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International Conference
Days on Diffraction 2009
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DAYS on DIFFRACTION2011
Iq,3 (kR d) ,
(1)
(R)
where Iq,3 is indicatrix of scattering [2], kR = /cR  absolute value of the wave vector,  frequency, cR velocity of the Rayleigh wave, and the Bragg law of scattering is valid: positions of scattering indicatrix zeroes
(
)
1
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = m +
, m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
(2)
4
and maxima
(
)
3
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = m +
,
4
m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
(3)
are dened only by Bragg parameter kR d and by the angle of scattering s . Amplitudes of the maxima are
dened by the amplitude of the roughness in point xq /d = 1, besides kR d and s . All these physical values do
not depend on roughness form (Fig.1, curve 1, F (xq /d)  function, describing roughness prole; Fig. 2).
1 corresponding to the new laws, when frequency dependence of scattering indicatrix
2. Diuse scattering d/
envelope is dened by the roughness form
(R)
Iq,3 (kR d)
22n
n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
(4)
(R) (R)
I3/I3 (106)
(R)
(R)
3 /Ic
3 /Ic
2,3
x /d
d/

F ig. 1
F ig. 2
d/
F ig. 3
d/
F ig. 4
DAYS on DIFFRACTION2011
(R)
(R)
3 / 3
(1000)
(R)
(700)
d/
d/
F ig. 5
(R)
3 / 3
F ig. 6
References
[1] The Physics Encyclopedia. Ed.: A.M. Prokhorov. Moscow. 1988.
[2] Vitalii N. Chukov.The new laws of diuse scattering and oscillations of indicatrix envelope in the shortwavelength
limit. Days on Diraction 2011. International Conference. Saint Petersburg, May 30  June 3, 2011. Abstracts.
Oral Report
International Conference
Days on Diffraction 2011
Russia
1.1
Let Rayleigh plane wave [1][4] propagating along free surface of isotropic homogeneous solid occupying halfspace x3 > 0
of Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 is incident on surface rough part of nite radius d. Deterministic (not statistical)
roughness is threedimensional but has cylindrical symmetry:
x3 = f (x1 , x2 ) = 0 f0 (xq ),
(1)
(2)
(3)
f0
f0
x / d
x / d
1.2
The next formula for the displacement eld in scattered Rayleigh wave is obtained in the Born approximation of perturbation theory in f (x1 , x2 ) at big distances from roughness by means of the Green function calculated by A.A.Maradudin
and D.L. Mills [4] (see [5, 6] as well)
5/2
k
c2
(0)
R2
u(R) (x, t) = A(0) 0 f0 (kR kq ) R
2 2R2 ct
}
{
sin(kR xq t + /4 + 0 )
cos(kR xq t + /4 + 0 )
e3 A2 (x3 )
,
(cos s 1)(cos s + ) eq A1 (x3 )
xq
xq
(4)
(0)
where f0 (kq )  twodimensional Fourier transform of f0 (xq ) (2) in variables x1 , x2 ; eq = e1 cos s + e2 sin s ; kq =
(kR , 0, 0), kR = kR (cos s , sin s , 0)  wave vectors in incident and scattered Rayleigh waves respectively, kR = /cR ;
(0)
kR kq  = kR 2(1 cos s ); s  angle of scattering; A(0) , 0 are amplitude and initial phase of incident Rayleigh
wave x1  component respectively.
By denition intensities of scattered Rayleigh wave horizontal Iq and vertical I3 components are
(0)
Iq = Iq /xq ;
(0)
(0)
where Iq , I3
(0)
I3 = I3 /xq ,
(5)
(
)2
(
)2
c4
k5
(R)
(0)
(0)
Iq,3 = A(0) 0 f02 (kR kq ) R 2 2 R4 (cos s 1)2 (cos s + )2 A21,2 (x3 ) = A(0) 0 Iq,3 /d ,
8R2 ct
(6)
where ct  velocity of the bulk transverse wave; A1,2 (x3 ) = exp(kR x3 ) (, /)exp(kR x3 ); R2 = (2 + 2 + 2 4
(R)
4 3 )/ 2 ; (, ) = (1 c2R /c2l,t )1/2 ; = (1 c2R /2c2t ); = 2  Rayleigh wave dispersion relation; Iq,3  dimensionless
indicatrixes of scattering. Fourier transform of function f0 (xq ) (2) is
2
d
(0)
f0 (kR kq ) = 2(1)p1 q1 (p1 , p2 )
z
+p2 1
{ p +p
}
[ p1
] (1) m
mn+1
2
n+1
1
2
[
]
D
1 (2)
(5)
i
(n+1)
(n+1)
(n+1)
(n+1)
(n+1)
2
Dmi1 Ji1 +1 (zm
)
Cm(2i2 +1) Ji2 +1(zm
)Hi2(zm
)Hi2 +1(zm
)Ji2(zm
) ,
i1
2i2 +1
z
z
m=1
m=1
i =0
i =0
1
(7)
(n)
(1)
(5)
(3)
n
i
i
where z = kR d 2(1 cos s ); zm = mz/mn ; Cm = m!/n!/(m n)!; Cmi = Cmi mn+1 /m ; Cmi = Cmi m/mn+1 ;
(1)
(3)
(1)
(1)
(0)
2
Dn = (1)n+1 ((2n + 1)!!) /2; ik  Kronecker symbol; Cmi = (1)km Cmi (1)km+1 (1 mmn+1 )C(m+1)i ; Dmii1 =
(3)
Cmi =
1
Cpi11 Cpii
2
i1 =max{0,ip2 }
(8)
p1 +p2 (0)
(2)
Dmi1 = i=2i
Dmii1 ; [(p1 + p2 1)/2]  integer part of the number; J (x), H (x)  Bessel and Struve functions of the
1
order respectively.
2
2.1
NL
m
(1)m
d
(m) Jm+1 (kLm1 )
f0 (k) = 2 f0 (xq )xq J0 (kxq )dxq = 2
Cm2
m2 f0 (xq )
mm2 1
m+1
k
dx
L
m
q
1
m =1 m=0
m =0
1
(9)
Lm1 +0
i
(h1)
ani
(i)
Ci2
i+3/2
z
i=n
i =n
2
mn+1
{
(h2,n )
anii2 i1d
cos
(n+1)
zi1
(i
2
i1 =1
)
+ 1)
(
4 i =0
3
(h3)
aii3
(n+1)
)2i3
8zi1
)
(n+1)
sin zi1
(i + 1)
(
2
4 i =0
3
(h4)
aii3
(n+1)
)2i3 +1
}
,
(10)
8zi1
{
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i1)
where NL  full number of function f0 (xq ) discontinuity points; Ci1 = C0 = 0, i > 0; Ci = 1, i > 0; C1 = (2i 3)C1
, i > 1;
}
(i)
(i1)
(i1)
(h1)
(h3)
i
1/2; aii1 =
Cik = Ci1k (i2+k)Cik , i > 2, k = 1, 2, . . . , i 2
Lm1 = dm1 /mn+1 ; ani
= (1)i mn+1
{
}
i
(i+1)
(h4)
(i+1)
(n)
(n)
(n)
(n)
(1)i1 a2i1 /(2i1 )!; aii1 = (1)i1 a2i1 +1 /(2i1 + 1)!; ai =
bi1 , b0 = 1, bi1 = 4n2 (2i1 1)2 ;
i1 =0
(h2,n )
anii2 i1d
(d/mn+1 ) 2
=
2 1/2
iii
1
d i2
f0 (xq , n, nd )
dxiq2
]Li1 0
;
(11)
Li1 +0
(h2,n )
nd  the smallest integer, for which anind id1 = 0 at least for the one i1 , 1 6 i1 6 mn+1 . (9)(11) give the main term for
the indicatrix of scattering in the shortwavelength limit z 1
(R)
Iq,3 = 2 2n(nd
where
Sn+1 (z) =
{mn+1
m1 =1
1/2)
R22
1/2
m1 cos
(n+1)
zm
1
(nd + 1)
2
4
d
mn+1
)nd [
]Lm1 0 }2
dnd
.
f0 (xq )
dxnq d
Lm1 +0
(12)
(13)
So, the new laws of scattering on threedimensional roughness with cylindrical symmetry in the shortwavelength limit
z 1 have the form (x3 = 0)
(R)
22nd
Iq,3 (kR d)
Sn+1 (z), nd = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
(14)
where integer nd (11) is dened by the form of roughness. When nd = 0, (14) gives classical law of diuse scattering [2],
[3], [6], when scattering indicatrix envelope (kR d)2 (Fig. 2, 3).
(R)
I3(R) / I3(R)(139.07)
(R)
I 3 /I 3 (45.9)
100
d/
d/
2.2
Let us consider Rayleigh wave scattering in the shortwavelength limit z 1 by continuous roughness f0 (xq ) (2), when
n = 0. In this case f0 (xq ) and its derivatives can have point of discontinuity only at xq = d. For such roughness classical
1 follows from (12), if nd = 0 (x3 = 0)
law of diuse scattering d/
(
2 c4
) 2
(R)
2
Iq,3 = 2 R4 f02 (xq )d (kR d) sin2 z
A1,2 (0)(1 cos s )1/2 ( + cos s )2 .
