~
I ). v ; i I ( v 1101111s
~t~
wiI,l~:~(l,i;t,c:(:~~f, : L ~ , O I I I S 1,11t OII(:
(!l(:(:t,ro~~
II(>I.
1 1 1 1 ):;I 1 1 1 1 1 1 11:; ~ I . ~ ( I I I1i1.s
I
I'I.(Y, 1 1 1 I , I I ( * V;I,I(SII(Y~ sli(:Il. 'I'II(- I'IXY:
(!I(:(~~,I.IIII
I I ~ I , S r~>li~l,iv(,l,y
11igl~
I I I . I I ~ . \ ~I I I I I I
I I I I I . , V 111, c.r~.silyI I I ~ I . I I . ( ~ I I I YI'I.~IIII
I
i1.s I ) ~ I . v ~ : I I;\.I,oIII
~.
Oy (.II(- i ~ . j ) ) ~ I i ~ . i ~ . ( .01'i o t 11.11
~
1 \ 1 1 I l l l.111- l~lys1,lll.

\IIIII,I

l.11:~

S J ~ '

12.4.1.

Crystalline silicon (c-Si)

Early forms of silicon photovoltaic cells were very expensive because of diffic,l~ll.i(:s
ill
the industrial preparation of sufficiently high-grade silicon. Very pure sisgh: (:rysl,it,ln
of silicon needed to be grown as cylindrical ingots, about 10 cm diameter, i l l ~ ~ ( I I L I .
to maximise the cell exposure area. This is now known as "monocrystallira:" siliI.ol~.
Processing and fabrication problems still exist in the preparation of siilgl(\1'1,y:i
talline silicon cells, which remain very expensive The wafers are t y p i ( ~ i ~ 1'
, l!10
l~
300 pm thick and need to be cut by diamond slitting discs of about ~ I I ( >S ; I J I I ~ ~
thickness, which is both expensive and wasteful of the silicon material. Fr<:[)itr~\l,il
111
of the pure crystals involves temperature corltrol - withill M . l C of i~ IIII.II i l l ,
1420C. After cutting, grinding and polishing
all labour-ir~tousiv(:o ~ ) ( ~ r ; ~ l ~ i o ~
the silicon wafers have to undergo a gaseous diffiisioii p r o c ( : s ~ i ~ v e ~111r:
I v iI)OIII
~ ~ ~I ~ I I J :
of
material. One developmelit tht~t,11iw I)(:cII~-(~spol~sil)\(:
k)r r(vll~t.l.iolli l l
t,hr c:ost, of solar pllot,(~voltni(a:ll silii-OIIis t,o grow 1,111:
silicol~~.ryst,r~,I
i l l 1,111- I ~ I I I I 111'
I
;I ril)l)olr r ; l , t , l ~~.II;I,II
~ : ~ ;I,II il~gol..l \ y (Iri\.wi~\g
1,111. ~ 1 ~ 1 ~~.~"sl,il,l
1 1
I I O W ~ I , I . II ~/ I:~~I I I I \ : ~ I 11, 11i1.
i l l 1,111, I I I I J ~ ~ , I sili,.ol~,
~II
; I l i l , l J o ~ I ~, I ~ s ~ , I IS, I~~ V I * I ~ I;,I.I,
I\
IIIIIJI, I I I I I V I J I . ( I / I ~ , ; I ~ II I( I~ *~ )I ~! I I I I I
-

III~I(.I~
11. :. . ' I I l l l ! ' . l ~ l l l I l ~ 1 1 1 ~ " ~ 1 ; 1 111 1 . l - l ~ l l I1 1 1 1 ' 1 ' 1 1 1 ~ 1 ~ l l : ; I I y I)l"l.":>:;
0 1 ' 1 . 1 1 1 1 I l l ! ' , 1 1 1 1 1 1 \2';11;.1.:i 1 ' 1 . 0 1 ~ ~
I : I I ) ~ . ~ :. . I I I ! * . ~ I , I . I \ ~ ~ . I : I I I . \ I I I I I J I I I . ; I I I I I ~ ~ . I I I : : I:; I I I I , I I I ~ I I I I I I I I : I I I ~ I I . '1'111, I ~ I ) I I O I I I I I . O ( . ( > S Sr.c~s11l1~
I I I II.,,..
O I I I I , : , I I I I . I I ~ I ( I I ~ I I I l . I ~ t t t ~ - : ~ c l ~ l ~ i c11~1~1.11o0
~ l ~ ; ~ l ; 1 1 1 ( 1 I ) I . O ( I I I ( . ( - ~ (~hlls
wiI.11(!fli(.i(>~l(.i(>s
0 1 l l l l ~l l l l l l ~ l 10
;\1101111.1 ~ I ( . V I ~ I O I I I I I I * I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 , I I S ~oI'c~rysl.;~lli~~c~
.
I ~ I I . I I I S o S silic.oll is 1,11(, I I S ~
ot': I)olvI \ ,,,I ; I I I I I I I , : ; I I I ( . ( 1 1 1 I.;I,I II(>I. I , ~ I ; I , I I si11{;1(%
(.rysI,:11I I I ~ I , ~ , (I;I,I.
*I
Mi~11,y
~ 1 1 i i ~ silico~l
lI
crysti~l~
:\I
)I II,III
I . ; I I I I \ ( 1111l.y wiI 1 1 1 1 1 I , I I ~ I I I ; I , ~ ( > I Y 01' l ) ( ) l , ~ ( ~ ~ ~ y ~ I~iii~t(!rii~l.
, i ~ l l i i i ( >This is m11(.11
I I ~ . ; I ~ U . I 1 1 I 01 O ( I I I ( Y ' (.11;\.11 s ~ I I ~ : I ( ' - ( . ~ , v s I , ~ \ ~ h)r111s
I
;1.11(1
l~scsiii11(.11
l(:ss silicon material.
Ii1.1 "111 1 - 1 1 ~ ~ I l i c ~ i c ~\viI
~ ~1 c1 ~1)oly(.r.,ysl.;~llil1(~
ic~s
S O I ~ L I . IS i I W 0 1 1 1 ~5 7%.
I

\.$I.I~

I I I ~ I I I ' I 1.11

I ill1

IIO\\.

111.

111.1111,

01 011t1 1 1 1 1 . : ~ . ~ 1 ~ 11 1; 1 011.I ; I I I ! : I .

1 :\OO / I I I I

\zlil11

I.

~4~11rorl)lror~s
(Irirci-;~jstulline)
silicon ( a - S i )

