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Unit 1.

Management
MANAGEMENT
Part I
Vocabulary I
acquire [v]
allocate [v] smth for smth , (, )
co-found [v]
co-founder [n]
convert [v] smth into smth -. -.
customer [n]
develop [v] (), ()
develop a strategy
distributor [n] ,
effective [adj] ,
efficient [adj] , ,
ensure [v] , ; ,
execute [v] , ,
executor [n] of /
strategies/plans
expertise [n] ,
function [n]
goal [n]
to accomplish a goal
to match a goal
to pursue/follow a goal ,
implement [v]
to implement a solution
innate quality ,
integrate [v]
learnable skill ,
manage [v]
managerial skills
market value
measure [v] ,
neighbouring community (,
)
not-for-profit organization
(= non-profit organization)
objective [n] ,
to set an objective
to achieve/accomplish/ ,
attain an objective
pay [n]
performance [n] ,
promotion [n]
public authorities
public sector
revenue [n]
senior manager
start-up company ,
subordinate [n],[adj]
supervise [v]

supply [v],[n] 1) 2) ,
supplier [n]
task [n] , ,
target [n]
to meet/achieve/
reach a target
to set a target
Vocabulary II
broadcast [v] , ;
day-to-day [adj]
hardware [n]
run [v] for ( )
software [n]
Exercise 1. Find English equivalents for the following Russian words and phrases in the
text (SB p. 12):
; ; ;
/; ; ; ,
; ; , ;
; ();
; ; ;
; , -.;
; /
; ;
; , ; ;
; .
Exercise 2. Discuss the following questions to the text What is management? (SB p. 12).
1. What are the main functions of management?
2. What activities does the function of planning involve?
3. How does Peter Drucker define organizing?
4. What does the task of integrating imply?
5. Why do managers have to measure the performance of their staff?
6. How can managers develop their subordinates and themselves?
7. Why should objectives be modified?
8. What is the role of top management? Which functions of a manager are the most important
ones for a top manager?
9. Is management an art or a science, according to Peter Drucker? Do you agree?
10. Why are excellent managers so rare? Can you give any names?
Summarizing
Read the rules how to make a summary of the text:
1. A summary is a SHORT version of the original text. It should be about a THIRD of the
original (for a written summary) and a HALF (for an oral one).
2. To make a summary, you must understand the original text. If you dont, your summary will
not be accurate.
3. You MAY use words from the original text (active vocabulary, terms, for example).
4. A summary should include ONLY important information that is key points.
5. You must include ALL the important ideas of the original text; otherwise, it will not be
complete.

6. You CANNOT ADD information when you summarize.


7. You can include SOME quotations from the original text.
8. A summary should NOT include your own opinion. It is the original writers opinion which is
important.
9. When summarizing, you MAY change the order of the ideas in the original text to make it
clearer.
When you summarize a text, you need to select the key point in each paragraph. The main point
is usually made in the topic sentence. This is generally the first sentence of the paragraph, though
it may appear in other places, including the end. You need to paraphrase the important points to
express them in a shorter way.
One of the most important aspects of summary writing is being able to condense the original
text, including shortening your own text. Here are some techniques that can be used for this
purpose. Lets look at the text What is management? (SB p.12) and shorten some parts of it:
1. removing details such as examples, quotations, information in brackets, figures and statistics
e.g. paragraph 2: Drucker suggested that the work of a manager can be divided into five tasks:
planning (setting objectives), organizing, integrating (motivating and communicating),
measuring performance and developing people.
Drucker suggested that the work of a manager can be divided into five tasks: planning,
organizing, integrating, measuring performance and developing people.
2. ellipsis (cutting out repeated words, the words without which the sentence can still be
understood)
e.g. paragraph 5: Thirdly, managers practise the social skills of motivation and communication.
They also have to communicate objectives to the people responsible for attaining them. They
have to make the people who are responsible for performing individual tasks form teams. They
make decisions about pay and promotion. As well as organizing and supervising the work of
their subordinates, they have to work with people in other areas and functions.
Managers practise the social skills of motivation and communication. They communicate
objectives, get their subordinates to form teams, make decisions about pay and promotion, work
with people in other areas and functions.
3. joining clauses
e.g. paragraph 2: First of all, (senior managers and directors set objectives, and decide) (how
their organization can achieve or accomplish them).
Senior managers and directors set objectives and decide how to achieve them.
Here is the algorithm how to prepare a summary:
1. First, skim the text you are going to summarize and divide it into sections. Focus on headings
and subheadings if there are any.
2. Underline the topic sentence in each paragraph and highlight one important supporting idea.
e.g. paragraph 1: Management is important. The success or failure of companies, public sector
institutions and services, not-for-profit organizations, sports teams and so on often depends on
the quality of their managers. But what do managers do? One well-known classification of the