(15)
4
2 2R2 ct
Bragg law of scattering by the threedimensional roughness with cylindrical symmetry follows from (15): positions of
scattering indicatrix zeroes
1
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = (m + ) , m 1 , m integer ,
(16)
4
and of maxima
3
(17)
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = (m + ) , m 1 , m integer
4
are dened only by Bragg parameter kR d and by the angle of scattering s . (In practice, comparison of numerical
calculations according to formulas (6), (7) and (15) at not so small s shows that the laws (16), (17) are approximately
valid beginning from 0 . m.)
Amplitudes of the maxima are dened by the amplitude of the roughness in point xq = d, that is, by value of f0 (d)
(15) (Fig.2, 4). All mentioned physical values do not depend on roughness form.
Zeroes cos s = 1 and cos s = are dened by boundary conditions [6], [7] and do not connect to Bragg law.
2.3
In contrast to classical diuse scattering z 1 (15) conforming to the Bragg law of scattering, let us consider Rayleigh
wave scattering in the shortwavelength limit z 1 by the continuous roughness with n = 0 (1), (2) corresponding to
the new laws of diuse scattering (14), when nd > 0 (x3 = 0).
Let surface roughness has the form
(2)
f0 (xq ) =
(p)
(i)
(i)
(i)
bi f0 (xq , n = 0, q1 , p1 , p2 ) ,
(18)
i=0
(i)
(i)
(i)
(2)
where p1 = p2 = i; q1 = 22i ; f0 is dened by (2). Asymptotic expansion for Fourier transform of roughness f0 (xq )
(18) in the limit z 1 follows from formulas (10), (18)
}
(2) {
(b)
1/2 2 N
A(b)
d
(2)
(0)
i
i
sin(z ) + 2i+1
cos(z ) ,
(19)
f0 (kR kq ) = 23/2 3/2
2i
z
4
z
4
z
i=0
5
(b)
(b)
(p)
(c) (m)
(b)
(s) (m)
(b)
Ai =
Cim q1 b(p)
;
B
=
Cim q1 b(p)
m
m .
i
m=0
(s)
m=0
(c)
(s)
(c)
(c)
(s)
Constants Cim , Cim are dened from (10), (18). For example, C00 = 1; C00 = 3/8; C01 = 1; C10 = 15/128;
(s)
(s)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(s)
(s)
C11 = 23/8; C12 = 2; C10 = 105/1024; C11 = 281/128; C12 = 59/4; C13 = 6; C20 = 4725/32768; C21 =
(s)
(s)
(s)
(c)
(c)
(c)
1587/1024; C22 = 2817/64; C23 = 333/4; C24 = 24; C20 = 72765/262144; C21 = 102075/32768; C22 = 18657/512;
(c)
(c)
(c)
C23 = 33147/64; C24 = 537; C25 = 120 and so on.
Let x3 = 0, s = /2, p = kR d in what follows and denote
p5/2 (2)
(0)
f (kR kq ) ,
d2 0
f2 (p) =
(21)
(2)
(0)
where f0 (kR kq ) has the form (19). It follows from (6), (21) that
(RA)
I3
= A(c) f22 (p) , where
(R)
(c)
2 2 c4R
=
8R22 c4t
F2 (p) = A
(22)
(M )
(
)2
(0)
F2 (p) ;
(M )
1/A(c)
)1/2
(0)
)mi
Np (
NF
(F )
1
1
Ci
=p
=
p
;
p2
d2i
p2i
i=1
i=0
(2)
(0)
F2 (p)
NF =
Np
(2)
mi ,
(23)
i=1
(0)
(0)
where maxp {F2 (p)}  maximum value of function F2 (p) over considered segment [d1 , dNp ] of variable p.
Equation
(24)
(p)
in which N (2) > NF gives the system of 2(N (2) + 1) linear algebraic equations with respect to 2(N (2) + 1) unknowns bi ,
i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 2N (2) + 1.
(b)
(M ) (F )
Ci , i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , NF ;
Ai = A
(b)
(25)
Ai = 0 ,
i = NF + 1, NF + 2, . . . , N (2) ;
(b)
(2)
Bi = 0 ,
i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N ,
which has the unique solution
(p)
bi
(0)
= bi , i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 2N (2) + 1 .
(26)
(p)
(0)
(i) (i) (i)
bi f0 (kR kq ,n = 0,q1 ,p1 ,p2 ) ,
(27)
i=0
(0)
(i) (i) (i)
(i)
where f0 (kR kq , n(i) , q1 , p1 , p2 ) is given by (7) with replacement n n(i) , p1,2 p1,2 (see (18)).
(p)
After substitution of the constants bi (26) in (18), (27) and in (6) the surface roughness is obtained (18), for which
(R)
(R)
indicatrix of scattering I3 (and analogically Iq ) has oscillations of envelope in kR d in the shortwavelength limit (Fig.
5) [9]. The indicatrix envelope has zeroes at points p = di , i = 1, 2, . . . , Np (23).
1, at which indicatrix envelope is increased
These oscillations are violation of classical law of diuse scattering d/
monotonously as 2 ((14) at nd = 0), (15) with increasing of frequency in the shortwavelength limit.
1 are connected with the new laws of diuse scattering (14),
Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope for d/
(2)
since summary roughness f0 (xq ) (18) consists of partial roughnesses including those, for which nd > 0 (13), (14). In the
last case scattering is dened not only by Bragg parameter p = kR d, angle of scattering s and roughness amplitude in
point xq = d but by the form of roughness as well (9)(14), (18).
(R) (R)
I3/I3 (106)
d/
(R)
I 3 / I 3(R) (844.71)
4.10
3.10
2.10
1.10
d/
Figure 4: The Bragg law of scattering. n = 0, nd = 0, p1 = p2 = 0 (2), (6), (7).
Figure 5: Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope in the shortwavelength limit. Np = 7, di = 700 +
(2)
100(i 1), N = 59, mi = {4, i = 1; 1, i = 2 7} (18), (6), (7).
2.4
(0)
(2)
(2)
(0)
= 0 ; f0 (kR kq )p(2) = 0 ;
f0 (kR kq ) p(1)
0
0
df2 (p)/dppe = 0 ;
f2 (pe ) = Ae ;
(28)
(2)
(p)
(d)
f (2) (xq /d)
= 1;
b = f (xq /d) = b .
0
1/2
(2)
I3
f0
x / d
d/
Figure 6: The surface roughness, scattering on which violates the Bragg law (18).
Figure 7: Violation of Bragg law of scattering (18), (27), (28), (Fig. 6).
2.5
The new laws of diuse scattering (14) dene the arbitrary position of scattering indicatrix (6) zeroes in angle of scattering
(0)
s , 0 6 s 6 2 for any xed value of Bragg parameter kR d.
(R)
For the classical diuse scattering, when nd = 0, for any xed value of Bragg parameter kR d indicatrixes Iq,3 can have
zeroes only in xed values of scattering angle dening by Bragg law (16) for any form of roughness with nd = 0.
Let us consider Rayleigh wave scattering by surface roughness (18), (19) corresponding to the new laws (14) when
N = 1 and N (2) = 0. According to (18) this roughness consists of two partial roughnesses with nd = 0 and nd = 1
respectively. It follows from (19) and (6), that condition of scattering indicatrix zeroes z (0) for xed value of Bragg
parameter p0 has the form (x3 = 0)
(b)
A0 sin(z (0)
(0)
Indicatrix zero s
1 (b)
(b)
B
) = 0(b) .
4
A
(29)
(0)
p0 2(1 cos s ) = z (0) .
(30)
(0)
It follows from (30) that when 0 6 z (0) 6 2p0 then 0 6 s 6 2. It follows from (29) that z (0) can have any values
(0)
(0)
0 6 z (0) 6 2p0 . So, scattering indicatrix zero s can have any values 0 6 s 6 2 contrary to the Bragg law of
scattering (16).
2.6
Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope in the shortwavelength limit z 1 were considered in the section 3.3. These
oscillations were obtained by means of scattering indicatrix asymptotic expansion (19) denite form construction in the
limit z 1 and therefore by means of scattering indicatrix (6) asymptotic behaviour manipulation (23)(26), (6).
(R)
Numerical investigations of scattering indicatrix I3 asymptotic behaviour in the shortwavelength limit z 1 ac(p)
cording to formulas (21)(26), (6), i.e. substitution of constants bi (18), i = 1 (2N (2) + 1), obtained as solution of (25),
(R)
(i)
(i)
(0)
(i)
in (27) with f0 (kR kq , n = 0, q1 , p1 , p2 ) (see (18)) in form of (7) and calculation of I3 according to (6), (7), give
the next result.
At increasing of indicatrix envelope zeroes number Np with simultaneous increasing of the rst zero value d1 and
simultaneous decreasing of distance between adjacent zeroes di , i = 1 Np reduction and even straightening of Bragg
oscillations take place (Fig. 8, 9).
(R)
(R)
3 / 3
(1000)
(R)
(R)
3 / 3
d/
(700)
d/
(2)
= {4, i = 1; 1, i =
(2)
= {3, i = 1; 1, i =
Physically it means that eect of scattering indicatrix strong dependence on surface roughness form leads to the
reduction and straightening of Bragg oscillations at denite form of roughness. These eects correspond to the new laws
of diuse scattering (14).
References
[1] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound. Vols. I, II. New York. Dover. 1945.
[2] S.V. Biryukov, Yu.V. Gulyaev, V.V. Krylov, V.P. Plesskii. Surface acoustic waves in inhomogeneous media. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1995, 390 p.
[3] The physics encyclopedia. Ed.: A.M. Prokhorov. Moscow. 1988.
