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1.

OVERVIEW
ABOUT MAHAGENCO
Government of Maharashtra founded Maharashtra state electricity board (MSEB) under
Indian Companies Act 1956. In 2005 MSEB is trifurcated in 3 companies as follows Mahanirmiti () or Mahagenco (Maharashtra State Power Generation
Company Limited (MSPGCL))
Mahapareshan ( ) or Mahatransco (Maharashtra State Electricity
Transmission Company Limited (MSETCL))
Mahavitaran () or Mahadiscom (Maharashtra State Electricity
Distribution Company Limited (MSEDCL))
Mahagenco is the second highest electricity generating company after NTPC.
Mahagenco having generation capacity of 10737 MW comprising 7480 MW thermal, 2585
MW hydel and 672 MW gas turbine.

Vision
Generating adequate power for Maharashtra on a sustainable basis at competitive rates in a
socially responsible manner.

Mission
Endeavour to fully meet the future energy needs of the State and also create sufficient
spinning reserves through Organic Value enhancing growth initiatives
Commit to affordable energy rates through cost minimization and consistent Operational
excellence and energy efficiency
Value enhancement to the stakeholders by being nimble and resourceful in the economic
environment, increase our business scope and scale to succeed throughout the economic
cycles and adapting our business and portfolio to the dynamic energy market place
Strive to improve the quality of life for the people who live and work in our operational
territory and power plants vicinity.

Chandrapur super thermal power station (CSTPS)


Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station (CSTPS) is a thermal power plant located in
Chandrapur district in the Indian state of Maharashtra run by the MAHAGENCO. The power
plant is one of the coal based power plants of MAHAGENCO. The coal for the power plant is
sourced from Durgapur and Padmapur Collieries of Western Coalfields Limited & Mahanadi
coalfields limited. The plant was officially inaugurated by the then Prime Minister Indira
Gandhi
on 8
Unit
Number
Installed
Capacity
(MW)
Date
of
Commissioning
October
1984.
1
210 MW
1983 Mar
With
the total
2
210 MW
1984 Jul
3
210 MW
1985 May
4
210 MW
1986 March
5
500 MW
1991 March
6
500 MW
1992 March
7
500 MW
1997 October
8
500 MW
2015
9
500 MW
2015
Total Units -9
3340 MW
capacity of 3340MW, the plant is largest power plant in the Maharashtra. It accounts to more
than 25% of total Maharashtra needs. The plant gets water supply from Erai Dam when in
normal conditions. In the summer of 2010 due to less water in Erai, the plant also got water
supply from Chargaon Dam

Generation of electricity from thermal power stationIn thermal power station, steam driven turbine is a prime mover of electrical generator.
When water is heated in boiler, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives
an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in
a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle.
Following energy conversion steps are used in the thermal power stationChemical energy of coal

Heat energy of water due combustion of coal

Kinetic energy of steam in nozzle

Mechanical energy due to rotation of turbine

Electrical energy developed in generator armature due to rotation


Fig.1

ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM


3

Fig. 2

Typical diagram of a Coal-fired Thermal Power Station


4

Fig. 3

1. Cooling tower

10. Steam Control valve

2. Cooling water pump

11. High pressure steam turbine 20. Forced draught (draft) fan

3. Transmission line (3-phase)


4. Step-up transformer (3-phase)

12. Deaerator
13. Feed water heater

21. Reheater
22. Combustion air intake

5. Electrical generator (3-phase)

14. Coal conveyor

23. Economiser

6. Low pressure steam turbine


7. Condensate pump

15. Coal hopper


16. Coal pulveriser

24. Air preheater


25. Precipitator

8. Surface condenser
9. Intermediate pressure steam
turbine

17. Boiler steam drum

26. Induced draught (draft) fan

18. Bottom ash hopper

27. Flue-gas stack

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE PLANT

19. Super heater

CSTPS Chandrapur consists of 3 stages with the following composition:


Stage 1 comprises of 4x210 MW generators
Stage 2 comprises of 3x500 MW generators
Stage 3 comprises of 2x500 MW generators which havent been commissioned yet
because of inauguration issues.
The following are the main points which were drawn to my attention during the plant visit.
They are as follows:

The voltage of the grid to which the plant is connected is 750 kV.
The voltage generated is of 15.75 kV for 210MW generator and is of 21 kV for 500
MW generator.
Heat rate of the plant is approximately equal to 2388 kcal/kWh.
Voltage is transmitted at 220 or 400 kV
The type of overhead boiler used is water tube radiant boiler.
The temperature of the superheated steam is 5800C.
1 unit of electricity requires about 700 grams of high grade coal.
UAT is of 20MW capacity with a stepped down voltage of 6.6 kV.
Head of the boiler is 180m above the surface facilitating a forced water circulation
through gravity.
Glass wool is used for insulation of steam carrying tubes.
A 4MW motor is used in BFP (Boiler Feed Pump), the biggest motor in the plant.
Natural draft cooling tower is employed in CSTPS.
The DC voltage employed in Electrostatic Precipitator is 70kV.

2. Coal Handling Plant


Following is the function of the coal handling plant Unloading of the coal received from coal mines.
Carry coal to the bunker, & maintain bunker level.
Storing of the coal in case of emergency.
Coal for operation of boiler in CSTPS is provide from
Durgapur and Padmapur Collieries of Western Coalfields Limited .
Mahanadi coalfields limited.
Coal is also impetrated from Indonesia.
From WCL mine, they get Bituminous coal. It is dark brown to black in colour. It is of
higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the
result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. It also called as soft coal. This contains high
percentage of volatile substances which burnt with yellow flame. Following table shows the
percentage of various elements in bituminous coal
6

Name of coal

Bituminous

Carbon
%

60-80

Moisture
%

Ash
%

2.2-15.9

3.3-11.7

Calorific
value
Kcal/kg
4200 (for
imported
coal)
3600 (for
W.C.L.)