tasks of a manager comes from Peter Drucker. Drucker was an American business professor and
consultant and is often called things like The Father of Modern Management.
3. Paraphrase.
e.g. paragraph 1: Management is crucial as the rise or fall of any enterprise is determined by the
effectiveness of their managers.
4. Do the same with the other paragraphs of the text.
5. Join the sentences with appropriate linking words or phrases to produce a coherent, more
flowing summary.
Here are some phrases that will help you structure your summary:
Introducing the first point
First(ly) (first of all), the author deals with / suggests / reminds us of the idea
To start with (to begin with), it should be mentioned / pointed out / noted
Its necessary / important to consider / to show / to pay attention to
Introducing a further point
Second(ly) (third(ly)), the author (eg. Mr.Smith / the scientist / the economist) highlights /
emphasizes / stresses
Moreover (Furthermore, In addition), he supports the idea
What is more (Apart from that), he adds
Another point to be made is that
Introducing a final point
Finally (Lastly), the author turns to the point (the issue/the description)
Presenting two (dis)advantages together
The author not only illustrates but he also talks in detail about
Presenting two opposing points of view
On the one hand, he argues / states
On the other hand, he warns against / of (agrees / disagrees)
Expressing results
For this reason, he claims
Because of this, he denies
As a result, he comes to the conclusion that
Therefore, he insists on the point
Thus, we (dis)agree with
Expressing contrast
However (But / Although / Though)
Even though
In spite of (Despite)
Nevertheless, he points out
In contrast to this, he draws our attention to
6. Begin the summary with an introductory part that states the text's title and author if hes
known, its thesis or focus. Use the present tense. The information should be presented in a
neutral formal register.
e.g. The title of the text Im going to summarize is What is management? It gives an overview
of the functions of a manager and discusses whether being a successful manager is an art or a
science.
Here are some phrases to help you introduce the topic:
The title of the text I, going to summarize is

The text under discussion is devoted to (deals with, concerns, is about, informs us about) the
problem of
In the text the author raises (brings up) the problem (the subject, the issue, the question, etc.) of

Today Im going to report on (to focus on, to speak on) the article (the text, the problem, the
subject, the issue, the question, etc.) of great importance (of particular interest). Its
The authors aim is to prove (to present to us, to analyze, to explain to us, to clarify, to focus on,
to highlight, to illustrate, etc. ) the idea(s) that by giving examples (figures, reasons, etc.)
The author aims to inform us of/about (to classify, to provide us with, to comment on, to
summarize, to observe, to analyze, criticize, to explain etc.) the facts
The author covers (dwells on, elaborates on, discusses, touches upon, introduces) the issue(s) of
(the question of, the problem of)
The author sends a clear message about/that
The author of the text gives (enumerates) the reasons for./against
The text gives/offers us an overview of / a detailed account of / a coverage of
7. Draw a conclusion.
e.g.: To sum up, the author says that management is both a human skill and management
techniques. Thats why great managers seem scarce.
Here are some other phrases to help you conclude your summary:
To conclude / In conclusion, I have to admit that / it should be emphasized that
Taking everything into account / To sum up, the author manages to prove his point of view that

IELTS. Test format.


The International English Language Testing System (IELTS) assesses the English language
proficiency of people who want to study or work where English is used as the language of
communication. IELTS tests all four language skills listening, reading, writing and speaking.
IELTS test takers can choose between two versions of the test Academic or General Training
depending on their academic or professional aims. All candidates take the same Listening and
Speaking components but different Reading and Writing components.
IELTS Academic measures proficiency needed for an academic, higher education environment.
The tasks and texts are accessible to all test-takers, irrespective of their subject focus.
Listening (30 minutes)
Four recorded monologues and conversations. Forty items. The tasks include answering multiple
choice questions, writing short answers to questions, completing sentences/notes/a summary/a
flow chart/ a table or a form, labelling a diagram/plan or map, classifying ideas into different
categories, matching.
Reading (60 minutes)
Three long reading passages. Forty items. The tasks include answering multiple choice
questions, writing short answers to questions, completing sentences/notes/a summary/a flow
chart/ a table, labelling a diagram, classifying ideas into different categories, matching, deciding
if ideas or opinions are correct, incorrect or not given.
Writing (60 minutes)
Two tasks. In the first task you will be presented with a graph, table, chart or diagram and asked
to describe, summarize or explain the information in your own words. In the second task you
will be asked to write an essay in response to a point of view, argument or problem.

