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Days on Diffraction

In Benefit of his Carre


The race is given by Poincare Take yourself in your own hands
And eat the fish from all the lands.
Where is Day Logic of Denv Prohorych is thinking Kiselv.
Among all the God Presents
Take in favourite your problem sets.
Searching way through labyrinth
Love to Life in memory please print.
Anything on road must be read,
Money for the life must not be on the pad.
Abundance of the mind, it is my Sara,
Remember! By resolution of himself
Sergei Nazarov
Is not of moods the man
For Babich-Perel'man.
***
Chukov V.
Participant of the conference ''Days on Diffraction''
23 May 2013



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Russian Academy of Sciences


N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics
Center of Acoustic Microscopy

Vitalii N. Chukov

Rayleigh wave scattering by deterministic cylindrical roughness


with spatial statistical symmetry of an arbitrary order

Oral Report
International Conference
Days on Diffraction 2009

Saint Petersburg, May 26-29, 2009


  
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DAYS on DIFFRACTION2011

On violation of Bragg law of scattering


Vitalii N. Chukov
N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, Center of Acoustic Microscopy,
4, Kosygin Str., Moscow 119334, Russia
e-mail: chukov@chph.ras.ru
Abstract
Solution of Rayleigh wave [1] scattering problem by deterministic three-dimensional continuous roughness with
cylindrical symmetry, occupying nite size region of homogeneous isotropic solid surface is considered in RayleighBorn approximation of perturbation theory in roughness amplitude at big distances from rough region.
The next two type of scattering are investigated.
1, where d is radius of rough region of surface, = 2
is wavelength. In this
1. Classical diuse scattering d/
scattering indicatrix envelope is proportional to the second power of the Rayleigh wave frequency
(R)

Iq,3 (kR d) ,

(1)

(R)

where Iq,3 is indicatrix of scattering [2], kR = /cR - absolute value of the wave vector, - frequency, cR velocity of the Rayleigh wave, and the Bragg law of scattering is valid: positions of scattering indicatrix zeroes
(
)

1
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = m +
, m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .
(2)
4
and maxima

(
)

3
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = m +
,
4

m = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .

(3)

are dened only by Bragg parameter kR d and by the angle of scattering s . Amplitudes of the maxima are
dened by the amplitude of the roughness in point xq /d = 1, besides kR d and s . All these physical values do
not depend on roughness form (Fig.1, curve 1, F (xq /d) - function, describing roughness prole; Fig. 2).
1 corresponding to the new laws, when frequency dependence of scattering indicatrix
2. Diuse scattering d/
envelope is dened by the roughness form
(R)

Iq,3 (kR d)

22n

n = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ,

(4)

where the integer n is determined by the roughness form.


It is obtained that appropriate superposition of surface roughnesses of denite form, each of which corresponds to the
one of new laws of diuse scattering (4) [2] can violate the Bragg law of scattering. That is, positions of any nite
number of scattering indicatrix zeroes and maxima as well as amplitudes of these maxima are dened by roughness
form at constant roughness amplitude, but not only by Bragg parameter kR d and angle of scattering s (Fig. 1, curves
2, 3; Fig. 3, Fig. 4). The number of such extraordinary scattering indicatrix zeroes and maxima is dened by roughness
form as well. Positions and amplitudes of remaining innite number of scattering indicatrix zeroes and maxima for such
superposition of roughnesses are dened by the Bragg law of scattering (2), (3).
It is obtained that reduction and straightening of Bragg oscillations are possible (Fig. 5, Fig. 6).

(R) (R)

I3/I3 (106)

(R)

(R)

3 /Ic

3 /Ic

2,3

x /d

d/

||

F ig. 1

F ig. 2

d/
F ig. 3

d/
F ig. 4

DAYS on DIFFRACTION2011

(R)

(R)

3 / 3

(1000)

(R)

(700)

d/

d/
F ig. 5

(R)

3 / 3

F ig. 6

References
[1] The Physics Encyclopedia. Ed.: A.M. Prokhorov. Moscow. 1988.
[2] Vitalii N. Chukov.The new laws of diuse scattering and oscillations of indicatrix envelope in the short-wavelength
limit. Days on Diraction 2011. International Conference. Saint Petersburg, May 30 - June 3, 2011. Abstracts.

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

ON VIOLATION OF BRAGG LAW OF SCATTERING


Vitalii N. Chukov
Center of Acoustic Microscopy, N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, Russia;
e-mail: chukov@chph.ras.ru

Oral Report

International Conference
Days on Diffraction 2011

Russia

Saint Petersburg, May 30 - June 3, 2011

1.1

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

Problem of Rayleigh wave scattering

Statement of the problem

Let Rayleigh plane wave [1]-[4] propagating along free surface of isotropic homogeneous solid occupying half-space x3 > 0
of Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 is incident on surface rough part of nite radius d. Deterministic (not statistical)
roughness is three-dimensional but has cylindrical symmetry:
x3 = f (x1 , x2 ) = 0 f0 (xq ),

where xq = x21 + x22 , 0 is roughness amplitude. Dimensionless function f0 (xq ) is


(x ) (x
)
q
q
f0 (xq , n) = 0
f
, 0, 1 ,
d
d
where f (x, a, b) = 1 for a 6 x 6 b and 0 for x < a, x > b. Dimensionless function 0 is described by the formula
( x )p 1 (
xq )p2
q
0 (xq /d) = q1 (p1 , p2 )
1
,
d
d

(1)

(2)

(3)

where q1 = (p1 + p2 )p1 +p2 /(pp11 pp22 ); p1 , p2 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . (Fig. 1).

f0

f0

x|| / d

x|| / d

Figure 1: Examples of function f0 (xq ). (2).


It is necessary to solve the problem of scattering, i.e. to obtain formular for the displacement eld in the scattered
Rayleigh wave at big distances from the roughness and to investigate its asymptotic forms for the short-wavelength (diuse
1 limits, where
= /2, - wavelength 1/
= /cR , - frequency, cR -velocity of Rayleigh wave.
scattering) d/

1.2

Displacement eld in the scattered Rayleigh wave

The next formula for the displacement eld in scattered Rayleigh wave is obtained in the Born approximation of perturbation theory in f (x1 , x2 ) at big distances from roughness by means of the Green function calculated by A.A.Maradudin
and D.L. Mills [4] (see [5, 6] as well)
5/2

k
c2
(0)
R2
u(R) (x, t) = A(0) 0 f0 (|kR kq |) R
2 2R2 ct

}
{
sin(kR xq t + /4 + 0 )
cos(kR xq t + /4 + 0 )
e3 A2 (x3 )
,
(cos s 1)(cos s + ) eq A1 (x3 )

xq
xq

(4)

(0)
where f0 (kq ) - two-dimensional Fourier transform of f0 (xq ) (2) in variables x1 , x2 ; eq = e1 cos s + e2 sin s ; kq =
(kR , 0, 0), kR = kR (cos s , sin s , 0) - wave vectors in incident and scattered Rayleigh waves respectively, kR = /cR ;

(0)
|kR kq | = kR 2(1 cos s ); s - angle of scattering; A(0) , 0 are amplitude and initial phase of incident Rayleigh
wave x1 - component respectively.
By denition intensities of scattered Rayleigh wave horizontal Iq and vertical I3 components are
(0)

Iq = Iq /xq ;
(0)

(0)

where Iq , I3

(0)

I3 = I3 /xq ,

(5)

are corresponding scattering indicatrixes:

(
)2
(
)2
c4
k5
(R)
(0)
(0)
Iq,3 = A(0) 0 f02 (|kR kq |) R 2 2 R4 (cos s 1)2 (cos s + )2 A21,2 (x3 ) = A(0) 0 Iq,3 /d ,
8R2 ct

(6)

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

where ct - velocity of the bulk transverse wave; A1,2 (x3 ) = exp(kR x3 ) (, /)exp(kR x3 ); R2 = (2 + 2 + 2 4
(R)
4 3 )/ 2 ; (, ) = (1 c2R /c2l,t )1/2 ; = (1 c2R /2c2t ); = 2 - Rayleigh wave dispersion relation; Iq,3 - dimensionless
indicatrixes of scattering. Fourier transform of function f0 (xq ) (2) is
2

d
(0)
f0 (|kR kq |) = 2(1)p1 q1 (p1 , p2 )
z
+p2 1
{ p +p
}
[ p1
] (1) m
mn+1
2
n+1
1
2
[
]

D
1 (2)
(5)
i
(n+1)
(n+1)
(n+1)
(n+1)
(n+1)
2
Dmi1 Ji1 +1 (zm
)
Cm(2i2 +1) Ji2 +1(zm
)Hi2(zm
)Hi2 +1(zm
)Ji2(zm
) ,
i1
2i2 +1
z
z
m=1
m=1
i =0
i =0
1

(7)

(n)
(1)
(5)
(3)
n
i
i
where z = kR d 2(1 cos s ); zm = mz/mn ; Cm = m!/n!/(m n)!; Cmi = Cmi mn+1 /m ; Cmi = Cmi m/mn+1 ;
(1)
(3)
(1)
(1)
(0)
2
Dn = (1)n+1 ((2n + 1)!!) /2; ik - Kronecker symbol; Cmi = (1)km Cmi (1)km+1 (1 mmn+1 )C(m+1)i ; Dmii1 =
(3)

(1)i+i1 i!!/(i 2i1 )!!(m/mn+1 )i+1i1 Cmi ;


min{i,p1 }

Cmi =

1
Cpi11 Cpii
2

i1 =max{0,ip2 }

mi1 +p2 (m 1)p1


;
(m 1)i1

(8)

p1 +p2 (0)
(2)
Dmi1 = i=2i
Dmii1 ; [(p1 + p2 1)/2] - integer part of the number; J (x), H (x) - Bessel and Struve functions of the
1
order respectively.
2

Violation of Bragg law of scattering

2.1

The new laws of diuse scattering


(0)

1 (diuse scattering) expansion of f0 (|kR k |, n) (7)


In the short-wavelength limit d/
q
{
+
[ m2
] Lm1 0 }

NL
m

(1)m
d

(m) Jm+1 (kLm1 )
f0 (k) = 2 f0 (xq )xq J0 (kxq )dxq = 2
Cm2
m2 f0 (xq )
mm2 1
m+1

k
dx
L
m
q
1
m =1 m=0
m =0
1

(9)

Lm1 +0

in powers of 1/k series gives asymptotic expression


(0)
f0 (|kR kq |, n) = 23/2 1/2 d2

i
(h1)

ani
(i)
Ci2
i+3/2
z
i=n
i =n
2

mn+1

{
(h2,n )
anii2 i1d

cos

(n+1)
zi1
(i
2

i1 =1

)
+ 1)
(
4 i =0
3

(h3)

aii3

(n+1)

)2i3

8zi1

)
(n+1)
sin zi1
(i + 1)
(
2
4 i =0
3

(h4)

aii3

(n+1)

)2i3 +1

}
,

(10)

8zi1

{
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i)
(i1)
where NL - full number of function f0 (xq ) discontinuity points; Ci1 = C0 = 0, i > 0; Ci = 1, i > 0; C1 = (2i 3)C1
, i > 1;
}
(i)
(i1)
(i1)
(h1)
(h3)
i
1/2; aii1 =
Cik = Ci1k (i2+k)Cik , i > 2, k = 1, 2, . . . , i 2
Lm1 = dm1 /mn+1 ; ani
= (1)i mn+1
{
}
i

(i+1)
(h4)
(i+1)
(n)
(n)
(n)
(n)
(1)i1 a2i1 /(2i1 )!; aii1 = (1)i1 a2i1 +1 /(2i1 + 1)!; ai =
bi1 , b0 = 1, bi1 = 4n2 (2i1 1)2 ;
i1 =0

(h2,n )
anii2 i1d

(d/mn+1 ) 2
=
2 1/2
iii
1

d i2
f0 (xq , n, nd )
dxiq2

] Li1 0


;

(11)

Li1 +0

(h2,n )

nd - the smallest integer, for which anind id1 = 0 at least for the one i1 , 1 6 i1 6 mn+1 . (9)-(11) give the main term for
the indicatrix of scattering in the short-wavelength limit z 1

(R)
Iq,3 = 2 2n(nd

where
Sn+1 (z) =

{mn+1

m1 =1

1/2)

R22

1/2
m1 cos

c4R (kR d)5


Sn+1 (z)A21,2 (x3 )(1 cos s )2 ( + cos s )2 ,
c4t z 2nd +3

(n+1)
zm
1

(nd + 1)
2
4

d
mn+1

)nd [

] Lm1 0 }2
dnd

.
f0 (xq )

dxnq d
Lm1 +0

(12)

(13)

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

So, the new laws of scattering on three-dimensional roughness with cylindrical symmetry in the short-wavelength limit
z 1 have the form (x3 = 0)
(R)
22nd
Iq,3 (kR d)
Sn+1 (z), nd = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . ,
(14)
where integer nd (11) is dened by the form of roughness. When nd = 0, (14) gives classical law of diuse scattering [2],
[3], [6], when scattering indicatrix envelope (kR d)2 (Fig. 2, 3).
(R)

I3(R) / I3(R)(139.07)

(R)

I 3 /I 3 (45.9)

100

d/

d/

Figure 2: Classical law of diuse scattering. n = 0, nd = 0, p1 = p2 = 0 (2), (6), (7).


Figure 3: One of the new diuse scattering laws (14). n = 0, nd = 2, p1 = p2 = 2 (2), (6), (7).

2.2

Bragg law of scattering for three-dimensional cylindrically symmetrical roughness

Let us consider Rayleigh wave scattering in the short-wavelength limit z 1 by continuous roughness f0 (xq ) (2), when
n = 0. In this case f0 (xq ) and its derivatives can have point of discontinuity only at xq = d. For such roughness classical
1 follows from (12), if nd = 0 (x3 = 0)
law of diuse scattering d/
(

2 c4
) 2
(R)
2
Iq,3 = 2 R4 f02 (xq ) d (kR d) sin2 z
A1,2 (0)(1 cos s )1/2 ( + cos s )2 .
(15)
4
2 2R2 ct
Bragg law of scattering by the three-dimensional roughness with cylindrical symmetry follows from (15): positions of
scattering indicatrix zeroes

1
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = (m + ) , m 1 , m integer ,
(16)
4
and of maxima

3
(17)
kR d 2(1 cos s ) = (m + ) , m 1 , m integer
4
are dened only by Bragg parameter kR d and by the angle of scattering s . (In practice, comparison of numerical
calculations according to formulas (6), (7) and (15) at not so small s shows that the laws (16), (17) are approximately
valid beginning from 0 . m.)
Amplitudes of the maxima are dened by the amplitude of the roughness in point xq = d, that is, by value of f0 (d)
(15) (Fig.2, 4). All mentioned physical values do not depend on roughness form.
Zeroes cos s = 1 and cos s = are dened by boundary conditions [6], [7] and do not connect to Bragg law.