Heat content
Mj/Kg

24-35

Amount coal required to produce one unit of electricity is called as coal factor.
The coal factor of the coal from WCL mines is 0.6Kg.
Transportation of coalTransportation

Road

Railway

Rope way

Fig. 4

Coal from coal Collieries contains magnetic materials, stones, and other impurities. Magnetic
materials are removed from coal by employing magnet above the conveyor belt, which
carries coal for feeding boiler.
Coal for 210MW, plant is brought by rope way. Capacity of rope way is 300 tons per hour.
In following ways magnet are employed on conveyor belt Suspended type magnet
Rotary type magnet
To remove the non-magnetic material skilled labour are standing beside the conveyor belt,
remove impurities.

3. Power Plant Component and its Operation

3.1 Boiler
Boiler is a very important component of the thermal power plant. It is used to generate steam
to drive the turbine. It is a closed vessel in which liquid is heated. This boiler is made up of
steel. Temperature of the boiler is in the range of 1400-1600 degree Celsius.
Boilers are classified on different basis as follows
According to circulation of steam.
Following different method are used for circulation of steam
Natural circulation- In circulation, difference in density of steam
water is used to circulate steam.
Forced circulation- force circulation method is used when operating
pressure is approaches to critical pressure.
According to firing type of boiler.
In which portion of the boiler burner are place, according to which boiler are
classified as follows Front fire type
Corner fire type
The source of the heat in boiler is combustion coal. In CSTPS water tube type boiler is used.
Water tubes filled with water are arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible
configurations: often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones containing water
and the upper ones, steam and water; in other cases, such as a monotube boiler, water is
circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high steam
production rates, but less storage capacity than the above. Water tube boilers can be designed
to exploit any heat source and are generally preferred in high pressure applications since the
high pressure water/steam is contained within small diameter pipes which can withstand the
pressure with a thinner wall. Cool water at the bottom of the steam drum returns to the feed
water drum via large-bore 'downcomer tubes', where it pre-heats the feed water supply. To
increase economy of the boiler, exhaust gases are also used to pre-heat the air blown into the
furnace and warm the feedwater supply. Such watertube boilers in thermal power station are
also called steam generating units.
In CSTPS, boiler is suspended from top, it is because of when water tubes are heated. Due to
heating, water tubes expands. If bottom of the boiler is fixed then tubes will expand in
upward direction, above the boiler the boiler draft is fitted. So due to heavy weight of boiler
drum & tube expansion high stares are developed in boiler. So it may harmful & reduces
boiler & its peripheries life.
Water tube boiler are subjected to the high pressure, heat flux and temperature so circulation
of steam and water gets important.
A boiler equipped with a combustion chamber which has a strong current of air (draft)
through the fuel bed will increase the rate of combustion, which is the efficient utilization of
fuel with minimum waste of unused fuel. The stronger movement will also increase the heat
transfer rate from the flue gases to the boiler, which improves efficiency and circulation. The
combustion rate of the flue gases and the amount of heat transfer to the boiler are both
8

dependent on the movement and motion of the flue gases. Hence, due to above reasons
draught system holds high significance.
The difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure existing in the furnace or flue
gas passage of a boiler is termed as draft. The system, which maintain the draught in boiler is
called as a draught system. Draught is produced by raising the level flue gases in stack.

In CSTPS,
Balanced draft system is employed.
-5mm of water column pressure is maintaining in boiler.
Forced draft is induces secondary air in boiler. Secondary air is required for complete
combustion of pulverized coal.
Generally, negative pressure is maintained inside the boiler. And, it is in the range of -5mm
of water column. Negative pressure is maintain because of, when coal is burnt, positive
pressure inside boiler cause the flame to reach to boiler wall, which causes damage to boiler
wall & also reduces efficiency of boiler .hence draught system is employed to take out the
flue gases from boiler.
Following are the important periphery of boilerCoal Mill- coal mill is used to pulverize a coal.
Unburned coal is found in bottom ash if coal is not completely burned. Unburned coal
is found 2-3% in bottom ash & about0.5% in fly ash. Major reason for incomplete
combustion is size of coal.
In coal mill coal is grind to obtain a coal particles of size about 70 micron.
In CSTPS following type of coal mill is used Ball & race type.
Bowl type.
Tube type.

EconomizerA feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the
flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at
temperatures higher than the temperature of the generated steam.
Primary heater- Air preheater is used to heat the air which is required for combustion
inside boiler , before it enter in boiler . It helps in improving rate of combustion of coal in
boiler.

Final superheater- It is a device in which the seam from the boiler is dried. It means that
total moisture is removed from the steam.
Platen superheater- It is a plate type heater.

Electrostatic precipitatorAn electrostatic precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is a particulate collection
device that removes particles from a flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic
charge. Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices that minimally impede
the flow of gases through the device, and can easily remove fine particulate matter such as
dust and smoke from the air stream.
ESP = Charging of ash particles + Collection of charged particulates

Stack- stack is vertical pipe through which the flue gases are exhausted to atmosphere from
boiler.
Fans in boilerFollowing are the fans are used in boiler.