[4] A.A. Maradudin, D.L. Mills. The attenuation of Rayleigh surface waves by surface roughness. Annals of physics
(N.Y.) 1976, v. 100, p. 262309.
[5] V.N. Chukov. Surface roughness structure and Rayleigh scattering laws of Rayleigh wave. Moscow. Preprint IBCP
RAS, 2003, 36 p.
[6] V.N.
Chukov.
Candidate
of
science
dissertation.
Moscow.
V.N. Chukov. Abstract of dissertation. Moscow. MEPHI. 1994. 20 p.
MEPHI.
1994,
164
p.
[7] V.N. Chukov.Rayleigh wave scattering by statistical arbitrary form roughness. Solid State Communications 2009, v.
149, iss. 4748, p. 22192224.
[8] V.N. Chukov. Oscillations of statistical scattering in Rayleigh limit. Proceedings of the International Conference
Days on Diraction 2010, June 811, 2010, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 48.
[9] V.N. Chukov. Oscillations of scattering in Rayleigh limit. Moscow. Preprint IBCP RAS. 2010. 8 p.
The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering are obtained. These laws are violation of the Rayleigh
law of scattering.
References
[1] V.N. Chukov, On the Scattering Theory of the Surface Rayleigh and Bulk Acoustical Waves of
Dierent Polarizations by ThreeDimensional and TwoDimensional Statistical Roughness of a
Free Isotropic Solid Surface, Ph. D. Thesis and Abstract (in Russian), MEPHI, Moscow (1994).
The Russian State Library, The Library of MEPHI.
[2] V.N. Chukov, Physics of the Solid State, 39, 233239 (1997).
[3] V.N. Chukov, On Rayleigh, Resonance and ShortWavelength Scattering Laws of Rayleigh Wave,
Preprint/IBCP RAS, Editorial and Publishing Service of the Lebedev Physical Institute RAS,
Moscow (2002). The Russian State Library.
[4] V.N. Chukov, Solid State Communications, 149, 22192224 (2009).
[5] V.N. Chukov, Ultrasonics, 52, 511 (2012).
[6] V.N. Chukov, Proc. of the Intern. Conf. Days on Diraction 2011, IEEE, St. Petersburg (2011).
DOI: 10.1109/DD.2011.6094365, p. 5562.
[7] V.N. Chukov, Proc. of the Intern. Conf. Days on Diraction 2012, IEEE, St. Petersburg (2012).
DOI: 10.1109/DD.2012.6402750, p. 4753.
[8] V.N. Chukov, Days on Diraction, Int. Conf., St. Petersburg. Abstracts DD: 2008, p. 39, 113;
2009, p. 25, 27; 2010, p. 26, 27; 2011, p. 28, 29; 2012, p. 31; 2013, p. 24. Universitas Petropolitana
MDCCXXIV, SaintPetersburg.
f (x1 , x2 ) = 0 fq (xq ),
(2)
where xq = (x1 , x2 , 0); fq (xq ) is an arbitrary deterministic dimensionless function; 0 is normalization amplitude of the roughness, having dimension
of length.
Lets consider roughness of the next two space
congurations.
2.1.1
x1 ,
Let
x2 , x3 are the contravariant coordinates of
a radiusvector x in the obliqueangled (not Cartesian) coordinate system (Fig. 1). Its origin and
x3 axis coincide with the origin and x3 axis of the
Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 . Axes x1 and
x2 lie in the x1 x2 coordinate plane of the Cartesian
coordinate system; is the angle between x1 axis of
the obliqueangled coordinate system and x1 axis of
the Cartesian coordinate system; 0 is the angle between x1 , and x2  axes of the obliqueangled coordinate system. When = 0, 0 = /2 the obliqueangled coordinate system coincides with the Cartesian coordinate system. Coordinates xi and xi ,
x3
1
8
x2 6
0.5
x'2
2
0
2
0.5
0
x'1
4
x1
where is the constant density of the medium homogeneous part ; (inh) (x) is a function describing
inhomogeneity, it is not equal to zero only inside of
inhomogeneous region; (x) is the Heaviside step
function. Inhomogeneity is deterministic in the all
three coordinates x1 , x2 , x3 :
[xqed2 ]3
[ed xq ]
fq (xq ) = f1(
)f2 ( 1 3) = f1(x1 )f2 (x2 ). (4)
sin 0
sin 0
(6)
(inh)
(inh) (x) = q
(xq )F (x3 ),
(7)
(inh)
where q
(xq ), F (x3 ) are arbitrary deterministic
functions.
Lets consider inhomogeneity of the next two
space congurations.
2.2.1
[xqed2 ]3
[ed xq ]
)2 ( 1 3 )F (x3 ) =
sin 0
sin 0
(8)
In (8) inh is normalization amplitude, having dimension of a density. In the obliqueangled coordinate system (3) the dimensionless functions 1 , 2 ,
F are not zero only inside 06x1 6L1 ; 06x2 6L2 ;
0 6 x3 6 L3 respectively. Inhomogeneity occupies
region in the form of a parallelepiped.
Nearsurface inhomogeneity
3.1
3
2
1
f (x1 , x2 )C3
,
x3 x x =0
Surface roughness
2 u
2 u
= C
, x3 > f (x1 , x2 )
2
t
x x
(16)
xq
ct
2 2R2
(0)
f (kR kq ) [cos s 1] [cos s + ]
(17)
and to the boundary conditions on the free surface 3.2 Nearsurface inhomogeneity
x3 = f (x1 , x2 ):
Generalized equation of motion for the medium
with a nearsurface inhomogeneity and displace
u
C
n
= 0,
(13) ment vector in the scattered Rayleigh wave are
x
x3 =f (x1 ,x2 )
given in the works [9, 10].
where n is external normal to the surface:
n =
1
]2
[
f (x1 , x2 )
f (x1 , x2 )
1+
+
x1
x2
{
}
f (x1 , x2 ) f (x1 , x2 )
;
; 1 .
x1
x2
]2
(f )
3/2
Re u(R;ij) (x, t) = A(0) Aij (k1 , k2 )kR /( 2R2 )
Equivalence of (11) and (12), (13) is proved by inte(f )
(f ) (x, t; kR , ) ,
Fi (kR , s )E
(18)
gration of (11) in dx3 on neighbourhood of point
ij
x3 = f (x1 , x2 ) with subsequent tending of to zero.
where i = 1, 2: 1 corresponds to surface roughness,
The next expression for displacement eld in
2  to nearsurface inhomogeneity;
scattered waves in the Born approximation of the
j = 1, 2: 1 corresponds to arbitrary threeperturbation theory in f (x1 , x2 ) is derived from
dimensional function, 2  to a function with
(11) by means of the Green function D [5, 6],[9]
(f )
(f )
cylindrical symmetry; Ai1 = fi
, i = 1, 2 ;
(f )
(f )
(s)
(0)
u (x, t) = u (x, t) u (x, t) =
f1
= kR fm = kR 0 sin 0 S1 (k1 ,k2 ) ;
(f )
(f )
f2 =
(k1 ,k2 ) ;
m /=(inh /) sin 0 S2
2
2
2
= d xq dt D (xq , xq , t t , x3 , x3 = 0)
(i)
(i)
(i) 2
(i) 2
(f )
Si = [a1 (k1 )+a2 (k1 )][b1 (k2 )+b2 (k2 )] ;
+ (i)
(i)
(sh)
a1 (k1 ) = 0 r1 (x1 ) cos(k1 x1 )dx1 ;
L (xq )u(0)
(
x
,
t
)
,
(15)
+ (i)
(i)
a2 (k1 ) = 0 r1 (x1 ) sin(k1 x1 )dx1 ;
where
(i)
(i)
and analogically b1 (k2 ), b2 (k2 ),
but for
2
(i)
(1)
(2)
1 f (x , x )
r2 (x2 ) and k2 ; rj = fj , rj
= j , j = 1, 2;
(sh)
1
2
C
L (xq ) =
(f )
(f ) (f )
(0)
(f )
x
x
A
=
;
= kR 0 f0 (kR k );
=
=1
x3 =0
i2
(0)
(0)
0 (kR kq )/; kR kq  = kR 2(1 cos s );
+
f0 (kq )
=
2 0 f0 (xq )xq J0 (kq xq )dxq ; and
analogically 0 (kq ); J0 (x)  Bessel function
/2
of zero order J0 (x) = 2 0 cos(x sin t) dt ;
(f )
F1 (s ) = c2R /(2c2t )[cos s 1][cos s + ];
(f )
F2 (kR , s )
=
2 [V (kR ) cos s + H(kR )];
denitions of the functions V (kR ), H(kR )
(f ) =
and the constant R2 see in [9]; E
ij
(ij)
eq A1 (x3 )cos(kR xq t + /4 + 0 + m )/ xq
(ij)
e3 A2 (x3 )sin(k[R xq t + /4 + 0 + m )/ xq ; ]
(i1)
(i) (i)
(i) (i)
(i) (i)
(i) (i)
m = arctan (a1 b2 +a2 b1 )/(a1 b1 a2 b2 ) ;
(12)
under conditions
(1)
(2)
(1)
(2)
(n2 )
(n1 +1)
P1
(n2 +1)
= 0; P2
= 0,
=0;
(21)
(0)
P1;2 =
1
(k1)!