sili(.ol~I,11(>r(>
is

structure. The very expensive


I
1 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 I . I . ( ~ ~ I I I ~ ( ~ I I O S i ~ ~ \ l o l v ~i )~
I I~
I.C
gsingle-crystal forms are unnecessary. Thc
; I I I : . ~ ) I 1 1 1 1 1 I I I ( ~ 1 1 1 . l l i c . i c ~ 1 1 1 , 1'01. i ~ . ~ ~ i o ~ .sili(:oll,
p l i o ~ ~ills the visible light range, is nlore tha11
1
1 I I I 1 1 % : ~ 1.1
\J;I.I I I ( , t'( ) I . s ~ I I ~ ~ o - ( ' Isili~on.
. Y s ~ , ~Alnorpllous
L~
silicon can be deposited
1111
I , : I I . ~ \ ~ I I J I , I I I : I . ( ('l.ii1.1 ( S O I I N : ~ , ~ I I I O S ( : i ~ l l ~"sl~bstrates")
d
in very thin films, of th(:
1 1111I ~ . I l i ( . l i . 'l'l~isg~.c:;~,l.ly
L.(:(~IICCS
the amount of silicon material used and,
, I I . . I . I I I I I ~ I I I Iy, I I I ( ~ (.osl of' 1ri;r.ss ~)l.otl~~c:tio~i.
A l I 1 1 1 11
I ) I . ( ~ s I ' I I ( .i~ ~~ . ~l i ~i l~) Ii( :~ L I I I O ~ ~ ~silicon
~ O U S solar cells are relatively cheap,
101.11I I I ; I Y I I I I I I I I I c,Ili(.io~~(.y
is low, of t,hc: order 7-10%. This raises interesting cost1 . I l i 1 I I , I I I . \ , ~ . ~ I I S I ( I ( * I . ; I I . ~ ~ Ii Il lS t,ll(\ (1(1sig11
of ally specific photovoltaic cell array. Amor1 1 1 1 , ~ 1 1 . . : , I ~ I I . I I I I (.(-1Iswi1.11 i1.11 (:Hi(:i(,i~(.y
range 5-(5% are t o be used in a 50 MW
I 1 1 11 11.111 I ; I 1 1 . 1 1 ~ 1 ' 1 . st.;~.l.io~l
1,o 1 )(: l)llilt ill tllc tlesert outside Los Angeles, Californi;~,
I]:;!\ 1'11
( ' : I I I i l . 1 1 1 . :~~~ti(.il);~.l,o(l
I,JI;LI. I'iit,~~ro
ge~~(:r;~tions
of amorplious silicon cells will
I . \ , I , I I I I I : I I ( \ ' ; I ( . I I ~ ( ' V ( , !.\I(%
si1.111(1
I(:v(:Is of op~rationalefficiency as crystalline silicoil
1 1,11:,"
1 1 I I I I I I J ~ , ~ ;I I I I I ~ I . I ) ~ I O I I SsiIi(.on ( i ~Si) i~iodl~lcs
have dominated the consumc!r
4.11.1
I I I I I I I . : , I I I ; I I . ~ ( I % I sill(.(%
I . I I ( ~ 1 !)80s, 1,lloy arc: o11ly currently (2002) being launchc~tl
III

i l l l l l l l l ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

1 1 I 11

11

I('

1.11

1 1

( 1 1 I 11.1
4

110 L C ' ~ ? ; I I ~ ~ Lcrystal


T

01' ~ I I ( . ~ ~ I . O II*'il:.
. I * I ):!..I
, I I I Iis: ( , I I ; I I . (!cI11i., (!IS ;I.II(I I I I . I I ( % I . 1 1 1 1 1 1 l i l 1 1 1 I I ~ I . I I I I ~ I I I I ~ ~ , I( II I. O~ I
S ~ I O W J I ); L I X , ;~l)o111,
20 ~ I > ; I I . S l;1.1,(*1, 1 1 1 ~ I ( ~ v o ~ o ~ ) I I I I I~ , I~ I ;~I ,I I Si. I ~ I I I Si I . ( , I I S :I,I.I- I I I I W 11.11
proaclli~igtlic tli(~or(~l,i('i~l
li111i1,of i,li(,ir offi(:i(:~~(.>~
will ~ , I I ~ I I - I ~ I I (~1~11s
II
(~v(~III,II;I.II,v

catch up? A thin-film conlpetitor, not sliow~iill Fig. 12.4, is tali(:g i ~ . l l i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ; l . r . s c .


(GaAs) cell, attractive because of its high efficiency. I t will opc:r;~t~c:i ~ t ,~ , ( : I I I I ) ( - I . : I
tures up to 200C, whereas the maximum working temperature for silic:o~i,; I . I I O I I I
100C, is already accompanied by a serious loss of efficiency. Because of 1,11(*I ~ i ~ : l l c . l
temperature tolerance, gallium arseilide cells can be used in focussing co~~c~c:~~l.r;lI
systems. Gallium arsenide cells, however, cost several times t,he price of silic.o~l1.1.11:.
and it is questionable if the world supply of gallium would be adequate tjo I';~.c.iliI ; I \ ( ,
its widespread mass use.
A recent developnlellt is to use multilayer cells, with different energy tl;iq~s,!:(I
that sunlight first strikes the material with the largest band gap. One rtcc:111c l c . > i ~ : l l
stacks layers of gallium arsenide onto layers of silicon. A GaAs cell on to]) ; I . ~ ) S I I I I I ! ~
solar energy from the blue (short wavelength, high energy) end of thc S ~ ) ( ~ ~ . I , I . ~ I I I I ,
passing redder light t o a silicon cell beneath. Higher conversion efficiency is ~ ' c ~ t a l i : l: ~ ~ ~
by capturing a larger portioll of the solar spectrnm. The laboratory prot,ol,,~l)c~
01
this new cell is reported to have an efficiency of 31% [B].
Some interesting research is under way to attempt t o make solar c:c:lls 1'1.0111
plastic materials rather than from crystalline silicon. This is, in effect, i ~ l il,t,1,('111
i
I )I

1j9.11

11

171.

l l l l ~ ll l l l ~~ 1 1 1 \ 2 ~ 1 l~l 1l ~; l l ~ l ~ l ~ l

0
1950

1960

0I

1970

1980

1990

2000

Year
cckl
Fig. 12.4. Development of thin-film, phot.ovolt.i~c

+ crystalline silicon

W (:oppcr i11cli11r11 g a l l i ~ i r rS~I I I ~ I I I ~ ( I (Cl(;S)


I~
A r:trlrni~~rn~ , ( : I ~ I I ~ ~ I I I I )
0 ~ L I I I O I~ ) I I O I I S sili1~111

<,

~ ~ l l ~ l ~~ l l ll l ~~ ~
l l 1 i l l l ~

~ f \ i ( . i t ~ l l ( : i (17)
:~

'Khc cllergy (:ol~t,(:l~t,


I&'
of' I,IIc ~ I I ( . ~ I I I I I I ri~,(Li;~l,iotl
K
is i l l (lis(.rc't,ol);l,(~I<(~l~s
[ , I I ~ I . ( ,~ I I - I ) I ~ I I ( ~
on its frequency, according to tllc rclation

where f is the frequency in Hz or s-' and h is the Planck coilstant (6.62(i x I0 '''I .I3
or 4.136 x 10-l5 eVs).
The frequency f of the radiation is related to its wavelength X by t,llc: ~ . ( : l i l , I . i ( l ~ l
\