Primary air fan (P.A. fan)Function of primary air fan Carry the pulverized coal to boiler from coal mills.
Remove moisture from coal.
Forced Draft FanFans for boilers force ambient air into the boiler, typically through a preheater to
increase overall boiler efficiency. Forced Draft (FD) fans purpose is to provide a
positive pressure to a system.
Induced draft Fan (I.D. Fan)Induced Draft (ID) fans are used to create a vacuum or negative air pressure
in boiler. Boiler ID Fans are often used in conjunction with FD fans to maintain
system pressure which is slightly lower than ambient.

Cycles of boilerFollowing air cycles are in the boiler Primary air cycle- functions of primary air is follows Carry the pulverized coal from the coal mill to the combustion
chamber of boiler.
Provide oxygen for combustion of coal particles.

Primary air cycle is shown as follows-

10

Primary air Fan


Air pre heater
Coal mill
Boiler combustion chamber
Fig. 5
Secondary air cycle- function of secondary air is
Provide oxygen for combustion of coal inside boiler.
When pulverized coal particle burn, ash is deposits on the
coal particle. Which causes incomplete combustion of coal
particle. Hence efficiency of boiler lowered down.
If coal burn near the burner head & boiler wall. It may
damage it. This damage is avoided by forcing secondary air
inside the boiler as it causes coal burn away from these
peripheries.
Secondary air removes this deposition of ash on coal particle.
Secondary air cycle is as followsF.D.Fan
Air pre heater
boiler
Fig. 6

Flue gas cycleFlue gases are formed after combustion of coal. Flue gases may contain carbo
dioxide (CO2), water vapors, Sulphur dioxide (SO2), and pollution causing gases
like carbon mono-oxide (CO), particulate matter like soot, & fly ash.
11

These gases are cleaned by using


Electrostatic precipitator for removal of soot & fly ash.
Flue gas cycle is as followsBoiler

Air heater

Electrostatic precipitator

Induced draft fan

stack
Fig. 7
Boiler MaintenanceBlowdownsBoiler blowdown is removal of water from the boiler. It is done in order to remove the
amount of solids in the water, and is performed as either bottom (sludge) blowdown, or
continuous (surface) blowdown. The blowdown frequency and duration is primarily
determined by the boiler water analysis. The water quality will vary greatly based on boiler
type and size, amount of condensate return, and boiler water treatment program.

Water tube cleaningAfter burning of coal two types of ash is formed, namely Fly ash.
Bottom ash.
Fly ash is light in weight, and it flue with flue gases. It may deposit on the water tube surface
inside the boiler. Due which less heat is absorbed by the water tube & hence efficiency of the
boiler is lowered down. Hence it is necessary to clean the boiler water tube surface.
To remove this deposition suit blowing method is used. In this method steam is forced to flow
over water tube & boiler wall at a pressure of 150kg.following 2 type of suit blower are used12

Short soot blower.


It is used to clean to boiler walls & water tube surface near to boiler walls.
Long soot blower

Two soot blower of 10m are used from both side of boiler.

3.2 Turbine
Turbine is a device which converts the kinetic energy of the steam in the mechanical
rotational energy of rotor. Steam from the boiler is passed over the blade of the
turbine, which tends to rotate the shaft of the turbine. Turbine shaft is mechanically
coupled with generator shaft .when turbine shaft rotate generator shaft also rotate.
Basically turbine is of following type Impulse turbine.
Reaction turbine.
On 5 different basis turbine is classified, those are as follows

Type of compounding.
Type of blading.
Division of flow.
Type of steam flow.
Type of exhausting condition.
Turbine used in CSTPS has following features Turbine set consist of 3 turbine defined on the basis of the pressure inside it.
These turbines with their type are as followsHigh pressure turbine - impulse turbine.
Intermediate pressure turbine Reaction turbine.
Low pressure turbine Reaction turbine.
Condensing type.
Tandom compound.
Tandom compounding means both impulse & reaction type turbine is used.
Nozzle governing.
Disc & diaphragm type.

The Turbine contained one row of stationary blade & one row of rotating blades alternatively.
The fixed blades are carefully shaped to direct the flow of steam against the moving blades at
an angle and a velocity that will maximize the conversion of the steam's heat energy into the
kinetic energy of rotary motion. Because the steam's temperature, pressure and volume
change continuously as it progresses through the turbine, each row of blades has a slightly
different length, and in certain parts of the turbine the twist of the blade is usually varied
along the length of the blade, from root to tip. One set of stationary & rotating blade is called
as stage. These no. of stages can b varied as per requirement.
In CSTPS, no of stages for a given turbine is given in following table
Type of turbine

No of stages
13

H.P. turbine
I.P. turbine
L.P. turbine

12
11
4+4

The steam from the boiler is initially provided to high pressure turbine (H.P. turbine). Steam
is expanded inside H.P. turbine .H.P. gives the starting torque & operating speed to the turbine
rotor. The expanded steam from the H.P. turbine again brought into the boiler for heating.
After rising the temperature of steam, it is fed to the intermediate pressure turbine (I.P.).then
this steam is supplied to the low pressure turbine (L.P.). The function of I.P. turbine & L.P.
turbine is to provide torque to the rotor.
As steam transferred from I.P. turbine to L.P. turbine, steam pressure goes on the decreasing,
and hence steam goes on expanding. In L.P turbine steam is expand in huge amount hence it
requirement of space.
To overcome this limitation steam is bifurcated in L.P. turbine. Turbine is design so that
steam enter at the middle part of the turbine & exit from the both end. The blades in each
half face opposite ways, so that the axial forces negate each other but the tangential forces act
together. This design of rotor is called two-flow, double-axial-flow, or double-exhaust. This
arrangement is common in low-pressure casings of a compound turbine.
This arrangement has following advantages

Required space is less.