(22)
m = m = 0; k1 = kR m1 (s , ); k2 =
kR m2 (s , , 0 ); m1 = 2 sin(s /2) sin( s /2);
m2 = 2 sin(s /2) sin( + 0 s /2); A1 =
ekR x3 ekR x3 ; A2 = ekR x3 (/)ekR x3 ;
A(0) , 0 are the real amplitude and initial phase of
the incident Rayleigh wave x1  component [5, 9].
In (18) functions 1 (x1 ), 2 (x2 ) are taken in the
obliqueangled coordinate system (3), (Fig. 1).
(n1 )
P1 =P1 =. . .=P1
f1,2 (x)xk1 dx =
(22)
(k1)
1;2 (x) dx
(k)
1;2 (x
Pf
= Pf
= 0) ,
(k)
(n)
(0)
dk
(1)k dx
k Pf 1;2 (x) ; Pf 1;2 (x)
(0)
(f ) 2
Fi
(0)
3
(kR , s )kR
/(2R22 ); i, j = 1, 2 ,
(0)
where Iq , I3
6
6.1
6.1.1
Surface roughness
Arbitrary threedimensional roughness
[
]2
(0)
Iq;3 = A(0) 0
4
1
2 cR 5+2(n1 +n2 )
k
sin2 0
8R22 c4t R
2
6.1.2
For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the roughness with a structure in the form (5) expansion of
the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable
kR around point kR = 0 gives the next expression for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in
L1 (see [9, 11] in details)
the Rayleigh limit
[
]2
c4 5+4n1
(0)
Iq;3 = A(0) 0
2 R4 kR
2
2R2 ct
2
2
[1 cos s ] [cos s + ] A21;2 (x3 )
]2
[
(2n1 + 1)! (2)
(2n1 +2)
b
(
)P
,
s
0
2n1 (n1 !)2 n1
(24)
(2)
where bk (s ) = (1 cos s )k , under conditions
(2)
(4)
(2n1 )
P0 =P0 =. . .=P0
(2n1 +2)
=0; P0
= 0;
(25)
(0)
[
]2
where n1 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +; P0 = f0 (0) is an
(n1 +1) (n2 +1)
n1
n2
m1 (s , )m2 (s , , 0 )P1
P2
(20) arbitrary value for any n1 .
(k)
Topological characteristic P0 is dened by formulas (22), in which f0 (xq ) in the Cartesian coordinate system must be taken instead of f1;2 (x1;2 ),
so the rst integration in (22) is carried out in dxq .
The frequency dependence of the scattered
Rayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
L1 is
the Rayleigh limit
Iq;3
5+4n1
; n1 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , +.
(26)
For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the inhomogeneities with a structure in the form (9) expansion of the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable kR around point kR = 0 gives the next expression for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in the
L1,3 (see [9, 10] in details)
Rayleigh limit
[
]2
2 4 2
5+2(2n1 +n3 )
A (x3 )kR
R22 1;2
[
]2
(2n1 + 1)! (2)
6.2.1 Arbitrary threedimensional inhomogeneity
(2n1 +2) (n3 +1)
(2)
B
(
,
)b
(
)P
S
s
s
n1
0
2n1 (n1 !)2 n3
For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the inhomo(30)
geneity with a structure in the form (8) expansion
of the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable under conditions
kR around point kR = 0 gives the next expres(2n1 )
(4)
(2)
=0; S (1)=S (2)=. . . = S (n3 )=0;
sion for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in the P0 =P0 =. . .=P0
(0)
2
2
(0) inh
sin 0 A1;2 (x3 )
Iq;3 = A
2
2R2
[
where n1 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +. Analogically to
(2)
n1
(27)
(k)
Bn3 (s , )m1 (s , )mn2 2 (s , , 0 )
(24), (27), P0 and S (j) are the topological char]2
(n +1) (n +1)
5+2(n1 +n2 +n3 )
acteristics of the functions 0 (xq ) and F (x3 ) respecP1 1 P2 2 S (n3 +1) kR
tively.
The frequency dependence of the scattered
under conditions
Rayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
(n )
(2)
(1)
(n )
(2)
(1)
P1 =P1 =. . .=P1 1 =0; P2 =P2 =. . .=P2 2 =0; the Rayleigh limit is
(1)
(2)
(n3 )
S = S = ... = S
= 0;
(n2 +1)
(n1 +1)
(n3 +1)
Iq;3 5+2(2n1+n3 ) ; n1 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , +. (32)
P1
=0; P2
=0; S
=0,
(28)
(i)
It follows from (32), that in the Rayleigh wave
where n1 , n2 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +, P1,2 and
S (j) are the topological characteristics of the func scattering on the inhomogeneity of a such structure,
tions 1,2 and F describing inhomogeneity (8) in for which n = 2n1 + n35 > 0 the Rayleigh law of
the directions of the x1,2  and x3  axes respec scattering [1], Iq;3 in the Rayleigh limit, is
tively (analogically to (22); see also formulas (35) violated.
It follows from (24), (30), that because of cylin(38) in [9] and (13) in [10]). Functions 1 (x1 ),
2 (x2 ) in (22), (27), (28) are taken in the oblique drical symmetry of the roughness (5) and inhomo(2)
geneity (9) structure the scattered Rayleigh wave
angled coordinate system x1 x2 x3 (3); Bi (s , ) =
displacement vector and intensity are expressed
(v)
(h)
(Ri /) cos s + Ri , values m1 , m2 are dened through topological characteristic (in plane parallel
(v)
(h)
by the formula (18), formulas for the Ri , Ri are to the surface plane of cylindrical symmetry x1 x2 )
(2k+2)
given in the expression (43) of [9].
P0
, k = 0, 1, 2 . . . only of even order 2k + 2,
The frequency dependence of the scattered
(2k+1)
but the values P0
of odd order do not inuRayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
ence on the intensity of the scattered Rayleigh wave
the Rayleigh limit is
and,consequently, on its frequency dependence as
5+2(n1+n2+n3 )
Iq;3
; n1 , n2 , n3=0, 1, 2, . . . (29) well, in contradistinction to (20), (27). That is one
topological characteristic describes roughness or inIt follows from (29) that in the case of the Rayleigh homogeneity structure in two coordinates (dimenwave scattering on the inhomogeneity of a such sions) simultaneously.
(0)
Iq;3
(0) inh
= A
Dependence of the Rayleigh scattering ture with the cylindrical symmetry f0 (xq ) or 0 (xq )
angular distribution on a formfactor is a such, that P (2) = 0, i.e. n1 > 0 then the main
0
(2)
terms with bn1 (s ) appear in the scattering indiIt follows from the results (20), (24) that at such
catrix (19), (24), (30). That is the formfactor of a
roughness structure when both n1 = 0 and n2 = 0
roughness or inhomogeneity in the plane x1 x2 infor the roughness (4); n1 = 0 for the roughness (5),
uences on a scattering indicatrix.
the angular dependence of the scattered Rayleigh
wave intensity is dened only by the product
7.1 Surface roughness
[cos s 1]2 [cos s + ]2 .
7
0, x2 < 0; x2 > L2 } .
(33)
2 1
1
2
R
j=0 l=0
j = eq A1 cos(kR xq t + 0 + j)
where
4
2
e3 A2 sin(kR xq t + 0 + 4 2 j). In order ml21 ,
l1 = 0 at j = N to be the main term among all ml2
it is necessary, that
N
1
(N l1 +1)
(i+1)
= 0, l1 6 N.
 = 0, and P1
P1
i=0
Nearsurface inhomogeneity
Appearance of the forbidden scattering angles considered in the present work (see [10] as well) violates isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering angular
distribution and is accompanied by violation of the
Rayleigh law of scattering.
7.2.1
(2)
only by the Bi (s ) (27), (28), i.e. by the inhomogeneity structure only in direction of the x3 axis
perpendicularly to the surface, since in the Rayleigh
L1,2,3
limit
(2)
i+1
,
V (kR )cos s +H(kR ) = (1)i Bi (s )S (i+1) kR
i=0
2 1
R
ij 1
(l+1)!
i=0j=0l=0
(j+1) (ij+1)
S
 = 0 for all 0 6 i 6 N 1,
P1
j=0
(k+1) (ilk+1)
(jl+1) (ij+1)
S
=
S
=
0.
P1
P1
j=l
k=0
(31) violates an isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering angular distribution and results in arising of
the scattering indicatrix (19), (27), (30) zeroes. In
contradistinction to the scattering indicatrix zeroes
dened by the inhomogeneity structure F (x3 ) in direction perpendicular to the surface (see the section
6 in [9]), position of these zeroes does not depend
on the wavelength.
Zeroes of the functions m1 , m2 dene forbidden
scattering directions for the roughness (4) and in(2)
homogeneity (8); zero of the function bj for the
roughness (5) and the inhomogeneity (9) with cylindrical symmetry .
According to the sections (7.1.1) and (7.2.1), in
the Rayleigh wave scattering on a roughness with
the structure (4), (33) and on an inhomogeneity
with the structure (8), (33) the scattering indicatrix
(19) can have zeroes (caused by the structure in the
plane x1 x2 ) dened only by the function m1 (s , ),
i.e. only by the structure of a roughness and of
an inhomogeneity along the x1 axis of the obliqueangled coordinate system (3). Depending on the
order of the nonzero topological characteristics, zeroes of the scattering indicatrix can have dierent
multiplicity.
Position of the second zero of the functions m1
and m2 : s = 2 2k and s = 2( + 0 ) 2k
respectively, k = 0, 1, 2; 0 6 s 6 2, depends
on the angle of a roughness and of an inhomogeneity rotation about the x3 axis (for the m1 and m2 )
and on the angle 0 between the x1  and the x2 axes of the obliqueangled coordinate system (3),
i.e. on the roughness and inhomogeneity structure
form (for the m2 ).