2.3

Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope in the short-wavelength limit

In contrast to classical diuse scattering z 1 (15) conforming to the Bragg law of scattering, let us consider Rayleigh
wave scattering in the short-wavelength limit z 1 by the continuous roughness with n = 0 (1), (2) corresponding to
the new laws of diuse scattering (14), when nd > 0 (x3 = 0).
Let surface roughness has the form
(2)

f0 (xq ) =

(p)

(i)

(i)

(i)

bi f0 (xq , n = 0, q1 , p1 , p2 ) ,

(18)

i=0
(i)

(i)

(i)

(2)

where p1 = p2 = i; q1 = 22i ; f0 is dened by (2). Asymptotic expansion for Fourier transform of roughness f0 (xq )
(18) in the limit z 1 follows from formulas (10), (18)
}
(2) {
(b)
1/2 2 N
A(b)

d
(2)
(0)
i
i
sin(z ) + 2i+1
cos(z ) ,
(19)
f0 (|kR kq |) = 23/2 3/2
2i
z
4
z
4
z
i=0

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

5
(b)

(b)

(p)

where N (2) = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +; N = 2N (2) + 1; constants Ai , Bi are expressed through constants bi


the form
2i
2i+1

(c) (m)
(b)
(s) (m)
(b)
Ai =
Cim q1 b(p)
;
B
=
Cim q1 b(p)
m
m .
i
m=0
(s)

(18) and have


(20)

m=0

(c)

(s)

(c)

(c)

(s)

Constants Cim , Cim are dened from (10), (18). For example, C00 = 1; C00 = 3/8; C01 = 1; C10 = 15/128;
(s)
(s)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(c)
(s)
(s)
C11 = 23/8; C12 = 2; C10 = 105/1024; C11 = 281/128; C12 = 59/4; C13 = 6; C20 = 4725/32768; C21 =
(s)
(s)
(s)
(c)
(c)
(c)
1587/1024; C22 = 2817/64; C23 = 333/4; C24 = 24; C20 = 72765/262144; C21 = 102075/32768; C22 = 18657/512;
(c)
(c)
(c)
C23 = 33147/64; C24 = 537; C25 = 120 and so on.
Let x3 = 0, s = /2, p = kR d in what follows and denote
p5/2 (2)
(0)
f (|kR kq |) ,
d2 0

f2 (p) =

(21)

(2)
(0)
where f0 (|kR kq |) has the form (19). It follows from (6), (21) that
(RA)
I3
= A(c) f22 (p) , where
(R)

is asymptotic expansion of scattering indicatrix I3

(c)

2 2 c4R
=
8R22 c4t

F2 (p) = A

(22)

(6) at z 1. Let us introduce the function F2 (p)


(

(M )

(
)2

(0)
F2 (p) ;

(M )

1/A(c)

)1/2

(0)

maxp {F2 (p)}

)mi
Np (
NF
(F )

1
1
Ci
=p
=
p

;
p2
d2i
p2i
i=1
i=0
(2)

(0)
F2 (p)

NF =

Np

(2)

mi ,

(23)

i=1
(0)

(0)

where maxp {F2 (p)} - maximum value of function F2 (p) over considered segment [d1 , dNp ] of variable p.
Equation

f2 (p) = F2 (p) sin( 2p ) ,


4

(24)
(p)

in which N (2) > NF gives the system of 2(N (2) + 1) linear algebraic equations with respect to 2(N (2) + 1) unknowns bi ,
i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 2N (2) + 1.

(b)
(M ) (F )

Ci , i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , NF ;
Ai = A
(b)
(25)
Ai = 0 ,
i = NF + 1, NF + 2, . . . , N (2) ;

(b)
(2)
Bi = 0 ,
i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , N ,
which has the unique solution
(p)

bi

(0)

= bi , i = 0, 1, 2, . . . , 2N (2) + 1 .

(26)

Fourier transform of roughness (18) has the form


(2)
(0)
f0 (|kR kq |) =

(p)
(0)
(i) (i) (i)
bi f0 (|kR kq |,n = 0,q1 ,p1 ,p2 ) ,

(27)

i=0
(0)
(i) (i) (i)
(i)
where f0 (|kR kq |, n(i) , q1 , p1 , p2 ) is given by (7) with replacement n n(i) , p1,2 p1,2 (see (18)).
(p)

After substitution of the constants bi (26) in (18), (27) and in (6) the surface roughness is obtained (18), for which
(R)
(R)
indicatrix of scattering I3 (and analogically Iq ) has oscillations of envelope in kR d in the short-wavelength limit (Fig.
5) [9]. The indicatrix envelope has zeroes at points p = di , i = 1, 2, . . . , Np (23).
1, at which indicatrix envelope is increased
These oscillations are violation of classical law of diuse scattering d/
monotonously as 2 ((14) at nd = 0), (15) with increasing of frequency in the short-wavelength limit.
1 are connected with the new laws of diuse scattering (14),
Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope for d/
(2)
since summary roughness f0 (xq ) (18) consists of partial roughnesses including those, for which nd > 0 (13), (14). In the
last case scattering is dened not only by Bragg parameter p = kR d, angle of scattering s and roughness amplitude in
point xq = d but by the form of roughness as well (9)-(14), (18).

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

(R) (R)

I3/I3 (106)

d/

(R)

I 3 / I 3(R) (844.71)

4.10
3.10

2.10

1.10

d/
Figure 4: The Bragg law of scattering. n = 0, nd = 0, p1 = p2 = 0 (2), (6), (7).
Figure 5: Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope in the short-wavelength limit. Np = 7, di = 700 +
(2)
100(i 1), N = 59, mi = {4, i = 1; 1, i = 2 7} (18), (6), (7).

2.4

Violation of Bragg conditions of scattering indicatrix zeroes and maxima

1, when nd = 0 (14), (15), positions of the scattering indicatrix zeroes and


For the classical diuse scattering d/
maxima are dened by Bragg law of scattering (16), (17) and do not depend on roughness form.
1 corresponding to the new laws (14). Let surface roughness and its Fourier
Let us consider diuse scattering d/
transform are described by formulas (18), (27) respectively. Then condition, that scattering indicatrix (6) has zeroes in
(2)
(1)
(2)
(1)
the arbitrary points p = p0 , p0 and extremum in the point pe , p0 < pe < p0 , gives the system of linear algebraic
(p)
equations with respect to unknowns bi , i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 (s = /2, x3 = 0)


(0)
(2)
(2)
(0)

= 0 ; f0 (|kR kq |) p(2) = 0 ;

f0 (|kR kq |) p(1)
0
0
df2 (p)/dp pe = 0 ;
f2 (pe ) = Ae ;
(28)

(2)
(p)
(d)
f (2) (xq /d)

= 1;
b = f (xq /d) = b .
0

1/2

System (28) has unique solution.


It follows from (28) that arbitrary positions of scattering indicatrix zeroes and maxima in p = kR d are dened by
not only by Bragg parameter kR d and angle of scattering s , but by the form of surface roughness determined by
the constants bi (p) (18), (27) corresponding to the partial roughnesses, for which nd = i, i.e. including ones with
nd > 0 and therefore corresponding to the new laws of diuse scattering (14) (Fig. 4, 6, 7).
(R)

(2)

I3

f0

x|| / d

d/

Figure 6: The surface roughness, scattering on which violates the Bragg law (18).
Figure 7: Violation of Bragg law of scattering (18), (27), (28), (Fig. 6).

2.5

New zeroes of indicatrix in angle of scattering in the short-wavelength limit

The new laws of diuse scattering (14) dene the arbitrary position of scattering indicatrix (6) zeroes in angle of scattering
(0)
s , 0 6 s 6 2 for any xed value of Bragg parameter kR d.
(R)
For the classical diuse scattering, when nd = 0, for any xed value of Bragg parameter kR d indicatrixes Iq,3 can have
zeroes only in xed values of scattering angle dening by Bragg law (16) for any form of roughness with nd = 0.

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

Let us consider Rayleigh wave scattering by surface roughness (18), (19) corresponding to the new laws (14) when
N = 1 and N (2) = 0. According to (18) this roughness consists of two partial roughnesses with nd = 0 and nd = 1
respectively. It follows from (19) and (6), that condition of scattering indicatrix zeroes z (0) for xed value of Bragg
parameter p0 has the form (x3 = 0)
(b)

A0 sin(z (0)
(0)

Indicatrix zero s

1 (b)

) + (0) B0 cos(z (0) ) = 0


4
4
z

(b)

z (0) tan(z (0)

B
) = 0(b) .
4
A

(29)

is the solution of the equation

(0)
p0 2(1 cos s ) = z (0) .

(30)

(0)

It follows from (30) that when 0 6 z (0) 6 2p0 then 0 6 s 6 2. It follows from (29) that z (0) can have any values
(0)
(0)
0 6 z (0) 6 2p0 . So, scattering indicatrix zero s can have any values 0 6 s 6 2 contrary to the Bragg law of
scattering (16).

2.6

Reduction and straightening of Bragg oscillations

Oscillations of scattering indicatrix envelope in the short-wavelength limit z 1 were considered in the section 3.3. These
oscillations were obtained by means of scattering indicatrix asymptotic expansion (19) denite form construction in the
limit z 1 and therefore by means of scattering indicatrix (6) asymptotic behaviour manipulation (23)-(26), (6).
(R)
Numerical investigations of scattering indicatrix I3 asymptotic behaviour in the short-wavelength limit z 1 ac(p)
cording to formulas (21)-(26), (6), i.e. substitution of constants bi (18), i = 1 (2N (2) + 1), obtained as solution of (25),
(R)
(i)
(i)
(0)
(i)
in (27) with f0 (|kR kq |, n = 0, q1 , p1 , p2 ) (see (18)) in form of (7) and calculation of I3 according to (6), (7), give
the next result.
At increasing of indicatrix envelope zeroes number Np with simultaneous increasing of the rst zero value d1 and
simultaneous decreasing of distance between adjacent zeroes di , i = 1 Np reduction and even straightening of Bragg
oscillations take place (Fig. 8, 9).
(R)

(R)

3 / 3

(1000)

(R)

(R)

3 / 3

d/

(700)

d/
(2)

= {4, i = 1; 1, i =

(2)

= {3, i = 1; 1, i =

Figure 8: Reduction of Bragg oscillations. Np = 7, N = 59, di = 700 + 50(i 1), mi


2 6; 2, i = 7}.
Figure 9: Straightening of Bragg oscillations Np = 11, N = 59, di = 700 + 10(i 1), mi
2 10; 2, i = 11}.

Physically it means that eect of scattering indicatrix strong dependence on surface roughness form leads to the
reduction and straightening of Bragg oscillations at denite form of roughness. These eects correspond to the new laws
of diuse scattering (14).
References
[1] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound. Vols. I, II. New York. Dover. 1945.
[2] S.V. Biryukov, Yu.V. Gulyaev, V.V. Krylov, V.P. Plesskii. Surface acoustic waves in inhomogeneous media. SpringerVerlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 1995, 390 p.
[3] The physics encyclopedia. Ed.: A.M. Prokhorov. Moscow. 1988.

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2011

[4] A.A. Maradudin, D.L. Mills. The attenuation of Rayleigh surface waves by surface roughness. Annals of physics
(N.Y.) 1976, v. 100, p. 262-309.
[5] V.N. Chukov. Surface roughness structure and Rayleigh scattering laws of Rayleigh wave. Moscow. Preprint IBCP
RAS, 2003, 36 p.
[6] V.N.
Chukov.
Candidate
of
science
dissertation.
Moscow.
V.N. Chukov. Abstract of dissertation. Moscow. MEPHI. 1994. 20 p.

MEPHI.

1994,

164

p.

[7] V.N. Chukov.Rayleigh wave scattering by statistical arbitrary form roughness. Solid State Communications 2009, v.
149, iss. 47-48, p. 2219-2224.
[8] V.N. Chukov. Oscillations of statistical scattering in Rayleigh limit. Proceedings of the International Conference
Days on Diraction 2010, June 8-11, 2010, St. Petersburg, Russia, p. 48.
[9] V.N. Chukov. Oscillations of scattering in Rayleigh limit. Moscow. Preprint IBCP RAS. 2010. 8 p.

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2014

The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering


Vitalii N. Chukov
N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS,
Center of Acoustic Microscopy, Kosygin Str. 4, Moscow, 119334, Russia
e-mail: chukov@chph.ras.ru
Abstract

The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering are obtained. These laws are violation of the Rayleigh
law of scattering.
References
[1] V.N. Chukov, On the Scattering Theory of the Surface Rayleigh and Bulk Acoustical Waves of
Dierent Polarizations by Three-Dimensional and Two-Dimensional Statistical Roughness of a
Free Isotropic Solid Surface, Ph. D. Thesis and Abstract (in Russian), MEPHI, Moscow (1994).
The Russian State Library, The Library of MEPHI.
[2] V.N. Chukov, Physics of the Solid State, 39, 233239 (1997).
[3] V.N. Chukov, On Rayleigh, Resonance and Short-Wavelength Scattering Laws of Rayleigh Wave,
Preprint/IBCP RAS, Editorial and Publishing Service of the Lebedev Physical Institute RAS,
Moscow (2002). The Russian State Library.
[4] V.N. Chukov, Solid State Communications, 149, 22192224 (2009).
[5] V.N. Chukov, Ultrasonics, 52, 511 (2012).
[6] V.N. Chukov, Proc. of the Intern. Conf. Days on Diraction 2011, IEEE, St. Petersburg (2011).
DOI: 10.1109/DD.2011.6094365, p. 55-62.
[7] V.N. Chukov, Proc. of the Intern. Conf. Days on Diraction 2012, IEEE, St. Petersburg (2012).
DOI: 10.1109/DD.2012.6402750, p. 47-53.
[8] V.N. Chukov, Days on Diraction, Int. Conf., St. Petersburg. Abstracts DD: 2008, p. 39, 113;
2009, p. 25, 27; 2010, p. 26, 27; 2011, p. 28, 29; 2012, p. 31; 2013, p. 24. Universitas Petropolitana
MDCCXXIV, Saint-Petersburg.

