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European Agency for Reconstruction

PREPARATION OF A MID TERM PLAN FOR EXISTING COAL MINES AND A MAIN
MINING PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SIBOVC MINE
EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

FINAL REPORT

Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine


Part I

Basic Investigations

June 24, 2005


prepared by:

Vattenfall Europe Mining AG

VATTENFALL

Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Key Experts of Project Team

Ullrich Hhna
VEM
Team Leader, Senior Expert Mine Planning

Hans Jrgen Matern


VEM
Senior Expert Mining Operation

Thomas Suhr
VEM
Senior Expert Computer-Aided Mine Planning Applications

Stephan Peters
Senior Expert Geology

DMT

Helmar Laube
VEM
Senior Expert Soil Mechanics

Joachim Gert ten Thoren


DMT
Senior Environmental Expert

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

List of Contents
1 Summary ........................................................................................ 10
2 Introduction.................................................................................... 20
2.1
2.2

Allocation / Geographical Overview and Historical Development ......................... 20


Approach / Methodology ......................................................................................... 21

3 Coal Demand and Fuel Supply Strategy........................................ 22


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

Existing Power Plants............................................................................................... 22


New Power Plant Project(s) ..................................................................................... 22
Coal Supply by Independent or Captive Lignite Mines? ......................................... 23
Power Generating Programm for Comparing Various Mining Variants ................. 25
Coal Demand Forecast for the detailed Main Mine Plan (Part II) ........................... 26

4 Geological Conditions ................................................................... 28


4.1
Introduction .............................................................................................................. 28
4.2
Regional Geological Situation ................................................................................. 29
4.2.1
Geological Work Performed ............................................................................ 32
4.2.2
Geological Data Available ............................................................................... 33
4.2.3
2D Reflection Seismic...................................................................................... 34
4.3
Assessment of Data Base ......................................................................................... 38
4.3.1
Elaboration of Borehole Database.................................................................... 38
4.3.2
Assessment Methodology ................................................................................ 40
4.3.3
Stratigraphic And Lithological Borehole Data................................................. 41
4.3.3.1 Sibovc........................................................................................................... 41
4.3.3.2 D-Field ......................................................................................................... 41
4.3.3.3 South-Field ............................................................................................... 42
4.3.4
Coal Qualities from Borehole Data.................................................................. 42
4.3.4.1 Assessment of Borehole Data ...................................................................... 42
4.4
Geological Model..................................................................................................... 43
4.4.1
Modelling Procedure ........................................................................................ 43
4.4.2
Structural Model............................................................................................... 45
4.4.3
Coal Quality Distribution Model...................................................................... 47
4.5
Other Aspects influencing the Geological Situation ................................................ 48
4.5.1
Former Underground Mining ........................................................................... 48
4.5.2
Uncontrolled Coal Fires ................................................................................... 50
4.5.2.1 Development and locations of coal fires ...................................................... 50
4.5.2.2 Counteractive measures................................................................................ 52
4.5.2.3 Prevention of coal fires ................................................................................ 52
4.6
Geological Resources............................................................................................... 53
4.7
Hydrogeological Situation........................................................................................ 53
4.8
Further Exploration in the future Fields................................................................... 56

5 Overview of Potential Future Mining Fields................................. 56


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

General Aspects and Bedding Conditions................................................................ 56


Sibovc-Field ............................................................................................................. 57
D-Field ..................................................................................................................... 58
South-Field ............................................................................................................... 59
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

5.5

Valuation of the Mining Fields ................................................................................ 61

6 Alternatives of Mining Equipment -Various Mining Methods..... 63


6.1
Bases for a Comparison of Alternative Mining Methods ........................................ 63
6.2
Description of the 4 Alternative Mining Methods ................................................... 64
6.3
Calculation of Average Cost per Unit ...................................................................... 65
6.3.1
General Data for Cost Calculation ................................................................... 65
6.3.2
Calculation of Operating Cost Positions .......................................................... 65
6.3.3
Actual Costs ..................................................................................................... 66
6.4
IRR, average Cost per Unit ...................................................................................... 66
6.5
Sensitivity Analysis.................................................................................................. 68
6.6
Result / Evaluation of new Equipment..................................................................... 69
6.7
Use of existing Equipment and Refurbishment Strategy ......................................... 72
6.8
New or Used Equipment? ........................................................................................ 74

7 Alternatives of Opening-up and Mine Development Scenarios.... 75


7.1
General Mine Design and Criteria of Evaluation..................................................... 75
7.2
Description of the Main Mine Scenarios.................................................................. 77
7.2.1
Var.1: Development of the Sibovc Field as sole Supplier of the Power Plants77
7.2.1.1 Variant 1.1: Operation from South to North ................................................ 77
7.2.1.2 Variant 1.2: Operation from North to South ................................................ 81
7.2.2
Variant 2: Development in den Opencast Mine Field of Sibovc and D-Field . 84
7.2.3
Variant 3: Separation of the Sibovc-Field in East-West-Direction.................. 88
7.2.3.1 Variant 3.1: Separate Opening-up in the Middle of the Sibovc Field.......... 88
7.2.3.2 Variant 3.2: Separate opening in the North of the Sibovc field ................... 94
7.2.4
Variant 4: Splitting of the Sibovc Field in North-South Direction .................. 95
a) Western Part (Company 1)....................................................................................... 96
7.2.5
Selection of Preference Variant...................................................................... 100
7.2.5.1 Single Coal Mine Variants ......................................................................... 100
7.2.5.2 Independent Coal Mines Variants .............................................................. 101

8 Environmental Aspects ................................................................ 103


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9

General Ecological Effects of Lignite Coal Exploitation....................................... 103


Hydrological Conditions ........................................................................................ 104
Surface Waters Run-Offs and their Qualities......................................................... 110
Groundwater Situation ........................................................................................... 113
Soil Qualities .......................................................................................................... 113
Waste Water Purification and Re-utilization ......................................................... 114
Environmental Monitoring and Management Structures ....................................... 114
Environmental Aspects of Mining Fields Alternatives .......................................... 115
Environmental Ranking of Alternatives................................................................. 118

9 Final Remarks of Part I ................................................................ 120

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Content of Tables
Tab. 3.1-1
Tab. 3.4-1
Tab. 3.5-1
Tab. 4.2-1
Tab. 4.4-1
Tab. 4.4-2
Tab. 4.5-1
INKOS)
Tab. 5.4-1
Tab. 5.5-1
Tab. 6.3-1
Tab. 6.4-1
Tab. 6.6-1
Tab. 6.6-2
Tab. 6.7-1
Tab. 7.2-1
Tab. 7.2-2
Tab. 7.2-3
Tab. 7.2-4
Tab. 7.2-5
Tab. 7.2-6
Tab. 7.2-7
Tab. 7.2-8
Tab. 7.2-9
Tab. 7.2-10
Tab. 7.2-11
Tab. 7.2-12
Tab. 7.2-13
Tab. 7.2-14
Tab. 7.2-15
Tab. 7.2-16
Tab. 7.2-17
Tab. 7.2-18
Tab. 7.2-19
Tab. 7.2-20
Tab. 7.2-21
Tab. 7.2-22
Tab. 7.2-23
Tab. 7.2-24
Tab. 7.2-25
Tab. 7.2-26
Tab. 7.2-27
Tab. 7.2-28
Tab. 7.2-29
Tab. 7.2-30
Tab. 7.2-31
Tab. 7.2-32
Tab. 7.2-33

Existing installed TPP Capacity....................................................................... 22


Summarized coal demand assessed by the consultants.................................... 25
Defined Coal Demand for the detailed Main Mine Plan.................................. 27
Existing Geological Database .......................................................................... 33
Sibovc, D-Field, South-Field Structural Characterisation......................... 46
Univariate Statistics, Coal Qualities from Geological Model Grid ................. 47
Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source:
50
Comparison of Coal Content and Overburden Removal South-Field.............. 60
Valuation of the Mining Fields ........................................................................ 61
Operating Cost Position ................................................................................... 65
Comparison of average Unit Cost .................................................................... 66
Average Cost per Unit (new Equipment)......................................................... 69
Expenses over whole project life time ............................................................. 69
List of BWE and Spreader ............................................................................... 72
Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.1.................. 78
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.1.......... 79
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.1 .................. 79
Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.1................................................................. 80
Coal Quality Var.1.1 ........................................................................................ 80
Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.2 .................. 81
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.2.......... 83
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.2 .................. 83
Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.2................................................................. 83
Coal Quality Var.1.2 ........................................................................................ 84
Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 2..................... 85
Development of overburden removal Variant 2............................................... 86
Development mining according to sectors. Variant 2 ...................................... 86
Overburden : Coal ratio. Variant 2................................................................... 87
Coal Quality Var.2 ........................................................................................... 87
Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3.1 (Southern Part) 89
Development of overburden removal. Var. 3.1 (Southern Part) ...................... 91
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1(Southern Part) 91
Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 3.1 (Southern Part) ....................................... 91
Coal Quality Var.3.1 ........................................................................................ 91
Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3. (Northern part).. 92
Development of overburden removal. Var.3.1 (Northern Part) ....................... 93
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1 (Northern Part)93
Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.1 (Northern Part) ............................................. 93
Coal Quality Var.3.1 ........................................................................................ 93
Development of overburden removal Var.3.2 (Northern Part) ........................ 94
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.2 ........................ 94
Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.2....................................................................... 95
Coal Quality Var.3.2 ........................................................................................ 95
Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 (West) ............... 96
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var. 4 West ........ 97
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 4 West ............ 97
Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 4 West........................................................... 98
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Tab. 7.2-34
Tab. 7.2-35
Tab. 7.2-36
Tab. 7.2-37
Tab. 7.2-38
Tab. 7.2-39
Tab. 7.2-40
Tab. 7.2-41
Tab. 8.3-1
Tab. 8.9-1

Coal Quality (West) ......................................................................................... 98


Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 East ................... 98
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var.4 East........... 99
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var. 4 East .................. 99
Overburden: Coal ratio. Var.4 East.................................................................. 99
Coal Quality Var.4 East ................................................................................. 100
Comparison of Single Coal Mine Variants 1.1 and 1.2 ................................. 100
Comparison of the Independent Coal Mines Variants ................................... 101
Comparison Water Qualities .......................................................................... 113
Environmental Impact .................................................................................... 119

Contents of Figures
Fig. 2.1-1 Location Map of the Mines .................................................................................. 20
Fig. 4.1-1 Mining Concession Areas .................................................................................... 28
Fig. 4.2-1 Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003) ....................... 29
Fig. 4.2-2 Geological Map of Kosovo. Limits of the Kosovo Basin are marked in red...... 31
Fig. 4.2-3 Coal seam in the western border area of the Sibovc field.................................... 32
Fig. 4.2-4 Seismic Location Map And Interpreted Structural Features............................... 35
Fig. 4.2-5
Tectonic Collapse Structure and Reverse Faulting on Seismic Lines 01 and
02, South of Hade............................................................................................................. 37
Fig. 4.3-1 Spacing of the active boreholes............................................................................ 40
Fig. 4.4-1 Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot ......................................................................... 46
Fig. 4.5-1
Arial photography showing the area of the D-Field with regularly aligned
collapse structures (more or less round holes) in consequence of former underground
mining. The highlighted area indicates zones with still stable galleries. ......................... 48
Fig. 4.5-2
Collapsed gallery of old underground mining.................................................. 49
Fig. 4.5-3 Coal fire at a base of a dump................................................................................ 51
Fig. 4.5-4 Coal fire in old mining structures......................................................................... 51
Fig. 4.7-1 Complemented Extract from Hydrogeological Map............................................ 55
Fig. 5.1-1 Potential Mining Fields ........................................................................................ 57
Fig. 5.4-1 Two Variants in the South-Field .......................................................................... 59
Fig. 5.4-2 Outside Dumps on the South-Field ...................................................................... 60
Fig. 6.5-1 Results of economic comparison of mining methods equipment alternatives ... 68
Fig. 6.6-1 Result of economic comparison of the four mining equipment variant............... 70
Fig. 6.6-2 Current mining RAC with loan for 80% main equipment with 6% interest ........ 71
Fig. 7.2-1 Var. 1.1 (Development from South to North) ...................................................... 77
Fig. 7.2-2 Var.1.2 (Mine Development from North to South).............................................. 81
Fig. 7.2-3 Development D-Field - Var.2............................................................................... 85
Fig. 7.2-4 Development South to North Var.3.1................................................................... 89
Fig. 7.2-5 Mine Development Var.3.1 (Northern Part) ........................................................ 92
Fig. 7.2-6 Mine Development Var.3.2 (Northern Part) ........................................................ 94
Fig. 7.2-7 Mine Development Var.4..................................................................................... 96
Fig. 8.2-1 Long term Distribution of monthly Precipitation............................................... 105
Fig. 8.2-2 Monthly Range of Precipitation ......................................................................... 106
Fig. 8.2-3 Daily Precipitation.............................................................................................. 107
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Fig. 8.2-4
Fig. 8.2-5
Fig. 8.2-6
Fig. 8.3-1
Fig. 8.3-2
Fig. 8.3-3
Fig. 8.5-1
Fig. 8.8-1

Distribution of Temperatures ............................................................................. 108


Monthly Temperatures ....................................................................................... 109
Direction and Velocity of Wind ......................................................................... 110
Catchment Areas ................................................................................................ 111
Characteristic water quality values for river Sitnica (INKOS Institute) ............ 112
Characteristic Drainage Water Quality .............................................................. 112
Soil Map ............................................................................................................. 114
Areas of potential risk of toxic waste deposits................................................... 118

List of Annexes (Part I)