Vibration cause is less.
Steam can be expands up to require amount.
Maintain the correct rotor position and balancing, this force must be
counteracted by an opposing force.

Following are the turbine peripheries


Emergency stop valve (E.S.V) Hydraulically operated.
Operate live steam

Live steam is steam under pressure, obtained by heating water in a boiler.


Control valves ( C.V.)Control valves used to control the flow of steam in boiler. During light load period, by
controlling flow of steam we can generate limited electricity. Control valves are mounted on
casing of H.P. turbine at the middle bearing side, it is common for H.P. & I.P turbine.
There are total 4 no. of C.V in one turbine.
Turbine rotor connection

14

Rotor of I.P. & L.P. turbine is connected by semi flexible rod.


3 rotors are supplied with 5 bearings.
H.P. & L.P. turbine is combined on radial bearing.
Barring gear- barring gear is structure to support the rotor during sagging & hogging due to
differential temperature between the top of the rotor shaft and the bottom. Once the rotor is
cooled to ambient temperature, unless there is a supplementary support structure for the rotor,
it should be barred periodically to avoid sagging of the rotor under its own weight.

More about turbine


Anchor point- when steam is expand in turbine, heat is transferred from the steam to
rotor & turbine casing. Due to heating elongation is produced in rotor & casing. It is
subjected to axial thrust. To allow their controlled motion during operation and to
prevent any eventuality between rotor and casing they are required to be anchored Rotors
are anchored at Bearing no 2(between HP &IP) by means of thrust bearing. In some
Turbines they are also anchored at free end Thrust bearing (Anchor point) is always
located near High temperature end to minimize the differential expansion.
So anchor point is defined as casing which are connected by means of pedestals & keys.
Anchor point is located near the high temperature
In CSTPS, anchor point is located near front of L.P. turbine.

Cycles of turbine

Cooling water cycle.Two circulating water pump (C.W. pump) are circulating water, taken from sump.
Water from the condenser water tube is cooled in cooling tower.
27000ton water per hour is cooled in one cooling tower.
14 C.T fans are employed in 210MW plant cooling tower.
Temperature in cooling tower should be 28-30degree Celsius .

Following dia. shows the cooling water cycle-

15

te rs u
a
W
mp
li n
o
C
gT
we
o
r

de
n
o
C
s e
n
r

Fig. 8

Regenerative feed water cycleRegenerative water is obtained from the condensate from the condenser. When steam in
condenser is passed over the cool water tube, it condensate & collected in hot well. Hence
regenerative feed water starts from hot well & end at boiler drum. 2 condensate extraction
pumps are running & 1 pump is stand by. It is as given in next page

16

Condenser

Hot well

C.E.P - 1

C.E.P - 2

C.E.P - 3

Low pressure heater (L.P.)

De aerator

Feed storage tank (F.S.T.)

Fig. 9

Feed water cycleIn feed water cycle 2 boiler feed pumps (B.F.P.) are running & 1 is stand by at a time.
17

Feed water cycle is as follows-

Feed water cycle (F.S.T)

B.F.P.-1

B.F.P.-2

B.F.P.-3

High pressure heater (H.P.)


economizer

Boiler drum
Fig. 10

3.3 Condenser
Condenser is used to condense the steam out from the L.P. turbine. Cooled water is
circulating inside the water tube of condenser. Heat of the steam is transferred to cooled water
inside water tube. Hence, due to this steam gets condense. Condensate is collected in hot
well, which is just below the condenser. The heated water inside the water tube is sent to the
cooling tower in which temperature of this water is decreased to the ambient temperature.
Following are the important component of condenser
Shell- The shell is the condenser's outermost body and contains the heat exchanger tubes. The
shell is fabricated from carbon steelplates and is stiffened as needed to provide rigidity for the
shell. At the bottom of the shell, where the condensate collects, an outlet is installed. In some

18

designs, a hotwell is provided. Condensate is pumped from the outlet or the hotwell for reuse
as boiler feedwater.
For most water-cooled surface condensers, the shell is under vacuum during normal operating
conditions.
Cooling water tubes- Generally the tubes are made of stainless steel, copper alloys such as
brass or bronze. Cooled water flows through it. Which extract heat from the steam. Due to
absorption of heat tube gets elongate hence some clearance is provided for this expansion.
Condensate extraction pump (C.E.P) - condensate extraction pump (C..P) is generally a
centrifugal pump used to extract the condensate from the condenser.
In CSTPS, there are total 3 C.E. pumps are installed per condenser unit in 210MW unit. Out
of these 2 C.E. pumps are running &1 is stand by at a time.

More about condenserVacuum is maintained in condenser.


It is because of the steam turbine itself is a device to convert the heat in steam to
mechanical power. The difference between the heat of steam per unit mass at the inlet to the
turbine and the heat of steam per unit mass at the outlet from the turbine represents the heat
which is converted to mechanical power. Therefore, the more the conversion of heat
per pound or kilogram of steam to mechanical power in the turbine, the better is its efficiency.
By condensing the exhaust steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, the
steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine is increased, which increases
the amount of heat available for conversion to mechanical power. Most of the heat liberated due
to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the cooling water.