Ol)~'ri\t.iollof tkic S c r r ~ i c a n d u c t o rDiode and


Solikr I'l~ot~ovoltaicCell

I ,I-I. ;I

oI'lt-l.yo(:111i~tcl.inl
l)c brought into conjunction with a crystal of n-type
s11(.11
1.11i1.1.(,II(! ,j~lll(-t.ioll
represents perfect continuation of the lattice. Eve11
I I I I I I I ~111118s(.il.(-cl
sl.i~.l,c:
ill1 of tllc dlargctl sub-atomic particles are in constant motion
I 1 1 1 1 ~ t 1 I I . I I ~ ~ I . I I I ; I II ~ I I ( ~ I . ~ Y
1 1. 1 1 ~iilcrcase of temperature causes the release of further
I , I ( Y . I I O I I : ; ~ I . I I ( I Ilc~l(\s
(IIK: t80 t,he breaking of covalent bonds.
' I ' 1 1 1 . I I I I~S ( , I I I I I I I O I I 1'0r111 of I ) r r jliilction device is the semiconductor diode re(:I 1 I i t . 1 , wllic.11 is ~)l.()l)i~l)ly
t11c: rnost frequently used component in electronic circuit,^.
' 1 ' 1 1 t . ~ I . ~ I I I ~ ~ ( . ; I . ~ 01'
. ~ ( Iil.11
I I ~xi,(:ri11~1Iy
applied reverse voltage across a p n junction dcv 1 1 . t . l.iltl:;(':i
it. SIII:LI(
I.CVOL.SC lci~ki~ge
or thermal current. This condition is known iw
I I . \ , I , I : ; t t 11i;l.s
01. ~.c:vtrrsc!
1)lockingin electronic circuits. If a forward bias voltage is apI ~ l 1 t . 1 1 il(.l.(lssi L 11 I I j~ill(:t,ioi~
tiovice, the low resistivity of the semiconductor material
I I - : , I I 11.5i l l (.II(* I ~ossiI)ilit,y
01' 11igll forward current, which depends upon the extcrI I I I I ( . I I t . ~ ~ i li l. l l ~ ) ( ' ~ ~ i l l l ( : ( ! . T11c (lied(: rectifier therefore has the nature of a termini~l
\ ~ I I I I . ; I ~ I ,; ~~~, ( ' l , ~ i i ~ , l 011
, ( ~ l ,off swit,ch.
A s ~ ~ ~ l ~ i c . ( ~ ~ ~1)c I,TI~ (iovicc
~ c ~ l . o(.;LI~
r . ~ L ~ Sbc
O switched on by irradiating the p i 2 jl~ll(.I 1 1 1 1 1 \ Y I I . ~ II I I I O ~ . O I I S oI' ~11Hic.ic:llt
cilc:rgy, a i d this is the basis of the solar photovoltaic~
1 1 1 :I, sol;^^. ~)llol,Ovoli.il.i(:
(,(:11 t,lic: incitlellt solar radiation passes through t,l~cb
11 I \ , I I I , ! I I ; I (.(s~.i:~l
i111.o(,II(> j~~l~(:l,ioil.
Sollle photo~lsof the incident radiation collitl(:
\\, I I 1 I 1.1 I ( . V;I.II.I I ( . ( * ( , l ( ~ . l ~ l11
. c1s c )I'I.11(:silic:ol~(for c:xarnple) and are absorbed, relci~sii~~;
1 . 1 r . r . 1 I O I I S : I . I IJ II I ~
J ~ I ' S it11.oI,l~o(.I.,vsI,~LI Ii~I.t,ic(!.If t,he silicon re11 is electrically isoli~t.c~l
1 1 1 1 I I I ) ~ - I I t ' i l . ( . ~ l i t . 11, tlil.c>c.l,
c r ~ r ~(11.
f VOII,~LR(!will tll(:~lappear across it,s t e r i ~ ~ i r ~ i II'
~ls.
1 1 1 1 . 1.1'11 1111.s
; I . I I t ~ ~ l . ( ~ t . t( ' ~l ( 'i( .~l , ~I . i ( . i ~ . l ( . i r ( . ~ ~ i(.o1111(:(*1,(:(1
l.
1.0 its l,(:rl~lil~;~ls,
t,l1(\11:I. (lir(-(.(.
I . I I , I . I I 1 1 , I . I I I . I . ( \ I I ~ , ( I ') will ~ I I I W .
I\
11 11 , ~ I I I I ( . ( . ~ ~ I ~I I~ I ~ o I , o v o l l , i (*oII
~ . i c * I,l~c!r.c,f'orc!
I ) ~ : ~ ~ ' O I ~ 1,wo
I I I S l'lli~(:l,io~~s
S~IIIIIII.~III~4 ~ 1 1 ~ ~ 1 \ ' 11, I I I I I . V I Y ~ ~ S I I I I I ~ ) : I I I ,
1t.y ( ~ ~ I I v ( ~~I ~II O~~ ,~I I ~I lo
I SI I(-l(!(,t,l.i(*
I ~ ; (.II;I,I.~(>Si1,11(l it, i11s0
I I O I I I ~ I I ~ ~ ~1 . 1:1;1 . ( . I I ~ L I . ~ (~. ,; ~
( ~~ . t . i ( < l . : i1.0 ( . I I ( ~ (It,vi(.(- l , ( $ l . ~ l l i ~ l i l . 1.11
l s II(Y.OIII((1ir1v.t voI(.i~.~:(-s.11' 11.
l o 1 1 1 1 1:; ( , I I I I I I I - I , ~ . I Y ~I . 1 1 t . ( . I I I I , I ~ I , I Y jV,o i l l l o I I I I I ~ , ~ I I I I . I I ( ~ ( , I L I I 1 1 1 % ( ~ o I I I Y ~ I , I ~ I I ;, I S I ) ( ! ( * l ( ~ ( ~ l , ~ ~ i t ~
('I-~sI.~I.~

where c is the velocity of light (c = 2.998 x lo8 m/s).


Combining (12.1) and (12.2) expresses the radiation energy ill
wavelength.

1s (11'

t.c8r11

III~II,I*I.~~I,~

where the energy W is in joules when the wavelength X is in metres. Altc:r~l;~l.ivc~ly,


if the Planck constant is expressed in electron volt seconds (eVs),

(:(

t 6.11

1 1 1 11'111

where now the energy W is in electron volts when the wavelength X is ill i~~ct,~.c!s.
'I'll(.
energy per photon a t various parts of the solar spectrum, Fig. 11.1 of Clli~l)I.(tr
I I,
is given in Table 12.1.
I t is significant to note that only part of the incident solar radiation (:iLII 1)rocI11(,(~
a pl~otovoltaiceffect. The lniniinuln amount of input energy per phot,oll ~ ~ c ~ . t l (I , vI I l
liberate electrons into a lattice of crystalline silicon (sometimes calletl t,llc: " c ~ ~ l c . r l l , y
gap") is found to be almost 1.08 eV or 1.73 x
From (12.3) or ( 1 2.4) r.t~i:;
occurs a t a wavelength X = 1.15 pm. The infrared portion of the sol:~rs ~ ) ( ~ ( . ~ , I . I I I I I ,
with X > 1.15 pm, is useful for heating purposes but will not pho~,ovolt.i~ic~~~
energise silicon [lo].
Table

12.1.

Photon energy, frequency,

and wavelength for solar r ; ~ d i ; r l i o l ~ .


Encrgy
-

Wavelength (pm)

Requency (Ilz or s

I)

9 . 9 ~ 1x 1 0 ' ~

(i.li2

0.5 (visible light.)


1 .O (rlct~ri~~fr?~.rc:il)
I . 15 ( I I ( Y I V IIII'I.;LI~IYI)
2.0 ( I I I I ' ~ ~ I I ( Y I )

5.!)!)lj x 1 O 1 ' j
2.!)!)H x 1 0 ' "
:t.(i07 Y 1 0 ~ "

:<.!I72x

:!.(I(1111'1 I I I I Y ~ )

I ) !l!l!l:\

IO'"

. 111~

1~11o1011

( , I I ~ ( ~ ~ , ~ Iv>oI lI t s

jo~llos

0.3 (ultraviolet,)

I .I!I!I

[)('I

10 I"

I 0
I .!lHli > I0
I .i:!'7
10
( I !I<I:\
* 10

.
1 1 (i(i,.! . 10

I"

.I.
I:!:{
:!:I8

I :!I
''I

I 0'iX:i
(I

In'

(1

ti:!

I l:i

\ ~ ' I I ~I , I'I II ' IW I I \ J I ' I ~ ' I I ~ : I . I I I:i


l.ll111~

111.

It':i:l

t . 1 1 l . l l ~ l l . l l ~ l l l ~ l )Vl1.l
~ , ~I!(*

I I I I O I I I I I ( I . I!) / I I I I ) 11sI ~ I I I ' I . ~ : Y I . O I I I . I ' I I I is . ; ~ : ' I * I I . ~ . I ' I .