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2014

The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering


Vitalii N. Chukov
Center of Acoustic Microscopy, N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, Russia;
e-mail: chukov@chph.ras.ru
ing roughness (amplitude and character size in the
plane parallel to the surface) or inhomogeneity (an
inhomogeneity characteristic sizes in direction perpendicular to the surface and in the plane parallel
to the surface).
1 Introduction
Only the scattered Rayleigh wave is investigated
The Rayleigh surface acoustic wave propagation in this work, but the bulk waves are not considered.
and scattering have increasing interest beginning
from the Lord Rayleigh [1] due to their broad usage 2.1 Surface roughness
in the experimental physics and industry [2]-[11].
The new laws of the Rayleigh wave scattering vio- Medium has a surface roughness, occupying region
lating the Rayleigh law of scattering and the laws of of a nite size. Mass density (x) and elastic moduli
diuse scattering including the Bragg law were ob- C (x) have the next form [5, 6], [9]
tained in the works [6]-[9]. The Rayleigh wave scat(x) = (x3 f (x1 , x2 ));
tering by the statistical surface roughness [6, 7], by
the statistical near-surface inhomogeneity [9] and
C (x) = C (x3 f (x1 , x2 )),
(1)
by the deterministic surface roughness with cylindrical symmetry [8] was considered in these works. where , C are the constant density and elastic
The new laws of the Rayleigh wave scatter- moduli of the medium homogeneous part; f (x1 , x2 )
ing by an arbitrary deterministic (not statistical) is a function describing surface roughness, it is not
three-dimensional surface roughness and by a near- equal to zero only inside of a surface rough area;
surface inhomogeneity in the Rayleigh limit are ob- (x) is the Heaviside step function, which is equal
tained in the present work [10, 11]. These new laws to 1 for x > 0 and 0 for x < 0. Roughness is
violate the Rayleigh law of scattering [1].
deterministic in both coordinates x1 , x2 :
The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering are obtained. These laws are violation of the Rayleigh law
of scattering.

f (x1 , x2 ) = 0 fq (xq ),

The Rayleigh wave scattering problem

Let semi-innite isotropic elastic medium having


a free surface occupies the half-space x3 > 0,
x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) is radius-vector in the Cartesian
coordinate system. Medium has a surface roughness or mass density inhomogeneity occupying region of a nite size. Surface acoustic Rayleigh
wave [1, 2], propagating along the positive direction of x1 -axis in the Cartesian coordinate system,
is incident on the rough or inhomogeneous region.
Surface roughness or inhomogeneity is assumed to
be weak. It is necessary to solve the scattering
problem in the Born approximation of the perturbation theory; to derive displacement vector and
intensity in the scattered Rayleigh wave at large
distances [5, 6] from the rough or inhomogeneous
region in dependence on the medium Poisson coecient , magnitude of the radius-vector xq in
the surface plane, x3 -coordinate of the Cartesian
coordinate system, scattering angle s , wave fre (cR the Rayleigh wave velocity,
quency = cR /
its wavelength), on parameters describ = 2

(2)

where xq = (x1 , x2 , 0); fq (xq ) is an arbitrary deterministic dimensionless function; 0 is normalization amplitude of the roughness, having dimension
of length.
Lets consider roughness of the next two space
congurations.
2.1.1
x1 ,

Arbitrary three-dimensional roughness

Let
x2 , x3 are the contravariant coordinates of
a radius-vector x in the oblique-angled (not Cartesian) coordinate system (Fig. 1). Its origin and
x3 -axis coincide with the origin and x3 -axis of the
Cartesian coordinate system x1 x2 x3 . Axes x1 and
x2 lie in the x1 x2 coordinate plane of the Cartesian
coordinate system; is the angle between x1 -axis of
the oblique-angled coordinate system and x1 -axis of
the Cartesian coordinate system; 0 is the angle between x1 -, and x2 - axes of the oblique-angled coordinate system. When = 0, 0 = /2 the obliqueangled coordinate system coincides with the Cartesian coordinate system. Coordinates xi and xi ,

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2014

x3

(x) = (x3 )(inh) (x) ,

1
8

x2 6

0.5

x'2

2
0
2
0.5

0
x'1
4

x1

where is the constant density of the medium homogeneous part ; (inh) (x) is a function describing
inhomogeneity, it is not equal to zero only inside of
inhomogeneous region; (x) is the Heaviside step
function. Inhomogeneity is deterministic in the all
three coordinates x1 , x2 , x3 :

Figure 1: The Cartesian and the obliqueangled coordinate systems.


i = 1, 2, 3 are connected by the next relations
{
x1 = x1 cos + x2 cos( + 0 ) ;
x2 = x1 sin + x2 sin( + 0 ) ;
x3 = x3 ,
[xqed2 ]3
[ed1 xq ]3
; x2 =
; x3 = x3 .
(3)
sin 0
sin 0
The angle varies within limits 0 6 6 2; the
angle 0 within limits 0 < 0 < . Square brackets in (3) denote vector product. ed1 , ed2 are the
orts in the directions of x1 - and x2 - axes respectively. In the Cartesian coordinate system they are
ed1=(cos ; sin ; 0);ed2=(cos(+0 ); sin(+0 ); 0).
Let a roughness fq (xq ) (2) has the next form
x1 =

[xqed2 ]3
[ed xq ]
fq (xq ) = f1(
)f2 ( 1 3) = f1(x1 )f2 (x2 ). (4)
sin 0
sin 0

(6)

(inh)

(inh) (x) = q

(xq )F (x3 ),

(7)

(inh)

where q
(xq ), F (x3 ) are arbitrary deterministic
functions.
Lets consider inhomogeneity of the next two
space congurations.
2.2.1

Arbitrary three-dimensional inhomogeneity

Let a density (7) has the next form


(inh) (x) = inh 1 (

[xqed2 ]3
[ed xq ]
)2 ( 1 3 )F (x3 ) =
sin 0
sin 0

inh 1 (x1 )2 (x2 )F (x3 ) .

(8)

In (8) inh is normalization amplitude, having dimension of a density. In the oblique-angled coordinate system (3) the dimensionless functions 1 , 2 ,
F are not zero only inside 06x1 6L1 ; 06x2 6L2 ;
0 6 x3 6 L3 respectively. Inhomogeneity occupies
region in the form of a parallelepiped.

2.2.2 Inhomogeneity with cylindrical symmetry


(inh)
In (4) arguments of the dimensionless functions f1 ,
The function q
(xq ) describing inhomogeneity
f2 describing roughness structure are given in the
structure in the plane parallel to the surface decircular brackets everywhere. In the oblique-angled
pends only on a modulus of the radius-vector xq :
coordinate system these functions are not zero only

inside 0 6 x1 6 L1; 0 6 x2 6 L2 respectively. That is


(inh) (x) = inh 0 (xq )F (x3 ) .
(9)
surface rough area has the form of a parallelogram.
Inhomogeneity (9) occupies region in the form of a
2.1.2 Roughness with cylindrical symmetry
cylinder with radius L1 and heigh L3 .
Elastic moduli C are dened by the formulas
The function fq (xq ) (2), describing a roughness
(5)
of [9].
structure, depends only on the absolute value of
The
functions (4), (8), (9) are factorized, i.e.
the radius-vector xq :
they are products of the functions, each of which
fq (xq ) = f0 (xq ) .
(5) depends only on the one variable.
The roughness (5) occupies region in the form of a
3
circle with the radius L1 .
2.2

Near-surface inhomogeneity

Complex displacement vector in the


scattered Rayleigh wave

Displacement vector in the scattered Rayleigh wave


Let semi-innite isotropic elastic medium having is obtained from the theory of elasticity equation of
a free surface occupies the half-space x3 > 0. motion [2] (summation is carried out in repeating
Medium has a mass density inhomogeneity occu- indexes from 1 up to 3 everywhere)
[
]
pying region of a nite size. The mass density is
2
2
described by the next function of coordinates [5, 9] (x) u = C (x) u +C (x) u .
t2
x
x
x x
(x) = (0) (x) + (x) ; (0) (x) = (x3 ) ;
(10)

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2014

3.1

3

2
1
f (x1 , x2 )C3
,

x3 x x =0

Surface roughness

Substitution of (1) in the elasticity theory equation


of motion (10) gives generalized equation of motion
for innite inhomogeneous medium [5, 6], [9]
{ 2
}
u
2 u
(x3 f (x1 , x2 )) 2 C
+
t{
x x
f (x1 , x2 )
+
+(x3 f (x1 , x2 )) C1
} x1
f (x1 , x2 )
u
C2
C3
= 0,
x2
x
(11)
d
(x) = (x);
where (x) - Dirac - function: dx
+
G(x)(x a) dx = G(a), G(x) - an arbitrary

function. Generalized equation (11) is equivalent to


the traditional equation of motion for semi-innite
homogeneous medium with roughness on the surface

2 u
2 u
= C
, x3 > f (x1 , x2 )
2
t
x x

(16)

u(0) (x, t) is displacement vector in the incident


Rayleigh wave [9, 11].
Expression (15) by means of the methods described in [5, 9] gives for displacement eld in the
scattered Rayleigh wave at great distance from the
roughness xq L1,2 [5, 6], [9] the next formula:
ei/4 eikR xq it c2R 5/2
2 kR
u(R) (x, t) = A

xq
ct
2 2R2
(0)
f (kR kq ) [cos s 1] [cos s + ]

{eq A1 (x3 ) + ie3 A2 (x3 )} ,

(17)

where eq = e1 cos s + e2 sin s ; kR = /cR ;


f (kq ) Fourier transform of the function f (x1 , x2 ):

f (kq ) = f (x1 , x2 )eikq xq d2 xq . Expressions for the


other values contained in (17) are given in [5, 9], [11]
(12) (see also reference [14] in [9]).

and to the boundary conditions on the free surface 3.2 Near-surface inhomogeneity
x3 = f (x1 , x2 ):
Generalized equation of motion for the medium

with a near-surface inhomogeneity and displace
u
C
n
= 0,
(13) ment vector in the scattered Rayleigh wave are
x
x3 =f (x1 ,x2 )
given in the works [9, 10].
where n is external normal to the surface:
n =

1
]2

[
f (x1 , x2 )
f (x1 , x2 )
1+
+
x1
x2
{
}
f (x1 , x2 ) f (x1 , x2 )
;
; 1 .
x1
x2

Real displacement vector in the scattered Rayleigh wave

]2

The real part of the complex vector u(R) (x, t) has


the physical sense of the scattered Rayleigh wave
displacement vector. It has the next form
(14)

(f )
3/2
Re u(R;ij) (x, t) = A(0) Aij (k1 , k2 )kR /( 2R2 )
Equivalence of (11) and (12), (13) is proved by inte(f )
(f ) (x, t; kR , ) ,
Fi (kR , s )E
(18)
gration of (11) in dx3 on -neighbourhood of point
ij
x3 = f (x1 , x2 ) with subsequent tending of to zero.
where i = 1, 2: 1 corresponds to surface roughness,
The next expression for displacement eld in
2 - to near-surface inhomogeneity;
scattered waves in the Born approximation of the
j = 1, 2: 1 corresponds to arbitrary threeperturbation theory in f (x1 , x2 ) is derived from
dimensional function, 2 - to a function with
(11) by means of the Green function D [5, 6],[9]
(f )
(f )
cylindrical symmetry; Ai1 = fi
, i = 1, 2 ;
(f )
(f )
(s)
(0)
u (x, t) = u (x, t) u (x, t) =
f1
= kR fm = kR 0 sin 0 S1 (k1 ,k2 ) ;
(f )
(f )

f2 =
(k1 ,k2 ) ;
m /=(inh /) sin 0 S2
2

2
2
= d xq dt D (xq , xq , t t , x3 , x3 = 0)
(i)
(i)
(i) 2
(i) 2
(f )
Si = [a1 (k1 )+a2 (k1 )][b1 (k2 )+b2 (k2 )] ;
+ (i)
(i)
(sh)
a1 (k1 ) = 0 r1 (x1 ) cos(k1 x1 )dx1 ;

L (xq )u(0)
(
x
,
t
)
,
(15)

+ (i)
(i)
a2 (k1 ) = 0 r1 (x1 ) sin(k1 x1 )dx1 ;
where
(i)
(i)
and analogically b1 (k2 ), b2 (k2 ),
but for

2
(i)
(1)
(2)
1 f (x , x )

r2 (x2 ) and k2 ; rj = fj , rj
= j , j = 1, 2;
(sh)
1
2
C

L (xq ) =
(f )
(f ) (f )
(0)
(f )

x
x
A
=
;
= kR 0 f0 (|kR k |);
=
=1
x3 =0

i2

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(0)
(0)
0 (|kR kq |)/; |kR kq | = kR 2(1 cos s );
+
f0 (kq )
=
2 0 f0 (xq )xq J0 (kq xq )dxq ; and
analogically 0 (kq ); J0 (x) - Bessel function
/2
of zero order J0 (x) = 2 0 cos(x sin t) dt ;
(f )
F1 (s ) = c2R /(2c2t )[cos s 1][cos s + ];
(f )
F2 (kR , s )
=
2 [V (kR ) cos s + H(kR )];
denitions of the functions V (kR ), H(kR )
(f ) =
and the constant R2 see in [9]; E
ij
(ij)
eq A1 (x3 )cos(kR xq t + /4 + 0 + m )/ xq
(ij)
e3 A2 (x3 )sin(k[R xq t + /4 + 0 + m )/ xq ; ]
(i1)
(i) (i)
(i) (i)
(i) (i)
(i) (i)
m = arctan (a1 b2 +a2 b1 )/(a1 b1 a2 b2 ) ;
(12)

under conditions
(1)

(2)

(1)

(2)

(n2 )

=0; P2 =P2 =. . .=P2

(n1 +1)

P1

(n2 +1)

= 0; P2

= 0,

=0;
(21)

(0)

where n1 , n2 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +, (P1;2 = f1;2 (0)


can be equal to an arbitrary value for any n1 , n2 ).
(k)
Denition for the topological characteristics P1;2 is
(k)

P1;2 =

1
(k1)!

(22)

m = m = 0; k1 = kR m1 (s , ); k2 =
kR m2 (s , , 0 ); m1 = 2 sin(s /2) sin( s /2);
m2 = 2 sin(s /2) sin( + 0 s /2); A1 =
ekR x3 ekR x3 ; A2 = ekR x3 (/)ekR x3 ;
A(0) , 0 are the real amplitude and initial phase of
the incident Rayleigh wave x1 - component [5, 9].
In (18) functions 1 (x1 ), 2 (x2 ) are taken in the
oblique-angled coordinate system (3), (Fig. 1).

(n1 )

P1 =P1 =. . .=P1

f1,2 (x)xk1 dx =

(22)

(k1)
1;2 (x) dx

(k)
1;2 (x

Pf

= Pf

= 0) ,

(k)

where k = 1, 2 . . .; Pf 1;2 (xk+1 ) =


+ + + +
. . . x3 x2 f1;2 (x1 )dx1 dx2 . . .dxk1 dxk .
xk+1 xk
(nk)
1;2 (x)

It follows from this denition, that Pf

(n)
(0)
dk
(1)k dx
k Pf 1;2 (x) ; Pf 1;2 (x)

= f1;2 (x), where


n, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , +; n > k. Functions f1 (x1 ),
f2 (x2 ) in (21) are taken in the oblique-angled
coordinate system x1 x2 x3 (3).
The frequency dependence of the scattered
5 The scattered Rayleigh wave intensity
Rayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
By denition intensity of the scattered Rayleigh the Rayleigh limit is
wave horizontal Iq or vertical I3 component is the
Iq;3 5+2(n1 +n2 ) ; n1 , n2 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , +. (23)
square of its displacement vector amplitude:
2

(0)

(f ) 2

Iq,3 = xq Iq,3 = A(0) Aij


(f ) 2

Fi

(0)

3
(kR , s )kR
/(2R22 ); i, j = 1, 2 ,
(0)

where Iq , I3
6

It follows from (23), that in the case of Rayleigh


wave scattering on the roughness of a such structure, for which n = n1 +n2 > 0, the Rayleigh law of
L1,2
scattering Iq;3 5 in the Rayleigh limit
(19) is violated.