Fig. 11

Cooling Tower19

Cooling towers are used to cool the water from the water tube of condenser. Water in water
tube take heat from the steam from the turbine.

Fig. 12
Heat from water is transferred by following methodWet cooling methodIn this method evaporation phenomenon is used to transfer heat.
Dry cooling methodIn this method convention of heat phenomenon is used to transfer of heat from water from
water tube. Heat is transferred through a surface that separates the water from ambient air,
such as in a heat exchanger.

3.4 Generator
Generator is an electrical device which converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
This Energy conversion is based on the principal of the production of dynamically induced
emf. Whenever conductor cuts magnetic flux, dynamically induced emf is produced in it
according to Faradays Laws of electromagnetic induction. This emf causes a current to flow
if the conductor circuit is closed.
Synchronous generator (Alternator) is used to generate A.C electric power at a constant
frequency 50Hz.
In A.C. generator, following are constructional important parts A stationary element called as stator, on which armature winding is mounted.

20

A rotating part inside the stator called as rotor. This rotor is driven by the rotational
mechanical energy from the turbine shaft at a constant speed.
In CSTPS, 210MW unit 2 pole alternator is used which generate electricity at
3000rpm of frequency 50Hz.
Stator Construction
Stator is a heaviest component of the entire generator. It contains stator winding & stator
body with a stator core. It is designed to
Withstand high internal pressure, which may arise due to unlikely event of explosion of
hydrogen air mixture without any residual deformations. Stator body is a totally enclosed gas
tight fabricated structure made up of high quality mild steel and austenitic steel.
Stator windingStator winding is made up of a hollow conducting pipe through which water is circulated for
cooling hydrogen gas. The stator winding is placed in open rectangular slots of the stator core
which are uniformly distributed on the circumference Bus bars are connected to bring out the
three phases & six neutrals. This bus barware connected with terminal bushings. Both are
water cooled, connection is made by brazing the two lugs properly. The insulation is highly
resistant to high temperatures and temperature changes. The composition of the insulation
and synthetic resin permits the machine to be operated continuously under conditions
corresponding to these for insulation class B temperature.
END WINDING:
In the end winding, the bars are arranged close to each other. Lower as well as upper layers of
bars are braced with terelyne cord with binding ring as well as with adjacent bars. Bus bars
are connected to bring out the three phases & six neutrals. These bus bars are connected with
terminal bushings. Both are water cooled, connection is made by brazing the two lugs
properly.
TERMINAL BUSHING :
Three phases and six neutral terminals are brought
out from the stator frame through bushings, which are capable of withstanding high voltage,
and provided with gastight joints. The bushings are bolted to the bottom plate of the terminal
box, with their mounting flanges. The terminal box that is welded underneath the stator frame
at exciter end is made of nonmagnetic
Steel to avoid admissible temperature rise. The conductor of the bushing is made of high
conductivity copper tube. A copper pipe is connected to circulate water for cooling. The
terminal bar conductor is housed in porcelain insulator which can be mounted on the terminal
box by means of ring.
The bushing is connected to terminal bus bar by means of flexible copper leads for making
the electrical connections conveniently.
Rotor Construction
In rotor construction following are the important parts of rotor, which require very careful
operation during its construction.
Rotor winding.
Rotor shaft.

21

Rotor winding
Rotor winding is mounted on the rotor shaft. The field winding consists of several coils
inserted into the longitudinal slots of the rotor body. The coils are wound around the poles so
that one north magnetic pole and one south magnetic pole are obtained on shaft. Rotor
winding is excited by the excitation voltage provided by excitation system.
Rotor winding conductor are made up of hard drawn silver bearing copper. Apart from low
electrical resistance this grade exhibits high creep resistance so that coil deformations due to
thermal cycling due to start and stop operation are minimum.
Insulation winding is made up of Layer of glass laminates insulates the Individual turns from
each other. This laminate is built by glass prepped strips on the turn of copper and baked
under pressure and temperature.
Due to rotation & flow of current in winding heat is generated. If excessive heat is generated,
it may damage the winding insulation & weaken the rotor. Hence winding cooling is
necessary. It can be done by hydrogen cooling. Hydrogen gas can be rich up to deepest layer
of winding hence efficient cooling is done.
Rotor shaftThe rotor shaft is long forging measuring more than 9 meters in length and slightly more than
one meter in diameter. The main constituents of the steel are chromium, molybdenum.
Nickel, and vanadium. The shaft and body are forged integral to each other by drop forging
process.
On 2/3 of its circumference approximately, the rotor body is provided with longitudinal slots
to accommodate field windings. The slots pitch is selected in such a way that two solid poles
displaced by 180 are obtained.
D.C exciter is also mounted on the generator shaft.
FansTwo single stage axial flow propeller type fans circulate the generator cooling gas. Fitted on
either sides of rotor body
BearingsThe rotor shaft is supported on pedestal type of bearings which has spherical seating to allow
self-alignment. On the top of bearings pedestal a vent pipe emerges connecting bearing
chamber to the atmosphere for venting out oil vapour or traces of Hydrogen. A current
collector located just above the rotor shaft and touching it is also mounted on the bearing
body to give, shaft voltage for rotor earth fault protection. To prevent the flow of shaft
currents slip ring and bearing and connecting pipes are insulated from earth.
Shaft Seal
The locations where the rotor shaft passes through the stator casing, are provided with radial
seal rings. The seal ring is guided in the seal body, which is bolted on to the end shield and
insulated to prevent the flow of shaft currents. The seal ring is lined with babbit on the shaft
journal side. The gap between the seal ring and the shaft is sealed with seal oil. The seal oil is
supplied to the sealing gap from the seal body via radial holes and an annular groove in the
seal ring. To ensure effective sealing, the seal oil pressure in the annular gap is maintained at
a higher level than the gas pressure within the generator casing.