I/ 4.4-1
I/ 4.6-1
I/ 4.6-2
I/ 4.6-3
I/ 4.6-4
I/ 4.6-5
I/ 4.6-6
I/ 4.6-7
I/ 4.6-8
I/ 4.6-9
I/ 4.6-10
I/ 4.6-11
I/ 4.7-1

Interpreted Seismic Lines01 and 07


Linjat Sizmike 01 dhe 07
Depth Structure Map: Top Lignite Seam [m]
Harta e Strukturs s Thellsis n pjesn tavanore t qymyrit [m]
Depth Structure Map: Base Lignite Seam [m]
Harta e Strukturs s Thellsis n dysheme t qymyrit [m]
Overburden Thickness [m]
Trashsia e Djerrins [m]
Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t]
Raporti Qymyr - Djerrin [cu m/t]
Seam Thickness [m]
Trashsia e Qymyrit [m]
Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t] and Seam Thickness [m]
Raporti Qymyr - Djerrin [cu m/t] dhe Trashsia e Qymyrit [m]
Top Lignite Seam: Structural Dip [Degrees]
Thellsis n pjesn tavanore t qymyrit: Strukturor ngjyej []
Geological Cross Section I to III
Profilet Gjeologjike I deri III
Lignite Fm. - Total Sulphur [%]
Qymyri Fm. - Sulfuri Total [%]
Lignite Fm. - Low Calorific Value [kJ/ kg]
Qymyri Fm. - Vlera Kalorike [kJ/ kg]
Lignite Fm. - Ash Content [%]
Qymyri Fm. - Prqindja e Hirit [%]
Stations of Overburden Excavation Areas and Assumed Extension of Underground Mining
Stacinet e shfrytzimit t toks me daljen n siprfaqe t minjers s re dhe
Zgjerimet e Supozuara te Minjerava te Vjitra

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

List of Abbreviations
a
bcm
bcm/h
EN
EnO
ESTAP
GWh
IPP
kt
mt
lcm
m
m
m
mbcm
mlcm
MME
mMSL
mt
NCV
OCM
RAC
sqm
TOR
TPP
TPS
`000 bcm
`000 lcm

year
bank cubic meter
bank cubic meter per hour
European Norm
Energy Office
Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project
Gigawatt-hours
International Power Provider
thousand tonnes
million tonnes
loose cubic meter
million
square meter
cubic meter
million bank cubic meter
million loose cubic meters
Main Mine Equipment (BWE, belt conveyor and spreader)
meter above Mean Sea Level
million tonnes
Net Calorific Value
Open Cast Mine
Real Average Costs
square meter
Terms of Reference
Thermal Power Plant
Thermal Power Station
thousand bank cubic meter
thousand loose cubic meter

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Glossary of Statistic Terms


Minimum
25%-tile
Median
75%-tile
Maximum
Midrange
Midrange
Range
Interquartile Range

Median Abs. Deviation

Mean
Trim Mean (10%)

Standard Deviation
Variance

Coef. of Variation

Coef. of Skewness

minimum value
lower quartile; 25 percent of the values are smaller than this number
and 75 percent of the values are larger
middle data value, 50 percent of the data values are larger than this
number and 50 percent of the data are smaller than this number
upper quartile; 75 percent of the values are smaller than this number
and 25 percent of the values are larger than this number
maximum value
the value halfway between the minimum and maximum values
= (Minimum + Maximum) / 2
separation between the minimum and maximum value. Range = Maximum - Minimum
separation distance between the 25%-tile and 75%-tile.This shows the
spread of the middle 50 percent of the data, similar to standard deviation, though this statistic is unaffected by the tails of the distribution
Median Absolute Deviation is the median value of the sorted absolute
deviations. It is calculated by
1. computing the data's median value
2. subtracting the median value from each data value
3. taking the absolute value of the difference
4. sorting the values
5. calculating the median of the values
arithmetic average of the data
Trim Mean is the mean without the upper five percent and lower five
percent of the data, therefore, extreme value influence is removed. If
there are fewer than 20 data points, the minimum and maximum data
points are removed instead of the upper and lower five percent.
square root of the variance

The Coefficient of Variation is calculated by dividing the standard


deviation by the mean. If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of variation
could not be computed.
The Coefficient of Skewness is calculated by

If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of skewness could not be computed. The coefficient of skewness is computed only for the Z values.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

1 Summary
According to the Terms of Reference the main goal of the study is:
To provide security, both in the technical and economic terms, of future electrical power
production in Kosovo, as defined in the White Paper1, through the guarantee of the coal
supply security and economical viability over the entire life of the existing power plants and
the new power plants (approximately 30 years).
The text of the Terms of Reference is attached as Appendix D.
As a result of the agreed final comments on the draft Main Mine Plan (MMP) of May 2005
the project documentation consists of:

Summary
Part I
Part II
Part III
Part IV
Appendices

(of all Parts)


Basic Investigations
Technical Planning
Environmental Impact Study
Economical and Financial Analysis
A, B, C and D

While the Part I addresses different scenarios of mining developments the Parts II up to IV
deal with the chosen mining variant (which starts from the existing mines Mirash/ Bardh and
northwards within the Sibovc Concession Area).
The work for the Part I of the main mine plan was mainly focused on:

Evaluate options of future coal supply to the existing and new power plants,
compareing different mining equipment alternatives,
developing different opening-up scenarios and
assessing costs for various mining developments.

The project was conducted in two stages:


1st stage: In the first stage (MMP-Part I) it was focused on developing different scenarios of
mine development and to draw conclusions for the mining development of Sibovc
on that basis. The objective was to obtain information on alternative developments
in the mining sector and to make a decision on how to supply the power plants. In
addition to the Sibovc Field, alternatives like D-Field and the South-Field
have been evaluated.
2nd stage: The second stage (MMP-Part II, III and IV) was focused on the detailed mine
planning of coal extraction in Sibovc including determination of the required
workforce and the accruing investments and costs.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Summary and Conclusion from 1st Stage (MMP- Part I)


Power Plant Concept and Coal Demand
The current coal consumption level of the power plants amounts to 6-7 mt/a. This level is not
sufficient to secure the demand for electricity in Kosovo. In the coming years, the production
could increase only insignificantly (to approx. 8.7 mt according to the Mid Term Plan).
In order to fullfill the future power demand, UNMIK committed to launch a project for the
establishment of a new power plant. At projectss launch,the detailed concept and the coal
demand of the new power plant were not available at the time, when the work on the study
had begun.
It was the aim of the first stage of the study preparation to obtain information about the quantity and sequence of time coal can be supplied to the power plants and/or seems to be economically reasonable.
The investigation of the above originates from the fact that
in Bardh / Mirash equipment resources have been bound till 2007 and partly even until
2011
so far no significant preparatory works have been made for the new Sibovc mine
planning, permits and operating licenses for a new mine and power plant have been
missing
a quick resettlement of Hade is problematic and
high investments will be required for the opening-up of Sibovc
Under consideration of the above, it was worked out that a new power plant could not be
commissioned earlier than 2012. The demand for fuel should moderately increase to avoid a
too high investment peak. Thus costs (in particular financing costs) could be kept low. This
concept was used for the cost comparison for pre-selection.
According to that the first coal from Sibovc was planned for 2010 and the assumed coal supply amounts to approximately 15 mt per year from 2014 onwards.
In view of the high investment costs both in the mining and in the power sector, it would be
advisable to have private investors. They could work parallel to KEK. Issues a main question
is: One or two mines?
The main beneficiary as well as World Bank and the Department of Mining and Minerals
(DMM) raised the question of having independent or captive mines in the future? How reasonable is it to have more than only one mine? We investigated the options for splitting the
Sibovc mine field into parts to be operated by independent mines (the mine development variants 2, 3 and 4). The main findings were: two independent mine operators having two independent mining licenses could operate in the Sibovc mining field at the same time.
What is better? To have captive or independent mines?
Technically, both options are possible. According to our economic modelling a new independent mine for the new IPP/TPP shows real average costs in the range from 7 /t subject to
financial conditions. The existing KEK Coal Production Division was requesting for about 8.5
/t transfer price for lignite delivered to the existing power plants when we started the project.
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Captive mine (production out from only one mine) might have scale effects. Problems could
occur since the mining operator would be a monopoly supplier. One important question will
be: is this operator able to ensure the expected efficiency and able to provide the necessary
investments for the expansion of mine capacity?
Independent mines would be favourable in terms of compliance to a desired market economy
environment with competition as a main driving force: This would help to attract private investments to close the investment gap in the energy sector.
The decision is therefore decisively influenced by the fact, Whether the financial resources
can be made available.

Geology
In the first months of the project implementation major activities were undertaken to provide
additional geophysical exploration works, process new and existing geological and exploration data, making field observations and setting the geological database. More than 1000
boreholes were digitally recorded, digitised and validated to become part of the database. All
existing geological reports and interpretations were studied and screened as a basis for the
new geological model.
The 2D reflection seismic lines totals up to 10460 m.
Finally, a revised geological model was generated.
The geological setting is summarized as fallows:
The basement of the Kosovo Basin and the exposed surrounding areas are built up by Palaeozoic to Mesozoic crystalline rocks. The basin fill consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which
are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays of Pliocene age in which lignite is interbedded.
Subordinated, Tertiary volcanites (andesite-dacite rocks) are distributed in Northeast of the
basin. The Pliocene sediments can generally be subdivided in coal unproductive areas in the
north and south and a coal productive central area. The central area, the Coal Kosovo Basin,
is extending over approximately 300 km. Simplified, the succession can be subdivided by
grey (altered to yellow clay within the weathering zone) on top, the underlying Lignite
Formation and at the bottom the green clay.
The geological and hydrological evaluation and interpretation was conducted over an area of
some 92 km2. It encompasses the mining concession areas of Sibovc, the D-Field and an open
acreage area to the south of the existing open cast mines, here introduced as the SouthField.
The structural model integrates all available sources as surface observations, borehole and
seismic data. The structural setting is shown on depth structure maps at Top and Base Lignite,
on a seam isochore map, overburden thickness and overburden-to-coal ratio maps. A coal
property distribution model for the coal properties as relevant for the mine plan, i.e. ash content, net calorific value and total sulphur, has been developed on length weighted borehole
averages and are presented on average maps. A generated 3D Block Model of the Net Calorific Value for the Sibovc Concession Area is described in the MMP- Part II.
In the Sibovc Concession Area the structural dip at top lignite is low with overwhelming values below 5. Steeper dipping is indicated along two SW-NE alignments which are believed
to represent erosional channels. The erosion is also seen on the depth structure map at Top
lignite, the isochore map and even expressed on the low CV map.
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

The mapped area is characterised by a NNW-SSE striking basin. Along the axis the seam
thickness reaches up to 70-80 m. The coal basin is delineated to the West by a series of stepping fault blocks which separate the Tertiary fill from the Mesozoic basement.
The lignite pinch-out to the NE appears to be a unconformal without recognized boundary
faults.
Cross-faults which strike roughly perpendicular to the basin axis are developed in the North
of Sibovc and to the South of Hade. There is clear evidence that subsidence and faulting took
already place during the lignite deposition.
The geological resources of the lignite deposit were computed in accordance with the UN
International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC). The volumetric calculation of geological resources for the Sibovc, D-Field and South-Field resulted
in the following figures:
Sibovc
990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2
D-Field
395 mt over an area of 7.8 km2
Northern Part of South-Field
537 mt over an area of 8.0 km2
For the Sibovc Concession area the volumetric split according to the area-of-influence method
and structural uncertainties is reported in the Main Mining Plan Part II. Due to the wile hole
spacing in the South-Field the resources are mostly categorized as inferred.
For further seismic exploration work in context of opening-up the new Sibovc mine it is concluded that reflection seismic will detect and describe tectonic structures which would remain
ambiguous from the interpretation of borehole data alone. Due to the experienced signal deterioration outside maiden subsurface conditions it is recommended that future seismic surveys should be carried out before any mining activities in the areas of interest.

Alternative Mining Fields


Within the framework of the available study the Sibovc mining field was investigated not
only under the aspect of a single opencast mine; alternative possibilities of coal supply were
also considered.
The alternative possible mining fields as:
Sibovc mining field
D-Field
South-Field
were roughly evaluated (see map below).

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The summarized result of the evaluation is:


1. The mining of the lignite field of Sibovc offers the most inexpensive alternative to supply
coal to a newly built power plant (if >600 MW).
2. The mining of the Southfield is definitely the most expensive one due to the more unfavourable geological conditions, especially the relatively high O:C ratio and the problematic
outside dumps therefore this alternative shall not be considered further.
3. A new power plant can only be erected with a capacity of up to 600 MW owing to the limited coal reserves. In contrast to this the supply of the existing power plants is assumed possible. Economic utilization will not be applicable if the construction of the motorway via the
field will block off 30% or even more.

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Alternatives of equipment
The evaluation of lignite fields has been provided for the Concession Areas of the Sibovc
Field and in addition to the D-Field and the area to the South of the Bardh-Mirage OCMs
(South-Field). The main findings substantiated the selection of the Sibovc mining field as
the most appropriate for the future coal supply of the new power plants.
D-Field has been recognised and considered as a very interesting option for the future supply
of the existing power plants.
After having analysed various main mining equipment solutions and mining methods the following four alternatives have been recognised as suitable:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Conventional bucket wheel excavator (BWE), belt conveyors and spreader


Compact BWE, belt conveyors and spreader
Truck and shovel (mobile equipment)
Combination of BWE belt conveyors, spreader and truck and shovel

An economic model was developed and used in order to compare the efficiency of the four
alternatives.
The main equipment has been planned and dimensioned, output capacity has been calculated
and the annual investment and operating costs were estimated for the mentioned alternative
mining methods.