(k1 , k2 )A21,2 (x3 )

are the indicatrixes of scattering.

The new laws of Rayleigh scattering

6.1
6.1.1

Surface roughness
Arbitrary three-dimensional roughness

For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the roughness


with structure in the form (4) expansion of the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable kR around
point kR = 0 gives the next expression for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in the Rayleigh limit
L1,2 (see [9, 11] in details)

[
]2
(0)
Iq;3 = A(0) 0

4
1
2 cR 5+2(n1 +n2 )

k
sin2 0
8R22 c4t R
2

[1 cos s ] [cos s + ] A21;2 (x3 )

6.1.2

Roughness with cylindrical symmetry

For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the roughness with a structure in the form (5) expansion of
the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable
kR around point kR = 0 gives the next expression for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in
L1 (see [9, 11] in details)
the Rayleigh limit
[
]2
c4 5+4n1
(0)
Iq;3 = A(0) 0
2 R4 kR

2
2R2 ct
2
2
[1 cos s ] [cos s + ] A21;2 (x3 )
]2
[
(2n1 + 1)! (2)
(2n1 +2)
b
(
)P
,
s
0
2n1 (n1 !)2 n1
(24)
(2)
where bk (s ) = (1 cos s )k , under conditions
(2)

(4)

(2n1 )

P0 =P0 =. . .=P0

(2n1 +2)

=0; P0

= 0;

(25)

(0)
[
]2
where n1 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +; P0 = f0 (0) is an
(n1 +1) (n2 +1)
n1
n2
m1 (s , )m2 (s , , 0 )P1
P2
(20) arbitrary value for any n1 .

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(k)

Topological characteristic P0 is dened by formulas (22), in which f0 (xq ) in the Cartesian coordinate system must be taken instead of f1;2 (x1;2 ),
so the rst integration in (22) is carried out in dxq .
The frequency dependence of the scattered
Rayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
L1 is
the Rayleigh limit
Iq;3

5+4n1

; n1 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , +.

(26)

It follows from (26) that in the Rayleigh wave


scattering on the roughness of a such structure, for
which n = 2n1 > 0 the Rayleigh law of scattering
L1 is violated.
Iq;3 5 in the Rayleigh limit

structure, for which n = n1 + n2 + n3 > 0 the


Rayleigh law of scattering Iq;3 5 [1] in the
Rayleigh limit is violated.
6.2.2

Inhomogeneity with cylindrical symmetry

For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the inhomogeneities with a structure in the form (9) expansion of the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable kR around point kR = 0 gives the next expression for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in the
L1,3 (see [9, 10] in details)
Rayleigh limit
[

]2

2 4 2
5+2(2n1 +n3 )
A (x3 )kR

6.2 Near-surface inhomogeneity

R22 1;2
[
]2
(2n1 + 1)! (2)
6.2.1 Arbitrary three-dimensional inhomogeneity
(2n1 +2) (n3 +1)
(2)
B
(
,
)b
(
)P
S
s
s
n1
0
2n1 (n1 !)2 n3
For the Rayleigh wave scattering on the inhomo(30)
geneity with a structure in the form (8) expansion
of the formula (18) in the Taylor series in variable under conditions
kR around point kR = 0 gives the next expres(2n1 )
(4)
(2)
=0; S (1)=S (2)=. . . = S (n3 )=0;
sion for the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity in the P0 =P0 =. . .=P0

Rayleigh limit L1,2,3 (see [9, 10] in details)


[
]2 4
(2n +2)
= 0; S (n3 +1) = 0,
(31)
P0 1

(0)
2
2
(0) inh
sin 0 A1;2 (x3 )
Iq;3 = A
2

2R2
[
where n1 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +. Analogically to
(2)
n1
(27)
(k)
Bn3 (s , )m1 (s , )mn2 2 (s , , 0 )
(24), (27), P0 and S (j) are the topological char]2
(n +1) (n +1)
5+2(n1 +n2 +n3 )
acteristics of the functions 0 (xq ) and F (x3 ) respecP1 1 P2 2 S (n3 +1) kR
tively.
The frequency dependence of the scattered
under conditions
Rayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
(n )
(2)
(1)
(n )
(2)
(1)
P1 =P1 =. . .=P1 1 =0; P2 =P2 =. . .=P2 2 =0; the Rayleigh limit is
(1)
(2)
(n3 )
S = S = ... = S
= 0;
(n2 +1)
(n1 +1)
(n3 +1)
Iq;3 5+2(2n1+n3 ) ; n1 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, . . . , +. (32)
P1
=0; P2
=0; S
=0,
(28)
(i)
It follows from (32), that in the Rayleigh wave
where n1 , n2 , n3 = 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . , +, P1,2 and
S (j) are the topological characteristics of the func- scattering on the inhomogeneity of a such structure,
tions 1,2 and F describing inhomogeneity (8) in for which n = 2n1 + n35 > 0 the Rayleigh law of
the directions of the x1,2 - and x3 - axes respec- scattering [1], Iq;3 in the Rayleigh limit, is
tively (analogically to (22); see also formulas (35)- violated.
It follows from (24), (30), that because of cylin(38) in [9] and (13) in [10]). Functions 1 (x1 ),
2 (x2 ) in (22), (27), (28) are taken in the oblique- drical symmetry of the roughness (5) and inhomo(2)
geneity (9) structure the scattered Rayleigh wave
angled coordinate system x1 x2 x3 (3); Bi (s , ) =
displacement vector and intensity are expressed
(v)
(h)
(Ri /) cos s + Ri , values m1 , m2 are dened through topological characteristic (in plane parallel
(v)
(h)
by the formula (18), formulas for the Ri , Ri are to the surface plane of cylindrical symmetry x1 x2 )
(2k+2)
given in the expression (43) of [9].
P0
, k = 0, 1, 2 . . . only of even order 2k + 2,
The frequency dependence of the scattered
(2k+1)
but the values P0
of odd order do not inuRayleigh wave intensity on the surface x3 = 0 in
ence on the intensity of the scattered Rayleigh wave
the Rayleigh limit is
and,consequently, on its frequency dependence as
5+2(n1+n2+n3 )
Iq;3
; n1 , n2 , n3=0, 1, 2, . . . (29) well, in contradistinction to (20), (27). That is one
topological characteristic describes roughness or inIt follows from (29) that in the case of the Rayleigh homogeneity structure in two coordinates (dimenwave scattering on the inhomogeneity of a such sions) simultaneously.
(0)
Iq;3

(0) inh

= A

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Dependence of the Rayleigh scattering ture with the cylindrical symmetry f0 (xq ) or 0 (xq )
angular distribution on a form-factor is a such, that P (2) = 0, i.e. n1 > 0 then the main
0
(2)
terms with bn1 (s ) appear in the scattering indiIt follows from the results (20), (24) that at such
catrix (19), (24), (30). That is the form-factor of a
roughness structure when both n1 = 0 and n2 = 0
roughness or inhomogeneity in the plane x1 x2 infor the roughness (4); n1 = 0 for the roughness (5),
uences on a scattering indicatrix.
the angular dependence of the scattered Rayleigh
wave intensity is dened only by the product
7.1 Surface roughness
[cos s 1]2 [cos s + ]2 .
7

Forbidden scattering angles cos s = 1 and


cos s = are dened by the boundary conditions
on a free rough surface [5, 6]. See [3, 5] and [6, 11]
about theoretical discovery of these forbidden angles. These three forbidden directions of scattering
violate isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering angular
distribution even when the Rayleigh law of scattering is true.
Forbidden angles are absent in scattering on inhomogeneities, when the Rayleigh law of scattering
is true. It follows from the results (27), (30) for the
scattering on a such inhomogeneity structure when
n1 = n2 = n3 = 0 for the inhomogeneity (8) and
n1 = n3 = 0 for the inhomogeneity (9).
The law about rising of the Rayleigh wave scattering coecient to the constant in frequency for
the short-wavelength limit of scattering by statistical roughness was obtained by Chukov V. rst
numerically and then was proved analitically by
him in the work [5]. In [5] Chukov V. has established as well connection of noted law (about
constant), the laws of scattering on the three- and
two-dimensional statistical roughness in the shortwavelength limit with the three factors: the roughness structure, geometry of scattering and existence of the forbidden forward scattering direction
cos s = 1 dened by the boundary conditions (but
not by the roughness structure, as in the present
work; see in details [5, 6], [11]) peculiarities of the
surface and bulk acoustic waves scattering by the
two- and three-dimensional roughness of isotropic
solid.
In the case when the roughness or inhomogene(1)
ity structure is a such, that P1 = 0, i.e. n1 > 0
(1)
or P2 = 0, i.e. n2 > 0 for the roughness (4)
or inhomogeneity (8), zero power of m1 (s , ) or
m2 (s , ) (20), (27) zeroes, i.e. the main terms
with mn1 1 or mn2 2 appear in the scattering indicatrix (19), (20), (27) (see [10, 11] in details). In this
case the roughness or inhomogeneity structure in
the direction of the x1 - or x2 -axis inuences on the
scattering angular dependence, since the powers of
m1 or m2 mentioned above arise in the Taylor expansion of the functions f1,2 or 1,2 (in the obliqueangled coordinate system (3)) Fourier transform L1,2,3 .
the form-factor, in the Rayleigh limit
If the roughness (5) or inhomogeneity (9) struc-

Appearance of the new forbidden scattering angles


in addition to cos s = 1 and cos s = is considered in the present work. They increase anisotropy
caused by the already existing three forbidden angles of the Rayleigh scattering. Only appearance of
the new forbidden angles is accompanied by violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering.
7.1.1

Arbitrary three-dimensional roughness

Lets consider scattering on the roughness (4), when


the function f2 (x2 ) has the next form
{1, 0 6 x2 6 L2 ;

0, x2 < 0; x2 > L2 } .

(33)

The double sum in the expansion (20) (see [11] in


details) takes the next form
j
+

j (Ll+1 /(l + 1)!)mjl ml P (jl+1) k j ,

2 1
1
2
R
j=0 l=0

j = eq A1 cos(kR xq t + 0 + j)
where
4
2
e3 A2 sin(kR xq t + 0 + 4 2 j). In order ml21 ,
l1 = 0 at j = N to be the main term among all ml2
it is necessary, that
N
1
(N l1 +1)
(i+1)
= 0, l1 6 N.
| = 0, and P1
|P1
i=0

But the last two statements exclude each other.


Thus, it is impossible to make, that ml21 , l1 = 0
at j = N for any N > 0 be the main term among
all ml2 . That is for roughness (4), (33) its structure
in the direction of x2 -axis (3) does not inuence on
the scattering indicatrix (19).
7.2

Near-surface inhomogeneity

Appearance of the forbidden scattering angles considered in the present work (see [10] as well) violates isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering angular
distribution and is accompanied by violation of the
Rayleigh law of scattering.
7.2.1

Arbitrary three-dimensional inhomogeneity

It follows from the results (27), (30) that at such


(1)
inhomogeneity structure, when both P1 = 0 and
(1)
(2)
P2 = 0 for the inhomogeneity (8); and P0 = 0
for the inhomogeneity (9), angular dependence of
the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity is dened

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2014

(2)

only by the Bi (s ) (27), (28), i.e. by the inhomogeneity structure only in direction of the x3 -axis
perpendicularly to the surface, since in the Rayleigh
L1,2,3
limit

(2)
i+1
,
V (kR )cos s +H(kR ) = (1)i Bi (s )S (i+1) kR
i=0

and values V (kR ), H(kR ) (formula (30) of [9]) are


dened by the inhomogeneity structure F (x3 ) in
the direction perpendicular to the surface (see the
section 6 of [9] in details).
Lets consider scattering on the inhomogeneity
(8), when the function 2 (x2 ) has the form (33). In
this case the triple sum in the expansion (27) (see
[10] in details) takes the next form
j

i
ij l+1

j(1) L2 B (2) mjl mlP (jl+1)S (ij+1)k i .

2 1
R
ij 1
(l+1)!
i=0j=0l=0

In order the ml21 , l1 = 0 at i = N to be the


main term among all ml2 it is necessary, that
i

(j+1) (ij+1)
S
| = 0 for all 0 6 i 6 N 1,
|P1
j=0

and for l = l1 6 j and i = N


i
il

(k+1) (ilk+1)
(jl+1) (ij+1)
S
|=
S
|=
0.
|P1
|P1
j=l

k=0

But these two statements are mutually excluding.


Thus, it is impossible to make, that the ml21 , l1 = 0
at i = N for any N > 0 be the main term among all
the ml2 . That is for the inhomogeneity (8), (33) the
structure of inhomogeneity in direction of the x2 axis (in the oblique-angled coordinate system (3))
does not inuence on the scattering indicatrix (19).
(2)
The functions m1 , m2 (18), bn (24) of the scattering angle s have the next zeroes
m1 (s , )| = {0; 2 2k} = 0;
s
m2(s , , 0)| = {0; 2(+ )2k} = 0;
s
(2)
bj (s )|s

(31) violates an isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering angular distribution and results in arising of
the scattering indicatrix (19), (27), (30) zeroes. In
contradistinction to the scattering indicatrix zeroes
dened by the inhomogeneity structure F (x3 ) in direction perpendicular to the surface (see the section
6 in [9]), position of these zeroes does not depend
on the wavelength.
Zeroes of the functions m1 , m2 dene forbidden
scattering directions for the roughness (4) and in(2)
homogeneity (8); zero of the function bj for the
roughness (5) and the inhomogeneity (9) with cylindrical symmetry .
According to the sections (7.1.1) and (7.2.1), in
the Rayleigh wave scattering on a roughness with
the structure (4), (33) and on an inhomogeneity
with the structure (8), (33) the scattering indicatrix
(19) can have zeroes (caused by the structure in the
plane x1 x2 ) dened only by the function m1 (s , ),
i.e. only by the structure of a roughness and of
an inhomogeneity along the x1 -axis of the obliqueangled coordinate system (3). Depending on the
order of the nonzero topological characteristics, zeroes of the scattering indicatrix can have dierent
multiplicity.
Position of the second zero of the functions m1
and m2 : s = 2 2k and s = 2( + 0 ) 2k
respectively, k = 0, 1, 2; 0 6 s 6 2, depends
on the angle of a roughness and of an inhomogeneity rotation about the x3 -axis (for the m1 and m2 )
and on the angle 0 between the x1 - and the x2 axes of the oblique-angled coordinate system (3),
i.e. on the roughness and inhomogeneity structure
form (for the m2 ).