22

Following flow chart shows generated electricity route


Generator

Generating transformer

National grid
Fig. 13

CoolingIn generator heat is generated due to windage loss, Cu losses, friction. The rise in temperature
must be controlled to protect the insulating material. The temperature with which these
insulating material can with stand is decided by the class of insulating material to which it
belongs.
For cooling generator components following cooling systems are used Hydrogen cooling.
Demineralized water (D.M.) cooling.
Hydrogen CoolingIn CSTPS, 2 pole generator runs at 3000 rpm. So the rotor of large diameter is used. To
minimize the size of generator air gap should be as small as possible & by increasing value of
current density. But increasing in value of current density increases the losses in generator
ultimately heat developed is also increased. If excess amount of heat is developed, it may
damage the winding insulation.
In Generator hydrogen gas may be leak from the bearings & casing.
This hydrogen gas is highly explosive when it is in contact with air. This may cause fire to
the generator. To avoid this leakage Generator seal oil system is employed.
In order to prevent the escape of Hydrogen from the generator casing along the rotor shaft,
shaft seals with oil under pressure are used. The shaft seals are radial thrust type and are
mounted between the end shield and the bearing at either end of the stator.
The seal oil supply system consists of an oil injector, two seal oil pumps, one cooler, two oil
filters, differential pressure regulator, pressure oil regulator, damper tank, hydraulic seal,
visual window, oil check pipe etc.
Demineralised (D.M.) Water CoolingStator conductor are made hallow. Through this hallow conductor D.M. water is circulated
which absorb the heat from stator winding.
D.M. Cooling water is admitted to upper bar and it returns through lower bar of next slot. The
hot water then goes to expansion tank which is maintained under a vacuum of about 300 mm
of Hg. This helps to remove gases from the water and thus corrosion is minimised. From
expansion tank, water is pumped by primary stator water pumps through DM/DM Coolers,
filters back to stator conductors.
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Exciter
According to Faradays Laws of electromagnetic induction, Whenever conductor cuts
magnetic flux dynamically an induced emf is produced in it.
Due to this induced emf current is flows in closed circuit.
Need of excitation to A.C. generatorAc generators required a large magnetic field which cannot be provided by permanent
magnets. So dc generators called auxiliary generators are used to provide constant magnetic
field.
More about exciterExcitation can be given by both A.C. & D.C. source, but the A.C. excitation have
Following limitations A.C. excitation itself produce alternating flux, thus generator will give transformer action
But it will not generate electricity as per mutual induction laws.
If field is rotated by giving A.C. excitation, we will not get constant magnetic polls. Polls
will change with respect to armature winding. So, it results in irregular waveform of
generated emf & there will be chances of burning of stator winding.
In case of D.C. excitation, it gives constant magnetic field.
Generator are connected in parallel with another generator or infinite bus bars. An infinite
bus means a large system whose voltage and frequency
Remain constant independent of the power exchange between the synchronous generator and
the bus, and independent of the excitation of the synchronous generator. The generator
excitation which is controllable determines the flow of VARs into or out of the generator.
Generally, D.C. generator as an exciter is mounted on the generator shaft itself.
Objectives of excitation control:
Besides maintaining the field current and steady state operating point, the excitation
System is required to improve the natural damping behaviour and to extend the stability
limits.
The operating conditions to be taken into consideration are:
Good response in Voltage and reactive power control.
Satisfactory steady state stability i.e. sufficient damping of electromagnetic and
electromechanical transients.
Transient stability for all stated conditions.
Quick voltage recovery after fault clearance.
Generator ProtectionFollowing points shows the requirement of protection
Faults in generator reflect back on whole system. A fault produces high short circuit
current.
Generator faults may damage the generator winding which is so much costly. Also,
this may damage the stator core, due to which severe mechanical torsion may
produce.
Fault current is flows through the winding even after generator is tripped; it is because
of presence of trapped flux with in machine. There by increasing amount of fault
damage.
Following are the major protection are given to the generator
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Mechanical protection.
Protection against failure against prime mover.
Failure of field.
Over current.
Over voltage.
Over speed.
Electrical protection.
Unbalanced load.
Stator winding.
Governing & Lubricating System
Turbine in CSTPS is equipped with hydraulic mechanical governing system, which ensures
smooth & safe operation of turbine & generator. This system is as follows-

Oil Tank

MOP
SOP

LOP
AC

DC

Governor

Oil cooler

Servomotor Operate
Pump

4 control valve

25 Bearings

of turbine & generator

3.5 Generator Transformer


Transformer is a static device which step up or step down electrical energy. Function of
transformer in power plant is to step up the voltage level to the transmission voltage level.
Following table shows the transformer component and its function.
component

function

core

Provide path for magnetic lines of flux.

Primary winding

Receive electrical energy from energy source & creates


magnetic field.