Cost for lignite extraction in Sibovc for various alternatives:


Using new equipment:
The average costs per unit were calculated by means of the Discounted-cash-Flow method
(DCF) assuming a discount rate of 12 % and based on real values (i.e. for personnel cost and
additional increase of ca. 2 % is assumed as against the international inflation rate).
With real average cost of 6.8 /t the Variant 4 is the most favourable.
The other alternatives 1, 2 and 3 have higher real average costs amounting to subsequently
7.2, 7.4 and 7.7 /t.

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Current Mining RAC Euro/t 2012 to 2041
8.00

Sensitivity of discount rate


11.00

7.72

7.42
7.21

6.76
7.00

10.00

6.00
9.00

RAC in /t Lignite

RAC in /t Lignite

5.00

4.00

8.00

7.00

3.00

6.00
2.00

5.00
1.00

4.00

0.00
Alternative 1
Personnel
Maintenance
Recultivation & Roads
Total

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Power
Taxes & Royalties
specific Invest costs

Alternative 4
Fuel
Other
financing costs

4%
Alternative 1

6%

8%
Alternative 2

10%

12%
Alternative 3

15%

20%

Alternative 4

Please note: the financial model also is based on significant productivity


gains in the near future. This has to be reflected in the future owner/operator
structure. It is important to notice, that all variants are based on these
productivity gains and are consequently comparable.

Using existing equipment:


The cost will be less if the existing main mine equipment will be used. In case of bypassing
Hade with a mine starting from the Southern part of Sibovc the RAC have been calculated to
6.8 /t (coal production 7 mt/a).
If all production will be concentrated in one mine with an output level of about 16mt/a the
cost could be reduced up to 5.9 /t provided a labour productivity as in the other alternatives.
There is a cost differential between a one mine and a two mines scenario of 5.9 /t for one
mine with 16 mt/a and 6.8 /t when running two mines. The difference will decrease if:
1)
the total output of coal would be higher
2)
the output only from the second mine would be higher
3)
there would occur problems during resettlement of Hade (higher cost)
4)
The second mine (private, new equipment) would have access to buy existing (old)
Bucket Wheel Excavators or spreaders (seems possible) and particularly
5)
the restructuring of KEK would not be finished until 2007 with impact to higher
operational cost
Further: historical liabilities from KEK mines are not subject for the financial model and there
fore not included in the cost!

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Opening up / Mine development


For the mine development and the opening up of the Sibovc field six variants have been investigated.
For a single mine development only two main variants can be compared (see below):

Variant 1.1
Variant 1.2

Mining Sibovc from South to North


Mining Sibovc from North to South

Var.1 is applicable, if the mine operator will take over the supply obligation for both the existing and the new lignite-fired power plants.

Variant 1.2 has its advantage from:


technically requirement for a very late resettlement of the village centre of Hade
a better overburden : coal ration in the first years after the opening-up.
Variant 1.2 has disadvantages in most of the evaluation criteria as against Variant 1.1.
Most important disadvantage is the fact that Variant 1.2 would be a green field project with
additional land withdrawal and higher impact to the environment. It is doubted if the permits
will be granted in time. It is supposed to be better to work in an area which has already been
influenced by mining activities instead of unnecessary claiming of other additional areas.
Moreover, mining development from the South has a shorter transport distance to the dump
and dumping is intended to contribute to shaping the residual pit of Bardh/Mirash.
The latter facts discussed above favour Var.1.1 if the total resettlement can be done in time.
In case of a competitive two mines scheme for an independent coal supply to the existing and
the new TPP the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated:
Var. 2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc and D-Field
Var. 3.1
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle)
Var. 3.2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North)
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Var. 4

Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line

We recommend that the private investor for the new TPP (IPP) should get the license for the
Northern part of the Sibovc field according to the Variant 3.2.
Consequently, the question is raised, how KEK should organise the supply of the existing
power plants after the depletion of the remaining reserves in the existing mines. According to
the TOR future coal supply for the existing and the new TPP (IPP) should be ensured from
the Sibovc mining field. If closely following this requirement and considering the Hade resettlement situation as problematic KEK should develop a small mine into the Southern area of
Sibovc with shortened coal face, i.e. to bypass Hade. Variant 4 demonstrates that the Sibovc
field could be opened up from the Southwest part a small compact mine without the resettlement of the entire Hade village. Such mine would be sufficient to feed the existing power
plants. In this variant with bypassing of Hade, maximally up to approx. 10 mt/a could be
mined economically.
Alternatively, it might be useful to consider the Variant 2 for KEK (instead of moving into the
West part of Southern field of Sibovc) to go into the D-Field. The overburden : coal ratio
comes to 0.9 to 1 m/t by taking the ash dump into account. However, the excavation process
for the mining of D-Field has reserves for optimization. This for example refers to the coal
quality. The average heating value for the raw coal improves if coal horizons with especially
low quality will be cut off by selective mining. The overburden to be removed specifically
will not be higher in D-Field than in the South-West part of Sibovc. Due to the objective of
the study and the time available we have not been able to carry out more detailed investigation of the mine D-Field.

Environmental aspects
Having in mind that the whole district is historically influenced by mining and wider parts of
the landscape are determined by the mines and power plants all variants discussed are judged
to be feasible, if appropriate actions are taken to diminish the effects.
Combining the environmental aspects mentioned in this report a matrix is presented balancing
the degrees of impacts. A first judgement scale with 1 to 7 points is used describing the growing strength of impact between the variants. A balancing between the impacts themselves is
not performed.
Effect
Population Changes
Local Roads and Transportation
Water and Air
Flora, Fauna, natural Heritage
Soil, Natural Resources and land use
Sum

Var.1.1

1.2

3
3
1
2
3
12

4
4
2
3
4
17

Var.2
D-Field
1
1
6
1
1
10

3.1

3.2

6
6
3
6
7
28

5
5
4
5
6
25

7
7
5
4
5
28

SouthField
2
2
7
7
2
20

Following this ranking usage of D-Field (Variant 2) shows the smallest expected impact.
From the environmental point of view opening the Sibovc-Field with one mine (Variant 1)
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should be given the preference rather than working with two mines. Using the South-Field
seems to be minor suitable because of the developed and adjusted fauna and flora and the
need of canalling river Sitnica.

Main Conclusion and questions of the 1st Stage Part I


To attracting a sufficient investment there are good reasons to develop a new independent
coal mine in the North of the Sibovc field. In this case the Mine Plan should be based on the
selected equipment alternative Variant 4 Combination of BWE, belt conveyor, spreader and
truck and shovel. The mine development and opening up as well as license issue should be
based for the selected Northern part of the Sibovc field according to the preference Variant
3.2.
The obvious variant to continue the current KEK operations is the development into the South
of Sibovc.
If developing two mines it should be considered:
Effects of scale cannot be realized with a two mine scenario. Technically one large mine has
the potential for the best production cost. The financial model shows about 0.90 /t or 12-15%
cost advantage. But economically this can be compensated by benefits i.a. arising from the
owner/operator structure, i.e. competition.
After presenting the first results (described in the Interim Report and Short Presentation
Paper) decisions had to be made regarding the following issues:
a) Level of Power generation and yearly coal demand
b) Possibilities regarding the Resettlement of Hade (safety zone and total)
c) Number of mines supposed to supply the TPPs
d) Selection of the mine design scenario (variant of mining development)

It was decided to elaborate a mining plan similar to Variant 1.1 for the Main Mine Plan for
new Sibovc mine (see Part II Technical Planing).

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2 Introduction
2.1 Allocation / Geographical Overview and Historical
Development
The Kosova lignite deposits are located between the cities of Mitrovica in the North and
Kaqanik in the South. The total estimated resources of Kosovos lignite deposits are approximately 10,000 Mt (Carl Bro; 2003), thus forming one of the largest lignite deposits in Europe.
As being one of at least four major deposits the Kosova Coal Basin covers about 85 km from
North to South with an average East West extension of 10 km. Hence the deposit comprises
some 850 km.

Fig. 2.1-1

Location Map of the Mines

Morphologicaly, the Kosova Coal Basin forms a extended valley where the differences in
elevation do not exceed 80 m. Around the river Sitnica stretches a central plane part followed
by a more hilly terrain nearing the mountains icavica Golesh and Sharr.
The basin is surrounded by an elevated relief with Kopaonik massive, Kozic, Zhegovc Lisic
in the East, Montenegro massive in the South and icavica, Golesh, Carnaleva as well as

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Sharr mountains in the West and Northwest. The mountains around reach elevations from 900
to more than 1600 m.
The resources were discovered more than hundred years ago and the first small-scale utilisation was started in the 1920. According to more information first utilization started with underground mining in at least five locations. Underground exploitation was ongoing until the
year 1966 followed by large scale surface mining at Bardh and Mirash mines. Large-scale
utilisation was already decided in the 1950ties and the first mine Mirash started coal production in 1958. Power generation started at Thermal Power Plant Kosovo A (TPP A) in
1962. Kosovo A was extended in the period 1962 to 1975 to the current capacity. A second
Thermal Power Plant Kosovo B (TPP B) was commissioned in 1985. Coal exploitation from
surface mines in the first period mend that the overburden excavated had to be dumped outside the excavation holes. Hence, at least seven outside dumps were installed today surrounding the mines.

2.2 Approach / Methodology


After several fact finding activities at the site and the main beneficiaries the following start
situation has been recognized:
confirmed future coal demand available till 2007 only
a new geological model had to be created
geotechnical data for the stability calculations of the slopes and slope systems only
partly available
poor data situation regarding the environmental situation and resettlement
important legal regulations are in transition phase between the previous laws of former
Yugoslavia and a new laws not yet established
According to this situation and pursuant to the TOR the project work during the first stage has
been mainly focused on the following activities:
1)
2)

3)

4)

Assumption of the future lignite demand


Preparation of geological model including
- Analysis of available borehole and other exploration data
- Localization of cracks and geological faults,
- Calculation of mineable reserves
Comparison of mining- and equipment application alternatives including
- Selection of most preference future field,
- Selection of opening-up position,
- Selection of the main equipment
Financial calculations for comparison the basic alternatives

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3 Coal Demand and Fuel Supply Strategy


3.1 Existing Power Plants
Kosovo has no important fossil fuel resource but it is rich in lignite. There is no natural gas
import nor gas supply infrastructure. Kosovo has no oil refinery and depends entirely on imported liquid fuels. The hydroelectric potential is very modest.
Therefore the backbone of the power generation and the energy sector of Kosovo are the lignite fired thermal power plants Kosovo A and Kosovo B located near Pristina.
The installed capacities of both existing lignite fired plants are set out in the table below.
Tab. 3.1-1
TPP

Existing installed TPP Capacity


Gross Power
Net Power

Kosovo A
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5

[MW]
800
65
125
200
200
210

[MW]
722
58
113
182
182
187

Kosovo B
B1
B2

678
339
339

618
309
309

Available Net
Power
[MW]

Start of Operation

30 - 40
0
130 - 145
120 - 145
135 - 150

1962
1964
1970
1971
1975

230 - 250
230 - 250

1983
1984
(Source: KEK)

Year

Due to the low availability and unreliable base load plants KEK needs to import peak power.
The increased net imports had to be paid for in cash very often. This led to inadequate supplies and frequent power outages. Real time balancing of the demand and supply is managed
partly by exports and imports and partly by planned and rotating load shedding.

3.2 New Power Plant Project(s)


UNMIK has published on August 03, 2004 a press release: UNMIK committed to launch a
project for the establishment of a new power plant and lignite mine of sufficient size. The aim
is to meet future domestic and industrial as well as export demands. Kosovo must use its primary natural asset: great quantities of the best quality lignite in Europe. This asset needs to be
used to attract investment and create new jobs. A reliable power supply is essential for further
economic development and will boost investors confidence in Kosovos economy. Planning
and tendering for such a project will be done in close cooperation with the PISG. The need for
a new power plant had already been jointly identified by the PISG and UNMIK in the context
of a World Bank study.
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The World Bank further wrote: Electricity produced using such low cost lignite should be
very competitive in SEE REM. The demand in SEE REM countries is expected to grow at 2%
per year calling for capacity additions of the order of 4.5 GW through 2012, thus providing
Kosovo an excellent market for exports. An export oriented 1000 MW unit in Kosovo could
generate export revenues of the order of Euro 224.25 million or 16.7% of its present GDP.
Other benefits to Kosovo would include increased royalties on lignite, corporate taxes on
profits, employment in the mines and power plant, and import of modern management and
methods. Thus energy sector could become an engine of growth instead of being a drain on
public resources as at present.
The Kosovarian Government (incl. Ministry of Energy and Mining) shares this view and so
one aim of the study is to help to proceed in the preparation of a new project to increase the
energy production based on lignite.