I .(IS 1 - v . l ~ ; l l ~ t ~ l ~ l ~ l l; l\ lI!t in l ~ l ~ l t ~ l l , s l ! lf)ll l l , I ~ I l O lnx(?!ss

(111111
111'

I I ~ I S I I I - I I I ~ I I l),y L I I I * sili(.ol~; I . I I ( ~ r(L-;~,l)l)(>;~,~.s


;I,:; I I ( ~ ; L I , W I ~ , \ I ~ I I ( ,
l , l l ( . w i ~ . v ~ ~ lr;~.llgc:
~ ~ ~ ~O.:\g l(
, lX~ < 1 . I 5 / r i l l ,
111. I I I I \ ' I 111l~I.it.lll1l.l.
J'I.('(IIII'II(.Y, ;I. ~)l.ol
) o l . l . i O l l I .OH/W' 01' 1.11(:i ~ ~ ~ O ( : i i ~
c:llc:rgy
t ( : ( l W' is
\ \ ' ~ ~ : ; t . t ~11.l:;
111ti1,lj.O V I ~ILIlis
I . sl)(:(.I,~.i~,l
I . ; I , I I ~ O ; L l)roporlfiot~
:{:{%, of' t,l~ei11pllt eilergy
I
I
'I'l~isI . ~ Y ~ I I I V \. .S\ I ( . I I I ~ L X ~ I I I II,l~(:orc:t,i(.;~l
~I~I
col~v(:rsioi~
cfici(:ncy t , 44%
~
for a
I M - I I ~ , t . l . l y ~ . t ~ ~ ~ s l . rc~r,ysl.ir.lli~~c~
~ ~ c ~ l . c ~silic,or~
l
(:(~11.
I I I i~tltlil,iol~
1,o ~ . I I ( : illt.ril~si(:
pl~ysi(::l.lliir~itat~iolls
abovc, any photovoltaic cell is
! ; I I l I ~ I , I . \ . I -l ~ 1.1 I I'III.~,~
11-1. 11 )SSI%S(Ill(: 1,o its c:lect,rical operation. The passage of curI 1 - 1 1 1 . 1 . \ 1 1 ( I I I ~ : I I OII(* s ( ~ ~ ~ l i c . o ~ ~ crllilt,(:riil.l
l l ~ ( : t ~ oCr~ I I S C Sheating ( I ~ Rlosses
)
and this may
1 1 1 - V ~ I I I ~ I ~ I ~ I I : I . ~I)y
. ( ~ ~( ,II t ( , ( . o ~ I I , ~ L I : I , r(:sisti~i~(:e
between the terminals and the cell acI I ~ I -~ l l r l . l . t - l . i ; ~ . l . 'I'l~(,r(*
is ILISO pow(:r loss a t the cell junction which must be strictly
4 . 1 1 1 1 1 I I I I I ~ - I I 1.0
i~.voitlOv(:rl~(:i~(.il~g.
T ~ I C Svarious
C
forms of loss contribute additional
I ~ I I I I I I N I I I I ~ I1.11
I ~ .~~. I I ( . l i l ~ ~ i ( , i ~oIf, iworking
c ) ~ ~ efficiency. The final result is that a n operaI I , I I I I I I I 111t , v o l ( i ~ . i c(*(:I1
:
c:oi~sl,ructc:dof crystalline silicon has a maximum theoretical
\ v 1 1 1 l t i 1 1 l : c~l1ic~i1~11c.y
of i~l)o~it,
23%, ;~lt>hough
this is seldom attained or approached
I I I ~ , ~ I I I I I I I I * I~)l.il(.(,i(:(:
. ~ . ~ ~ I . I Ill]. Rncent (2000) laboratory prototypes claim efficiencies
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , I I I I . I I ~ I ~ ,25'X, 171.
hI11x i l l l l l l l l ~.(~;~.lis;~I)l(:
(:fli(:ic!l~cicsfor various materials are shown in Fig. 12.5,
wlllt.ll is 11. s ~ ~ l o o l ~ li~,~)proxirnatc
~c~l,
characteristic [12]. Each material has its own
I l~~~~~~~,!~.~.i:it.ic.:r.ll,y
c:t.ii.ic.;~lva.llte of energy gap, corresponding t o the 1.08 eV for
r i l l l l . t ~ l l . As I . I I ( ~ .j1111('t,io11
t,c:rnperature of a semiconductor material increases, its
I ~ ~ , I I I : ; I I . I I I I *c - l l i c ~ i c . l ~ c ~is
, y r(:(I~i(:(?(l.
At 100C, for example, the characteristic of Fig. 12.5
\vt I I I I I l I ) I * 11 )wc~c.t
I , ro~ighlyuniformly, by about 40% and the maximum efficiency
1111 : ; i l i r , t 111 wo~~ltl
tlrop t,o 14%. It can be seen that the materials gallium arsenidc
( ( : I I A:;), I . ~ I , ( ~ I I I ~ ~ (,(:llllrilli~~
IIII
(C(lT(:) i~11dalllininium antimony (AlSb), for example,

I * I I I * I J ~ , V 1111t1vtt
1 I I I I ~I

\'

.(I8 t * V is

l l ~ l l l , i l l ~1 :0 I I l c ,

( ~ I ~ v ~ l . ~I .. iI cI .~ I . ~ ~ flow.
II~.
III

12.7.

Electrical Output Properties of the Solar Photovoltaic Cclll

The external characteristic of a solar cell is the property of current vc:rsi~svoll.~~.j:c$.


An ideal characteristic would be rectangular in shape. Practical chara.ctc:rist.ic~s
ill rs
roughly rectangular, Fig. 12.6. Each different level of incident radiatiol~ rc-s~lll.:~
r~si:~
in a different characteristic. The intercept of a characteristic on the r~~rrcslll
represents zero voltage drop across the cell terminals and is the short circ~lil,1.111.rt.11t
Isc which is (almost) directly proportional to the incident light intensity. 'I'llis I : I
true for individual silicon cells, Fig. 12.7, and also for solar arrays of many i ( I ( * l ~ I . i c . Il ~
cells, Fig. 12.8 [12]. The intercept of an I-V characteristic on the volt,agtr 11.xisi l l
Fig. 12.6 and Fig. 12.7 is the open circuit voltage Voc, which varies l o g . a r i l , l ~ ~ ~ ~ i
with the incident light intensity, Fig. 12.8. Most solar cells operate with ;L wol.ltillV,
level of direct voltage of less than 1 volt.

12.7.1.

M a x i m u m power d e l i v e r y

In direct current circuits with a solar cell source the power generated is t.11(:1)1'011
uct of the cell voltage and current. For typical characteristics like Fig. 12.6 1111maxirnurn power delivery point lies in the region of the knee of the curve,. '1'111~
current and voltage at the maximum power point Pm are defined here as I,,,,, i 1 1 1 ( l
Vm, respectively, and the maximum power deliverable, for that particular vi~.l~~cb
01'
insolation, is

v i ~ , ~ I'I.(IIII
.y
Y , I > I - I I I'or sl~oll,
( . i l . ~ . ~ l i Il I I ) ( ~ I . I I . ~ . I ~1.0I I i ~ l l i ~ ~ i l , , y ~ I J ) ( ~ II, II I ( . I I I ~~ I ) I ( ' I ~ : I
111 ortlc!~t,o tlolivc~l\.\I(: I I I I I . X ~ I I ~ I I I l)ossiOl(~
II
I ) O W + ~ I . , 1'01. ii sl)ct(.iIi(vll c ~ v ( ~
01'l ~ I I S O \ I I . ~ . ~ I I I I ,
RL rr~ustsatisfy ttlic: r(:Ii~l,io1isl1i1)

(,;I,II

12.7.2.