Secondary winding

Receive electrical energy from primary winding &


deliver to the load

enclosure

Protect the above component from environmental attack

Core is made up of CRGO steel which have high magnetic properties due to which losses are
reduced, &permeability is increase
Transformer bushing- transformer bushing is used to take out the terminal of the secondary
winding to connect it to the transmission lines. Electrical power is the product of voltage and
current, the insulation in a bushing must be capable of withstanding the voltage at which it is
applied, and its current carrying conductor must be capable of carrying rated current without
overheating the adjacent insulation. The bushing must also be able to withstand the various
mechanical forces applied to it.
Transformer insulationIn power transformer, insulation is provided on two places in stator winding Insulation between two winding turn in same layer. It is called as basic
insulation.
Insulation between two layer of winding.
Basic insulation need not by excessive because the voltage difference between a winding turn
and its neighbouring turn is small in value and its the voltage across one winding turn. To
insulate layer of winding from the other layer of winding paper insulation is used.
Some of the salient features of our insulating materials are listed below:

Excellent flexibility.
Heat resistant.
Moisture resistant.
Brilliant electrical properties.
Resistant to smoke or odour.
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More about power transformer


Paper insulation is used in between the two layer of winding it is because of
The voltage difference between a winding turn and its neighboring winding turn one
layer above or below it can be excessive and equals the voltage drop across a large
number of turns in one windings layer. Therefore an extra insulation layer using paper
strip is used between windings layers.
Paper is used as an insulating material. It is because of cellulose paper have outstanding
insulating properties.
In power transformer, when transformer is loaded with load. Current is flows through the
transformer winding which causes I2R losses in transformer. Due to I 2R losses heat is
produced in transformer. Hence as load goes on increasing amount of heat developed also
increases.
Excess amount of heat is developed is main reason behind transformer winding insulation
breakdown.
It also adversely affects the life of the transformer.
Hence cooling system is employed in transformer

Transformer cooling system

Fig. 15
In generating transformer, heat developed is extremely high. Natural air cooling is not
sufficient to maintain transformer temperature. Hence oil cooling system is employed in
power transformer.
Oil is used in transformer to insulate & cool the winding.

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Transformer core & both winding are immersed in oil filled up in oil tank. This transformer
oil should have following properties-

Transformer oil properties

Electrical
Dielectric strength.
Specific resistance.
Dielectric dissipation
Factor.

Physical

Chemical

Interfacial
water content.
Tension.
Acidity.
viscosity
sludge content.
Flash point.

Fig. 16
To cool this hot oil water cooling arrangement is provided. Water is circulated through the
tubes. This hot water is cooled naturally.

Transformer accessories
BreatherWhenever electrical power transformer is loaded, the temperature of the insulating oil
increases, consequently the volume of the oil is increased. As the volume of the oil is
increased, the air, above the oil level in conservator, will come out. Again at low oil
temperature the volume of the oil is decreased, which cause, the volume of the oil to be
decreased which again causes air to enter into conservator tank. The natural air always
consists of more or less moisture in it and this moisture can be mixed up with oil if it is
allowed to be entered into the transformer. The air moisture should be resisted during entering
the air into the transformer, because moisture is very harmful for transformer insulation. A
silica gel breather is most commonly used as a means of filtering air from moisture. Silica gel
breather for transformer is connected with conservator tank by means of breathing pipe.

Conservator

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It is the important periphery of transformer. Conservator is a tank which conserves oil. When
transformer is loaded, oil inside it is heated. Due to heating oil expand. To provide extra
volume conservator is employed.
When oil gets cooled it returns to transformer oil tank.
Conservator tank is partially filled with oil.
So, the vacuum space is filled up by the atmospheric air. A filtering device, called breather is
attached with the conservator to ensure that only dry and clean air can enter into the
transformer. So, a conservator ensures the safety operation of a transformer. High temperature
of oil also leads to generate sludge, which occurs in the presence of air. If somehow the
transformer is subjected to a major fault, then the temperature rise becomes quite high and
this causes vaporization of a part of the oil. This oil vapour forms an explosive mixture with
air and can ignite and cause huge damage. So, to prevent the contact of oil and moistureenriched air, conservator and breather assembly is used.

Buchholz RelayPrinciple of operation of buchholz relay is very simple. It is a mechanical phenomenon

Whenever there will be a minor internal fault in the transformer such as an insulation faults
between turns, break down of core of transformer, core heating, the transformer insulating
oil will be decomposed in different hydrocarbon gases, CO2 and CO. The gases produced due
to decomposition of transformer insulating oil will accumulate in the upper part the Buchholz
Container which causes fall of oil level in it.

Fig. 17
Fall of oil level means lowering the position of float and thereby tilting the mercury switch.
The contacts of this mercury switch are closed and an alarm circuit energized. Sometime due
to oil leakage on the main tank air bubbles may be accumulated in the upper part the
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Buchholz Container which may also cause fall of oil level in it and alarm circuit will be
energized. By collecting the accumulated gases from the gas release pockets on the top of the
relay and by analysing them one can predict the type of fault in the transformer.

Pressure release valve (P.R.V.)It is an oil pressure relief valve. When oil is heated in transformer tank, it expands & it exerts
pressure. If this pressure crosses certain limit then this P.R.V. is operated.
Pressure relief is very simple construction. It contain an aluminium foil of required thickness
is fitted on the opening of valve. Whenever surge developed in oil. The aluminium foil is
busted.