3.3 Coal Supply by Independent or Captive Lignite


Mines?
This question has been discussed in the latest World Bank Report ENERGY SECTOR IN
KOSOVO - ISSUES AND PROSPECTS dated January 2004 as follows:
1.
Similarly the strategy envisages that the investment needed to develop and operate the
new lignite mine would also come from the private sector. Discussions with Kosovo officials
indicate that they envisage one private sector investor operating all lignite production in Kosovo and one or more IPPs contracting with him for fuel supply. Implicitly they also seem to
believe that KEK will give up mining business, buy its lignite from the mine operator, and that
the price of lignite could be regulated as the production would be from a private monopoly.
These aspects need further review. First, pending the resolution of the legal status of Kosovo,
private investors would be reluctant to consider investment in Kosovo, even though the lignite
deposits are extensive and economic to extract, the quality of lignite very good and prospects
for electricity exports are bright. Second, the prospect of price regulation (regulatory risk)
would act as a serious disincentive for investment. Regulation of lignite prices would be
messy, as vested interest groups would push the competing principles of, actual cost of supply
versus opportunity costs and endless arguments about depletion premium. The declaration in
the strategy that the advantages of low cost lignite production in Kosovo would be used to ensure low cost power supply to captive consumers is likely to complicate the regulatory process. Third, the quality of lignite is such that it cannot be transported over any long distance
and can be used only in a power plant located close to the mine to enable transport by a conveyor belt. Thus investor in a stand-alone mine faces a market risk. Fourth, the power plant
designed for this lignite can not easily or economically change over to alternate fuels, so that
the IPP without his own captive lignite mine will face a serious fuel supply and fuel price risk,
which would further dampen his enthusiasm to invest.
2.
Instead, it may be advantageous to pursue the concept of each IPP having its own
captive lignite mine and have more than one entity carrying out the mining operations. This
would enable the existing generating units of KEK to continue to use its captive mines Bardh
and Mirash with the needed additional areas in the Sibovc area for which it is believed to
have already an exploratory license and where it has done a considerable amount of drilling.
Kosovo basin is large and even Sibovc has more than 1.72 billion tons of reserves, enabling
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orderly exploitation by two or more mining entities. Under financing from the European
Agency for Reconstruction (EAR) a study is expected to be carried out during 2004 to decide
on (a) the best method of operating the existing mines without jeopardizing the proposed new
mine, and (b) the optimal and rational mining plan for the new mine. The proposed mining
study must thus focus on how to enable KEK and at least two IPPs to have mining leases for
various parts of Sibovc and develop it in an orderly way. Such a course of action would obviate the need for price regulation of lignite. KEKs generating units with a public supply obligation would find it advantageous to have their own captive mines than having to buy lignite
from a private mine. Finally, if the private investment fails to materialize as discussed in the
earlier paragraphs, the fall back position would be supported by the development of KEKs
own part of the Sibovc mine. Thus the strategic approach to lignite mining should favour captive mines for power companies and multiple mining entities in Kosovo operating without the
need for price regulation.

The position of the World Bank in this matter seems very reasonable and leads to the main
questions of future development of Kosovo:
Is the direction of economic development of Kosovo towards market economy?
Will competition be considered as a main principle of the economy?
Will the attraction of private investments be approved as strategy to close the investment gap
in the energy sector?
If the Kosovo government gives positive answers to all three questions than an approach
would be recommended of having independent mines with the condition that the KEK Coal
Production Division remains able to operate in case of failing or postponing the private energy sector investment in Kosovo.
The TOR of our contract for the preparation of the Main Mine Plan for the Sibovc Field are
setting out that we have to develop one Main Mine Plan for the Sibovc Field for one mine
which ensures fuel supply to the existing and newly constructed power plants. It demands to
develop the Main Mine Plan for Sibovc according to the captive mine approach.
It seems to be clear that the license for the Sibovc South-Field should be given to KEK CDP
in order to enable KEK to expand mining operation from the existing mines without separate
opening-up and interruption of coal supply to the existing KEK TTPs. This would allow a
going concern approach for KEK and may simplify the approval procedure by selection of
approval scheme expanding the existing coal mines by the required reserves in the South of
the Sibovc field instead of developing a new green field project Sibovc South-Field. Such
a decision would ensure sustainability and viability of KEKs coal business.
The Sibovc North Field is available to be licenses for one IPP operator and could be developed completely independent.
Lets come back to the World Bank question Is it possible to enable KEK and at least two
IPPs to have mining licenses for various parts of Sibovc and develop it in an orderly way?
Yes, but not in same period of time. An operation of three coal mines in the Sibovc Field
(owned by KEK and two IPP operators) at the same time is in principle possible. But practically it would create massive interface problems and dependencies between the three mines,
increase land demand, decrease chances for a sustainable reclamation and post mining landscape and land use, so that this could not be recommended.

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3.4 Power Generating Programm for Comparing Various


Mining Variants
The Energy Strategy and Policy The White Paper provides a first road map to desired
changes and developments in the energy sector of the Kosovo. Power generation from lignite
will be the major user of lignite in the future. It seems clear that the envisaged target is to
achieve a best possible utilisation of the useful existing power capacities trying to meet increasing domestic electricity demand. A new power plant should be build as soon as possible
by attraction of private investments into the energy sector. However no binding mid-term and
long term energy programme exists today with fixed and confirmed production levels and
targets.
For the period from 2005 till 2007 the Business Plan for KEK from February 2004 provides
clear production targets. These targets have been taken into account in our coal demand assumptions.
Different opinions occurred for the mid term period about how to continue to operate TTP A.
One party is for a fast decommissioning of TTP A and proposes to close possible supply gaps
by electricity imports. The major counter position to this is the concept of a limited life extension programme and substantial refurbishment of the units 3, 4 and 5 of TTP A for the next
12-15 years. A third opinion is to continue the operation of TPP A with two units operating
with reduced steam parameters in mid load range. Only the most urgent repairs will be made
avoiding expensive investments.
For a new power plant the Consultants assumed that it has a four-year construction time and
requires a pre-feasibility and feasibility study beforehand. The construction of this new power
plant could be a green field project and may require an EU compliant public approval procedure before construction. If private investors should be invited on a competitive basis an international tender needs to be provided to evaluate the investor. Then it can be assumed that
such a new TPP as IPP could be commissioned at the earliest in 2012.
A capacity of 1000 MW was considered by the consultants.
Due to the non-availability of an approved power generation programme the following reasonable assumptions have been developed by the project team regarding the future coal supply programme in terms of annual quantities.
Tab. 3.4-1
Year

2006 - 2011
2012
2013
2014 - 2024
> 2025

Summarized coal demand assessed by the consultants


Lignite Demand
Existing TPP
Kosovo A & B
7-8
7.0
6.5
6.5

Lignite Demand
New 1000 MW
TPP (IPP)

Second new
TPP (follow
up of TPP B or
2. IPP)

Other Lignite
consumer

0.1
3
7
9
9

Total Coal
Demand

7-8
10
13.5
15.5
16

The coal demand scenario set out in table above bases on the following principles and assumptions:
For the time 2005 up to 2007 the production level already planned by KEK is applied.
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The mid-term coal demand will be around 7.5 m t/a determined by the TPP abilities
(the operating time of the existing TPP B for calculation is about 7000 h/a, TPP A will
give few mid load support)
The service life time of the TPPs units will be 40 years (25 years and 15 year life expansion)
Kosovo will enter in South East European Regional Market
Construction of a new TPP C of 1000 MW by foreign investors for electricity supply
into REM (Regional Electricity Market); the start of production of the Thermal Power
Plant C is as soon as it is regarded as practically possible, i.e. 2012
TPP C will be established with two units of 500 MW power station boilers and turbines with 40 % net efficiency, operated at 7500 full load hours p.a.
The grid of the REM will be reinforced to allow power transmission
The dimensioning of the new Power Plants should be done under consideration of the
economical lignite mining potential
The variation of heating values over the Sibovc coal fields will be roughly considered
for the calculation of the amount to be supplied to the TPPs
After decommissioning of TPP B a new Power Plant (TPP D) will be established so
that the production level can be maintained (TPP B will be replaced by a new TPP D
so that the production level can be maintained.
This scenario meets the requirements of the mining potential (especially in the period up to
2013 which is the opening-up phase) helping to supply lignite at a low price.
The comparison of the different alternatives and mining variants (carried out in Part I) is
based on this mentioned coal demand

3.5 Coal Demand Forecast for the detailed Main Mine


Plan (Part II)
Due to the lack of energy and considering the opportunities for export revenues outstanding
efforts are planned by the Kosovo government in order to commence new TPPs very soon and
with enormous capacities.
According to this ambitious target four new power plant units, B3 to B6 shall be erected at the
location of the current power plant Kosovo B. The commissioning is foreseen for the period
between 2012 and 2020.
In addition to these units (B3 to B6) there is the intention of offering to build an additional
new TPP for instance for Independent Power Producers (IPP) with a capacity of about 3*350
MW. The annual requirements for coal will be approximately 8 mt/a. For the existing power
plants TPP A it is envisaged to refurbish three units in a way that the power plant will be
ready to operate until 2019.
On the basis of the described targets set by the Ministry for Energy and Mining (from 2009
onwards), the following coal demand figures have been defined which is valid for the technical planning:

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Tab. 3.5-1

Year

2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
> 2025

Defined Coal Demand for the detailed Main Mine Plan

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP A
2.0
2.0
3.3
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
3.14
1.57

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP B1+B2
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
2.65

New
TPP Kosovo
B3-B6

2.71
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.24
5.24
5.42
8.13
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66

Page 27 of 120

New
IPP
C1 + C2

2.71
5.42
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95

Other
Lignite
Consumers

Total
Coal Demand

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

7.1
7.4
8.7
10.35
10.35
10.35
13.06
15.77
15.87
15.87
18.40
21.11
22.49
23.63
24.59
24.41
24.41
24.77
21.94
19.1 19.5

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

4 Geological Conditions
4.1 Introduction
The geological and hydrological evaluation and interpretation was conducted over an area of
some 92 km2 . It encompasses the mining concession areas of Sibovc, the D-Field and an
open acreage area to the south of the existing open cast mines, here introduced as the SouthField (Fig. 4.1-1).

Fig. 4.1-1

Mining Concession Areas

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4.2 Regional Geological Situation


The basement of the Kosovo Basin and the exposed surrounding areas are built up by Palaeozoic to Mezozoic crystillane rocks (Fig. 4.2-1, Fig. 4.2-2).
The basin fill consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays in which lignite is interbedded.

Fig. 4.2-1

Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003)

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Towards the West the lignite deposition is tectonically bounded by a series of predominantly
NNW-SSE striking faults. The eastern limit is characterized by sedimentological pinch-out.

Palaeozoic
The Palaeozoic formations are mainly build up by marble and schists. The schist is composed
of grey coloured shale, phyllites, phyllites mica-shale, quartzite, quartzite-phyllites and rare
amphibolite shale.
The crystalline series outcrop in the western periphery of the basin and are extending from the
River Brusnik to Shipitulla, whilst the outcrops in the eastern periphery reach from Grabovc
southward up to Ferizaj and Nerodime. In the northern section of the eastern periphery, near
the region of the River Llap strike outcrops of andesite and dacite occur, submerge in the region near Mitrivica and appear again on the surface in the eastern part of this town. Most of
the Palaeozoic succession within the frame of the Kosovo Basin are build up of crystalline
limestones, which are tectonically stressed, and therefore, their origin is difficult to determine.
Within the western part of the basin, the crystalline limestones appears as intermediate lenses,
which are sometimes silicated, and therefore, difficult to distinguish from phyllites quartzite.

Mesozoic
The lower part of the Mesozoic section consist of serpentinite and peridotite. It is covered by
Upper Cretaceous flysch and limestone. The outcrops of serpentinite are located in the western section of the Kosovo Basin, creating the Lubovec-Galic and the Golesh Massives. Towards the south, there are some further areas which show Serpentinite, but in these areas
within a frame of rudist limestone, flysch and shale. The quantity of serpintinite outcrops decreases eastbound.
Uppermost Cretaceous Flysch and limestones crop out within a NNW-SSE oriented area
along the main bounding faults of the Kosovo Basin.

Cenozoic
Besides the already mentioned clay and lignite deposits, Tertiary volcanic rocks from the
Miocene and Quaternary unconsolidated sediments as sands and gravel are present within the
Cenozoic.
The Tertiary volcanites (andesite-dacite rocks) are distributed in Northeast of the basin
(Kopaonik-Trepa zone).
The Pliocene sediments can generally be subdivided in coal productive/unproductive areas

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Fig. 4.2-2

Geological Map of Kosovo. Limits of the Kosovo Basin are marked in red.

Southern area
unproductive

Northern area
unproductive

Central area
productive
The central area, the Coal Kosovo Basin, is spreading out at a surface of approximately 300
km. Simplified, the succession can be subdivided as follows:

Bottom Series (green Clay)


Coal Series (Lignite Formation)
Top Series (grey Clay)

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Fig. 4.2-3

Coal seam in the western border area of the Sibovc field..

4.2.1 Geological Work Performed


During the initial phase of the project the work focused on the compilation and quality assessment of geological data. More than 1000 boreholes were acquired, digitally recorded and
validated to establish the geological borehole database. Extensive field work was carried out
to get familiarized with the geological situation. Moreover, all available geological reports
and interpretations were studied and screened. Finally, a revised geological model which integrates all data and observations including the acquired seismic data was generated. The geological resources were calculated in accordance with international classification methods,
namely the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997
(UNFC). Finally, a revised geological model which integrates all data and observations including the acquired seismic data was generated.
At the current stage, the structural framework is considered finalized. This includes detailed
descriptions over the mining variant to be selected honouring the vertical heterogeneity of the
coal quality.
Proposed plans for additional exploration should concentrate on the areas which are selected
to be the future mining areas and are presented in chapter 4.10 and 5 .