(34) Conclusion

= 0 = 0.

In (34) the integer k is taken so, that 0 6 s 6 2.


Thus, imposition of the conditions (21), (25) and
(k)
(28), (31) on the topological characteristics P1 ,
(k)
(k)
P2 and P0 , describing the roughness (4), (5) and
the inhomogeneity (8), (9) structure in the plane
parallel to the surface x1 x2 , gives rise to the next
new eect.
These conditions (21), (25), i.e. the specifying
of the surface roughness structure (4), (5) certain
form results in arising of the scattering indicatrix
(19), (20), (24) new zeroes in addition to the zeroes
cos s = 1, cos s = dened by the boundary
conditions on a free rough surface [5, 6]. Position
of these new zeroes does not depend on the wave
length .
For the near-surface inhomogeneity (8), (9) the
specifying of the certain form of this structure (28),

The problem of the Rayleigh wave scattering by a


three-dimensional deterministic surface roughness
and by a near-surface inhomogeneity of isotropic
solid is solved in the Born (the Rayleigh-Born [1])
approximation of the perturbation theory. The
roughness and inhomogeneity are described by an
arbitrary function factorized in two and three coordinates respectively. Expressions for the displacement eld and intensity in the scattered Rayleigh
wave, asymptotic expressions for the intensity in
the Rayleigh limit, when the wavelength is much
greater than the characteristic size of rough or inhomogeneous region, are derived.
It is shown, that the roughness and inhomogeneous structure (their form-factor) strongly inuences on a frequency dependence of the scattered
Rayleigh wave intensity in the Rayleigh limit, giving rise to violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering - the law about proportionality of the scattered

Rayleigh wave intensity to the fth power of frequency I 5 [1], [5, 6].
Connections between the topological characteristics of roughness, inhomogeneity and frequency dependence and value of the scattered Rayleigh wave
intensity in the Rayleigh limit are established.
It is obtained that zeroing of the any number
of terms in the Rayleigh series for intensity of the
scattered Rayleigh wave is possible by means of the
topological characteristics zeroing, i.e. by means of
the roughness and inhomogeneity structure special
form selection. In result frequency dependence of
the intensity can have the next form I 5+2n ,
where n = 0, 1, 2, 3 . . ..
It is shown, that variation of the roughness and
inhomogeneity symmetry dimension determined by
zeroing of the topological characteristics of roughness and inhomogeneity corresponding to the dierent space directions results in additional variation
of the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity frequency
dependence in the Rayleigh limit.
It is obtained, that imposition of cylindrical symmetry on the coordinate dependence of a roughness and an inhomogeneity structure gives rise to
the new eect in the connection between frequency
dependence of the intensity and topological characteristics of a roughness and an inhomogeneity:
topological characteristics only of even order inuence on the scattered Rayleigh wave intensity and
its frequency dependence.
It is found, that the roughness and inhomogeneity structure strongly inuences on the scattering
angular distribution form in the Rayleigh limit. Zeroing of topological characteristics of the certain order results in appearance of the Rayleigh scattering
indicatrix zeroes in angular of scattering in addition
to its zeroes dened by the boundary conditions
for the surface roughness and results in violation
of the angular isotropy of the Rayleigh scattering
indicatrix and in appearance of the Rayleigh scattering indicatrix zeroes in angular of scattering for
the near-surface inhomogeneity.
Increasing of the roughness and inhomogeneity symmetry dimension dened by zeroing of the
roughness and inhomogeneity topological characteristics corresponding to the dierent space directions gives rise to the increasing of the scattering
indicatrix zeroes number.
At variation of the wavelength all indicatrix zeroes do not move in the case of the Rayleigh wave
scattering by surface roughness. At variation of the
wavelength indicatrix zeroes dened by the inhomogeneity structure in the direction perpendicular to
the surface move in scattering angular. Indicatrix
zeroes dened by the inhomogeneity structure in
the plane parallel to the surface do not move. Position of the arised Rayleigh scattering indicatrix ze-

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2014

roes depends on roughness and inhomogeneity form


and on roughness and inhomogeneity location with
respect to the incident Rayleigh wave direction of
propagation. Only forbidden forward scattering direction is xed.
References
[1] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound. Vols. I,
II. New York. Dover. 1945.
[2] A.A. Maradudin. Surface Acoustic Waves. In:
Nonequilibrium Phonon Dynamics, ed. by
W.E. Bron. Plenum, New York 1985, p. 395.
[3] S.V. Biryukov, Yu.V. Gulyaev, V.V. Krylov,
V.P. Plesskii. Surface acoustic waves in inhomogeneous media. Springer-Verlag, Berlin,
Heidelberg, New York, 1995, 390 p.
[4] A.A. Maradudin, E.R. Mendez, T.A. Leskova.
Designer Surfaces. Elsevier, 2008.
[5] V.N. Chukov. Candidate of science dissertation. Moscow, MEPHI, 1994. (The Russian
State Library; The Library of the MEPHI.)
[6] V.N. Chukov. Solid State Communications
2009, v. 149, p. 2219.
[7] V.N. Chukov. Ultrasonics. 2012, v. 52, p. 5.
[8] V.N. Chukov. On violation of Raylegh
and Bragg laws of scattering. Days on
Diraction (DD), International Seminar,
2011, p. 55. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org. DOI:
10.1109/DD.2011.6094365. IEEE CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS.
[9] V.N. Chukov. The new laws of the
Rayleigh wave scattering on a nearsurface inhomogeneity. Days on Diraction (DD), International Seminar, 2012,
p.
47.
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
DOI:
10.1109/DD.2012.6402750.
IEEE
CONFERENCE PUBLICATIONS.
[10] V.N. Chukov. Inhomogeneity structure and
Rayleigh scattering laws of Rayleigh wave.
Moscow. Preprint/IBCP RAS, 2003, 32 p.
(The Russian State Library.)
[11] V.N. Chukov. Surface roughness structure and
Rayleigh scattering laws of Rayleigh wave.
Moscow. Preprint/IBCP RAS, 2003, 36 p.
(The Russian State Library - RGB; The
Russian State Public Scientic-Technical Library - GPNTB; The Library of the IBCP.)

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2015

The new laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings


Vitalii N. Chukov
N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS,
Center of Acoustic Microscopy, Kosygin Str. 4, Moscow, 119334, Russia
e-mail: chukov@chph.ras.ru
Abstract

The problem of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave by the deterministic and statistical surface
roughness and subsurface inhomogeneity is solved in the Born (the Rayleigh-Born) approximation
of the perturbation theory [1] in the amplitude of a roughness or inhomogeneity. The new laws of
the Rayleigh scattering, when the character size of the rough or inhomogeneous region a is much
smaller tnan the wavelength of the incident Rayleigh wave a , of the resonance scattering,
when a , and of the diuse scattering, when a , are obtained and investigated.
It is obtained that the strong modulation of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings by the
roughness or inhomogeneity form obtained in the present work enables amplication and suppression
of scattering in all the range of the a/ ratio. The phenomena of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse
scatterings amplication and suppression are obtained and investigated in the present work.
A strong modulation of scattering by a roughness or inhomogeneity form giving rise to violation
of the Rayleigh law of scattering [1] enables to construct basis linear independent functions of the
variables p = a/ and s - the angle of scattering. Each of these functions describes the angular
distribution of scattering G(R) (p, s ) or coecient of scattering 1/l(R) [2]-[4] and corresponds to the
scattering by the denite form of the roughness or inhomogeneity.
From the mathematical point of view a strong modulation of scattering by a roughness or inhomogeneity form obtained in the present work means that the principal physical laws of the Rayleigh,
resonance and diuse scatterings are dened not only by the one parameter p - character size of
roughness or inhomogeneity to wavelength ratio but by the variety of parameters as well. These
parameters are relations between partial roughnesses or inhomogeneities character sizes, i.e. between partial character sizes of the partial roughnesses or inhomogeneities constituting the summary
roughness or inhomogeneity and so dening the form of a summary roughness or inhomogeneity.
The physical value dening all the variety of these parameters, consequently the roughness or inhomogeneity form and thus the principal laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings is the
topological characteristics of a roughness or inhomogeneity C (n) [2]-[4].
So the principal physical laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings completely depend
on the space conguration of the physical objects interacting in scattering, that is on the form of the
incident wave dened by the wavelength and on the form of the roughness or inhomogeneity, dened
by the topological characteristics C (n) .
This basis of scattering, i.e. a strong modulation of scattering by a roughness or inhomogeneity
form, enables to construct a denite form of the scattering spectrum not only for the Rayleigh
scattering p 1, but for the resonance p 1 and for the diuse p 1 scatterings, violating the
main laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings as well.
Results of the present work can be used in seismology, solid state physics, acoustic microscopy
and acoustoelectronics.
References
[1] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound, Vols. I, II, Dover, New York (1945).
[2] V.N. Chukov, Solid State Communications, 149, 22192224 (2009).
[3] V.N. Chukov, Ultrasonics, 52, 511 (2012).
[4] V.N. Chukov, Connection between violation of the Rayleigh Law of Scattering and the Resonance
Scattering, Preprint, IBCP RAS, Moscow (2014). (The Russian State Library.)

Russian Academy of Sciences


N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics
CENTER OF ACOUSTIC MICROSCOPY

DAYS on DIFFRACTION 2015

VITALII N. CHUKOV
THE NEW LAWS OF THE RAYLEIGH,
RESONANCE AND DIFFUSE
SCATTERINGS

May 25 - 29, 2015


St.Petersburg, Russia

Abstract
Resonance scattering of the Rayleigh surface acoustic wave on a nearsurface inhomogeneity of isotropic solid is considered in detail. Inhomogeneity is statistical [1] in a plane parallel to the free surface and deterministic in the direction perpendicular to the one. Resonance scattering
is the regime of scattering when the wavelength of incident wave and the
character size of inhomogeneity are of the same order in magnitude, contrary to the Rayleigh scattering, when the wavelength of incident wave is
much greater then the character size of inhomogeneity. Resonance scattering is the elastic analogue of the Raman [2, 3] scattering regime when
eigenwavelength of inhomogeneity, that is its character size, denes the
maximum scattering. A strong inuence of the Rayleigh law of scattering
violation on a form of the resonance scattering spectrum is obtained and
investigated theoretically in the present work. Violation of the resonance
law of scattering about maximum scattering in the resonance limit, when
the wavelength of incident wave and character size of inhomogeneity are
of the same order in magnitude, is obtained.
Violation of the short-wavelength scattering law about dominant scattering in the forward direction and about descent character of scattering
angular distribution dependence on the correlation radius to wavelength
ratio increase, when the character size of inhomogeneity is much greater
than the wavelength of the incident Rayleigh wave - diuse scattering, is
obtained and investigated.
It is obtained that violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering about
proportionality of scattering coecient and of angular distribution of
scattering to the fth power of frequency in the Rayleigh limit gives
rise to possibility of the angular distribution of scattering oscillations in
dependence on frequency in the Rayleigh limit and to possibility of appearance of angular distribution of scattering arbitrary number of zeroes
in angle of scattering in this limit. That is violation of the Rayleigh law
about isotropy of angular distribution of scattering in the Rayleigh limit
can take place.
Analogical phenomena of the strong localizations of the resonance
and diuse scattering maxima and of appearance of an arbitrary form
of the resonance and diuse scattering angular distribution and of an
arbitrary form of the resonance and diuse scattering angular distribution
dependence on the correlation radius to wavelength ratio are obtained.
It is obtained that these phenomena are connected with violation of the
Rayleigh scattering law by the partial inhomogeneities constituting the
summary inhomogeneity.
These violations of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse laws of scattering obtained in the present work are caused by a strong modulation
of scattering by the form of inhomogeneity, in particular by the form of
the correlation function of inhomogeneity approximated by the sum of
the Gaussian exponents.
It is obtained that this strong modulation of the Rayleigh, resonance
and diuse scatterings obtained in the present work enables amplication
and suppression of scattering in all the range of the correlation radius to
wavelength ratio. The phenomena of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse
scatterings amplication and suppression are obtained and investigated
in the present work.

Introduction
The problem of the surface acoustic Rayleigh wave [4, 5] scattering by the
statistical near-surface inhomogeneity was solved in [6, 7]. The new laws of the
Rayleigh scattering, when the wavelength is much greater than the character
size of inhomogeneous region, i.e. long-wavelength scattering, and of diuse
scattering, in opposite limit, i.e. short-wavelength scattering, were obtained.
Results for scattering in dierent limits of correlation radius and depth of
damaged layer to wavelength ratios were analitically obtained. It was found
that the form of scattering angular distribution, in particular the arbitrary
number and locations of its zeroes and extrema at xed arbitrary value of
the damaged layer depth to wavelength ratio, strongly depends on the form
of inhomogeneity subsurface structure which is deterministic in the direction
perpendicular to the surface. The wavelength variation gives rise to motion
of zeroes and extrema in scattering angular. Dependence of the new laws of
the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings both on the deterministic and
random structure of the near-surface inhomogeneity was obtained rst in [7].
The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering for statistical inhomogeneity with
correlator approximated by the Gaussian exponents sum; possibility of scattering angular distribution oscillations in dependence on ratio of inhomogeneity
correlation radius to wavelength in the Rayleigh limit, i.e. for long-wavelength
scattering, and appearance of the arbitrary number of scattering angular distribution zeroes in angle of scattering in the Rayleigh limit, dened by the inhomogeneity correlation function form are investigated in the present work [8].
These oscillations and angular distribution zeroes are violation of the Rayleigh
laws of scattering.
Resonance scattering, when the wavelength and the correlation radius of
inhomogeneous region are of the same order in magnitude, and diuse scattering, when the correlation radius of inhomogeneity is much greater than the
wavelength, of the surface acoustic Rayleigh wave by the same statistical nearsurface inhomogeneity are investigated in detail.
Connection between resonance, diuse scatterings and violation
of the Rayleigh law of scattering is investigated in dependence only on inhomogeneity random structure in the present work. Inuence of the deterministic
inhomogeneity structure on these laws is not considered.