1)irccl v~~lragc
(V)

I!'

' l ' v l ) i ~ . ; ~I.. Il I I . I . I . I I ( ~ o l I . i ~ g( (: l. ~ i t ~ ~ i ~ ~ l , cofr i as tsolar


, i ~ s photovoltaic cell jll]

Equivalent circuits

The electrical performance of a photovoltaic cell can be approximately rc:prc:scs~~l.c$


I
by the equivalent circuits of Fig. 12.9, for the constant current regions of Figs. I :?.I;
and 7. A constant current generator which delivers its short circuit curro~\kIs( L I I
the power source and this is shunted by a nonlinear (i.e. does not obey 0li111'sI r l w )
resistor Rj representing the variable junction resistance. For most circ~ii(,
c.lr.l(.~~lll,
tions the equivalent circuit of Fig. 12.9(b) is satisfactory. A more sophist,ic~i~l.c~c
I, IIII(,
more appropriate, representation is given in Fig. 12.9(a), where the int(:r~~ll,l
~ I I - Ii ~ v
resistor Rs is much smaller than R L , while the internal shunt resistor R,?,,is 11111i.11
larger than R L , for maximum power delivery.
The equations of circuit operation for Fig. 12.9(b) are

Constant current

Constant current

Source

SOUTCe

(4

l.lI1.1I : . i l l 1 ~ , 1 ; 1 1 1 1 . I l l ~ I , 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ~ 1 l
I,II;II, I , > , I ~ , I I I I , : ; I I I S O I I I I . li1111s
a11c111ovc:ls. l < ~ ~ i l ( l i ~; I l, IpI ,I ~ I I I ~ I , I I I ~ . ; I , ~ I I ~ I:I I K[~ro,i(,(.l,
01' 1,tlis six(! w ~ I I I ( I I I I V O I L V ~ ( Y ) I I ~ , ~ I I I I
ous rnannit~gby opcratio~l:~I
pc:rsollucl al~tlfrcclr~cl~t,
trips for 11~:spi~c:c:st~~tl,t.li..
It.
therefore raises the questions of human life and health in space. The lnassivc: c:ost.
could only be borne by governmental funding, or with governmental particip;tt,io~~.
Solar photovoltaic electricity power stations on earth are an existing rc;l.li(.y.
They comprise a solar cell array - usually combined with some form of concent,r;\.
tor system, a storage battery facility capable of accepting most or all of the sol;^^
power output and a suitable control system. Terrestrial or earth-bound solar I , ~ W I * I
stations are only viable in regions of intense radiation, such as North Afi-ic:;~.,
~.III.
Middle East, and countries with a Mediterranean climate, like the souther11 I K I I I::
of the USA, and Mexico.
The Winston compound parabolic concentrator, described in Sec. 1 I .TI.? 1 1 1
Chapter 11, can also be used for solar photovoltaic energy capture. Bect~~~scs
r,ll1.
efficiency of conversion is reduced at high temperatures it is usually rlecessi1,r.v 1.11
use liquid cooling for silicon cells, as illustrated conceptually in Fig. 12.13.
A commonly used form of concentrator in photovoltaic systems is the Frc~s~~c.l
lens optical system. This is a refracting lens system that uses glass or plastic I(,II>;
material in which concentric (or parallel) grooves are cut or moulded. The grc1ovc.s
are shaped and arranged to make all the light converge to a point or along i L l i r i c . ,
Fig. 12.17. Common uses of Fresrlel lens systems include theatrical spol.lil:l~1,s.
Lighthouse rotating warning lights invariably use large Fresnel lens systems. I , O W I ~ I
power applications include solar cookers and solar furnaces. The Fresnel h\os I . O I I
centrates the input radiation like a magnifying glass. Use of Fresnel lens s y s t , ~ , ~ ~
can provide the equivalent of 50 times the normal solar radiation, solnct,i~~lc.s
11.
ferred to as "50 suns". [Note that this is not the same as a concentratio11 r ; i . l . i ~ i01
50, as defined in (11.6) of Chapter 11, which refers to a ratio of two aren.s.1
A 350 kW solar voltaic system is in operation supplying two villagos o ~ ~ l . : ; i t l ~ .
Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia. An assembly of 160 photovoltaic ; I I . I : ~ y : ; .
Fig. 12.18, using Fresnel lens concentrators, delivers pourer to the 1100 1cWl1I I . ; I ~ I
acid storage batteries and also provides input power to the local 60 Hx c ~ l ( ~ c . I ~ ~ .vi ~ . i t
grid through a DC-to-AC three-phase inverter. One of the local C ~ J V ~ ~ ~ I I I I I I ~ , I I ~ ; ~
features is desert sandstorms and the F'resnel lens surfaces are cleaned I I I ; J , I I I I ; I ~ I I ~ I'y
washing with water [18].
Most of the serious research work on solar photovoltaic cloc:t,ric: ~)owc,~
~ : ~ . I I I . I; I
tion is now taking place in Germany, Japan and the USA. Vi~riol~s
i~~st.:r.ll;~t
~ I , I I : ; w11 11
ratings of the ordcr of a few hundred kW, lip t,o a fcw t,ol~sof MW, ;r.rc! I ) ~ ; I . I I I I ( ~I I ( 1 1 I I I I
dcr citrvc:lopmc:l~tor arc rrow ill c:orlll~~issiol~.
This i~~c:l~ldcss
;I. tl(:sigrr 1'111. ;I. I . O I I I I I I I I I I I I \
(,,oIl(y,(:
i t 1 A~~G~,IIS:I,S,
IJSA, wit,11;i11~:l(~(~t,ri(:;~,l
I I I I ~ , ~ ) I IoI'~i20
~,
IcLV I'IXIIII :I!J;IOO : ; I I I J ~ , ~ ~ ,
rr,ysl,;~,l
s i l i ( ~(.I>IIS
) ~ ~~ I I ( . ~ I ~ I I ~ I ~ ; I ,1);11.;1,I)olic.
~,III~~,
~ , I . O I I ~ , ~~, I~ ; I , I ~ I < I I( I ~~ O~ I, I ~ . I ~ I I ~ , I ~ ;1I. t~1 1O1 1I . q I T * , : ,
w i l , l ~; I . I I ; I V I ~ I . ; I , J ~ I, I~ ~O I I ( ~ I ~ I I ~ , I ~ ; I . ~01, I O :I iIO S I I I I : : ,
1~;1~111:l.I.1011 111

lilis i l ' it,

,"M'
1
$1,-

>tyw \p,~?cr,~ft

I
'1,

'

1 1
' 4

)/
]

Mission 4A: scheduledfor


November after the firqt
Photovoltaic panels and
heat radiators on the flight
will be attached t o the
truss structure and dePloyed as shown Russia's
three-man Soyuz craft will
be available for any erner.
gency return t o Earth.

\L

1,'i~:. 12.15.

I I I ~ ~ I ~ I ~ I I ; I ~ , I ~Spc~(;1:
I I I ; I ~ St,:~t,ion
[16].

W;I,:<

I l l . 11111 I l , \ V . I \ ' I ~ I 1 4 ~ ; l l l l 1 4 ~ I l I ~1 1I . 1 \ , ! .

IIIIS(III(~I.I,IYI

~Il~:~IIllt.l.lvl~

I : I . I I I ~ * I 1 1 1 ~ 1 , 1,111, "II(.;II,II

I.;I.~"

Fig. 12.18. Concentrator photovoltaic array in Saudi Arabia [18] using four-c:c.ll 1111il.s.