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4.2.2 Geological Data Available


The following geological data were provided via EAR or KEK, Engineering Department:
Tab. 4.2-1
Data
Item

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]

Existing Geological Database


Author

Title/Contents

Date

Data Type Medi-um

EAR, KOSOVO Tender CD 1


OPERATIONAL
CENTRE, Finance and Procurement Unit,
THE PROCUREMENT TEAM
Elaborat
Rudarski Institut O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla
Beograd
eksploatacionog polja Sibovac kosovskog ugljenog
basena, Knjiga I, Tekst
Elaborat
O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla
Rudarski Institut
eksploatacionog polja Sibovac kosovskog ugljenog
Beograd
basena, Tekstualni deo, grafica dokumentacija, broj
priloga 5807.00.01,.03,.06-.18
Elaborat
O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla
Rudarski Institut
eksploatacionog polja Sibovac, Kosovskog uglje Beograd
nog basena, Crtani profili buotina

2004

Digital
borehole
database,
EXCELSheets

CD-ROM

1997

Report

Paper

1997

Geological
Maps,
Profiles

Paper

1997

Elaborat
Rudarski Institut O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla
Beograd
eksploatacionog polja Sibovac kosovskog ugljenog
basena, Spisak crtanih profila buotina
Izvod
iz
Elaborata
Rudarski Institut
O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proracunu reservi ugla
Beograd
eksploatacionog polja Sibovac, Kosovski Basen
Rezultatet e analizave laboratorike gjeomekanike pr
INKOS
kampionet e marrur nga shpimi SH-1 n lokacionin e
shpatit verior t M.S. Mirash-Bardh
KEK
Licence Concession Boundaries for Sibovc, Bardh,
Mirash, Mirash Southeast
Vojnografski
Topografska karta 1:25,000
Institut
Rehabilitation of Northern Slope System, KEK
DMT, Civil Engineering DiviMirash West Mine, Kosovo, Phase 2, Brief Interim
sion
Report No. 3
KEK
Topographic isohypses over Sibovc area
KEK
Lithological and Quality Borehole Data

1997

1997

Borehole
Paper
Logs,
Geology
and
Coal
Assays
Borehole
Paper
Inventory
List
with
coordinates
Report
Paper

2004

Report

Paper

2004

Paper

1970

Coordinate
Listings
Map

Paper

June 2004

Report

Paper

2001
1955-2004

Autocad 3D Digital
Description Paper
Sheets
Report
CD-ROM,
Tender
CD2

Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project (ESTAP) September


2002

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4.2.3 2D Reflection Seismic


Location of the seismic lines
The purpose of the seismic survey conducted from June 21, 2004 to July 03, 2004 by DMT
was both to record long and continuous profiles within the area of the new Sibovc mine and to
cover the pillar area between the Bardh and Mirash mines including the evaluation of the
Bardh slide body.
In order to avoid permitting problems the profiles were designed to be within the BardhMirash mine or to follow public roads in the Sibovc area.
A total of 8 seismic lines were acquired using DMTs Minivibrator MHV3. The profiles were
between 330 and 3340 m long.
Details on the acquisition parameters are found in Appendix A.
Profile Name Length
[m]
Line01
3340.0
Line02
2110.0
Line03
330.0
Line04
1203.3
Line05
1630.0
Line06
563.3
Line07
840.0
Line08
443.3
10460.0

Lines01 and 07 are within the Sibovc area. The other lines are located on the pillar. Here, the
actual mine morphology was affecting the selected line configuration. The line locations are
shown in Fig. 4.2-4.
Line 01 is a SW-NE orientated profile along the road Bardh-Hade. It starts where the road
bends to the south at the northwestern edge of the Bardh mine and ends some 800 m NE of
Hade. It was expected that it would image and locate tectonic structures known from the
western slopes of Bardh and from the pillar area. Furthermore, it was used as a test to assess
the ability of the seismic to clearly identify sliding areas and surfaces.
Line 07 is a bended profile by running SW-NE in its southern half an then turning into S-N
direction following a small road that departs from the road Bardh-Hade. It should evaluate the
presence of possible faulting for an area which may be opened up during the early stages of
the planned Sibovc mine. Along the line coal fire areas have been recognised by surface
scouting.
Lines 02 to 06 and Line 08 are described comprehensively in the MMP Final Report for the
BardhMirash Open Cast Mines.

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Data Quality
The processing results of the seismic lines reveal varying imaging quality of the reflections
regarding lateral continuity and amplitude behaviour. The physical causes affecting the
changes in seismic energy recording and absorption are described in the Seismic Acquisition
and Processing Report in Appendix A.
The geological interpretation showed that the reflection responses are very sensitive to shallow subsurface conditions. High seismic quality and resolution down to some 300-400 m below ground level could be obtained in sections which run along areas not affected by mining
operations or landslides. Within these intervals a detailed and certain interpretation at the top
and the base of the lignite seam could be carried out.
Geological Interpretation
The geological interpretation of the seismic profiles01 and 07 is shown on depth converted
sections in Annex I/4.4-1 .
Fig. 4.2-4 displays the location of the seismic lines and summarizes the interpreted structural
elements.

Fig. 4.2-4

Seismic Location Map And Interpreted Structural Features

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The sections are two-times exaggerated in the vertical direction. The seismic traces are displayed as variable amplitudes with normal polarity. Hereby, red amplitudes indicate negative
reflection coefficients resulting from an interface with a higher impedance (the product of
density times velocity) in the hangingwall than in the footwall layer. Blue amplitudes are
from positive reflection coefficients.
The top of the lignite seam is expressed by a red reflector mainly created due to the drop in
density between the overburden clay and lignite. The definition at Base seam is generally
poorer due to the mixed lignite/clay bedding at the base of the seam.

Line 01
A clear signal is recorded at Top and Base lignite seam where no mining activities or advanced slide systems are known, i.e. north of the pillar near Hade.
Here, only weak internal reflection bands are developed. The underlying green clay shows a
dense succession of parallel bedding, likely expressing intercalations of coarser grained layers.
Directly to the south of Hade intensive faulting is visible on the seismic data. The fault geometries indicate mainly reverse faulting within a transpressional shear zone. At the intersection with line 02 a small grabenlike collapse structure is developed which is limited by very
steep dipping faults with a vertical displacement of some 20 m.
Fig. 4-5 displays the collapse structure at a larger scale and without exaggeration. A different
amplitude display is chosen to accentuate layer definitions.
In the overburden fill draping is present. It characterises synsedimentary faulting which might
much resemble the exposed situation in Mirash as it is documented in the MMP Final-Report
of Bardh-Mirash Open Cast Mines.
Currently, excavator E10B is digging along a fault plane which belongs to the SW-NE directed shear zone.
We understand the heavy faulting in the Mirash northern slope as the natural cause for its instability.

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Fig. 4.2-5

Tectonic Collapse Structure and Reverse Faulting on Seismic Lines 01 and 02,
South of Hade

Further to west the seismic response at the seam boundaries is much weaker due to a loss of
seismic energy.
That corresponds with advanced sliding bodies are recognised on the surface on the Bardh
north slope.
Reflector unconformities are interpreted to define the slide surfaces.
The two bodies in the west of the profile are recognised on the surface.
The easternmost has not been detected so far. However, minor morphological lineaments support the existence of a further slide.

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Line 07
Line 07 extents from virgin soil conditions in the north to a slide body that is already recognized on profile 01. The margin of the slide body coincides with a sharp drop in reflector response quality.
The slide body is known to be affected by underground coal fires. Due to the relatively weak
reflector definition within the lignite it could not be resolved whether resulting thickness irregularities or collapses are present.
The lines over the Sibovc area indicate that seismic surveys provide a high quality method
in exploration areas which are not affected by mining or advanced sliding.

4.3 Assessment of Data Base


4.3.1 Elaboration of Borehole Database
A total of 1094 boreholes are available for the entire project comprising Bardh-Mirash,
Mirash Southeast, Sibovc, D-Field, South-Field concession areas and adjacent areas out the
concession boundaries.
By commencement date analog borehole data containing graphical lithological descriptions
and tabular assay data were made available by KEK. This data set represents copies from data
item [7] as in Tab. 4.2-1. The volume of paper copies was checked against the borehole inventory list (data item [5] as in Tab. 4.2-1). The data set was nearly complete. From the listed 454
boreholes 451 copies were available.
By commencement date digital data sets were provided by KEK. An EXCEL file contained a
total number of 532 structural boreholes described by the following data columns:

Borehole name,
Y, X, Z (= collar elevation),
Overburden Thickness,
Lignite Thickness,
Interburden Thickness,
Bottom Overburden (= Top Lignite in mMSL),
Bottom Lignite (= Base Lignite in mMSL)
Overburden-To-Coal ratio.

Within this digital data set prefixes as Sb, Bm, Br or ML were added to the borehole names as
area identifiers. It was found that 57 boreholes represent duplicates due to using different prefixes for the same borehole. After removing the duplicates, 475 boreholes remained. Thereof
252 boreholes overlapped with the analog data set. For 223 boreholes no paper copies were
available.

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After merging the digital and analog data into an EXCEL-based database the available borehole data set summed up to 674 boreholes. For 451 holes paper copies were available, for 223
not.
On June-18-2004 KEK, Head of Engineering Department was requested to check the completeness of the borehole data set and to provide any further missing geological data. On June25-2004 borehole data from 64 additional boreholes were provided as well as 88 geological
and assay paper sheets for the already existing data set.
On July-01-2004 further 129 paper sheets for already implemented boreholes and for 2 additional boreholes were made available by KEK.
By July-01-2004 the data set encompassed 740 boreholes. Only for 4 boreholes paper sheets
were not available.
On July-12-2004 KEK delivered further 382 paper sheets containing structural descriptions
for boreholes mainly east of the railway track Belgrade-Skopje (East of 7507000, D-Field).
It provided data for 354 additional boreholes. 28 boreholes had been already recorded.
The data were digitally recorded between July-12-2004 and July-14-2004.
By July-14-2004 structural borehole data collection was defined as completed.
The complete borehole dataset consists of 1094 boreholes located between Northing
4721785.00 and 4729041.00 and between Easting 7499503.91 and 7513070.52, i.e. covering
an area of some 98 km2. Thereof, 19 boreholes were not considered for the geological model
for various reasons, leaving 1075 boreholes in the active borehole database.
Fig. 4.3-1 shows the locations and the spacing of the active boreholes.

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Fig. 4.3-1

Spacing of the active boreholes

All available borehole data has completely been digitally recorded including assay data.
In order to overcome the complex borehole naming conventions, the boreholes were additionally named with sorting IDs from 1 to 2379. IDs from 1 to 674 comprise the boreholes that
were available by commencement date and are ordered by descending Northing and then by
ascending Easting. So, borehole 1 is in upper left map corner, borehole 674 in the lower
right corner. The available paper copies were sorted according to the sorting ID.
The additional borehole data delivered on 01-July and 12-July were addressed with IDs from
1000 and 2000 onwards and are sorted according to the data recording sequence.

4.3.2 Assessment Methodology


All surface locations and elevations from the originally delivered digital (Tab. 4.2-1,[1])
borehole database were checked against available paper copies since first random checks
showed a relatively high portion of typing errors.
Typing errors defining the seam boundaries were detected by anomalies not explainable by
geological features during the mapping process and corrected.
Plausibility checks on the coal quality data have been carried out for the originally received
digital data (Tab. 4.2-1, [1]). Cross-plots of Ash vs. Net CV and Net CV vs. Volatile Matters
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indicate only few erroneous outliners which do not significantly influence the calculated averages by borehole as used for the geological model.

4.3.3 Stratigraphic And Lithological Borehole Data


4.3.3.1 Sibovc
443 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within
Sibovc Concession Area (Appendix B: Tab. App-B-4.5-2)
After applying the auditing methodology as described in chapter 4.5.2 seven boreholes were
removed from the active database. They represented extreme deviations in the surface elevation or lignite depth compared to adjacent boreholes.
436 boreholes remained as active data in the borehole database (Appendix B: Tab. App-B4.5-1 ).
A total of 217,395.30 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between
6.80 m and 200.50 m with an average at 103.26 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled
to some five meters into the green clay. 41 holes were not drilled to the base of the seam.
The top of the seam has been encountered between 2.30 m and 137 m md (measured depth)
with an average at 43.85 m. The base was penetrated between 3.00 and 193.20 m md with an
average at 93.20 m. The structural position for the top of the seam is between 494.60 and
623.10 mMSL (meter above mean sea level) with an average at 550.28 mMSL. The elevation
for the base is between 530.90 and 663.30 mMSL with an average at 594.00 mMSL.
The seam thickness is between 0 and 93.30 m. The average is at 51.07 m.

4.3.3.2 D-Field
226 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within DField Concession Area .
After applying the auditing methodology as described in chapter 3.6. one borehole was removed from the database. It was a duplicate.
A total of 105,399.70 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between
9.80 m and 142.00 m with an average at 88.69 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled
to some five meters into the green clay. 41 holes were not drilled to the base of the seam.
The top of the seam has been encountered between 5 m and 76 m md with an average at 31.40
m. The base was penetrated between 8.8 and 138.3 m md with an average at 90.06 m. The
structural position for the top of the seam is between 472.40 and 581.10 mMSL with an average at 523.84 mMSL. The elevation for the base is between 533.8 and 596.10 mMSL with an
average at 555.05 mMSL.
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The seam thickness is between 1.00 and 81.60 m. The average is at 58.17 m.

4.3.3.3 South-Field
65 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within
South-Field Mining Concession Area .
One borehole was removed from the active database since the recorded surface elevation was
estimated 120 m too high.
A total of 27,731.7 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between 11.8
m and 211.5 m with an average at 134.13 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled to
some five meters into the green clay. Six holes were not drilled to the base of the seam.