Circuit BreakerCircuit breaker is nothing but the switch. Circuit breaker is enclosed in a close vessel. It is
operated by external media. When relay senses faults. Then relay sends signal and then
circuit breaker breaks the circuit, Due to high voltage arc is produced in it. To extinguish it
following methods are usedBulk oil

SF6 (sulphur hexafluoride)

Minimum oil

CO2

Air blast

Vacuum

IsolatorIsolator is a switch which isolates the circuit. it is very simple in construction, &
mechanically operated switch.
Circuit breaker always trip the circuit but open contacts of breaker cannot be visible
physically from outside of the breaker and that is why it is recommended not to touch any
electrical circuit just by switching off the circuit breaker. So for better safety there must be
some arrangement so that one can see open condition of the section of the circuit before
touching it. Isolator is a mechanical switch which isolates a part of circuit from system as
when required. Electrical isolators separate a part of the system from rest for safe
maintenance works.

Other transformer used in CSTPS

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Besides generating transformer following transformer are also used. These transformers have
their own significance in power plant. Following are those transformers Unit auxiliary transformer.
Station transformer.
Unit auxiliary transformerUnit auxiliary transformer is employed to provide electricity to the auxiliaries like B.F.P.,
C.E.P., cooling pumps, of power plant unit.
Before starting power generation in plant, these auxiliaries must be started. To start these
auxiliaries initially power is taken from station transformer. After generating 30MW
electricity, this UAT is connected to primary side of generating transformer. This arrangement
has following advantagesElectricity can be taken from generator itself as well as from external source.
When electricity is taken from generator itself, then CSTPS does not need to pay for
electricity required for power plant auxiliaries.
Primary side voltage of UAT is equal to the generating voltage level. & secondary voltage is
equal to rated voltage of auxiliaries.
General layout of UAT is as follows

Fig. 18
Station transformerStation transformer is also called as start-up transformer. This station transformer provides
initial power to the plant auxiliaries, when no power is available. Following are the function
of station transformerProvide electricity to auxiliaries of power plant, during start-up.
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During normal operation, power to the C.H.P. auxiliaries. It is because of working of all unit
is depends upon coal supply from C.H.P. following auxiliaries are installed in C.H.P.Motors of conveyor belts.
Motors of crusher.
Lightening system
Provide power to the boiler feed pump (B.F.P.). It is very important auxiliary of thermal
power plant.
If boiler drum level is not maintain, then many complications (like boiler over heating which
damage boiler tubes & many other components) are arises.
Hence power supply to B.F.P. must be maintained. To maintain this supply power supply is
taken from station transformer.
Station transformer is connected to the grid transmission lines, hence power supply reliability
is maintained, even though generating units are tripped up.
STORAGE BATTERIES
Battery Is Considered To Be the HEART Of the Power Plant.

Battery provides the ultimate and final DC back-up for emergency oil pumps and
other emergency equipment.

DC power for operation of all switchgear protection and relays.

Power for emergency lighting within the generating station building.

Uninterrupted power for C & I equipment and the ups systems.

Power for vital communication equipment (PLCC), essential for re-synchronizing the
unit with the grid or for reviving the grid in the case of a major grid failure.

What if the battery fails in an emergency?

Unit Battery
The emergency oil pump will not operate which may lead to seizure of the
rotor bearings
Loss of hundreds of Crore of rupees towards repairing the rotor and generation
revenue loss while the unit is out of commission
Switchgear associated with generator may not trip which could lead to
generating transformer damage
Failure of instrumentation and control
Total darkness in the powerhouse

Substation
Switchgear and relays will not operate causing extensive damage to
transformers and power lines.
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PLCC
Extremely difficult to resynchronize the unit with the grid
Major setback in the process of reviving the grid in the event of a regional grid
failure
If the battery fails while the unit is in operation, it may become essential to
shutdown

The single most important feature of storage batteries for power sector and other critical
standby application is
Reliability
Reliable standby power source
Deliver power as and when called for
Full capacity at any point of time in service life
Predictability

4. Ash Handling PlantSystem Description


The ash handling system handles the ash by bottom ash handling system, coarse ash handling
system, fly ash handling system, ash disposal system up to the ash disposal area and water
recovery system from ash pond and Bottom ash overflow. Description is as follows:

A.

Bottom Ash Handling System

Bottom ash resulting from the combustion of coal in the boiler shall fall into the over ground,
refractory lined, water impounded, maintained level, double V-Section type/ W type steelfabricated bottom ash hopper having a hold up volume to store bottom ash and economizer
ash of maximum allowable condition with the rate specified. The slurry formed shall be
transported to slurry sump through pipes.
B.

Coarse Ash (Economizer Ash) handling System

Ash generated in Economizer hoppers shall be evacuated continuously through flushing


boxes. Continuous generated Economizer slurry shall be fed by gravity into respective
bottom ash hopper pipes with necessary slope.

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C.

Air Pre Heater ash handling system

Ash generated from APH hoppers shall be evacuated once in a shift by vacuum conveying
system connected with the ESP hopper vacuum conveying system.

D.

Fly Ash Handling System

Fly ash is considered to be collected in ESP Hoppers. Fly ash from ESP hoppers extracted by
Vacuum Pumps up to Intermediate Surge Hopper cum Bag Filter for further Dry Conveying
to fly ash silo.
Under each surge hopper ash vessels shall be connected with Oil free screw compressor for
conveying the fly ash from Intermediate Surge Hopper to silo. Total fly ash generated from
each unit will be conveyed through streams operating simultaneously and in parallel.
E.

Ash Slurry Disposal System

Bottom Ash slurry, Fly ash slurry and the Coarse Ash slurry shall be pumped from the
common ash slurry sump up to the dyke area which is located at a distance from Slurry pump
house.

5. RESULTThe industrial training at Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station was completed
successfully along with the plant visit.

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