Quad lens

In Arizona, USA, an experimental 20 kW photovoltaic array llas I)(Y,II I ~ ~ l i l l .


using innovative cells made of crystalline silicon. These are mounted u l l t l ( ~i~.c.~.ylic.
concentrating lenses and are reported t o have conversion efficiencies gr.c:;l.l.csl.t . l i r l l ~
20%. A 100 MW photovoltaic array using thin-film silicon technology is ~ ) r . o l ~ ~ ~
for the US Department of Energy's site a t Nevada [19]. Annual US s l l i [ ) ~ ~ l c s(11'~ ~ ~
photovoltaic cells increased from almost zero in the early 1970s to grc:;l.l.cs~1.11ri11
75 MW in 1996 and to 77 peak MW in 1999. Crystalline silicon cells ( . O I I ~ . ~ I I I I ( >1.0
dominate the US market, accounting for 96% of the total shipments ill I!)!)!) I20(.
In the USA the industrial sector has now (2002) replaced the re~ideilt~iirl
sc:c:lJo~.
II:~
the largest market for PV cells and modules.

12.9.

The Future Challenge for Photovoltaics

The challenge in the development of photovoltaic materials is t l c u ~ o ~ r s ( . ~ ~i l:l ~ I . (


Fig. 12.19, which compares the spectral profile of the sun (at m -- 0) wil.111.111, 1.1 I I
responding profile for commercial grade silicon. In a radio or t c : l ( : c ' o i ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ ~III:I
~~i(.
system these two curves would be described as a bad mis~~li~I.c:l~.
'.~'III: S I I I I 1 1 1 ~ o I i l 1 ~
is not going t o change. What is needed is a cheap i~11(1~ L ~ I I I I I ( ~ I~ ~L II I;~I ,. ~ , wiI.11
I * I . ~11; I , ~
sp(:(:t,ri~I
r(:spoilsc t,hat is a bct,tcr fit t,o tall(:solilr c:l~;~.~.;~c.i.c~rist.i(:
il.11(1 1 1 : 1 ~:I. I l i j ~ , lI '~I I I ' I lr,y
c:or~vc:rsioi~
cffic.ic~~c:y.
Alt,r:rr~i~t,ivc:ly,
tllc 1lcc:cl c.o~~ltl
I)(! si~.l.islic:tl
wil,ll S O I I I l~, , ~y l l t h ( 1 1
~.i~,(Ii;~,l,io~l
I I I ; I , ~ , ~ , \ I ~(l(:vic:cb
~IK
(wl~i(:l~
is, i l l ~:ll'(:t~l,,
;I, I ' I T Y ~ I I ( ~ I I ( ~(,II;I,II[;(T)
,~
II(-~.WIY*II l.l~t$
i ~ ~ l ) ~ sol;^^.
l l .
~-:~.tIi;~.l,ior~
i 1 1 1 ( 1 1.111- sl~(v,l.r.;~.l
~ ) l . o l i l v(11' 1,111. sc11:11.
(.(-I1 ~ ~ ~ : r . l , ( * t . i : ~I l~ ; I I I I I . I I I ( I I I ! I

Which module has the larger I,, measured a t the standard insolation of 1000 A/III"'/
It can be assumed that I,, is proportional to the insolation
For module 1

looo
x 1.25 = 3.125 A
I,, = 400

For module 2

looo
x 1.05 = 3.23 A
Isc= 400

Human

Wavelength (millimicrons)
I

' I !I !

S ~ ~ , c : l . r~.c!sl~onses
l~l
of

The calculation shows that module 2 has the higher standard value of I,y,..

sunlight and a silicon photovoltaic cell (unknown origin).

Example 12.3
I I - ~ I I * I chlrort.
I . I , I . ~isI prc?sc?l~t,ly
devoted to this task all over the world. The highest,
t c c . ~ ~ - ~ ~ I , i r~.c~c.oli~.tl(:
lic.
and great wealth will go to the successful inventor/discoverer.
hqc I:;(. of
work now under way involves government-sponsored or governmentI.11cb

11 I H I I list-I l rc,sc~rl.rc:l~
prototypes. The big commercial future for photovoltaic electric:
I M ) W I * I .) : I - I I ~ * I . ; I . ~ , ~ ~still
II
awaits the development of a much cheaper photocell.

ti1

12 . 1 .

Worked E x a m p l e s

A :;I,~II.I
(.(,I1 ilrrny has a current--voltage characteristic, a t the standard insolation
(11 1000 W / I I I ~in, which Vo, = 11.5 V and I,, = 1.75 A. For a particular resistivc:
1 1 1 1 1 t 1 I/,,,,,7.75 V illi(l I,,T, = 1.15 A. Calculate the maximum power deliverablc
11 111 1 1.111' IOII.( I r(~sist,i~~ic(:
that will result in maximum power delivery

A 28-cell module of a solar array has Voc = 17 V a t 25OC. What will


Voc at 60C if the cell data specifies 0.0024 V/"C/cell?

t)t:

1.1113

v11.lllc3

Temperature difference = 35C


From (12.14) the reduction of open circuit voltage is given by:
Voltage reduction = 28 x 35 x 0.0024 = 2.35 V
Working value of Voc is Voc = 17 - 2.35 = 14.65 V
This represents a reduction of 2.35117 or 13.8%.
If the short circuit current is only slightly increased by the temperat,llrc: rises, 1,111,
implication here is that the maximum power will decrease by the ordcr 10 I YX,.

Example 12.4
In the current-voltage characteristics of Fig. 12.10 for a typical photoccll, wlirll, v11.1
ues of load resistance would result in maximum power output a t the t1irc:o sl)c:c.ilic~tl
radiation levels?
At 1250 W/m2, maximum output power Po occurs when V = 0.447 V
58.1 mA so that Po = 0.447 x 58.2/1000 = 25 mW.
Similarly, a t 1000 W/m2, for maximum output power it is seen that V
and I = 48 mA, giving Po = 20.54 mW.

n.llcl

0.42H

:--

Also, a t 500 W/m2 input radiation, the maximum output powcr oc:c:~ll.s111, C'
0.428 V and I = 25.2 mA, so that Po = 10.8 mW.

It can be deduced from these results that, t,llc: rtli~xi11111111


o ~ ~ t , p powcr
lit
is i ) r o l ) o r t . i o ~ ~
to tlic i n p l ~ tradiation I)owt:r, witliil~i l t ~ o ~5'~
X1t ,c:rror.

Example 12.7

'1'111. l,,vl JI(.II,I ~)l~ol,o(:(~ll


wit(11( : l l i ~ ~ . i ~ ( * t , ( , r i(lopi(:I,(!(l
~t,i(:~
ill Fig. 12.20 is dclivcring powcr
I
I
l o I S ~ S I I . , 7.5 12 wit.11 nil i l i p ~ r;~diation
~t
of 1000 W/m2. What is
I I \ ( * v r ~ . l ~ l 01'
c . 1,I 11. .jl~~~c.l,ion
rc:sist,or I<:, irl tllc equivalent circuit?