4.3.4 Coal Qualities from Borehole Data


4.3.4.1 Assessment of Borehole Data
Since the cores are not accessible no first hand judgement can be made about the reliability
of the lithological descriptions which affect the definition of the seams vertical boundaries.
Only indirect control was given during the modelling process by investigating anomalies in
the structural setting or thickness distribution caused by a single borehole.
Due to the sharp contact of lignite and grey clay it can be assumed that the hangingwall
boundary of the seam has been unequivocally recorded. The modelling process confirmed this
assumption.
The definition of the footwall boundary is less precise due to the progressive intercalation of
clay towards the base of the seam. It cannot be ruled out that either lignite or clay has been
overseen in the cores which could cause interpretation errors.
In this context it should be noted that core losses are only reported in the available description
sheets for Sibovc.
Anomaly spots in some areas indicate an uncertainty in the boundary definition of 5m.
The data management with KEKs responsible engineering department does not meet international standards. A complete and updated digital borehole database was not available by
commencement of the study. The available data (Tab. 4.2-1, data item [1]) were apparently
generated during the ESTAP study (Tab. 4.2-1, data item [12]) by the contractor. This data
has not been completed or updated. In this data important qualifiers which e.g. indicate only
partial seam penetration are not contained. Further borehole information is stored in KEKs
AUTOCAD Mining plans but apparently incomplete and not reviewed.
Our general impression is that no authorized borehole database is in use.
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Therefore, it was necessary to generate a new database for the project tasks. It stores all available borehole data in EXCEL sheets and provides VBA functions for data filtering, calculations (as calculating length weighted borehole averages from assay data) and export function.
We recommend that KEK is adapting this database and maintaining it in the future.
Upon KEKs request and specifications the database content could easily be transferred to
their applications as in particular to DATAMINE.

4.4 Geological Model


A detailed structural model has been generated for the Lignite Fm. It integrates all available
sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data.
Due to the lack of decent borehole descriptions a differentiation in the overburden clay between the yellow and grey clay was difficult and only made for two cross-sections which are
part of the Annexes in Part II.
A coal property distribution model for the coal properties as relevant for the mine plan, i.e.
ash content, net calorific value and total sulphur, has been developed on length weighted
borehole averages.
Additionally, a 3D Block Model for the spatial net calorific value distribution has been developed by applying SURPAC (see Part II Technical Planing).

4.4.1 Modelling Procedure


The borehole database are stored in an EXCEL file. The listings for the Sibovc Concession
Area is contained in Appendix B (Tab. App-B-4.5-1 and 2) that provides VBA procedures
for data filtering and averaging of coal quality assay data. The EXCEL database served as
input of borehole data for the geological modelling.
All maps, 3D displays and cross-sections were produced by using SURFER 8.00 (Golden
Software) and AutoCad 2004.
All grids have a 50x50 m grid node increment. For the gridding processes all available borehole data have been considered. The maps show an area of 91.8 km2 that fall in the limits of
xmin=7499000, xmax=7511000, ymin=4721850 ymax= 4729500.
For the generation of the depth structure grid and contour map at Top Lignite Seam a minimum curvature algorithm was used. An anisotropy factor of 0.8 was used to reflect the NorthSouth elongation of the lignite basin. This algorithm has been tested as the best available for
modelling fault areas.

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The isochore thickness has been generated by applying a radial basis function with an anisotropy of 0.8 and a long axis directed to the NNW (340 azimuth).
The base of the seam has been generated by isochoring downwards.
The overburden, overburden-to-coal ratio and structural dip maps have generated by mathematical grid operations.
The faults have been mapped as vertical faults. This simplification has been made because the
chosen grid increment no significant improvement in volumetric calculation.
The structural cross-sections (Annex I/ 4. 6- 8) were generated from the SURFER structural
grids.
The sections have manually edited to show fault dips.
For the coal quality distribution grids which are not affected by faults a kriging algorithm
with SURFERs default linear variogram with the following specifications was used

.
The search parameters have been selected as shown below.

The structural and property grids have been exported to the mine planning software Microstation as GS ASCII grids. The format exchange does guarantee a 1:1 imaging of the grid data
among the software packages.

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4.4.2 Structural Model


Depth structure maps at Top and Base Lignite, a seam isochore map, overburden thickness
and overburden-to-coal ratio are shown in Annexes I/4.6-1 to 6.
Three regional geological cross-sections in SW-NE, S-N and W-E directions depict the structural and depositional setting (Annex I/4.6-8).
In all concession areas the structural dip at top lignite is low with overwhelming values below
5 (Annex I/ 4. 6- 7). In the South-Field it dips with 5-10 to the South. Steeper dipping is
indicated in Sibovc along two SW-NE alignments which are believed to represent erosional
channels. The erosion is also seen on the depth structure map at Top lignite, the isochore map
and even expressed on the Low CV map.
The mapped area is characterised by a NNW-SSE striking basin. Along the axis the thickness
reaches up to 70-80 m. The coal basin is delineated to the West by a series of stepping fault
blocks which separate the Tertiary fill from the Mesozoic basement.
The lignite pinch-out to the NE appears to be a unconformal without recognized boundary
faults.
Cross-faults which strike roughly perpendicular to the basin axis are developed in the North
of Sibovc and to the South of Hade.
The cross-plot lignite thickness versus depth (Fig. 4.4-1) eveals a strong correlation which
indicates that subsidence and very likely faulting took already place during the lignite deposition. If the movements were commencing later the data would show high scattering.
The seismic data indicate a highly faulted area along the Mirash northern slope directly to the
south of Hade. It appears to be affected by reverse faults and dense normal faults creating a
collapse structure. Due to the critical location in respect to the village of Hade a proposal
for an appraisal borehole has been made to the mining director (see proposal document in
Appendix A).
The following table provides structural characterisation data for the evaluated areas:

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Tab. 4.4-1

Minimum:
Median:
Maximum:
Mean:
Minimum:
Median:
Maximum:
Mean:
Minimum:
Median:
Maximum:
Mean:

Sibovc, D-Field, South-Field Structural Characterisation


Univariate Statistics - Structural Characterization from Geological Model Grid
Sibovc
O-To-C Ratio
Top Seam
Base Seam
[mMSL]
[mMSL]
Thickness [m] Overburden [m]
[m3/t]
494
422
0
2
0.0
550
505
52
36
0.7
638
638
96
130
153.7
552
503
49
43
1.1
D-Field
454
378
0
2
0.0
534
476
58
27
0.6
581
564
83
84
99.9
529
480
48
32
1.6
"South-Field"
357
281
1
2
0.0
475
410
66
94
1.2
529
509
81
180
2.4
468
403
65
90
1.2

Fig. 4.4-1

Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot

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4.4.3 Coal Quality Distribution Model


For the quality distribution length weighted averages have been calculated from the assay data
within the Lignite Fm. on a single borehole basis. Averages for the Sibovc area are reported in
Appendix B (Tab. App-B-4.5-2).
Average coal quality distribution maps are shown in Annexes I/4. 6- 9 to 11.
The concession areas are characterised by the following quality populations:
Tab. 4.4-2

Univariate Statistics, Coal Qualities from Geological Model Grid

Univariate Statistics - Coal Qualities From Geological Model Grid


Sibovc
Ash Content
Net CV
Total Sulphur
[%]
[kJ/kg]
[%]
Samples
8115
8115
8115
Minimum:
25%-tile:
Median:
75%-tile:
Maximum:

11.29
14.28
15.33
16.87
38.19

1748
7834
8296
8657
9683

0.69
0.95
1.07
1.19
2.93

Midrange:
Range:
Interquartile Range:
Median Abs. Deviation:

24.74
26.90
2.59
1.20

5716
7935
823
402

1.81
2.25
0.23
0.12

Mean:
Trim Mean (10%):
Standard Deviation:
Variance:

15.86
15.64
2.31
5.35

8146
8214
762
580561

1.09
1.08
0.20
0.04

Coef. of Variation:
Coef. of Skewness:

0.15
1.88

0.09
-1.72

0.18
1.66

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4.5 Other Aspects influencing the Geological Situation


4.5.1 Former Underground Mining
Remains of the old underground mining are situated in the south-western part of the Sibovc
field and the D-Field and are connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope. Some of the old
galleries have been already cut within the Mirash mine and the pillar area.
First attempts to reach the seam were made along river erosion channels which cut the coal
seam. In areas of the seam which were affected by it can be mixed completely or at least partly
with humus strata resulting in a decrease of the coal quality. Therefore, the initial excavation of
the stalls began about 7 meters under the roof of the seam. In the proximity of the riverbanks
water handling was difficult. At a later stage vertical shafts were deepened.
The documented coal mining using galleries and reaches back to 1922

Fig. 4.5-1
Arial photography showing the area of the D-Field with regularly aligned collapse
structures (more or less round holes) in consequence of former underground mining. The highlighted
area indicates zones with still stable galleries.

For the stabilisation of the galleries with a height of 2 m and width of 3 m was used a wooden
timber set support system. The parallel galleries had a distance of 20 m one to each other,
every 100 m a cross cut was excavated and they followed the given directions of the separations planes. The old roadways were driven parallel to the joint system within the mine. The
galleries were widened to caverns with intervals of 7-20 m and the coal was broken from the
roof. In the area Western of the overburden dump in the D-Field these caverns frequently collapsed forming more or less round craters, which show a regular alignment. Due to this method
sections of the galleries show a low stability and there is a potential danger of collapse of the
undermined levels under load if they are not already broken or refilled.

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The dimension of the undermined area in has been calculated considering the following factors:
Calculation of the excavated coal during 1922 to 1966
Existing underground mining maps of the Mirash mine
Position of the old shafts

Fig. 4.5-2

Collapsed gallery of old underground mining.

Mapping of the outcrops of the gallery system and acquisition of data (gallery width,
distance e.g.)
Site visits of the for a specific delimitation of the underground mines
Determination of the mining methods by means of the characteristics of exposed galleries
Interpretation of aerial photographs for the acquisition of typical structures (patterned
alignment of collapse structures)
Interpretation of seismic investigations
Acquisition of the fault pattern
Acquisition of topographic elements and natural boundaries (old bed of the river Sitnitca, location of villages)
Extension regarding the maximum practicable distance between shafts and galleries
These points have been regarded for the purpose of compiling the geological model
how it is described in the attachments.

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The underground mining was abandoned in 1922. Following table shows the overall coal production of the underground mine. There is no reliable documentation on the extension of the
old underground mine or the information is at least incomplete.
Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin
"Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 - 1966

years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

Tab. 4.5-1

Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source: INKOS)

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Under
consideration of these production rates for the field Kosovo can be calculated an area of app.
5 km2 and 2 km2 for the field Sibovc. These production rates from the field Sibovac show
that the excavation only took place near the surface.
The largest distance between a shaft and the outermost galleries did not exceed 700 meters.
Annex I/4.7-1 shows the complete undermined area how it can be supposed under consideration of all aforementioned arguments and facts.

4.5.2 Uncontrolled Coal Fires


4.5.2.1 Development and locations of coal fires
Within a wide area a large amount of lignite is affected by spontaneous combustion. which
occurs in the mine slopes and coal yards, where the coal is exposed to air and can penetrate the
underground and reach the coal
Self- ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat
energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the
coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually.
In a first phase coal fires take place within weakness zones like joints or slope failures or old
mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer
is influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or within the roof
strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mining facilitate a supplementary ventilation and
therefore best conditions for oxygen inflow are given Burned out galleries result in large cavities and therefore a decreasing stability of the slopes.
The experiences from the Bardh-Mirash mine showed, that also slide areas, slopes (especially
the central pillar parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period), fault and
joints are affected by these fires.
Self combustion also occurs in dumped coal masses. Typically the coal fires begin at the base
of the dumps and affect the hole dump until it is burned out.

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Areas which are affected by illegal (private) coal excavation are also potential locations of coal
fires. In most cases the small quarries and shafts were not refilled and therefore potential conditions for self combustion are given (see Figures below).
A secondary effect is the fritting of the clay in the seam roof. Due to the heat the material becomes dehydrated and oxidised and takes a red colour The characteristics (hardness) of the
fritted clay allow a use as gravel to improve the stability of transport roads within the mine

Fig. 4.5-3

Coal fire at a base of a dump.

Fig. 4.5-4

Coal fire in old mining structures

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4.5.2.2 Counteractive measures


The procedures for coal fire extinguishing and thus saving coal resources have to be adapted to
the exploitation operations and to be done by the mines staff during the current mining activities.
The following convenient extinguishing technologies have to be selected under consideration
of the local geotechnical conditions. The extended use of water in most cases may cause landslides.

Direct fire fighting (small fires)

Excavation of local burning coal (hot spots)

Levelling of surface and drilling of injection holes

Injection of water or slurry to the fire centre

Surface sealing (excavation front)

Cooling with water spaying equipment

Inertisation

Flooding (surface near galleries)

Burnout control

4.5.2.3 Prevention of coal fires


Prevention of coal fires is synonymous with the avoidance of the contact of coal and oxygen.
The main focus is on the avoiding of oxygen entry into the underground corridors.
The galleries in the central pillar allow the best ventilation and therefore strongest oxidation
and heat development. Cut old galleries have to be protected against ventilation. If an excavator opens a gallery, a caterpillar or similiar machine should close the entry as soon as possible
with clay or other impermeable material to prevent further oxygen entry. These actions have to
be taken permanently during the excavation process.
Collapsed old galleries near the surface or shafts have to be inspected if oxygen can penetrate
somewhere and where appropriate, openings need to be filled.
Self combustion and fires near the surface can be avoided minimising a permanent contact of
the coal with atmospheric oxygen. Slide faults can cause deep cracks and are often the origin of
coal fires, which are very difficult to extinguish. Therefore it is essential to prevent land slides
Generally, the length of the excavation front has to be adapted to the yearly coal output. Thus,
the time of exposition of the excavation front can be reduced.
As potential appearance locations of coal fires are associated with the locations of the old underground mining, the underground mining map (Annex I/ 4.7-1) can provide information
where to aspect fires in the future.
In the 1st semester of 2006 a project will be started by EAR for fire fighting in the Kosovo Coal
Mines. The results of this projects shall, so far as the instructions will be carried out strictly,
achieve sustained success and lead to a significant reduction of coal fires.