The scattering problem of the Rayleigh wave

Let semi-innite isotropic elastic medium having a free surface occupies halfspace x3 > 0, x = (x1 , x2 , x3 ) is radius-vector in Cartesian coordinate system.
Medium has mass density inhomogeneity occupying region of nite size: |x1 | 6
L1 /2; |x2 | 6 L2 /2; 0 6 x3 < . The mass density is described by the next
function of coordinates
(x) = (0) + (inh) (x) ,
(1)
(0)
where is a constant density of medium homogeneous part; (inh) (x) is a
function describing inhomogeneity, it is not equal to zero only inside of inhomogeneous region. Inhomogeneity is statistically homogeneous and isotropic in
3

coordinates x1 , x2 and is deterministic in coordinate x3 :


(inh)
(inh) (x) = q
(xq )F (x3 ),
(inh)

(2)
(inh)

where xq = (x1 , x2 , 0); q


(xq ) is a random function, q
= 0, . . . is
(inh)
averaging over an ensemble of realizations of function q
; F (x3 ) is arbitrary deterministic function. Correlation function of inhomogeneity [6] has an
arbitrary form approximated by the sum of Gaussian exponents:
W ( ) =

2inh

ci e

2 /a2i

2inh

(r)
Ni n+1
N

Dinj e
(gt)

(n) 2

/aij

(3)

i=1 n=0 j=1

i=1

where = xq xq , ai , i = 1, . . . , m - partial radius of correlation; inh is the


mean-square amplitude of inhomogeneity, it gives the next condition for the
constants ci
m

ci = 1.
(4)
i=1

The triple sum in (3) is introduced for the convenience of inhomogeneity correlation function approximation, multiscale in partial radiuses of correlation.
Fourier transform of correlator (3) has the next form
m
m

2 2
fi (kq ) =
f (kq ) = 2inh
ci a2i eai kq /4 =
W
W
i=1

i=1

2inh

(r)
Ni n+1
N

(gt) (n) 2 a(n)


kq2 /4
ij
2

Dinj aij

. (5)

i=1 n=0 j=1

The necessary and sucient condition, that W ( ) is a correlation function of


(inh)
homogeneous and isotropic random eld q
(xq ), is [1]
f
W (kq ) > 0.
(6)
Elastic moduli have the next form
(0)
C (x) = C ;
(7)
(0)

C = 0 +0 ( + ); 0 = (0) (c2l 2c2t ); 0 = (0) c2t , (8)


where 0 , 0 are constant Lame coecients; cl,t are velocities of the longitudinal and transverse bulk acoustic waves respectively; is Kronecker -symbol.
Surface acoustic Rayleigh wave, propagating along positive direction of x1 axis, is incident on inhomogeneous region. Inhomogeneity is assumed to be
weak, i.e. |(inh) | (0) . It is necessary to solve the scattering problem in the
Rayleigh-Born approximation of perturbation theory [4]: to derive displacement vector, energy ow in scattered Rayleigh wave at large distances from
inhomogeneity, scattering coecient (in energy). Only scattered Rayleigh wave
is investigated in this work, but the bulk waves are not considered.
4

Angular distribution and coecient


of scattering

The Rayleigh wave angular distribution of scattering G(R) (s ) and coecient


of scattering 1/l(R) [6] have the forms presented below.
m

amax 4 R1 c2l
amax (R)
G(R) (s ) =
Gi (s ) =

ai
2inh 4P R22 c2t
i=1
(0)
2f
3
[V (kR ) cos s + H(kR )] W
kR
(|kR kq |), (9)

where amax is character size of statistical inhomogeneity; other constants and


functions in (9) coincide with those of the work [6]. The formulas (33) and (34)
of the work [6] contain misprints because of dierent denitions of functions V
and H in [6] and [7]. Namely, values 128 and 256 in the denominators of
(33) and (34) in [6] must be replaced by the values 2 and 4 respectively.
[
]2
2
1
inh
1
=
G(R) (s )ds =
amax
l(R)
(0)
0

inh
(0)

]2

Ni n+1
N
(gt) (n) 2
amax 4 R1 c2l 3
k
Dinj aij ezinj
R
2
2
amax
2P R2
ct
i=1 n=0 j=1
(r)

{
]}
[
] I1 (zinj ) [
2zinj V (kR )H(kR )V 2 (kR ) , (10)
I0 (zinj ) V 2 (kR ) + H 2 (kR ) +
zinj
where In (x) is the modied Bessel functions of the order n; p = kR amax ;
(n) 2

zinj = aij p2 /(2a2max ), kR = /cR - an absolute value of the Rayleigh wave


wave-vector.

3
3.1

The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering


Correlator form and
the new laws of the Rayleigh scattering

Let us consider the long-wavelength expansion of correlator (3) Fourier transform (5) in powers of the parameter p = amax /cR in the limit p 1

(1)m (2m + 1)! (2m+2) 2m


f (|kR k (0) |) = 2
W
C
kR (1 cos s )m , (11)
q
m (m!)2
2
m=0
where s - an angle of scattering [6], C (n) is the topological characteristics of
the rst kind of the correlator W ( ) (formulas (36), (37) in [6]), [9]
5

(n)

1
=
(n 1)!

W ( ) n1 d,

n = 1, 2, 3 . . . .

(12)

0
(gt)

Imposition of the next conditions on the constants Dinj (5)


(gt)

(r)

(n)

Dinj = Di bin cij ,

(13)

n+1
(n) (n) 2m+2

cij aij
= 0,

m = 0, 1, . . . , n 1;

j=1
n+1

j=1

(14)

(n) (n) 2n+2

(in)

cij aij

= d0

n+1

(n)

cij = 1,

(15)

j=1
(in)

where d0 = 0 are some constants, n = 0, 1, 2, . . . , Ni , i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , N (r) , together with condition (6) give the next solution of the system of linear algebraic
(n)
equations (14) with respect to cij , j = 1, . . . , n + 1
(in)

d0
(
n+1

(n)

cij =

(n) 2
aij

(n) 2
aij

(n) 2
aim

);

m=1;m=j
(n)

(n)

(n)

(n)

ai1 < ai2 < . . . < aij < . . . < ai(n+1) ;


(in)

d0

= (1)n

n+1

(n) 2

aij

. (16)

j=1

Let us further consider the next probe function


(p)

Ni
(0)
Fi (p)

p2

(0) 2
pik

(F )

)2mik

Ni

(0)
Ci

k=1

(F )

(00)

Cik p2k = Fi

(0)

(p) + Ci ;

k=0
(p)

Ni
(F )
Ni

=2

mik ,

(17)

k=1
(0)

where mik = 0, 1, 2, . . ., but if pik = 0, then 2mik = 0, 1, 2, . . ., and the next


relations (11), (13)
6

Ni

n=0

ebin

Ni
Ni
m
(i)

ebin f (i)
f
2m
f nm kR
f nm
W

p2m
W
2m
a
max
m=n
m=0
n=0

Ni

(0)

(i)
Bm
(s )p2m = Fi (p), (18)

m=0

where
(i)
m
f
f nm = 2 (1) (2m + 1)! C
e (2m+2) (1 cos s )m ;
W
in
2m (m!)2

e (2m+2) =
C
in

n+1
(n) (n) 2m+2
m!
c a
. (19)
2(2m + 1)! j=1 ij ij

Relations (18) give the next system of the linear algebraic equations with respect to unknowns ebin
{
(F )
(F )
(i)
Bm = Cim , m = 0, 1, . . . , Ni ;
(20)
(F )
(F )
(i)
m = Ni + 1, Ni + 2, . . . , Ni .
Bm = 0,
The solution of (20) is

(F )

Ci0

;
b
=

i0

(i)

W 00 {

m1
2m

ebik f (i)

a
(F
)

max
f km ;

Cim
W
ebim = (i)

a2m
f
max
k=0
f
W mm
(F )
(m)
(F )

where
m
= 1, 2, 3, . . . , Ni ; Ni = Ni Ni ;

m1

2m
ebik f (i)

ebim = amax
f km ;

(i)

a2m
f
max

k=0
f

W mm

(F )
(F )
where m = Ni + 1, Ni + 2, . . . , Ni .
Coecients bin (13)
/ Nare
i

ebim ,
bim = ebim

i = 1, 2, . . . , N (r) ,

where s = (00)
.
s

(21)

(22)

m=0
(r)

It follows from (4) that coecients Di (13) satisfy the next condition
(r)
N
(r)
Di = 1.
i=1

(23)

Let deterministic function F (x3 ) (2) describing an inhomogeneity form in the


direction perpendicular to the free solid surface has the next form
F (x3 ) = q1 ex3 /d ,

(24)

where q1 - dimensionless constant, d - character depth of inhomogeneity, i.e.


depth of damaged layer. The new law [7]-[11] of the Rayleigh scattering follows
from (9)-(11)
p 1, d
(25)
G(R) 2NR +5 ; 1/l(R) 2NR +5 , NR = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,
where = 2 - the wavelength, under the next conditions imposed on the
topological characteristics (12)
{ (2k+2)
C
= 0, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . , NR 1;
(26)
C (2NR +2) = 0.
When NR = 0 (25), (26) give the Rayleigh law of scattering [4]-[11], (Figs.1,2).

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)

m
Figure 1:
m

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (27) giving the Rayleigh law of scattering. NR = 0 (25);
(m)
(0)
(0)
(p)
= 0. Poisson ratio is
= /amax ; N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, p11 = 0, m11 = 0, C1 = 0, N1
(00)

= 0.25, d/amax = 1, q1 = 1 (24) and s

Figure 2:

= /2 (22) everywhere.

The Rayleigh law of scattering.

(0)
(0)
G(R)(p,s )/G(R)(p0 ,s ); s =/2

(R)

Angular distribution of scattering G0

overall, unless otherwise; p0=0.1 for the correlator(Fig.1).

When correlation function (3) has a such form that NR > 0 violation of the
Rayleigh law of scattering takes place (Figs. 3, 4).
For the correlation function (3) with the next values of the constants (3), (13)
(r)

N (r)=1, N1=NR , D1 =1; b1k=0, k=0, 1, . . . , NR 1, b1NR = 1

(27)

(N )

and c1j R , j = 1, 2, . . . , NR + 1, dened by (16), topological characteristics (12)


has the next form (19)
e
C (2m+2) = 2inh C
1NR

(2m+2)

(28)

So (14), (26) the new law of the Rayleigh scattering (25) takes place (Figs.1-4).
8

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)

m
Figure 3:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (27) giving violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering.
(p)
(0)
(0)
(m)
NR = 6; N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, p11 = 0, m11 = 3, C1 = 0, N1 = 0.

Figure 4:

3.2

(R)

Violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering. G0 for the correlator (Fig.3); p0=0.1.

Frequency oscillations of the Rayleigh scattering

Let the correlation function of inhomogeneity has the form (3), (13)-(23) with
(n)
(r)
the next values of the partial radiuses of correlation aij and constants Di
(n)

(n)

(a)

(n)

(0)

(a)

aij = ai1 + (j 1)di ; ai1 = ai1 ; di


(0)
amax = a11 ;

(r)
N

(r)
(r)

Di = Di /
i=1

(0)

= ai1 /(10(Ni + 1));

(r) , i = 1, . . . , N (r) ,
D
i

j = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1; n = 0, 1, . . . , Ni . (29)

G (R)(s

W/inh2

Figure 5:

(0)

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving oscillations of the Rayleigh scattering.


(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
= 3, p11 = 0.01, p12 = 0.05, p13 = 0.1, m11 = 1, m12 = 31, m13 = 25, C1 = 0,

(p)

N (r) = 1, N1
(m)

N1

= 100.

Figure 6:

Oscillations of the Rayleigh scattering. Violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering


(R)
(Fig. 2). G0 for the correlator (Fig. 5); p0 = 0.015.

Figs. 5, 6 show correlator and oscillations of the Rayleigh scattering, i.e. of G(R)
as a function of variable p in the limit p 1 for this correlator, respectively.
These oscillations are violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering (Fig. 2).
9

3.3

Angular spectrum of the Rayleigh scattering

3.3.1

Some characteristic anisotropy of the Rayleigh law


of scattering for the Rayleigh wave
(R)
Figs. 7, 8 show the angular distribution of scattering Ga (pa , s ) and the
(R)
function Ga0 (pa , s ) for the correlator of Fig. 1 respectively
(R)
G(R)
(p, s )/G(R) (pa , (0)
a (p, s ) = G
s );
(R)
2
(R)
Ga0 (p, s ) = Ga (p, s )/ [V (kR ) cos s + H(kR )] .
(30)
Function [V cos s + H] in (9) is dened by the boundary conditions for the
Rayleigh wave on the free inhomogeneous surface and by the structure of inhomogeneity F (x3 ) (2) in x3 direction [6, 7, 10]. Comparison of the Figs. 7 and 8
gives that some angular anisotropy of the Rayleigh law of scattering (Fig. 7)
is caused by this function, so this anisotropy can be specic characteristics of
the Rayleigh law for the Rayleigh wave scattering on the near-surface inhomogeneity.

G (R)( p ;s)
a

G (R)( p ;s)
a0

- - - -

Figure 7:

Some characteristic anisotropy of the Rayleigh law of scattering for the Rayleigh
wave due to inuence of the boundary conditions and the vertical structure of inhomogeneity.
(R)
Ga (pa , s ) for the correlator (Fig.1).
Figure 8: Completely isotropic picture of the Rayleigh scattering obtained by means of
exclusion of the boundary conditions and the verical inhomogeneity structure inuence on
(R)
the angular distribution of the Rayleigh
wave scattering (30). The function Ga0 (pa , s ) for

the correlator (Fig.1); pa = 1/(10 2) everywhere, if another value is not declared.

3.3.2
(0)

A strong angular anisotropy of the Rayleigh scattering


violating the Rayleigh law of scattering
(0)

(p)

Let p1k , k = 1, 2, . . . , N1 are zeroes of G(R) (p, s ) in variable p at xed value


(0)
of the angle of scattering s (Fig. 6). Then s0 are zeroes of G(R) (p, s ) in
angle of scattering s at a given xed value of the parameter p and for the
inhomogeneity of the same form. Zeroes s0 are given by the next formula
(0) 2
)
p1k (
cos s0 = 1 2 1 cos (0)
.
(31)
s
p
Formula (31) follows from the formulas (3), (5), (9). Figs. 9, 10 show correlator
(3), (13)-(23), (29) and a strong angular anisotropy and zeroes of the Rayleigh
scattering for it respectively. It is violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering
10

(Fig.7). It follows from (31) that wavelength variation gives rise to motion of
the angular distribution G(R) zeroes and extrema in scattering angular s .

G (R)( p ;s)

W/inh2

Figure 9:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving a strong anisotropy and zeroes of the
Rayleigh scattering. The same as Fig. 5, but m11 = 1, m12 = 2, m13 = 3.

Figure 10:

A strong anisotropy and zeroes of the Rayleigh scattering. Violation of the


Rayleigh law of scattering (Fig. 7).

4
4.1

Resonance scattering
The main law of the resonance scattering

The resonance scattering, when the wavelength of the incident wave is of


the same order in magnitude as character size of inhomogeneity amax , i.e. as
character radius of correlation of statistical inhomogeneity, i.e. when p 1,
is the maximum scattering. The width of maximum in and character size
of inhomogeneity amax are of the same order in magnitude, i.e. p 1, as
well (Figs.11,12.a). A slight anisotropy is added to angular distribution of
scattering as a function of scattering angle s (Fig.12.b) as compared to the
Rayleigh scattering p 1 (Fig.7). It is the main law of the resonance scattering.