I ,
7.5 6 2 t.11(: I.(:s~s~~LII(:(:
lirl(: irit~rsectsthe 1000 W / m 2 characteristic a t
l,o~qi.
I', I:ig. 12.15, w1lc:rc: t,lic tcrlrlirlal voltage V = 0.364 V.
I

11'

1.1118

;I

si~~~l)lilic:tl
(!(l~~ivi~I(:lit
circuit of Fig. 12.9(b) is used, then the load current is

'1'111% I.( I I I S ~ . I I I I ( .(.IIrr(:ut,tl(:livcrcd by the constant current generator is the short circuit
\ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( - 01' 50 IIIA.Wit,ll 7.:) 12 load the junction resistor current is therefore, from

With a load resistance of 10 R the load line intersects the current-voltago (.IIILI.II.I'
teristic for 1000 W/m2 a t the co-ordinate V = 0.46 V and I = 45 mA.
At 1000 W/m2 the short circuit current is 50 mA. Each constant currcrlt gc:~lc-rr~.l~
is therefore delivering 5 rnA of current t o its identical junction resistor, nut1 115 I I I A
t o the load resistor, Fig. 12.21. To deliver 1 A, therefore,
1
Necessary number of cells n = - = 22.22
1000

The design choice is to use either 22 or 23 cells.


With 22 cells, I = 22 x 0.045 = 0.99 A
With 23 cells, I = 23 x 0.045 = 1.035 A

( I :!.!I),

.I I I II(.I

A number of identical solar cells, having the characteristics of Fig. 12.20, i ~ r x :(.OIJ
nected in parallel. How many cells would be needed to deliver 1 A of currc:~~t
t,o Ir
10 R load resistor with an input radiation level of 1000 W/m2?

I(

)II

~.(>sist,or
Ii3 tlicrcfore has the value

t.ypc: of c:orllmcrcial solar photovoltaic cell has Vmp = 0.48 V and Imp =
IIIA/(.III'
1111derstandard insolation conditions. What combination of cells would
I I ( ~ 1.cvl11irc.tlt,o fully c:llargc a nickel-cadmium battery requiring 4.2 V and 70 mA?
~.~&I.~,II.~II

:!I)

N~~rlibcr
of cells irl series
t,o slipply thc voltage

4.2
0.48

--- = 8.7

(say 9)

Arcs of solar cell


70
~ r ~ a t ~ c rt,o
i agc:ucrirte
l
= - = 2.4 cm 2
29
1.11(:rc:cluirc:cl c,~~rrc:lit,

Output voltage I V I
Fig. 12.20.

I,,,,,

87 I I I A

S I ) ~ ( ~ I I~I (~-l I~I o l ~ o v 1.t-I1


o l I (.IIILVIL(.I,I~I
, ~ ~ i ~ ~ i*I,i(.*.

A 11111111)orol' i(l(:~~l,i(:i~l
soli~r(~:lls,I I I L V ~ I I ~I.II(S ('I~i~ri~('I,(:risI,i(.s
01' Icip,. 12.20, rl.rcb( . I I I I nected ill s(!ri(!s. How I I ~ ~ L I Is(!ri(!s
Y
(:oi~~~(:(;l,(:(l
(;ells arc ~icc(lc(l
t,o dclivcr ILII O I I ~ , I ) I I ~ ,
of 10 V to a 10 (2 load resistor with ail illsolation lcvcl of 1000 W/in2.
With a load resistance of 10 R the load line intersects the 1000 W/m2 c:~~rrc:r~l.
voltage characteristic a t the co-ordinate V = 0.46 V and I = 45 mA.

At 1000 W/m2 the short circuit current is 50 mA. Each constant current gc>~~c~l.n.l,
therefore delivers 5 mA of current to its junction resistor R j , and 45 mA t,o t,11o Ion.11
resistor, Fig. 12.21(b).
The load current is equal to the constant current-source value of 45 mA. Tl~caI o ~ ~ t l
voltage is the sum of n series-connected identical voltage drops Vj.

To deliver a load value of 10 V requires

The design choice is to connect either 21 or 22 cells in series


With 21 cells, V = 21 x 0.46 = 9.66 V
With 22 cells, V = 22 x 0.46 = 10.12 V

Example 12.9

In a particular location in the USA the solar insolation has a powc:r tl(-~~sit,y
of 1000 W/m2 for an average of 112 hours/month. The energy dcmilncl is lilt.
1500 kWh/month. This can be provided by a solar cell array with an e s t , i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t
lifetime of 20 years. The cost of the solar cells is about $3 per peak watt,. l.'r~l)r.ic~r
tion, maintenance and interest on the capital cost effectively (at least) do~ll)l(:sI,II(.
price per peak watt. Calculate the cost of the energy per k w h .
Required power
Cost
Energy consumed in 20 years

1500
112

= -=

13.4 kW average

13,400 x 3 x 2 = $80,400

1500 x 12 x 20
360,000 k w h
= 80,400/360,000
= $0.223/kWh
=
=

Cost per k w h

This should be regarded as a niinimum and rat,lx:r opl,i~~iist~ic:


figrlrc:. 'I'Ii(: I ) I ' ~ ~ H I ~ I I I .
(2002) tariff for electricity in tlw lJSA is I L ~ ) ~ $0.07/kWll.
I I ~
TII(! (.ost, 01' HOIII,I,gc!ii(:ri~t,(~l
(:l(:ct,ri(:it,yt,l~(~r(:for(~
IIIWIS t,o I)(> I.(VIII(YYI l),y 11 S~~(*l,or
(11. :\ ( ~ I , I I I( 1 )roI)1~1
11.y
iriorc~)i l l or(I(b~.I,o I ) ( $ (.o~~~l)c~l.il.ivc.. I'~~.l~~~ic.rll.io~~,
~lll~illl,c-l~n.~~c.(ILII(I l i ~ l r l l ~ ( ~ i l ~
'I'11(9

/j/l~/,Sl(','i

/!fl.'llf'

1. 1.

-,,
;
/

1I

I;!,

I! i
I ! ;.

fYtLl,S

,SO~(l,'l'~ ~ / l , f l / ~ f l ' l l O ~ / ~ f l , ' ~ ( '

I ,is!, 1,111. ; I , I ~ v ; I , I I ~of, ; Ipllot,ovoltaic


.~I:s
cclls c:oniparcd with solar thcrinio~~ic:
)~)!i~~;~,l,io~~s.
I)c~sc.ril)c~
t,llc: ;lt,omic: st,ruc:t,llrc: ol silicoil illid explain the term "covalc:~lt,
I)Olltl".
I )t~sc,ril)c>
1,111) clilri:rci~ccs
1)c:twc:c:ii the types of silicon semiconductors kriow~~
11,s(;I.) ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ o c . r y s t , i ~(t))
l l i l polycrystalline,
l(:,
(c) amorphous.
l C x l ) l ; ~ i1,11(~ ~ t,c:r~l~s
" ~ r - t y ~silicon"
)~:
and "p-type silicon".
Wl111.1,
is t.110 ~~liiiii~luni
clicrgy of the incoming radiation that will cause (:IN:I . I . O I I St,o Ilow :~.c:ross
t,llc: eiicrgy gap in silicon? How is this energy relatotl Lo
1 . 1 1 1 ~ I ' I . ~ Y ~ I I ( ~ ~ I ( : ~w;i.vcl(!rigt,l~
,
i ~ n dvrlocity of the radiation?
Wl~ytloos t,li(: cfficic:l~rychi~ract,cristicof Fig. 12.5 fall off at high valucs oI'
1 111, c~lll~rg,y
gill'?
Wl1i1.I)is t,Il(: c:Lf(:ct, of t,c!nlpcrature on the efficiency of a photovoltaic (:(all
()l)(sr;~t,ioi~'!