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4.6 Geological Resources


The calculation of geological resources for the Sibovc, the D-Field and the South-Field
within their respective concession areas resulted in the following figure:
Sibovc
990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2
D-Field
395 mt over an area of 7.8 km2
South-Field
537 mt over an area of 8.0 km2
The calculation of resources defines solely geological resources or in other terms: in-situresources. A classification of these resources in accordance with their geological assurance
was performed for the Sibovc field and is discussed in Part II of the report. As a general statement, geological resource figures are not considering any factors based on the mineability,
such as mining losses or dilution. They are simply based on cut-offs assumed by a competent
geologist. In this case, no cut-off for minimal thickness of the seam is required as the lignite
bed is always well above the technical mineability. Also a cut-off for the thickness of partings
was not applicable for the evaluated concession areas. The boundaries of the seam at the top
and the floor are lithologically defined and also established by the sampled seam section.
The geological assurance depends on the borehole spacing and the continuity of the deposit. It
can be already noted that the borehole spacing is wide in the South-Field which would lead
to classify the area as an coal field with indicated or inferred resources. The Sibovc field is
well explored in the south and lesser explored towards the north, hence, measured resources are
abundant.
The thickness distribution within the deposit area is modelled by interpolation as described in
chapter 4.4.1 and is established on a 50 x 50 m grid. Losses of resources due to underground
mine workings in the upper part of the seam in some isolated areas are not yet estimated since
no accurate maps of those areas are yet available.
A specific gravity of 1.14 g/cm was applied in order to calculate the tonnage of lignite resources. This value is in accordance with former assumptions and allows a comparison of resource figures with various former studies. Assuming a real specific gravity in the range of
1.25 to 1.3 g/cm, the geological resources would be increased by about 10 % which now can
be considered now as a safety factor.

4.7 Hydrogeological Situation


The hydrogeological situation of the area is defined by three main hydrogeological layers. The
basis is given by an aquiclude formed by the green clay consisting of clay and silt with a
general thickness of more than 100m.
The overlaying lignite coal with a thickness up to 70m is generally described not to be good
permeable but because of fissures and cracks within the coal groundwater can circulate
whereby the coal layer has to be recognized as an aquifer. This fact can be underlined by field
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observations when wells were observed, which came into being while excavating coal in an
elevation clearly above the water level of main drainage sump in Mirash mine.
Above the coal follows the overburden mainly consisting clay with subordinated silt or sand.
Characteristic are embedded layers with masses of snail shells. Near to the surface this grey
clay can change its appearance to a yellow clay what is explained to be a result of weathering with oxidation of the iron content within the material. The clay material generally habits
like an aquifuge but because of fissures and cracks reaching depths of 10 m to 15 m from the
surface water can penetrate the rock. Hence groundwater appears either when the fissures are
dug up by excavation or where those fissures are connected to better permeable layers within
the clay such as the snail shell layers or gravel layers. Following the resulting hydraulic conductivity depends on the locally different appearance of the clay and fissures.
The yellow clay horizon is frequently used to supply houses and smaller villages with water,
e.g. in the village of Hade and in the valley west of Lajthishte.
The observed water levels and the alteration in colour from grey to yellow indicate that this
groundwater horizon is directly fed by precipitation and it is assessed that groundwater predominately circulates near the surface.
Recent measurements on the quantity of groundwater and flow directions as well as expressive
maps of the groundwater table are not available. Reviewing older documents an D-Field
observations show that the quantity of groundwater descending the overburden at the mines is
rather small. At the slopes groundwater can be observed after rainy periods favoured in coarse
layers of the yellow clay and, along fissures, within the grey clay. Additional vadose water
horizons can appear within courser layers of the grey clay especially where it contains larger
amounts of snail shells. Locally the overburden is eroded to a thickness of meters or less and as
abandoned underground works with broken roofs give direct access to the surface, precipitation
can directly infiltrate the coal in larger areas whereby larger quantities of groundwater might be
produced.
Utilization of groundwater concentrates on private wells dug to depth of 10 to 15 m below the
surface within the overburden clay. Production quantities are shown by Rudaski Institute
(1985) with Q = 3 l/min to Q = 11 l/min with a maximum of Q = 54 l/min, which can be
judged as hydraulic conductivities in a range of kf = 10-9 m/sec to kf = 10-6 m/sec. Field observations in the surroundings of Lajthishte showed artificial wells, drilled some 5 m to 7 m
deep into the yellow clay, to serve as water supply for a village. Inhabitants described the
wells rather unproductive but sufficient for private purpose.
The quaternary deposits along the river Sitnica consist of coarser materials with sand and
gravel contents. Resulting the hydraulic conductivity can reach values up to kf = 10-4 m/sec or
even greater.
Because of the hydraulic properties of the clay and the topsoil developed to a Vertisol
(Smonitza) in case of rainfall an enriched surface run-off can be expected. To allow first assessments a run-off coefficient of 0.45 is chosen by Consultant.
The hydrogeological situation at the surface is presented by Rudarski Institut in 1996. The map
shows in brownish colour elevated and hilly plains with minor or no groundwater content as
well as in blue colours the valleys of the rivers with enriched groundwater occurrence.
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From the hydrogeological point of view a first differentiation is possible for the potential mining fields. The Sibovc-Field is nearly wholly located in less water bearing overburden. Besides
some minor waters the Sibovc river in the north of the field has to be diverted in an adequate
way before excavation. In the valley of Sibovc river artesian groundwater outflow was observed in harvest of 2004. Hence beside a well prepared diversion of the river additional drainage will be needed for the alluvial sediments in the valley. Furthermore protective measures
must be foreseen were the alluvial sediments of Sibovc river join the Alluvial sediments along
river Sitnica near the village of Hamidija. It is assessed that at least an apron cutting through
the permeable sediments and a dam will be needed to prevent water inflow from the river Sitnica.
The fields D and South reach the river valleys where enlarged groundwater inflow is expected.
Especially the South-Field will be excavated along the river Sitnica with diversion of the river
needed and opening up the rim of the mine for more than 3 km parallel to the river. Hence intensified leakage from the river to the mine will be created and adequate measures have to be
implemented to protect the mine in times of floods as half of the width of inundation area will
be lost.

Fig. 4.7-1

Complemented Extract from Hydrogeological Map


(Rudarski Institute 1996)

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4.8 Further Exploration in the future Fields


The future coal fields should be examined with geological and geophysical methods under special regard of geotechnical conditions and the coal quality.
The investigations should include:

Borings executed with three drilling rigs for the examination of 2500 m of core material
each year. For a reliable geological prognosis, in any case the respective borings should
penetrate the whole seam till the lying green clay of the foot wall is reached. On demand (e.g. in the range of faults) the boring grid should be closer for obtaining more
structural information (recognition of small size structures).
Registration of the strike and dip of the seam. This allows a better planning of the excavation.
Determination of the coal quality on the basis of the samples from the new borings
Investigation of the whole future field by line seismics.
E-W orientated 2D seismic line investigation for the verification of the orientation and
throw of the faults
Hydrogeological evaluation in the boreholes
Geotechnical investigations including valuation of the parting plane texture.
The future fields are expected to show structures in the northern sections how they are known
from the actual mining areas. If such structures will be found, a detailed examination with borings should be made.

5 Overview of Potential Future Mining Fields


5.1 General Aspects and Bedding Conditions
The deposit sections with the most favourable mining conditions are West of Pristina, where
also the Mirash and Bardh mines are opened-up. The overburden to coal ratio is here approximately 1:1, i.e. to mine 1 t of lignite 1 cm of overburden has to be removed. In international
scale these value are extremely favourable. The following three potential fields are considered
for the further examination to choose the most effective opencast mine field:
Sibovc-Field
D-Field
South-Field

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Fig. 5.1-1

Potential Mining Fields

5.2 Sibovc-Field
Location:
The Sibovc Field is situated to the North of the Bardh and Mirash mines. So it is near the capital of Kosovo Pristina and near to the existing power plant Kosovo B.
The field area is approximately 16 msqm.
It has a maximum mineable width (East-West extension) of 3.8 km and a length of about 6 km.
Area use:
The area of the Sibovc field is mostly used for agriculture. For a long time it has been known
that this lignite field is envisaged for excavation. Therefore, the people living in this area are
prepared for mining activities.
Previous plans included the mining from South to North whereby it was intended to develop
the field from the existing rim slope system of Bardh/ Mirash.
Small private coal openings exist which are used for local fuel use.
Degree of building:
The mining field is sparsely populated.
The main villages are:

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Hade
Sibovc und
Lajthishte

The village of Shipitula is for the most part outside the field to be mined.
The resettlement of the before mentioned villages is the major obstacle for the exploitation.
There are no other restrictions for the coal mining.

5.3 D-Field
Location
D-Field lies in directly beside the power plant TPP Kosovo A and ca. 5.5 km away (straight
line) from the power plant B. In the West it borders the village of Dardhishte and in the South
the village of Polje (Fushe Kosove) including infrastructure like road and railway line, whereas
the seam thickness thins out to below the economic limit into East/North-East direction and in
parallel the coal quality changes to the worth..
There is existing a concession line which was also used for the comparison of the mining
fields.
A minimum distance between the villages was taken into consideration when choosing the
mine boundary with regard to the before mentioned concession line.
The area within the mine configuration comes to 6.7 msqm.
Area use
Already in the past coal was extracted on the territory of field B. The major part was mined in
underground mines. For example, 2.9 mt of coal were mined (Krusevac mine) between 1948
and 1966.
At present, a considerable part of the area is used by KEK as ash disposal site. Furthermore,
opening-up masses from the Mirash mine were deposited on this area. The dumped material is
assessed to:
Ash Dump Dragodara
1.52 m sqm
Overburden Dump Dragodara
0.69 m sqm
The recovery of the old dumps interferes with the excavation of the deposit.
Degree of building
There are only few houses on coal D-Field.
It is envisaged to build a motorway right on the area of the D-Field. It seems that approximately 30 40% of the mineable lignite content will be lost due to this measure. In this case
the coal field will loose its attractiveness.

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5.4 South-Field
Location:
The South D-Fieldirectly borders on the existing Bardh and Mirash opencast mines in the
South.
In the West the mine boundary is formed by the village of Bardh and in the East the Sitnica
River (Variant 1) or the village of Kosovo Polje (Variant 2).
In Variant 1 the area covers more than 11 and in Variant 2 more than 14 m sqm.

Fig. 5.4-1

Two Variants in the South-Field

Geology in the excavation area:


The deposit is characterised by an at least 60 to 80 m thick coal seam which is covered y an
overburden layer of 100 to 150 m.
The ratio overburden to coal is about 2:1. Compared with the Sibovc field the overburden volume doubles. In general there is the tendency of the overburden to coal ratio to change to the
worse into Southern direction.
In addition to the geological overburden, large amounts of dump material will change this ratio
(O-to-C) further to the worse.
Area use:

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Most of the area is already owned by KEK and covered by the already mentions dumps (see
Figure below):

Fig. 5.4-2

Outside Dumps on the South-Field

These dumps comprise a total volume of 90 to 110 mm (slope angle ca. 6) of an entire area of
5.5 m sqm and an average dumping height of 20 to 30 m.
Soil-mechanical conditions:
The dump soil is very difficult to excavate. Besides the problems in the excavation and transportation process, there are considerable problems of static stability for the slopes to be built.
Gravel shall be available to stabilise in particular the working levels; this material is not available in the mines.
The following parameters depend on the chosen field boundary:
Tab. 5.4-1

Comparison of Coal Content and Overburden Removal South-Field


Variant 1
Variant 2
Area
m sqm
11
14
Slope Angel Overb.

10
10
Slope Angel Coal

22
22
Mass Overburden
m m
1100
1400
Mass Coal
Mt
370
500
Ratio Overb. to Coal
bcm/t
3.0:1
2:8

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Degree of building
In any case, i.e. for both variants, resettlement of the villages of Lismir and Kuzmin is required.
In Variant 2, the river Sitnica had to be relocated additionally.
There are no other buildings which could have a relevant influence.

5.5 Valuation of the Mining Fields


The following Table shows a comparison of the different alternatives under consideration of
various criteria:
Tab. 5.5-1

Valuation of the Mining Fields

Criteria

Unit

Lignite content within tech[ mt ]


nological border *
Overburden : Coal Ratio
[ bcm/t ]
incl. dumping material

Sibovc

D-Field

South-Field

900

280

500

0.85

0.90

2.8

Average Net Calorific Value

[ kJ/kg ]

8312

7340

Average Sulphur Content

[%]

1.1

1.0

Land Use
Covering by dumped Masses

[m sqm ]

Agriculture
0.5
Hade, Sibovc,
Lajthishte
Resettlement of
Hade

KEK(Dumps)
2.2

similar to Sibovc
similar to Sibovc
KEK(Dumps)
5.5

few houses

Lismir, Kuzmin

Motorway

Currently hardly
competitive

Resettlement
Constrains

* Considering the geological content within the slope system in the


boundaries of the mines

One of the important cost drivers is the ratio between overburden removal and coal extraction.
The figure below shows a survey. According to that the very North and the very South of Sibovc and the D-Field is most favourable. The centre of the Sibovc field is mineable but unfavourable for the opening up of the new mine.