(34) Conclusion
= 0 = 0.
Rayleigh wave intensity to the fth power of frequency I 5 [1], [5, 6].
Connections between the topological characteristics of roughness, inhomogeneity and frequency dependence and value of the scattered Rayleigh wave
intensity in the Rayleigh limit are established.
It is obtained that zeroing of the any number
of terms in the Rayleigh series for intensity of the
scattered Rayleigh wave is possible by means of the
topological characteristics zeroing, i.e. by means of
the roughness and inhomogeneity structure special
form selection. In result frequency dependence of
the intensity can have the next form I 5+2n ,
where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 . . ..
It is shown, that variation of the roughness and
inhomogeneity symmetry dimension determined by
zeroing of the topological characteristics of roughness and inhomogeneity corresponding to the dierent space directions results in additional variation
of the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity frequency
dependence in the Rayleigh limit.
It is obtained, that imposition of cylindrical symmetry on the coordinate dependence of a roughness and an inhomogeneity structure gives rise to
the new eect in the connection between frequency
dependence of the intensity and topological characteristics of a roughness and an inhomogeneity:
topological characteristics only of even order inuence on the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity and
its frequency dependence.
It is found, that the roughness and inhomogeneity structure strongly inuences on the scattering
angular distribution form in the Rayleigh limit. Zeroing of topological characteristics of the certain order results in appearance of the Rayleigh scattering
indicatrix zeroes in angular of scattering in addition
to its zeroes dened by the boundary conditions
for the surface roughness and results in violation
of the angular isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering
indicatrix and in appearance of the Rayleigh scattering indicatrix zeroes in angular of scattering for
the nearsurface inhomogeneity.
Increasing of the roughness and inhomogeneity symmetry dimension dened by zeroing of the
roughness and inhomogeneity topological characteristics corresponding to the dierent space directions gives rise to the increasing of the scattering
indicatrix zeroes number.
At variation of the wavelength all indicatrix zeroes do not move in the case of the Rayleigh wave
scattering by surface roughness. At variation of the
wavelength indicatrix zeroes dened by the inhomogeneity structure in the direction perpendicular to
the surface move in scattering angular. Indicatrix
zeroes dened by the inhomogeneity structure in
the plane parallel to the surface do not move. Position of the arised Rayleigh scattering indicatrix ze
The problem of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave by the deterministic and statistical surface
roughness and subsurface inhomogeneity is solved in the Born (the RayleighBorn) approximation
of the perturbation theory [1] in the amplitude of a roughness or inhomogeneity. The new laws of
the Rayleigh scattering, when the character size of the rough or inhomogeneous region a is much
smaller tnan the wavelength of the incident Rayleigh wave a , of the resonance scattering,
when a , and of the diuse scattering, when a , are obtained and investigated.
It is obtained that the strong modulation of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings by the
roughness or inhomogeneity form obtained in the present work enables amplication and suppression
of scattering in all the range of the a/ ratio. The phenomena of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse
scatterings amplication and suppression are obtained and investigated in the present work.
A strong modulation of scattering by a roughness or inhomogeneity form giving rise to violation
of the Rayleigh law of scattering [1] enables to construct basis linear independent functions of the
variables p = a/ and s  the angle of scattering. Each of these functions describes the angular
distribution of scattering G(R) (p, s ) or coecient of scattering 1/l(R) [2][4] and corresponds to the
scattering by the denite form of the roughness or inhomogeneity.
From the mathematical point of view a strong modulation of scattering by a roughness or inhomogeneity form obtained in the present work means that the principal physical laws of the Rayleigh,
resonance and diuse scatterings are dened not only by the one parameter p  character size of
roughness or inhomogeneity to wavelength ratio but by the variety of parameters as well. These
parameters are relations between partial roughnesses or inhomogeneities character sizes, i.e. between partial character sizes of the partial roughnesses or inhomogeneities constituting the summary
roughness or inhomogeneity and so dening the form of a summary roughness or inhomogeneity.
The physical value dening all the variety of these parameters, consequently the roughness or inhomogeneity form and thus the principal laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings is the
topological characteristics of a roughness or inhomogeneity C (n) [2][4].
So the principal physical laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings completely depend
on the space conguration of the physical objects interacting in scattering, that is on the form of the
incident wave dened by the wavelength and on the form of the roughness or inhomogeneity, dened
by the topological characteristics C (n) .
This basis of scattering, i.e. a strong modulation of scattering by a roughness or inhomogeneity
form, enables to construct a denite form of the scattering spectrum not only for the Rayleigh
scattering p 1, but for the resonance p 1 and for the diuse p 1 scatterings, violating the
main laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings as well.
Results of the present work can be used in seismology, solid state physics, acoustic microscopy
and acoustoelectronics.
References
[1] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound, Vols. I, II, Dover, New York (1945).
[2] V.N. Chukov, Solid State Communications, 149, 22192224 (2009).
[3] V.N. Chukov, Ultrasonics, 52, 511 (2012).
[4] V.N. Chukov, Connection between violation of the Rayleigh Law of Scattering and the Resonance
Scattering, Preprint, IBCP RAS, Moscow (2014). (The Russian State Library.)
VITALII N. CHUKOV
THE NEW LAWS OF THE RAYLEIGH,
RESONANCE AND DIFFUSE
SCATTERINGS
Abstract
Resonance scattering of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave on a nearsurface inhomogeneity of isotropic solid is considered in detail. Inhomogeneity is statistical [1] in a plane parallel to the free surface and deterministic in the direction perpendicular to the one. Resonance scattering
is the regime of scattering when the wavelength of incident wave and the
character size of inhomogeneity are of the same order in magnitude, contrary to the Rayleigh scattering, when the wavelength of incident wave is
much greater then the character size of inhomogeneity. Resonance scattering is the elastic analogue of the Raman [2, 3] scattering regime when
eigenwavelength of inhomogeneity, that is its character size, denes the
maximum scattering. A strong inuence of the Rayleigh law of scattering
violation on a form of the resonance scattering spectrum is obtained and
investigated theoretically in the present work. Violation of the resonance
law of scattering about maximum scattering in the resonance limit, when
the wavelength of incident wave and character size of inhomogeneity are
of the same order in magnitude, is obtained.
Violation of the shortwavelength scattering law about dominant scattering in the forward direction and about descent character of scattering
angular distribution dependence on the correlation radius to wavelength
ratio increase, when the character size of inhomogeneity is much greater
than the wavelength of the incident Rayleigh wave  diuse scattering, is
obtained and investigated.
It is obtained that violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering about
proportionality of scattering coecient and of angular distribution of
scattering to the fth power of frequency in the Rayleigh limit gives
rise to possibility of the angular distribution of scattering oscillations in
dependence on frequency in the Rayleigh limit and to possibility of appearance of angular distribution of scattering arbitrary number of zeroes
in angle of scattering in this limit. That is violation of the Rayleigh law
about isotropy of angular distribution of scattering in the Rayleigh limit
can take place.
Analogical phenomena of the strong localizations of the resonance
and diuse scattering maxima and of appearance of an arbitrary form
of the resonance and diuse scattering angular distribution and of an
arbitrary form of the resonance and diuse scattering angular distribution
dependence on the correlation radius to wavelength ratio are obtained.
It is obtained that these phenomena are connected with violation of the
Rayleigh scattering law by the partial inhomogeneities constituting the
summary inhomogeneity.
These violations of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse laws of scattering obtained in the present work are caused by a strong modulation
of scattering by the form of inhomogeneity, in particular by the form of
the correlation function of inhomogeneity approximated by the sum of
the Gaussian exponents.
It is obtained that this strong modulation of the Rayleigh, resonance
and diuse scatterings obtained in the present work enables amplication
and suppression of scattering in all the range of the correlation radius to
wavelength ratio. The phenomena of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse
scatterings amplication and suppression are obtained and investigated
in the present work.
Introduction
The problem of the surface acoustic Rayleigh wave [4, 5] scattering by the
statistical nearsurface inhomogeneity was solved in [6, 7]. The new laws of the
Rayleigh scattering, when the wavelength is much greater than the character
size of inhomogeneous region, i.e. longwavelength scattering, and of diuse
scattering, in opposite limit, i.e. shortwavelength scattering, were obtained.
Results for scattering in dierent limits of correlation radius and depth of
damaged layer to wavelength ratios were analitically obtained. It was found
that the form of scattering angular distribution, in particular the arbitrary
number and locations of its zeroes and extrema at xed arbitrary value of
the damaged layer depth to wavelength ratio, strongly depends on the form
of inhomogeneity subsurface structure which is deterministic in the direction
perpendicular to the surface. The wavelength variation gives rise to motion
of zeroes and extrema in scattering angular. Dependence of the new laws of
the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings both on the deterministic and
random structure of the nearsurface inhomogeneity was obtained rst in [7].
The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering for statistical inhomogeneity with
correlator approximated by the Gaussian exponents sum; possibility of scattering angular distribution oscillations in dependence on ratio of inhomogeneity
correlation radius to wavelength in the Rayleigh limit, i.e. for longwavelength
scattering, and appearance of the arbitrary number of scattering angular distribution zeroes in angle of scattering in the Rayleigh limit, dened by the inhomogeneity correlation function form are investigated in the present work [8].