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)

G (R)( p
a

s)

b
2

m
Figure 11:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving the main law of the resonance scattering
(0)
(0)
(p)
(m)
p 1. N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, N1 = 0, p11 = 0, m11 = 0, C1 = 0.

Figure 12:a,b-The main law of resonance scattering for the correlator of Fig.11; p0=2, pa=1.

11

4.2

Violation of the resonance scattering main law


without violation of the scattering Rayleigh law

Figs. 13 - 20 show violation of the main law of the resonance scattering without
violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering by all the partial inhomogeneities
constituting the summary inhomogeneity (3), (13)-(23), (29). In scattering
showed in Figs. 13 - 16 the positions of scattering maxima in variable p and a
width of maximum are dened not only by the character size of inhomogeneity
amax but by the its form as well , i.e. by the form of correlation function (3).
Physically it is explained by the phenomenon that partial small-scale inhomogeneities as compared to amax are more sensed by the Rayleigh wave with the
short-wavelength as compared to amax as well. Contribution of each partial
small-scale inhomogeneity to scattering, when the wavelength and size of this
partial inhomogeneity are of the same order in magnitude, is inverse proportional to the wavelength (9), (10) and consequently to the character size of
the partial small-scale inhomogeneity ai (3). And analytical formulas (9), (10)
correspond to the experimental physical measurement calibrated by the same
physical unity of length in all the range of correlation radius amax to wavelength
ratio, i.e. of variable p, despite of this inverse proportionality to ai . But such
partial small-scale inhomogeneities (3), giving a big contribution to scattering
at short-wavelengths corresponding to sizes of these small-scale partial inhomogeneities (9), (10), dene exactly the form of the summary inhomogeneity
and do not change its character size amax .

4.3

Violation of the resonance scattering main law with


violation of the scattering Rayleigh law by the partial
inhomogeneities

4.3.1

Strong maxima localizations and arbitrary frequency


spectrum form of the resonance scattering
A strong modulation of scattering (25) by the form of inhomogeneity, violating
the Rayleigh law of scattering and obtained rst in [7], makes it possible to
construct denite form (3), (13)-(23), (29) of the partial small-scale inhomogeneities constituting the whole inhomogeneity without change of the summary
inhomogeneity character size amax . This inhomogeneity form construction enables to manipulate the spectrum of the resonance scattering in the wide range
of the character size of inhomogeneity to wavelength ratio p (Figs. 21 - 26). In
particular such strong modulation of scattering enables a strong localization of
the resonance scattering maxima, extending the positions of arbitrary number
of maxima in variable p to high-frequency region p 1 and constructing the
arbitrary form of the resonance scattering spectrum (Figs. 21 - 26). All these
phenomena violate the main law of the resonance scattering (Figs. 11, 12).
4.3.2 Arbitrary angular spectrum form of the resonance scattering
Figs. 28, 30 show angular distributions of the resonance scattering for the
correlators of Figs. 27, 29 respectively. These correlators are constructed by

12

W/inh2

G (R)(s

G (R)( p

(0)

s)

m
Figure 13:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(p)
(m)
scattering without violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering. N (r) =5, Ni =1, Ni =0,
(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

pi1 =0, mi1 =0, Ci =0 (everywhere), i=1, . . . , 5; a11 :a21 :a31 :a41 :a51 =10:5:5/2:5/4:1/2,
(r)=166.7, D
(r)=43.02, D
(r)=13.52, D
(r)=6.331, D
(r)=3.051.
D
1

Figure 14:a -Violation of the main law of resonance scattering.p0 = 2; b -angular distribution
satisfying the main law of the resonance scattering for the correlator of Fig.13. pa = 1.

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)

Figure 15:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(p)
(m)
(0)
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
scattering. N (r)=5, Ni =1, Ni =0, pi1 =0, mi1=0, i=1, .., 5; a11 :a21 :a31 :a41 :a51 =
(r)
(r)
(r)
3
2
(r) = 1.756103 ,
= 5.5110 , D
= 1.78510 , D
= 1.667, D
10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2, D
1

(r)=6.789102 .
D
5
Figure 16: Violation of the main law of resonance scattering for the correlator of Fig. 15.

means of the data from the scattering of Figs. 21, 22 and using the formula
(31). It is violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12.b) due to the
Rayleigh law of scattering violation by the partial inhomogeneities constituting the summary inhomogeneities (Figs.27,29). Results of scattering presented
in Figs. 22, 28, 30 and formula (31) reect the physical picture of scattering according which the long-scale partial inhomogeneities (3) as compared to
wavelength give contribution to scattering in the forward direction s = 0
(9), but the more small-scale partial inhomogeneities contribute to scattering
in other directions as well. In this case at constant value of ratio p = amax /
dynamically-energetical contribution to scattering p5 (9) remains unvariable
in changing of scattering angle s , and form-factor of inhomogeneity (5) plays
13

G (R)(s

W/inh2

G (R)( p

(0)

s)

a
m
Figure 17:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving the main law of resonance scattering. The
(r) = 0, D
(r) = 6.687 104 .
same as Fig. 13, but D
1
5

Figure 18:
pa = 35,

(R)

a - G0

(0)
s =0

(0)

(0)

(p, s ), p0 = 35, s

(R)

= /2; b - angular distribution Ga (pa , s ),

for the resonance scattering on inhomogeneity with the correlator of Fig. 17.

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)

G (R)( p
a

s)

m
Figure 19:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(r) = 6.687 104 .
scattering for angular distribution. The same as Fig. 13, but D
5

Figure 20:

(0)

(R)

(0)

(R)

(0)

a - G0 (p, s ), p0=35, s =/2; b - Ga (pa , s ), pa=35, s =0 - violation


of the main law of the resonance scattering (Figs.12.b,13.b,18.b) for the correlator of Fig. 19.

the main role in a forming of the angular spectrum of scattering (Figs. 28, 30).
So the values of each maximum in Fig. 22 dier from those in Figs. 28, 30, and
(r)
values of the constants Di (3), (13)-(23), (29) are dierent as well. Variation
of the wavelength gives rise to motion of the scattering maxima positions in
angle of scattering s .
The new phenomenon specied by the strong modulation of scattering by
the inhomogeneity form-factor (3) consists in exact zeroing of forward scattering s = 0 at arbitrary value of p for inhomogeneities violating the Rayleigh
law of scattering, when NR > 0 (25), (27); (3), (13)-(23), (29); (9), (11)
G(R) (p, s = 0) = 0, for NR > 0.
(32)
And the rate of G
growth at s growing decreases with increasing of NR
(9), (11) for the arbitrary value of correlation radius to wavelength ratio p. It
is a strong suppression of the isotropic Rayleigh scattering and thus a strong
growth of the resonance scattering with increasing of p.
Formula (31) is true only if G(R) has exact zeroes in p. Its usefulness in
(R)

14

G (R)

W/inh2

m
Figure 21:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(0) (0) (0)
(0)
(m)
(p)
scattering. N (r)=5, Ni =1, Ni =0, pi1 =0, i=1,..,5; m11 =0, mi1 =15, i=2,..,5; a11 :a21 :a31 :
(0) (0)
(r)
(r)
(r)
(r)
=166.7, D
=1.785, D
=5.455101 , D
=1.756101 ,
a :a =10:9:7/2 :5/4 :1/2, D
41

51

(r)=6.789102 .
D
5

Figure 22:

Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12) with strong localization
of maxima due to the Rayleigh law of scattering violation by the partial inhomogeneities for
the correlator of Fig. 21; p0 = 2.0.

G (R)

W/inh2

m
Figure 23:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(p)
(m)
(0)
scattering. N (r) = 5, Ni = 1, Ni
= 0, pi1 = 0, i = 1, . . . , 5; m11 = 0, mi1 = 15, i = 2, . . . , 5;
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(r) = 1.785 102 ,
(r) = 166.7, D
= 10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2, D
:a
:a
:a
:a
a
11

21

31

41

51

(r) = 6.789102 .
(r) = 1.756103 , D
(r) = 5.51103 , D
D
5
4
3
(R)

Figure 24:

Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12). G0


of Fig. 23; p0 = 2.0.

for the correlator

this case is proved by the strong localizations of the G(R) maxima in p due to
violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering by the partial inhomogeneities.
A strong modulation of scattering by the form of inhomogeneity (3) obtained in the present work enables to manipulate the angular spectrum (Figs.
10, 28, 30) as well as frequency spectrum (Figs. 1-6, 11-26) of the Rayleigh
p 1 and resonance p 1 scatterings.
15

W/inh2

W/inh2

G (R)(s

(0)

0.9

Figure 25:

0.2

a - Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the main law of resonance
(0)
(m)
(p)
= 0, pi1 = 0, i = 1, . . . , 5; m11 = 0, mi1 = 15, i = 2, . . . , 5;
scattering. N (r) = 5, Ni = 1, Ni
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(r) = 1.667, D
(r) = 1.785 102 ,
a
:a
:a
:a
:a
= 10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2, D
11

21

31

41

51

(r) = 5.51103 , D
(r) = 1.756103 , D
(r) = 6.789102 ; b - the same as Fig. 25.a, but
D
3
4
5
on a large scale.
Figure 26: Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12). G(R)
for the correlator
0
of Fig. 25; p0 = 2.0.

W/inh2

G (R)( p ;s)
a

m
Figure 27:

(p)

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29); N (r) = 5, Ni

(m)
(0)
= 0, pi1 = 0, i = 1, . . . , 5;
(0)
: a51 = 10 : 9 : 7/2 : 5/4 : 1/2,
(r) = 3.771.
(r) = 4.224101 , D
D
5
4

= 1, Ni

(0)
(0)
(0)
(0)
m11 = 0, mi1 = 15, i = 2, . . . , 5; a11 : a21 : a31 : a41
(r)
(r)
(r)
= 5.263102 ,
= 8.927103 , D
= 5.555104 , D
D
3
2
1

Figure 28:

Violation of the resonance scattering main law (Fig.12.b) due to the Rayleigh
law of scattering violation by the partial inhomogeneities constituting
the summary inhomo
(R)
geneity (Fig.27). Ga for the correlator of Fig. 27; pa = 150/ 2.

W/inh2

G (R)( p ;s)
a

m
(r) = 0.
Figure 29: Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29); the same as Fig 27 but D
1
(R)
Figure 30: Violation
of
the
resonance
scattering
main
law
(Fig.12.b).
G
for
the correlator
a

of Fig. 29; pa = 85/ 2.

16

5
5.1

Diuse scattering
The main law of the diuse scattering

Diuse scattering is the short-wavelength scattering when p 1. The character


size of the statistical inhomogeneity, i.e. its radius of correlation, is much
greater then the wavelength of the incident Rayleigh wave amax . The
maximum of the diuse scattering takes place only in the forward direction direction of the incident Rayleigh wave propagation since the inhomogeneity
is more smooth for the incident Rayleigh wave in the short-wavelength limit
p 1. The values of the angular distribution of scattering as a function of the
correlation radius to wavelength ratio p at a constant value of the scattering
(0)
angle s lie in the region p 1 beyond the maximum of the resonance
scattering at p 1. It is the main law of the diuse scattering (Figs. 31, 32).

G (R)(s

(0)

W/inh2

G (R)( p
a

s)

a
m
Figure 31:
N (r)

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving the main law of the diuse scattering.
(0)
(m)
(p)
= 0, p11 = 0, m11 = 0.
= 1, N1 = 1, N1

Figure 32:

b - angular distribution

5.2

(R)

The main law of the diuse scattering: a - G0


(R)
Ga (pa , s ),

pa = 10,

(0)
s

(0)

(0)

(p, s ), p0 = 2.0, s

= /2;

= 0 for the correlator of Fig. 31.

Violation of the diuse scattering main law

It follows from the formulas (3), (9), (13)-(23), (27), (29), that inhomogeneities
violating the Rayleigh law of scattering, when they have a such form of the
correlation function (3) that NR > 0 (27), violate the main law of the diuse
scattering as well (Figs. 33 - 38). In this case, when NR > 0, the angular
distribution of scattering for the forward direction is equal to zero (32). Position s0 of the scattering maxima in angle of scattering s , i.e. maxima
of the G(R) (p, s ) as a function of s at a constant p1, in the case when
(0)
NR > 0 is given approximately by the formula (31), in which p1k , k = 1, 2 . . .
(0)
are exact maxima positions of the G(R) (p, s ) as a function of the variable p
(0)
at a constant angle of scattering value s = s (Figs. 33 - 38). Position of the
(0)
angular distribution of scattering G(R) maximum in p at a constant s =s
and at increase of NR (25) moves to the short-wavelength region p 1, i.e. to
(m)
the region of the diuse scattering (Fig. 39). Increase of the parameter Ni ,
17

G (R)(s

W/inh2

G (R)( p

(0)

s)

a
m
Figure 33:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the diuse scattering main
(p)
(m)
(0)
law. N (r) = 1, N1 = 1, N1
= 0, p11 = 0, m11 = 15.
(0)
(0)
Figure 34: Violation of the diuse scattering main law: a - G(R)
0 (p, s ), p0 = 7.5, s =
(R)

(0)

/2; b - angular distribution Ga (pa , s ), pa = 10, s

G (R)(s

W/inh2

= /3 for the correlator of Fig. 33.

G (R)( p

(0)

s)

a
m
Figure 35:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the diuse scattering main
(0)
(m)
(p)
law. N (r)=1, N1 =1, N1 =0, p11 =0, m11=50.

Figure 36:

(R)

Violation of the diuse scattering main law: a - G0

/2; b - angular distribution

(R)
Ga (pa , s ),

pa=10,

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)
s =

(0)

(0)

(p, s ), p0 =13.5, s =

for the correlator of Fig. 35.

(0)

G (R)( p
a

s)

m
Figure 37:

Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) giving violation of the diuse scattering main
(p)
(m)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(r)=3.3.
(r)=1, D
law. N (r)=2, Ni =1, Ni =0, pi1 =0, i = 1, 2; m11=15, m21=50, a11 /a21 =1; D
2
1

Figure 38:

(R)

Violation of the diuse scattering main law: a - G0

/2; b - angular distribution

(R)
Ga (pa , s ),

pa=10,

18

(0)
s =

(0)

(0)

(p, s ), p0 =13.5, s =

for the correlator of Fig. 37.

i.e. modication of the scattering Rayleigh series (9), (11), even if NR = 0


leads to the shift of the G(R) maximum in p to the region of the high frequencies p 1 as well (Fig. 40). In the last case and when NR = 0 ihomogeneity
(Fig. 40.1) has a such form (3), (13)-(23), (29) that scattering on it satises
the Rayleigh law of scattering but violates the main laws of the resonance and
diuse scatterings due to shift of the G(R) maximum in variable p. This modication of the scattering Rayleigh series is produced by the special form of the
inhomogeneity (3), (13)-(23), (29) constituted from the partial inhomogeneities
violating the Rayleigh law of scattering.
Both these phenomena - zeroing of the forward scattering and shift of the
G(R) maximum in p are violation of the diuse scattering main law.