Speaking (11-14 minutes)


Three parts.
Part 1 The Examiner will ask you general questions about yourself and a range of familiar
topics, such as home, family, work, studies and interests. This part lasts between four and five
minutes.
Part 2 You will be given a card which asks you to talk about a particular topic. You will have
one minute to prepare before speaking for up to two minutes. The examiner will then ask one or
two questions on the same topic to finish this part of the test.
Part 3
You will be asked further questions connected to the topic in Part 2. These questions will give
you the opportunity to discuss more abstract ideas and issue. The part of the test lasts between
four and five minutes.
Exam practice. Speaking.
Tips for Speaking Part 1.
This task tests your ability to talk about personal experiences and interests.
Tip! It's important not to memorise answers just try and talk about the topic naturally.
Tip! Answer the questions you are asked. Your answers neednt be more than one or two
sentences. Dont give a long speech in this Part.
Tip! Listen to the tense in the question so that you use the right one in your answer!
Tips for Speaking Part 2.
This task tests your ability to organise your ideas and speak fluently.
Tip! Before you talk youll have one minute to prepare. You can make notes if you want to.
Tip! Use the preparation time to think about what you will say even if you don't write very much.
Tip! Answer all the questions. You neednt answer them in the order on the card and you
neednt spend an equal amount of time on each one. You may have more to say about some
questions than others.
Tips for Speaking Part 3.
This task tests your ability to analyse and discuss in depth ideas which follow on from the topic
in Part 2.
Tip! Don't worry if you haven't finished when the examiner tells you to stop.
Tip! You are given a mark across all three parts, not a different mark for each part separately.
IELTS Speaking Part 2
Exercise 3a. Give a talk about the following topic for two minutes.
Talk about a manager you admire.
You should say:
what personal qualities made him/her a good manager
what he/she achieved
what you learned from him/her
and outline the reason(s) for your choice of a manager.

Exercise 3b. Give a talk about the following topic for two minutes.
Classify the functions of managers.
You should consider:

and specify the role of senior managers.


IELTS Speaking Part 3
Exercise 4. Answer the questions.
1. Can you identify what makes a good manager?
2. What management skills can students learn at business school?
3. Can you evaluate the importance of the five functions of management for a company?
4. Can you establish criteria for selecting a senior manager?
5. Would you agree that management is entirely scientific?
6. Do success and failure stories help students to learn management?
7. Can you speculate on the challenges that managers will face in the future?
Business Skills. Asking for and giving opinions.
Selecting a Chief Operating Officer (SB pp. 13-14)
Giving opinions
strongly
I'm convinced/sure/positive that...
I strongly believe that ...
I have absolutely no doubt that ...
I definitely/certainly think that
I really do think that ...
I really feel that
In my opinion
neutrally
I think/consider/feel that
I believe that ...
As I see it, ...
To my mind ...
From my point of view
I'm inclined to think that ...
weakly
I tend to think that ...
Asking for opinions
forcefully

neutrally

tactfully

Do you really think that ?


Do you really believe that ...?
Are you absolutely sure/convinced/positive/ that ?
Don't you think that ?
Do you think ?
Do you believe that ...?
Do you consider that ?
Am I right in thinking that ..?
Would I be right in thinking that ?

IELTS Reading.
Tips for Matching features
1. To match a set of statements or pieces of information to a list of options, remember that
the statements will often be expressed using different words from the text. Focus on the
ideas in the statements, not the particular words and phrases used.
2. It is possible that some options will not be used, and that others may be used more than
once. When it is possible to use any option more than once, the instructions will say:
You may use any option more than once.
Exercise 5. Read the text about the management styles. Look at the following
statements and the list of styles below. Classify each statement as a characteristic of the
style A-C.
NB You can use one letter more than once.
1. It is up to employees to keep the manager up to date on progress. ___
2. Managers set strict time limits. ___
3. Managers encourage staff to put forward their ideas. ___
4. Managers and employees decide together what needs to be achieved. ___
5. Decisions are made by managers and their staff. ___
6. Employees get precise instructions. ___
7. Managers do not want employees to avoid making decisions which employees should
make. ___
8. Managers have tight control of employees' movements and work schedules. ___
9. When employees are given tasks, they decide how to complete them. ___
Management styles
A Directing
B Discussing
C Delegating
The Big Three Management Styles
Management literature describes numerous management styles, including assertive, autocratic,
coaching, country club, directing, delegating, laissez-faire, participatory, supportive, taskoriented and team-based. Are there really that many styles? I believe there are three basic styles
directing, discussing and delegating, the 3D of Management Style.
Directing style
Managers using this style tell people what to do, how to do it and when to have it completed.
They assign roles and responsibilities, set standards and define expectations.
Communicating The manager speaks, employees listen and react. Managers provide detailed
instructions so employees know exactly what to
do. The ability to communicate in a clear, concise and complete fashion is critical. The only
feedback managers ask for is 'Do you understand what needs to be done?'
Goal-Setting 'Your goal is to sell 15 cars per month.' The manager establishes short-term goals.
When goals are specific and time bounded, employees are clear on what is expected of them.
Goals and deadlines often motivate people.
Decision-Making 'I want you to stop what you are currently doing and help Sue set up the
room for the seminar.' The manager makes most if not all decisions. When problems arise the
manager evaluates options, makes decisions and directs employees as to what actions to take.