These oscillations and angular distribution zeroes are violation of the Rayleigh
laws of scattering.
Resonance scattering, when the wavelength and the correlation radius of
inhomogeneous region are of the same order in magnitude, and diuse scattering, when the correlation radius of inhomogeneity is much greater than the
wavelength, of the surface acoustic Rayleigh wave by the same statistical nearsurface inhomogeneity are investigated in detail.
Connection between resonance, diuse scatterings and violation
of the Rayleigh law of scattering is investigated in dependence only on inhomogeneity random structure in the present work. Inuence of the deterministic
inhomogeneity structure on these laws is not considered.
Let semiinnite isotropic elastic medium having a free surface occupies halfspace x3 > 0, x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) is radiusvector in Cartesian coordinate system.
Medium has mass density inhomogeneity occupying region of nite size: x1  6
L1 /2; x2  6 L2 /2; 0 6 x3 < . The mass density is described by the next
function of coordinates
(x) = (0) + (inh) (x) ,
(1)
(0)
where is a constant density of medium homogeneous part; (inh) (x) is a
function describing inhomogeneity, it is not equal to zero only inside of inhomogeneous region. Inhomogeneity is statistically homogeneous and isotropic in
3
(2)
(inh)
2inh
ci e
2 /a2i
2inh
(r)
Ni n+1
N
Dinj e
(gt)
(n) 2
/aij
(3)
i=1
ci = 1.
(4)
i=1
The triple sum in (3) is introduced for the convenience of inhomogeneity correlation function approximation, multiscale in partial radiuses of correlation.
Fourier transform of correlator (3) has the next form
m
m
2 2
fi (kq ) =
f (kq ) = 2inh
ci a2i eai kq /4 =
W
W
i=1
i=1
2inh
(r)
Ni n+1
N
Dinj aij
. (5)
amax 4 R1 c2l
amax (R)
G(R) (s ) =
Gi (s ) =
ai
2inh 4P R22 c2t
i=1
(0)
2f
3
[V (kR ) cos s + H(kR )] W
kR
(kR kq ), (9)
inh
(0)
]2
Ni n+1
N
(gt) (n) 2
amax 4 R1 c2l 3
k
Dinj aij ezinj
R
2
2
amax
2P R2
ct
i=1 n=0 j=1
(r)
{
]}
[
] I1 (zinj ) [
2zinj V (kR )H(kR )V 2 (kR ) , (10)
I0 (zinj ) V 2 (kR ) + H 2 (kR ) +
zinj
where In (x) is the modied Bessel functions of the order n; p = kR amax ;
(n) 2
3
3.1
Let us consider the longwavelength expansion of correlator (3) Fourier transform (5) in powers of the parameter p = amax /cR in the limit p 1
(n)
1
=
(n 1)!
W ( ) n1 d,
n = 1, 2, 3 . . . .
(12)
0
(gt)
(r)
(n)
(13)
n+1
(n) (n) 2m+2
cij aij
= 0,
m = 0, 1, . . . , n 1;
j=1
n+1
j=1
(14)
(in)
cij aij
= d0
n+1
(n)
cij = 1,
(15)
j=1
(in)
where d0 = 0 are some constants, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , Ni , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , N (r) , together with condition (6) give the next solution of the system of linear algebraic
(n)
equations (14) with respect to cij , j = 1, . . . , n + 1
(in)
d0
(
n+1
(n)
cij =
(n) 2
aij
(n) 2
aij
(n) 2
aim
);
m=1;m=j
(n)
(n)
(n)
(n)
d0
= (1)n
n+1
(n) 2
aij
. (16)
j=1
Ni
(0)
Fi (p)
p2
(0) 2
pik
(F )
)2mik
Ni
(0)
Ci
k=1
(F )
(00)
Cik p2k = Fi
(0)
(p) + Ci ;
k=0
(p)
Ni
(F )
Ni
=2
mik ,
(17)
k=1
(0)
Ni
n=0
ebin
Ni
Ni
m
(i)
ebin f (i)
f
2m
f nm kR
f nm
W
p2m
W
2m
a
max
m=n
m=0
n=0
Ni
(0)
(i)
Bm
(s )p2m = Fi (p), (18)
m=0
where
(i)
m
f
f nm = 2 (1) (2m + 1)! C
e (2m+2) (1 cos s )m ;
W
in
2m (m!)2
e (2m+2) =
C
in
n+1
(n) (n) 2m+2
m!
c a
. (19)
2(2m + 1)! j=1 ij ij
Relations (18) give the next system of the linear algebraic equations with respect to unknowns ebin
{
(F )
(F )
(i)
Bm = Cim , m = 0, 1, . . . , Ni ;
(20)
(F )
(F )
(i)
m = Ni + 1, Ni + 2, . . . , Ni .
Bm = 0,
The solution of (20) is
(F )
Ci0
;
b
=
i0
(i)
W 00 {
m1
2m
ebik f (i)
a
(F
)
max
f km ;
Cim
W
ebim = (i)
a2m
f
max
k=0
f
W mm
(F )
(m)
(F )
where
m
= 1, 2, 3, . . . , Ni ; Ni = Ni Ni ;
m1
2m
ebik f (i)
ebim = amax
f km ;
(i)
a2m
f
max
k=0
f
W mm
(F )
(F )
where m = Ni + 1, Ni + 2, . . . , Ni .
Coecients bin (13)
/ Nare
i
ebim ,
bim = ebim
i = 1, 2, . . . , N (r) ,
where s = (00)
.
s
(21)
(22)
m=0
(r)
It follows from (4) that coecients Di (13) satisfy the next condition
(r)
N
(r)
Di = 1.
i=1
(23)
(24)
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
m
Figure 1:
m
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (27) giving the Rayleigh law of scattering. NR = 0 (25);
(m)
(0)
(0)
(p)
= 0. Poisson ratio is
= /amax ; N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, p11 = 0, m11 = 0, C1 = 0, N1
(00)
Figure 2:
= /2 (22) everywhere.
(0)
(0)
G(R)(p,s )/G(R)(p0 ,s ); s =/2
(R)
When correlation function (3) has a such form that NR > 0 violation of the
Rayleigh law of scattering takes place (Figs. 3, 4).
For the correlation function (3) with the next values of the constants (3), (13)
(r)
(27)
(N )
(2m+2)
(28)
So (14), (26) the new law of the Rayleigh scattering (25) takes place (Figs.14).
8
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
m
Figure 3:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (27) giving violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering.
(p)
(0)
(0)
(m)
NR = 6; N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, p11 = 0, m11 = 3, C1 = 0, N1 = 0.
Figure 4:
3.2
(R)
Violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering. G0 for the correlator (Fig.3); p0=0.1.
Let the correlation function of inhomogeneity has the form (3), (13)(23) with
(n)
(r)
the next values of the partial radiuses of correlation aij and constants Di
(n)
(n)
(a)
(n)
(0)
(a)
(r)
N
(r)
(r)
Di = Di /
i=1
(0)
(r) , i = 1, . . . , N (r) ,
D
i
j = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1; n = 0, 1, . . . , Ni . (29)
G (R)(s
W/inh2
Figure 5:
(0)
(p)
N (r) = 1, N1
(m)
N1
= 100.
Figure 6:
Figs. 5, 6 show correlator and oscillations of the Rayleigh scattering, i.e. of G(R)
as a function of variable p in the limit p 1 for this correlator, respectively.
These oscillations are violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering (Fig. 2).
9
3.3
3.3.1
G (R)( p ;s)
a
G (R)( p ;s)
a0
   
Figure 7:
Some characteristic anisotropy of the Rayleigh law of scattering for the Rayleigh
wave due to inuence of the boundary conditions and the vertical structure of inhomogeneity.
(R)
Ga (pa , s ) for the correlator (Fig.1).
Figure 8: Completely isotropic picture of the Rayleigh scattering obtained by means of
exclusion of the boundary conditions and the verical inhomogeneity structure inuence on
(R)
the angular distribution of the Rayleigh
wave scattering (30). The function Ga0 (pa , s ) for
3.3.2
(0)
(p)
(Fig.7). It follows from (31) that wavelength variation gives rise to motion of
the angular distribution G(R) zeroes and extrema in scattering angular s .
G (R)( p ;s)
W/inh2
Figure 9:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving a strong anisotropy and zeroes of the
Rayleigh scattering. The same as Fig. 5, but m11 = 1, m12 = 2, m13 = 3.
Figure 10:
4
4.1
Resonance scattering
The main law of the resonance scattering
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
G (R)( p
a
s)
b
2
m
Figure 11:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving the main law of the resonance scattering
(0)
(0)
(p)
(m)
p 1. N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, N1 = 0, p11 = 0, m11 = 0, C1 = 0.
Figure 12:a,bThe main law of resonance scattering for the correlator of Fig.11; p0=2, pa=1.
11
4.2
Figs. 13  20 show violation of the main law of the resonance scattering without
violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering by all the partial inhomogeneities
constituting the summary inhomogeneity (3), (13)(23), (29). In scattering
showed in Figs. 13  16 the positions of scattering maxima in variable p and a
width of maximum are dened not only by the character size of inhomogeneity
amax but by the its form as well , i.e. by the form of correlation function (3).