Amplicationand suppression of theRayleigh,


resonance and diuse scatterings
by the partial inhomogeneities following
the new laws of the Rayleigh scattering

It was discussed in the sections 4.2, 4.3.1 and 5.2 that two physical phenomena contribute to violation of the resonance and diuse scatterings main laws
(sections 4.1 and 5.1).
The rst phenomenon is inverse-proportionality of a scattering to the correlation radius of the partial inhomogeneity and consequently a growth of the
contribution of scattering on the small-scale partial inhomogeneities, having
the partial correlation radiuses smaller than the correlation radius amax of the
summary inhomogeneity, to the summary scattering by the whole multiscale inhomogeneity (3), (13)-(23), (29). This phenomenon is dened by a single-scale
calibration of the physical measurements of the scattering on the multiscale inhomogeneities. Single-scale calibration means that single unity of length is used
in counting of the contributions to scattering from the partial inhomogeneities
of the dierent scale constituting the whole inhomogeneity. Scatterings, for
example G(R) , on the separate partial inhomogeneities of the dierent scale
but having the same form are equal to each other if the unity of length which is
used for each separate physical measurement of the scattering on a corresponding separate partial inhomogeneity is directly proportional to the correlation
radius of the partial inhomogeneity. And this direct proportionality must be
the same for all the separate physical measurements of scattering on the partial inhomogeneities. Mathematically this phenomena is explained by the use
of the same character size of the summary inhomogeneity amax for the nondimensionalization of the summary angular distribution of scattering G(R) (9)
and consequently for the non-dimensionalization of the each contribution to
(R)
summary scattering (amax /ai )Gi (9) from the partial inhomogeneities of the
dierent scale.

19

The second phenomenon is the strong modulation of scattering by the forms


of the partial inhomogeneities violating the Rayleigh law of scattering [7], (sections 3, 4, 5). This phenomenon means that beside dependence of contribution
to summary scattering on the scale of the partial inhomogeneity mentioned
above the form of the partial inhomogeneity plays the main role dening the
contribution to summary scattering from the each partial inhomogeneity. This
phenomenon can be investigated by means of comparison of the scatterings on
the single-scale inhomogeneities of the dierent form.
Eects of the scattering amplication and suppression by means of the
strong modulation of scattering by the single-scale inhomogeneities, i.e. having
the same character size - radius of correlation, violating the Rayleigh law of
scattering are considered in this section in detail. These eects are used for the
modeling of scattering by the multiscale inhomogeneities (see sections 3, 4, 5
as well).

6.1

Single-scale inhomogeneities

Figs. 39, 40 show phenomena of the resonance and diuse scatterings amplication with and without suppression of the Rayleigh scattering by the single-scale
inhomogeneities violating the Rayleigh law of scattering. Increse of the NR for
the partial ihomogeneity, i.e. violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering, causes
the Rayleigh scattering suppression and amplication of the resonance and diffuse scatterings. Maximum of the resonance scattering at p 1 moves to the
region of the diuse scattering p 1 (Fig. 39). Amplication of the diuse
scattering is accompanied by the suppression of the resonance scattering (Fig.
39.3) as well. Analogical physical phenomena are produced by means of the
(m)
parameter Ni
variation, that is by means of the scattering Rayleigh series
(9), (11), (3), (13)-(23), (29) modication using the partial inhomogeneities
violating the Rayleigh law of scattering (Fig. 40).

6.2

Multiscale inhomogeneities

Figs. 41, 42, 43 show scattering of the incident Rayleigh wave by the two inhomogeneities of the dierent scale. That is these inhomogeneities have dierent
radius of correlation, but amax is chosen the same for the both inhomogeneities
and is equal to radius of correlation of the more small-scale inhomogeneity
which have the smallest radius of correlation. So the same values of the parameter p correspond to the same values of the incident and scattered Rayleigh
wave wavelength.
Fig. 41 shows scattering by the two inhomogeneities of the dierent scale
following the Rayleigh law of scattering. Growth of the correlation radius increases the value of the topological characteristic C (n) (11), (12) so the Rayleigh
scattering 5 increases as well. And an inhomogeneity with a bigger radius
of correlation corresponds to a bigger wavelength of the resonance scattering
maximum at p 1 so to a smaller frequency of the Rayleigh wave. The value
of the resonance scattering maximum is inverse proportional to correlation radius of inhomogeneity (sections 4.2, 6). So for the inhomogeneities of the same

20

G (R)(s

W/inh2

(0)

m
Figure 39:

Suppression of the Rayleigh (2, 3) and resonance (3) scatterings and amplication of the resonance (2) and diuse (3) scatterings. Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) and
(0)
(p)
(m)
(0)
(0)
the angular distribution G(R) (p, s ) (9). N (r)=1, N1 =1, N1 =0, p11 =0, s =/2; 1 m11 = 0 (NR = 0); 2 - m11 = 1/2 (NR = 1); 3 - m11 = 15 (NR = 30).

G (R)(s

(0)

W/inh
2

0.1

Figure 40:

Suppression of the Rayleigh (1, 2, 3) and resonance (2, 3) scatterings and


amplication of the resonance (1) and diuse (1, 2, 3) scatterings. Correlator (3), (13)-(23),
(0)
(m)
(0)
(p)
(29) and the angular distribution G(R) (p, s ) (9). N (r)= 1, N1 = 1, N1 = 100, p11 = 0,
(0)

s =/2; 1 - m11=0; 2 - m11=1/2; 3 - m11=15.

form inhomogeneity with the bigger correlation radius corresponds to smaller


value of the resonance scattering maximum. The value of this maximum is
dened also by the form of the inhomogeneity in the direction perpendicular
to the surface of the solid, i.e. by the depth of the damaged layer d (24). The
value of this depth d = amax everywhere, but dependence of scattering on the
form-factor F (x3 ) (24) [6, 7] is not considered in detail in the present work.

21

Fig. 42 shows scattering by the two inhomogeneities with another relation


of the correlation radiuses. Beside this the form of the second inhomogeneity is
(m)
dened by the parameter N1 = 100 (21). It means that this inhomogeneity
has a such form that the Rayleigh series of scattering (9), (11) in powers of the
parameter p contains the rst term corresponding to the Rayleigh scattering
p5 , but the next 100 terms of the Rayleigh series are absent. That is the second term of the Rayleigh series (9), (11) is proportional to p207 . It is a strong
modulation of scattering by the single-scale partial inhomogeneities violating
the Rayleigh law of scattering and constituting the whole inhomogeneity (Fig.
42.2) satisfying the Rayleigh law of scattering, but giving a special form of
the scattering Rayleigh series mentioned above. Increase of the inhomogeneity
correlation radius (Fig. 42.2) compare to correlation radius of inhomogeneity
presented in Fig. 42.1 amax leads to an amplication of the Rayleigh scattering, to decrease of the resonance maximum and to the shift of the resonance
maximum in p to the region of the low frequencies. But increase of the parame(m)
ter N1 suppresses the Rayleigh scattering, amplies the resonance scattering
and shifts the resonance scattering maximum to the region of the high frequencies. In result this form of the whole inhomogeneity (Fig. 42.2) leads to
the narrowing of the scattering spectrum from the side of the high frequencies
(Fig. 42) contrary to the analogical strong modulation of scattering by the
inhomogeneity forms presented in the Figs. 39, 40 which violates the Rayleigh
law of scattering and narrow the scattering spectrum from the side of the low
frequencies.
Fig. 43 also shows a strong modulation of scattering by the inhomogeneity
form constituted from the partial inhomogeneities violating the Rayleigh law
of scattering. In result of such strong modulation the second inhomogeneity of
Fig. 43 gives amplication of the Rayleigh scattering and amplication of the
resonance scattering from the side of the high frequencies. The scattering is
reduced in the intermediate frequency region.

Conclusion

A strong modulation of scattering by an inhomogeneity form giving rise to


violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering (25) enables to construct basis linear
independent functions of the variables p = amax / - ratio of the inhomogeneity
character size to the wavelength and s - the angle of scattering. Each of
these functions describes the angular distribution of scattering G(R) (p, s ) or
coecient of scattering 1/l(R) and corresponds to the scattering by the denite
form of inhomogeneity.
From the mathematical point of view a strong modulation of scattering by
an inhomogeneity form obtained in the present work means that the principal
physical laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings are dened not
only by the one parameter p - character size of inhomogeneity to wavelength
ratio but by the variety of parameters as well. These parameters are relations
between partial inhomogeneities character sizes, i.e. between partial correlation
radiuses, dening the form of a summary inhomogeneity. The physical value
22

Gr(R)(s

W/inh2

0.01

Figure 41:

(0)

Amplication of the Rayleigh scattering and suppression of the resonance scat(R)


(0)
tering (2). Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) and the angular distribution Gr (p, s ) =
(0)
(R)
(0)
G(R) (p, s )/G1 (p0 , s ), where index 1 denotes the rst inhomogeneity, p0 = 2.0.
(p)

(m)

N (r)=1, N1 =1, N1

(0)

(0)

(0)

(0)

=0, p11 =0, m11=0, s =/2; 1 - amax /a11 =1; 2 - amax /a11 =1/3.

W/inh2

Gr(R)(s

(0)

0.1

Figure 42:

Narrowing of the scattering spectrum from the side of the high frequencies
(R)
(0)
(2). Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) and the angular distribution Gr (p, s ), p0 = 2.0.
(0)
(m)
(0)
(0)
(0)
(p)
(r)
N =1,N1 =1,p11 =0, m11 =0, s =/2; 1 - amax /a11 =1, N1 =0; 2 - amax /a11 =1/10,
(m)

N1

=100.

Gr(R)(s

W/inh2

Figure 43:

(0)

Amplication of the Rayleigh and resonance (from the side of the high frequencies) scatterings (2). Reduction of scattering in the intermediate frequency region (2).
(R)
(0)
(0)
Correlator (3), (13)-(23), (29) and the angular distribution Gr (p, s ), p0 = 2.0. s =/2;
(p)
(0)
(m)
(p)
(0)
(0)
(r)
(r)
1 - N =1, N1 =1, p11 =0, m11 =0, amax /a11 =1, N1 =0; 2 - N =2; Ni =1, pi1 =0,
(r) (r)
(0)
(m)
(m)
(0)
(0)

i = 1, 2; m11=0, m21=0, amax /a =1/3, a /a =1, N =0, N =100, D =D =1.


11

21

11

dening all the variety of these parameters, consequently the inhomogeneity


form and thus the principal laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings is the topological characteristics of inhomogeneity C (n) (11), (12), (25),
(26), (28).

23

So the principal physical laws of the Rayleigh, resonance and diuse scatterings completely depend on the space conguration of the physical objects
interacting in scattering, that is on the form of the incident wave dened by the
wavelength and on the form of the inhomogeneity, dened by the topological
characteristics C (n) (12).
This basis of scattering, i.e. a strong modulation of scattering by the inhomogeneity form, enables to construct a denite form of the scattering spectrum
not only for the Rayleigh scattering p 1, but for the resonance p 1 and for
the diuse p 1 scatterings, violating the main laws of the Rayleigh, resonance
and diuse scatterings as well.
Results of the present work can be used in seismology, solid state physics,
acoustic microscopy and acoustoelectronics.

References
[1] A.P. Khusu, Yu.R. Vitenberg, V.A. Palmov. Roughness of Surfaces.
Theoretically-Probabilistic Approach (in Russian), Nauka, Moscow, 1975.
[2] A. Einstein. Mitteil. Phys. Gesellschaft Zurich, 1916, v. 16, p. 7.
[3] I.L. Fabelinskii. Phys.-Usp., 1998, v. 41, p. 1229.
[4] Lord Rayleigh. The theory of sound. Vols. I, II. New York. Dover. 1945.
[5] A.A. Maradudin. Surface Acoustic Waves. In: Nonequilibrium Phonon
Dynamics, ed. by W.E. Bron. Plenum, New York 1985, p. 395.
[6] V.N. Chukov. The new laws of the Rayleigh wave scattering on a nearsurface inhomogeneity. Days on Diraction 2012.
[7] V.N. Chukov. On Rayleigh, Resonance and Short-Wavelength Scattering
Laws of Rayleigh Wave. Moscow. Preprint. IBCP RAS, 2002, 32 p.
[8] V.N. Chukov. Connection between violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering and the resonance scattering. Days on Diraction 2014. International
Conference. May 26-30, 2014, St. Petersburg, Russia. Abstracts, p. 29.
[9] V.N. Chukov. On violation of Rayleigh and Bragg laws of scattering.
Days on Diraction 2011.
[10] V.N. Chukov. Solid State Communications 2009, v. 149, p. 2219.
[11] V.N. Chukov. Ultrasonics. 2012, v. 52, p. 5.
[12] V.N. Chukov. Connection between violation of the Rayleigh law of scattering and the resonance scattering. Moscow. Preprint. IBCP RAS, 2014,
25p. (The Russian State Library.)

24

Contents
1 The scattering problem of the Rayleigh wave

2 Angular distribution and coecient


of scattering

3 The new laws of the Rayleigh scattering


3.1 Correlator form and
the new laws of the Rayleigh scattering . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Frequency oscillations of the Rayleigh scattering . . . . . . .
3.3 Angular spectrum of the Rayleigh scattering . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Some characteristic anisotropy of the Rayleigh law
of scattering for the Rayleigh wave . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 A strong angular anisotropy of the Rayleigh scattering
violating the Rayleigh law of scattering . . . . . . . .

5
.
.
.

5
9
10

10

10

4 Resonance scattering
4.1 The main law of the resonance scattering . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Violation of the resonance scattering main law
without violation of the scattering Rayleigh law . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Violation of the resonance scattering main law with violation of
the scattering Rayleigh law by the partial inhomogeneities . . .
4.3.1 Strong maxima localizations and arbitrary frequency
spectrum form of the resonance scattering . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Arbitrary angular spectrum form of the resonance scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
11

5 Diuse scattering
5.1 The main law of the diuse scattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 Violation of the diuse scattering main law . . . . . . . . . . .

17
17
17

12
12
12
12

6 Amplication and suppression of the Rayleigh, resonance and


diuse scatterings by the partial inhomogeneities following the
new laws of the Rayleigh scattering
19
6.1 Single-scale inhomogeneities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
6.2 Multiscale inhomogeneities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20
Conclusion

22

References

24

c
V.N.
Chukov
N.M. Emanuel Institute of Biochemical Physics RAS, Center of Acoustic
Microscopy, 2015. 4, Kosygin Str., Moscow 119334, Russia,
e-mail: chukov@chph.ras.ru, vchukov@mail.ru