J I ~

W11i1.t~
i~.rc,I,11(:principal diffic~ilt,iesin manufacturing single-crystal silicoi~li)r
1lscbi l l ~)l~ot,ovolt,aic
cc!lls?
WII;I.~,
is 1,11(, principill advantage of producing single-crystal silicon by grow?
i ~ t ~, I ~ (gs c.ryst,i~lill tllc form of a ribbon rather than a cylindrical ingot'!
I ! I I . ( : ; l l l i ~ l ~ l;~rsc~i~itl(:
r
is c*ilpableo f c:onvcrting energy a t higher theoretical worl(il~gc~llic~ic:l~c*ic:s
t,lii~i1silicon ill ~)hotovoltaiccells. What are the objections I J I
i1.s witl(~sl)l~oi~tl
~isc:?
~ l l i ~solar
l ~ cc:lls (:OIII])II,I.I~I~
I :!. I I . WI1i1.1,is t,11(, I I I ; I . ~ I I i ~ , ( l ~ i ~ ol fi t[ ,)i~~l ~y ~ r y ~ t , isilicon
w i l , l ~si~~p;l~~-c~~~yst.id
c.c~lls'!
1,111' ~~c~ir.solls
wily so1;l.r c:olls 11ilvc: s11c.11low vil.lII(:~of c~ol~vc~rsioll
I :!. I :!. S1~31~il:y
c~llic~ic~~~c~y.
, ~ , O ~ S IISI:(~
i11 l)l~oI,ovolt,;~,i(.
(~:lli ~ ~ ) ~ ) ~ i ( ~ ; ~ l , i o ~ ~ s ' !
I :). I:\. W11,yI I , I X > soI;~rI ~ O I I I ~ ( ~ I I ~ , I ~ ; IofI,(:11
I , I I t~, II l~v l ) l ~ o I , o - ( ~ o ~ ~ v ( ~ ~ . s i o ~ ~
I;! 1.1. W11i1dI S i l l ( , I ~ I I ' I Y , ~ , 01' ~ I I I * I ~ I ~ J I , SI ,( (~ ~( ~I I I ~ ) I ~ ~ ~ I , 011
( , i ( * l i ( . , y 01' 11 ~ ~ l i ~ ~ l , o ~
( ~~, l ~
l ' .l~l , i t . i ~ ~
1
1
1
S
I
)
I
I
I
,
I
~
~
I
I
(
,
111.1~11
01'
l
)
l
~
~
~ l ,I I~I Y~Y I (( V-I ~I,(,~ Il) Il~ sO I I I I ( ~ I ~ 11, s l ) ~ * ~ . i lI i~ ~O W
- (Ol I O, I I ~ , I ) I I I ,
I ?; I r),
is 1 1 1 1 l y 11 I ' I ~ I I I . ~ . ~01'~ I I1 . 1 1 1 ~ 111.1~11 1.11111, wo1111101-I . I ~ ( ~ I I ~ I 111.
. I ~ I1.111%
~
I~III.I,II'H SII~I'IIIY*.
W ~ I \i ;!i I.11iti':
I!

1 5 I l i

12.10. Sk~!t,(,l~
I,II(! (:11rr(:111,
voll,~~g(s
(.IIII,~ILI.I,I;I.~s~,~(:
of il tf,ypi(~~~l
sol;~r~)l~ol~ovolt,~~,i(*
(~111,
Idelitify tSlicpoiliLs of op(:r~~t,iol~
for (1) ope11 cir(x1it volt:~ge,(ii) sllort, ( ~ i 1 ~ 1 ~ 1 1 i 1 ,
current, (iii) maxiniu~ripower tlelivery.
12.17. Sketch the current-voltage characteristic of a typical solar photovolk~lic(Y:II.
Identify the point of operation for maximum power delivery. How wol~ltl
you determine this location?
12.18. For a silicon photovoltaic cell what are the approximate values of 1,111:1.1lt.ioti
(i) Vmp/Vocl (ii) Imp/Isc?
12.19. A module of solar cells has I,, = 1.5 A when the radiation is 1000 W/III'.
What will be the value of Is, when the radiation is (i) 850 W/III',
(ii) 300 W/m2?
voll,lry,~~
12.20. For the solar cell characteristics of Fig. 12.10 identify the operi~t,i~lg
and current values, with load resistances of 8 R and 20 R, for rstlii~t,io~~
I~*vchln
of (i) 1000 w / m 2 , (ii) 500 W/m2.
12.21. The temperature effects on a certain solar cell arc spc:cilic#tl I I N
-0.0024 V/"C/cell and +0.006 mA/"C/cm2. A modular array 01' : j o (.I$IIN
generates Voc = 19 V a t 25C. What is the change of Vo, lor (:;I.I.IIlo"(!
rise of cell temperature? Estimate the percentage change in 1,111:
111'
maximum power Pma t the same insolation level.
12.22. Sketch an equivalent circuit for a silicon solar photovoltaic cell. How is L I I I S
source current of your equivalent circuit related to the solar radiakio~~
frllli~ly,
on the cell?
12.23. For the solar cell characteristic representing 500 W / m 2 of Fig. 12.20, t l ~ ~ v o l ~ q
an equivalent circuit for operation at the maximum power point PI,,. ( :II.~I.II
late values for the load resistance, junction resistance and brand^ ( : I I ~ ~ ( : I I ~
12.24. In a silicon solar cell the effective junction resistance Rj varics wi(,l~( . I I ~
rent. For a constant insolation of 1000 W/m2, using the cl~i~rilc:t,c:rist,ic.
ill
Fig. 12.20, calculate values of Rj with load resistances of 5 I2, 10 Sl ~ L I I I I
50 R. Sketch the form of variation of Rj with current over t,ho wllol11o1)t1r
ating range.
12.25. The solar cell that is characterised in Fig. 12.20 operates wit,l~i~ lixc~tlIolrtl
resistance of 5 R. How does the value of the junction resista11c:c: I?., vrl,r,yr1.H
the radiation level falls from 1000 W/m2 to 500 W/m2?
12.26. For the solar cell characteristics of Fig. 12.10, what, vi~lli(!ol' lor~tlI ~ ~ s ~ H ( , I ) I
would result in a load line passing through thc m a x i n i ~ 1)owc:r
i ~ ~ ~ ~ ) o i ~I ',~,, t ,
a t 1250 W/m2?
12.27. For the solar cell characteristics of Fig. 12.20, wllil.t, V ; I . ~ I I ( > oI' I( j11.t l l.c*si:;lI I I
would result in a load line passii~gt,llrol~gl~
~,II(.I ~ I ; ~ . X ~ I I ~ II I) IOI WI I ~ I ~. ) o i l ~ I),,,
t.
at 1000 W/in2'?
vrll1118

' ~ I I I I ~ I I I Ic $~ ~
.rolo,r
~ I I I1.c5ll.r
II.~

l!)7!).

A I I I I , I . I . I I , ~ 01' so111.1.
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the load current, voltage a n d power
--,
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I! \

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J l low wol~l(lyo11 rc!i~liscl iL t,c:rminal voltagc of 10 V using solar cells of t,hc:

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I , , y l ) ( b

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A[, I L rr~.clir~.l,io~r
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c~-lls
ol' 1,11(! t,yl>c,c-l~i~ri~c:(,c:riscd
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~ . I I ( \( . I I ~ I . ( ~ oI lI t~, i. ~, g~ (L:I I (power
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a t t h e load terminals.

( :. ( I!)x:\\ .S,IL~I.
1'0111(:r,211~1cdition (Pergamon Press, Oxford, England).
I < . II!)!)O] Il(1.7-r~essir~g
Solar Power (Plenum Press, New York, USA),
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l~
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"l'l~c~l,ovoltsic:s:
Ur~limitcdElectrical Energy from the Sun", Physic:.v

h II-VI-I):II,. I .

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Control of AC Circuits (Crosby, Lockwood, Stal)l(ts,
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N o . 2, M11.1,. A ~ I I2001,
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