Physically it is explained by the phenomenon that partial smallscale inhomogeneities as compared to amax are more sensed by the Rayleigh wave with the
shortwavelength as compared to amax as well. Contribution of each partial
smallscale inhomogeneity to scattering, when the wavelength and size of this
partial inhomogeneity are of the same order in magnitude, is inverse proportional to the wavelength (9), (10) and consequently to the character size of
the partial smallscale inhomogeneity ai (3). And analytical formulas (9), (10)
correspond to the experimental physical measurement calibrated by the same
physical unity of length in all the range of correlation radius amax to wavelength
ratio, i.e. of variable p, despite of this inverse proportionality to ai . But such
partial smallscale inhomogeneities (3), giving a big contribution to scattering
at shortwavelengths corresponding to sizes of these smallscale partial inhomogeneities (9), (10), dene exactly the form of the summary inhomogeneity
and do not change its character size amax .
4.3
4.3.1
12
W/inh2
G (R)(s
G (R)( p
(0)
s)
m
Figure 13:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(p)
(m)
scattering without violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering. N (r) =5, Ni =1, Ni =0,
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
pi1 =0, mi1 =0, Ci =0 (everywhere), i=1, . . . , 5; a11 :a21 :a31 :a41 :a51 =10:5:5/2:5/4:1/2,
(r)=166.7, D
(r)=43.02, D
(r)=13.52, D
(r)=6.331, D
(r)=3.051.
D
1
Figure 14:a Violation of the main law of resonance scattering.p0 = 2; b angular distribution
satisfying the main law of the resonance scattering for the correlator of Fig.13. pa = 1.
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
Figure 15:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(p)
(m)
(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
scattering. N (r)=5, Ni =1, Ni =0, pi1 =0, mi1=0, i=1, .., 5; a11 :a21 :a31 :a41 :a51 =
(r)
(r)
(r)
3
2
(r) = 1.756103 ,
= 5.5110 , D
= 1.78510 , D
= 1.667, D
10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2, D
1
(r)=6.789102 .
D
5
Figure 16: Violation of the main law of resonance scattering for the correlator of Fig. 15.
means of the data from the scattering of Figs. 21, 22 and using the formula
(31). It is violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12.b) due to the
Rayleigh law of scattering violation by the partial inhomogeneities constituting the summary inhomogeneities (Figs.27,29). Results of scattering presented
in Figs. 22, 28, 30 and formula (31) reect the physical picture of scattering according which the longscale partial inhomogeneities (3) as compared to
wavelength give contribution to scattering in the forward direction s = 0
(9), but the more smallscale partial inhomogeneities contribute to scattering
in other directions as well. In this case at constant value of ratio p = amax /
dynamicallyenergetical contribution to scattering p5 (9) remains unvariable
in changing of scattering angle s , and formfactor of inhomogeneity (5) plays
13
G (R)(s
W/inh2
G (R)( p
(0)
s)
a
m
Figure 17:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving the main law of resonance scattering. The
(r) = 0, D
(r) = 6.687 104 .
same as Fig. 13, but D
1
5
Figure 18:
pa = 35,
(R)
a  G0
(0)
s =0
(0)
(0)
(p, s ), p0 = 35, s
(R)
for the resonance scattering on inhomogeneity with the correlator of Fig. 17.
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
G (R)( p
a
s)
m
Figure 19:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(r) = 6.687 104 .
scattering for angular distribution. The same as Fig. 13, but D
5
Figure 20:
(0)
(R)
(0)
(R)
(0)
the main role in a forming of the angular spectrum of scattering (Figs. 28, 30).
So the values of each maximum in Fig. 22 dier from those in Figs. 28, 30, and
(r)
values of the constants Di (3), (13)(23), (29) are dierent as well. Variation
of the wavelength gives rise to motion of the scattering maxima positions in
angle of scattering s .
The new phenomenon specied by the strong modulation of scattering by
the inhomogeneity formfactor (3) consists in exact zeroing of forward scattering s = 0 at arbitrary value of p for inhomogeneities violating the Rayleigh
law of scattering, when NR > 0 (25), (27); (3), (13)(23), (29); (9), (11)
G(R) (p, s = 0) = 0, for NR > 0.
(32)
And the rate of G
growth at s growing decreases with increasing of NR
(9), (11) for the arbitrary value of correlation radius to wavelength ratio p. It
is a strong suppression of the isotropic Rayleigh scattering and thus a strong
growth of the resonance scattering with increasing of p.
Formula (31) is true only if G(R) has exact zeroes in p. Its usefulness in
(R)
14
G (R)
W/inh2
m
Figure 21:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(0) (0) (0)
(0)
(m)
(p)
scattering. N (r)=5, Ni =1, Ni =0, pi1 =0, i=1,..,5; m11 =0, mi1 =15, i=2,..,5; a11 :a21 :a31 :
(0) (0)
(r)
(r)
(r)
(r)
=166.7, D
=1.785, D
=5.455101 , D
=1.756101 ,
a :a =10:9:7/2 :5/4 :1/2, D
41
51
(r)=6.789102 .
D
5
Figure 22:
Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12) with strong localization
of maxima due to the Rayleigh law of scattering violation by the partial inhomogeneities for
the correlator of Fig. 21; p0 = 2.0.
G (R)
W/inh2
m
Figure 23:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(p)
(m)
(0)
scattering. N (r) = 5, Ni = 1, Ni
= 0, pi1 = 0, i = 1, . . . , 5; m11 = 0, mi1 = 15, i = 2, . . . , 5;
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(r) = 1.785 102 ,
(r) = 166.7, D
= 10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2, D
:a
:a
:a
:a
a
11
21
31
41
51
(r) = 6.789102 .
(r) = 1.756103 , D
(r) = 5.51103 , D
D
5
4
3
(R)
Figure 24:
this case is proved by the strong localizations of the G(R) maxima in p due to
violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering by the partial inhomogeneities.
A strong modulation of scattering by the form of inhomogeneity (3) obtained in the present work enables to manipulate the angular spectrum (Figs.
10, 28, 30) as well as frequency spectrum (Figs. 16, 1126) of the Rayleigh
p 1 and resonance p 1 scatterings.
15
W/inh2
W/inh2
G (R)(s
(0)
0.9
Figure 25:
0.2
a  Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(0)
(m)
(p)
= 0, pi1 = 0, i = 1, . . . , 5; m11 = 0, mi1 = 15, i = 2, . . . , 5;
scattering. N (r) = 5, Ni = 1, Ni
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(r) = 1.667, D
(r) = 1.785 102 ,
a
:a
:a
:a
:a
= 10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2, D
11
21
31
41
51
(r) = 5.51103 , D
(r) = 1.756103 , D
(r) = 6.789102 ; b  the same as Fig. 25.a, but
D
3
4
5
on a large scale.
Figure 26: Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12). G(R)
for the correlator
0
of Fig. 25; p0 = 2.0.
W/inh2
G (R)( p ;s)
a
m
Figure 27:
(p)
(m)
(0)
= 0, pi1 = 0, i = 1, . . . , 5;
(0)
: a51 = 10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2,
(r) = 3.771.
(r) = 4.224101 , D
D
5
4
= 1, Ni
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
m11 = 0, mi1 = 15, i = 2, . . . , 5; a11 : a21 : a31 : a41
(r)
(r)
(r)
= 5.263102 ,
= 8.927103 , D
= 5.555104 , D
D
3
2
1
Figure 28:
Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12.b) due to the Rayleigh
law of scattering violation by the partial inhomogeneities constituting
the summary inhomo
(R)
geneity (Fig.27). Ga for the correlator of Fig. 27; pa = 150/ 2.
W/inh2
G (R)( p ;s)
a
m
(r) = 0.
Figure 29: Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29); the same as Fig 27 but D
1
(R)
Figure 30: Violation
of
the
resonance
scattering
main
law
(Fig.12.b).
G
for
the correlator
a
16
5
5.1
Diuse scattering
The main law of the diuse scattering
G (R)(s
(0)
W/inh2
G (R)( p
a
s)
a
m
Figure 31:
N (r)
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving the main law of the diuse scattering.
(0)
(m)
(p)
= 0, p11 = 0, m11 = 0.
= 1, N1 = 1, N1
Figure 32:
b  angular distribution
5.2
(R)
pa = 10,
(0)
s
(0)
(0)
(p, s ), p0 = 2.0, s
= /2;
It follows from the formulas (3), (9), (13)(23), (27), (29), that inhomogeneities
violating the Rayleigh law of scattering, when they have a such form of the
correlation function (3) that NR > 0 (27), violate the main law of the diuse
scattering as well (Figs. 33  38). In this case, when NR > 0, the angular
distribution of scattering for the forward direction is equal to zero (32). Position s0 of the scattering maxima in angle of scattering s , i.e. maxima
of the G(R) (p, s ) as a function of s at a constant p1, in the case when
(0)
NR > 0 is given approximately by the formula (31), in which p1k , k = 1, 2 . . .
(0)
are exact maxima positions of the G(R) (p, s ) as a function of the variable p
(0)
at a constant angle of scattering value s = s (Figs. 33  38). Position of the
(0)
angular distribution of scattering G(R) maximum in p at a constant s =s
and at increase of NR (25) moves to the shortwavelength region p 1, i.e. to
(m)
the region of the diuse scattering (Fig. 39). Increase of the parameter Ni ,
17
G (R)(s
W/inh2
G (R)( p
(0)
s)
a
m
Figure 33:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the diuse scattering main
(p)
(m)
(0)
law. N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, N1
= 0, p11 = 0, m11 = 15.