Monitoring Performance and Providing Feedback Managers establish specific control points to
monitor performance. 'Get back to me at 11:00 a.m. to brief me on what you have accomplished.'
Managers provide frequent feedback including specific instructions on how to improve
performance.
Discussing style
Managers using this style take time to discuss relevant business issues. What happens in a good
discussion? People present ideas, ask questions, listen, provide feedback, challenge certain
assumptions and coach as needed. It's important to make sure ideas are fully discussed and
debated. Managers often perform the role of facilitator, making sure the discussion stays on track
and everyone has a chance to contribute.
Communicating Two-way communication is the norm. 'Let's go around the table and give
everyone a chance to discuss their ideas.' Managers spend as much time asking questions and
listening as they do talking and sharing their ideas. The right question focuses the discussion and
draws out people's ideas.
Goal-Setting 'Ingrid, what do you think our sales target should be for the fourth quarter? After
adequate discussion, goals are then established. Utilizing a participatory style generally helps to
increase employees commitment to achieve their goals.
Decision-Making We have a problem with the amount of inventory were currently carrying.
What action do you think we should take? Decisions are made collaboratively. Both manager
and employee play an active role in defining problems, evaluating options, and making
decisions.
Monitoring Performance and Providing Feedback The manager and employee monitor
performance and discuss what actions need to be taken. This works best when both parties are
open and make adjustments as needed.
Delegating style
Managers using this style usually explain or get agreement on what has to be accomplished and
when it must be completed. The how-to-do-it part of the equation is left up to the employee.
Responsibility and authority are given to employees to get the job done.
Communicating Regarding what has to be accomplished, communications may be one-way. I
want you to deliver a 15-minute presentation on our new compensation program at Tuesdays
meeting. In other situations it may be two-way: Lets discuss what needs to be accomplished in
the marketing brochure youre designing. Additional communication takes place to review what
has been accomplished and obstacles preventing progress.
Goal-Setting As stated above, specific goals may be established by the manager or may evolve
after a discussion between manager and employee. Failures in delegation can often be traced
back to a lack of understanding of the desired output or deliverable. I thought you only wanted
recommendations, not an implementation plan.
Decision-Making Barbara, thats your decision to make. Decisions as to how the task will be
accomplished are left to the employee. Employees have the power to take appropriate actions to
achieve the desired goals. Managers must avoid reverse delegation when employees try to give
back decisions that they should be making.
Monitoring Performance and Providing Feedback I want a weekly update on plan
accomplishments. Managers decide how much monitoring is necessary. The amount of
monitoring depends on the priority of the task and the person doing it. Providing feedback is the
responsibility of the employee. Keeping the manager informed, especially when the plan is off
track, is critical.
Exercise 6. Complete the notes. Use no more than one word from the passage for each
answer.
Tips for Note completion!
1. The answers may not come in the same order as in the text.
2. Read the instructions and check how many words you have to write.

3. Write each word exactly as it appears in the text. You never need to change the word you
copy (e.g. from a noun into a verb, or from singular to plural). If you spell the word(s)
wrongly, you will lose marks.
Advantages and disadvantages of different management styles
Directing style
Advantages
Clear goals and 1............ stimulate employees to succeed.
Detailed guidelines enhance 2............. .
Disadvantages
Authoritarian managers don't ask for employees' 3............ .
Discussing style
Advantages
Decisions are made 4............ .
Both managers and employees define problems, assess 5............ and take 6............ .
Employees' 7............ to attain goals rises.
Disadvantages
Much time is spent on decision-making.
Delegating style
Advantages
Responsibility and 8............ are passed down the chain of command.
Disadvantages
Employees lack understanding of the desired output or 9............ .

Exercise 7. Cross out the word in each list which doesnt collocate with the
word in italics.
1. measure / assess / look/ enhance
performance
2. depend / establish / set / pursue
goals
3. reach / do / implement / make
decisions
4. meet / set /arise / apply
standards
5. establish / assign / make / perform
roles
6. reach / motivate / achieve / attain
objectives
7. come up with / present / share / listen ideas
8. achieve / direct / guide / develop
employees