(0)
(0)
Figure 34: Violation of the diuse scattering main law: a  G(R)
0 (p, s ), p0 = 7.5, s =
(R)
(0)
G (R)(s
W/inh2
G (R)( p
(0)
s)
a
m
Figure 35:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the diuse scattering main
(0)
(m)
(p)
law. N (r)=1, N1 =1, N1 =0, p11 =0, m11=50.
Figure 36:
(R)
(R)
Ga (pa , s ),
pa=10,
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
s =
(0)
(0)
(p, s ), p0 =13.5, s =
(0)
G (R)( p
a
s)
m
Figure 37:
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) giving violation of the diuse scattering main
(p)
(m)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(r)=3.3.
(r)=1, D
law. N (r)=2, Ni =1, Ni =0, pi1 =0, i = 1, 2; m11=15, m21=50, a11 /a21 =1; D
2
1
Figure 38:
(R)
(R)
Ga (pa , s ),
pa=10,
18
(0)
s =
(0)
(0)
(p, s ), p0 =13.5, s =
It was discussed in the sections 4.2, 4.3.1 and 5.2 that two physical phenomena contribute to violation of the resonance and diuse scatterings main laws
(sections 4.1 and 5.1).
The rst phenomenon is inverseproportionality of a scattering to the correlation radius of the partial inhomogeneity and consequently a growth of the
contribution of scattering on the smallscale partial inhomogeneities, having
the partial correlation radiuses smaller than the correlation radius amax of the
summary inhomogeneity, to the summary scattering by the whole multiscale inhomogeneity (3), (13)(23), (29). This phenomenon is dened by a singlescale
calibration of the physical measurements of the scattering on the multiscale inhomogeneities. Singlescale calibration means that single unity of length is used
in counting of the contributions to scattering from the partial inhomogeneities
of the dierent scale constituting the whole inhomogeneity. Scatterings, for
example G(R) , on the separate partial inhomogeneities of the dierent scale
but having the same form are equal to each other if the unity of length which is
used for each separate physical measurement of the scattering on a corresponding separate partial inhomogeneity is directly proportional to the correlation
radius of the partial inhomogeneity. And this direct proportionality must be
the same for all the separate physical measurements of scattering on the partial inhomogeneities. Mathematically this phenomena is explained by the use
of the same character size of the summary inhomogeneity amax for the nondimensionalization of the summary angular distribution of scattering G(R) (9)
and consequently for the nondimensionalization of the each contribution to
(R)
summary scattering (amax /ai )Gi (9) from the partial inhomogeneities of the
dierent scale.
19
6.1
Singlescale inhomogeneities
Figs. 39, 40 show phenomena of the resonance and diuse scatterings amplication with and without suppression of the Rayleigh scattering by the singlescale
inhomogeneities violating the Rayleigh law of scattering. Increse of the NR for
the partial ihomogeneity, i.e. violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering, causes
the Rayleigh scattering suppression and amplication of the resonance and diffuse scatterings. Maximum of the resonance scattering at p 1 moves to the
region of the diuse scattering p 1 (Fig. 39). Amplication of the diuse
scattering is accompanied by the suppression of the resonance scattering (Fig.
39.3) as well. Analogical physical phenomena are produced by means of the
(m)
parameter Ni
variation, that is by means of the scattering Rayleigh series
(9), (11), (3), (13)(23), (29) modication using the partial inhomogeneities
violating the Rayleigh law of scattering (Fig. 40).
6.2
Multiscale inhomogeneities
Figs. 41, 42, 43 show scattering of the incident Rayleigh wave by the two inhomogeneities of the dierent scale. That is these inhomogeneities have dierent
radius of correlation, but amax is chosen the same for the both inhomogeneities
and is equal to radius of correlation of the more smallscale inhomogeneity
which have the smallest radius of correlation. So the same values of the parameter p correspond to the same values of the incident and scattered Rayleigh
wave wavelength.
Fig. 41 shows scattering by the two inhomogeneities of the dierent scale
following the Rayleigh law of scattering. Growth of the correlation radius increases the value of the topological characteristic C (n) (11), (12) so the Rayleigh
scattering 5 increases as well. And an inhomogeneity with a bigger radius
of correlation corresponds to a bigger wavelength of the resonance scattering
maximum at p 1 so to a smaller frequency of the Rayleigh wave. The value
of the resonance scattering maximum is inverse proportional to correlation radius of inhomogeneity (sections 4.2, 6). So for the inhomogeneities of the same
20
G (R)(s
W/inh2
(0)
m
Figure 39:
Suppression of the Rayleigh (2, 3) and resonance (3) scatterings and amplication of the resonance (2) and diuse (3) scatterings. Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) and
(0)
(p)
(m)
(0)
(0)
the angular distribution G(R) (p, s ) (9). N (r)=1, N1 =1, N1 =0, p11 =0, s =/2; 1 m11 = 0 (NR = 0); 2  m11 = 1/2 (NR = 1); 3  m11 = 15 (NR = 30).
G (R)(s
(0)
W/inh
2
0.1
Figure 40:
21
Conclusion
Gr(R)(s
W/inh2
0.01
Figure 41:
(0)
(m)
N (r)=1, N1 =1, N1
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
=0, p11 =0, m11=0, s =/2; 1  amax /a11 =1; 2  amax /a11 =1/3.
W/inh2
Gr(R)(s
(0)
0.1
Figure 42:
Narrowing of the scattering spectrum from the side of the high frequencies
(R)
(0)
(2). Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) and the angular distribution Gr (p, s ), p0 = 2.0.
(0)
(m)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(p)
(r)
N =1,N1 =1,p11 =0, m11 =0, s =/2; 1  amax /a11 =1, N1 =0; 2  amax /a11 =1/10,
(m)
N1
=100.
Gr(R)(s
W/inh2
Figure 43:
(0)
Amplication of the Rayleigh and resonance (from the side of the high frequencies) scatterings (2). Reduction of scattering in the intermediate frequency region (2).
(R)
(0)
(0)
Correlator (3), (13)(23), (29) and the angular distribution Gr (p, s ), p0 = 2.0. s =/2;
(p)
(0)
(m)
(p)
(0)
(0)
(r)
(r)
1  N =1, N1 =1, p11 =0, m11 =0, amax /a11 =1, N1 =0; 2  N =2; Ni =1, pi1 =0,
(r) (r)
(0)
(m)
(m)
(0)
(0)
21
11
23
So the principal physical laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings completely depend on the space conguration of the physical objects
interacting in scattering, that is on the form of the incident wave dened by the
wavelength and on the form of the inhomogeneity, dened by the topological
characteristics C (n) (12).
This basis of scattering, i.e. a strong modulation of scattering by the inhomogeneity form, enables to construct a denite form of the scattering spectrum
not only for the Rayleigh scattering p 1, but for the resonance p 1 and for
the diuse p 1 scatterings, violating the main laws of the Rayleigh, resonance
and diuse scatterings as well.
Results of the present work can be used in seismology, solid state physics,
acoustic microscopy and acoustoelectronics.
References
[1] A.P. Khusu, Yu.R. Vitenberg, V.A. Palmov. Roughness of Surfaces.
TheoreticallyProbabilistic Approach (in Russian), Nauka, Moscow, 1975.
[2] A. Einstein. Mitteil. Phys. Gesellschaft Zurich, 1916, v. 16, p. 7.
[3] I.L. Fabelinskii. Phys.Usp., 1998, v. 41, p. 1229.
[4] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound. Vols. I, II. New York. Dover. 1945.
[5] A.A. Maradudin. Surface Acoustic Waves. In: Nonequilibrium Phonon
Dynamics, ed. by W.E. Bron. Plenum, New York 1985, p. 395.
[6] V.N. Chukov. The new laws of the Rayleigh wave scattering on a nearsurface inhomogeneity. Days on Diraction 2012.
[7] V.N. Chukov. On Rayleigh, Resonance and ShortWavelength Scattering
Laws of Rayleigh Wave. Moscow. Preprint. IBCP RAS, 2002, 32 p.
[8] V.N. Chukov. Connection between violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering and the resonance scattering. Days on Diraction 2014. International
Conference. May 2630, 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia. Abstracts, p. 29.
[9] V.N. Chukov. On violation of Rayleigh and Bragg laws of scattering.
Days on Diraction 2011.
[10] V.N. Chukov. Solid State Communications 2009, v. 149, p. 2219.
[11] V.N. Chukov. Ultrasonics. 2012, v. 52, p. 5.
[12] V.N. Chukov. Connection between violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering and the resonance scattering. Moscow. Preprint. IBCP RAS, 2014,
25p. (The Russian State Library.)
24
Contents
1 The scattering problem of the Rayleigh wave
5
.
.
.
5
9
10
10
10
4 Resonance scattering
4.1 The main law of the resonance scattering . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Violation of the resonance scattering main law
without violation of the scattering Rayleigh law . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Violation of the resonance scattering main law with violation of
the scattering Rayleigh law by the partial inhomogeneities . . .
4.3.1 Strong maxima localizations and arbitrary frequency
spectrum form of the resonance scattering . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Arbitrary angular spectrum form of the resonance scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
11
5 Diuse scattering
5.1 The main law of the diuse scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Violation of the diuse scattering main law . . . . . . . . . . .
17
17
17
12
12
12
12
22
References
24
c
V.N.
Chukov
N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, Center of Acoustic
Microscopy, 2015. 4, Kosygin Str., Moscow 119334, Russia,
email: chukov@chph.ras.ru, vchukov@mail.ru