Valuation Sibovc Field:


The Sibovc field has large coal content and is characterised by favourable deposit condition.
The lignite has a high quality and the excavation is not largely affected by extensive recovery
of outside dump material.
Another advantage of this field is the moderate transport distance to the power plant.
Developing the Sibovc field from the South has the best potential of all scenarios to fill the
Bardh and Mirash pits with overburden masses. The exploitation of the deposit requires resettlements.

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The mining of the lignite field of Sibovc offers the best possibility to supply coal to a
new large power plant. In total it can provide coal for 2000 -2500 MW power plant capacity.

Valuation of D-Field:
D-Field is characterised by the low overburden thickness and the good overburden to coal ratio.
The average heating value is by 12 % lower and the filed is covered by outside dump masses
and ash dumps. The previous dumping of ash did not correspond to the standards and guidelines of the EU.
It has to be assumed that this dump should be either recovered or at least provided with a sufficient cover layer.
If the dumps will be carried out, the remaining overburden to coal ration will come from 0.72
to 1.0 bcm/t.
If the cost for relocating the ash disposal from its current location into the old workings of
Mirash will be covered by a third party, the mining costs are expected to be lower in comparison to the other mining fields. This is also valid considering the lower average heating value.
With regard to future land use it is possible to establish an attractive lake for recreation at reasonable costs not far away from Pristina (15 minutes).
In terms of sustainable development the D-Field offers the best post mining use of the
land. The environmental liability of the ash dump is eliminated and a recreational area
can be established. The building of a new power plant larger than 600 MW would not
be justified in particular due to the limited coal content. Either TPP B until end of lifetime or/and a smaller new TPP can be supplied.
The envisaged erection of a motorway impedes the economical use of the lignite deposit. Thats why it is requested to check whether it is possible to relocate the route
eastwards at least in the Southern part of the D-Field.

Valuation of South-Field
The main benefit of the Southern field is the fact that most of the areas are already property of
KEK. But more overburden has to be removed as the seam dips to the South. Another disadvantage of the South-Field is the increasing transport distance to the power plants TPP A und
TPP B.
Mining of the South-Field is the most expensive variant due to the unfavourable geological conditions, especially the relatively high overburden to coal ratio. It should
therefore be postponed.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

6 Alternatives of Mining Equipment -Various Mining Methods


6.1 Bases for a Comparison of Alternative Mining Methods
Use of new Equipment /Comparison
The deposit in the lignite mining area to be examined can be exploited economically by means
of various different mining methods. Only those processes are considered which are able to
extract the existing loose rock (mainly cohesive soils) in the overburden very economically:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Conventional bucket wheel excavator (BWE), belt conveyors and spreader


Compact BWE, belt conveyors and spreader
Truck and shovel (mobile equipment)
Combination of BWE technology and truck and shovel

Other mining methods are not regarded efficient compared to the above mentioned. Those
other methods include the excavation with draglines or Hydromonitors.
The latter is not suitable because of the compact clay material and the thickness of the overburden layer. Often applied direct dumping methods are restricted due to depth of the overburden
layer and the seam thickness.
The dragline technology is possible in principle.
It is the lowest cost waste removal equipment but restricted to:
Large deposits to ensure adequate strip length
Sufficient reserves to justify the capital expenditure
Gently dipping deposits, due to spoil instability
Simple geology and gentle terrain to ensure minimal changes in overburden thickness
along the strip and
Shallow deposits due to dump reach and height limitations
Due to the deposit parameters, draglines are not suitable as main winning equipment capacity
operation - in the Sibovc field. Deciding factors for this are the thickness of overburden and
coal
The important minimum values for the total benches (Sibovc deposit) are even in the first
years:
Overburden: 60 m
Coal:
60 m
The plan for cutting the general slope system includes 10 in the overburden and 22 in coal.
This would mean that the excavators have to handle the excavated masses too often and would
therefore not be profitable.
But they could be useful at least for special works (auxiliary work) if not applicable for the
capacity operation.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Definition of the working range for the comparison of the mining methods
The detailed comparison of mining methods which seem to be reasonable is made at the example of the extraction in the Northern part of Sibovc.
At this place, advantages are most likely to use alternative equipment like f. e. mobile equipment in contrary to the BEW-technology used at present. The reasons result from:
low overburden thickness
lower thickness of coal seam
larger distance of place of application of machines as against the present location

6.2 Description of the 4 Alternative Mining Methods


Alternative 1 - Conventional continuous working Main Equipment
Main equipments in Alternative 1 are standard machines, i.e. bucket wheel excavators with belt
conveyors. This also corresponds to the present mining technology of KEK. Draglines work as
auxiliary machines.
The comparison can be made by
a) new equipment and
b) available old-equipment.
Alternative 2 Mining with compact excavators
The most important difference to alternative 1 is that the excavators which are used as solcalled compact excavators have a shorter boom length. Those excavators have a lower weight
and therefore have a lower price. That means the investment demand is also lower. On the
other side, there are increased expenses in the production process because of the lower cut.
Alternative 3 - Mobile Equipment
This alternative mining method aims at determining it a sole truck/shovel operation would be
more cost-effective than the extraction with continuous excavator-belt conveyor-spreader operation.
Anyhow, the truck/shovel method is inherently more flexible and makes this method better
suited in the following applications:
Small deposits, which do not justify the capital expenditure of BWEs
Geologically complex deposits with resultant irregular mine shapes
Comparably low labour costs for personnel, compensating the extra demand for additional labours
Especially the last aspect is given and the moderate output capacity of 9 mt contributes to this
as well.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Alternative 4 - Combined Equipment Application


In this alternative, overburden is removed by means of bucket wheel excavators. All excess
heights in the overburden are removed by truck/shovel operation.

6.3 Calculation of Average Cost per Unit


With regard to the future equipment use and output capacity, the operating costs were estimated for the four alternative mining methods.
Average cost per unit was calculated by means of the Discounted-cash-Flow method (DCF)
assuming a discount rate of 12 % and with the use of real values (i.e. for personnel cost and
additional increase of ca. 2 % is assumed as against the international inflation rate).

6.3.1 General Data for Cost Calculation


General assumptions for the study are as follows:
- Currency of the study
Euro
- Discount rate
12 % escalated
- Escalation rate
2 %/year.
- Base cost
2004
- Labour costs
3,440 /employee/year in 2004
- Shift factor
5.2 employees per workplace
- Power
0.032 /kWh
- Fuel
0.70 /l
- Maintenance
0.08 0.10 /(m+t)*km
- Recultivation
0.15 /t Lignite
- Taxes & Royalties
0.30 /t Lignite
- Other costs / contingencies
0.30 /m+t

6.3.2 Calculation of Operating Cost Positions


Tab. 6.3-1
Operating Cost Position
- Personnel:
Main Equipment
Personnel demand for main equipment was determined on basis of
standard crew of heavy-duty equipment, estimated crew for belt
conveyors as well as shift factor.
Workshops/Maintenance:

50 % of main equipment

Auxiliary Equipment:

40 80 % of main equipment

Administration & Head Office:

Estimation on basis of data of similar opencast mines, 200 employees,


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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Other:

20 % of main equipment

- Maintenance costs:

The demand was determined on the basis of the performances of the equipment and the specific value.
It was considered that the higher demand for auxiliary
equipment requires higher maintenance costs in Alternatives
2, 3 and 4.

- Power:

Determination of costs on basis of output capacities. An additional demand of 5 Mio. kWh/a was estimated on the basis of
data of similar opencast mines.

- Fuel:

Determination of costs on the basis of use of equipment. Depending on the use of auxiliary equipment an additional demand of 5 Mio. kWh/a was estimated.

- Recultivation:
- Taxes & Royalties:
- Other costs / contingencies:

0.15 /t Lignite
0.30 cent/t Lignite.
0.30 cent/m+t

6.3.3 Actual Costs


Basic assumption is, that the personnel cost in Kosovo will rise sharply in the next years than
all the other positions will rise. Basing on this, we made the following considerations:
The personnel costs will increase:

until 2014 by 8 %/year

from 2015 by 1 %/year

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

6.4 IRR, average Cost per Unit


For different discounted rates the average cost per unit before tax over the whole project life
amount to:
Tab. 6.4 1 Comparison of average Unit Cost
Discounted rate
4%
6%
8%
10 %
12 %
15 %
20 %

Average cost per unit in /t


Alternative 1
Alternative 2
Alternative 3
4.87
5.18
6.94
5.31
5.60
7.07
5.85
6.12
7.24
6.48
6.72
7.46
7.21
7.42
7.72
8.48
8.63
8.19
11.01
11.11
9.16

Page 67 of 120

Alternative 4
5.13
5.44
5.82
6.26
6.76
7.62
9.28

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

6.5 Sensitivity Analysis


The real average costs are graphically illustrated in dependence of the discounted rate.
This clearly illustrates: As soon as the main equipment can be financed fully or partly via bank
credits the average costs. The normal variation range is between 10 and 12 %.

Sensitivity of discount rate


11.00

10.00

RAC in /t Lignite

9.00

8.00

7.00

6.00

5.00

4.00

4%

6%

Alternative 1

Fig. 6.5-1

8%
Alternative 2

10%

12%
Alternative 3

15%

20%

Alternative 4

Results of economic comparison of mining methods equipment alternatives

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6.6 Result / Evaluation of new Equipment


The following average costs per unit were determined, calculated on the basis of dcf methods
for an internal rate of return of 12 %:
Tab. 6.6-1

Average Cost per Unit (new Equipment)


Unit
Altern. 1
Altern. 2
Output
m t/year
9.0
9.0
(after initial operation period)
(from 2009 on)
Average cost per unit
Lignite
thereof (incl. of indirect cost)
Operating cost
Investment cost and Acquisition/Resettlement
Average cost per unit per tce (29
300 kJ/kg
Lignite
thereof:
Investment Acquisition and Resettlement
Operating cost
Labour cost

Altern. 3
Altern. 4
9.0
9.0
(from 2010 on)

/t (lignite)

7.21

7.42

7.72

6.76

/t (lignite)

3.19
4.01

3.56
3.85

5.16
2.55

3.67
3.09

/tce

29.32

30.18

31.41

27.53

/tce

16.34

15.69

10.39

12.58

/tce
/tce

12.99
3.08

14.50
3.90

21.02
4.91

14.94
3.64

Tab. 6.6-2

Expenses over whole project life time


Unit
Altern. 1
Altern. 2
Altern. 3
Altern 4
Investments, Reinvestments and Rehabilitation
Total
m
317.4
312.7
356.5
255.3
thereof:
Lignite Excavator m
51.0
31.2
10.8
25.8
Bet conveyor lignite m
35.0
35.0
35.0
OB Excavator conv. m
46.0
25.0
15.0
OB Excavator mobile. m
12.0
2.8
Belt Wagon m
4.6
13.8
7.2
Spreader m
12.6
12.6
6.3
Belt conveyor m
105.0
105.0
55.0
Draglines m
12.0
18.0
Lignite Crusher m
9.0
Heavy trucks OB m
143.4
40.9
Heavy Trucks Lignite m
99.2

The comparison of the alternatives shows that the operating costs in alternatives 1, 2 and 4 only
differ to a small extent.

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Current Mining RAC Euro/t 2012 to 2041


8.00

7.72

7.42
7.21

6.76
7.00

6.00

RAC in /t Lignite

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
Alternative 1
Personnel
Maintenance
Recultivation & Roads
Total

Fig. 6.6-1

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Power
Taxes & Royalties
specific Invest costs

Alternative 4
Fuel
Other
financing costs

Result of economic comparison of the four mining equipment variant

The investments are of greater influence on the alternatives. Due to the lead time of overburden
removal and the respective technology great differences result in the capital costs.
The lower bar chart illustrates an example for a financing 80 % of the main equipment with
bank credits via a term of 10 years with an interest rate of 6 %.

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Current Mining RAC Euro/t 2012 to 2041 with loan


for 80% main equipment with 6% interrest in 10 years
8.00

7.61

6.84
7.00

6.58

6.37

6.00

RAC in /t Lignite

5.00

4.00

3.00

2.00

1.00

0.00
Alternative 1
Personnel
Fuel
Taxes & Royalties
Recultivation & Roads
Total costs

Fig. 6.6-2

Alternative 2

Alternative 3

Alternative 4

Power
Maintenance
Other
Invest costs Acquisition/Resettlement

Current mining RAC with loan for 80% main equipment with 6% interest

Regarding the aspect of a long-term cost-efficient supply of the power plants in Kosovo as well
as a necessary flexibility of the production, Alternative 4 shall be favoured.

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6.7 Use of existing Equipment and Refurbishment Strategy


The operation of the Kosova lignite mines from the beginning of the nineteen nineties was
characterized by minimum operational funding and suspension of necessary investments by
former Yugoslavia. This deteriorated the conditions of future mine operations and became a
major burden now in the opencast mines caused by mode of operation over the last decade.
Today, the results are a huge maintenance backlog of more than 100 million in the mines.
Beside the effect for the mines operation this led to a critical status of most of the main equipment as excavators, spreaders, belt wagons and conveyor lines.
As a consequence, the mining potential of the open-cast mines has been decreasing continuously.
The present state of the load-bearing steel construction would inevitably give rise to the immediate shutdown of about 85 % of the installed equipment if the safety criteria of the currently applicable German and European Standard DIN/EN 22261 and the Regulations on the
Operation of Open-Cast Mining Equipment and Belt Conveyors in Open-Cast Mines derived
from the German Mining Act were applied.
So the status of most of the equipment in the Mirash mine is catastrophic and can lead to the
collapse of a machine all time.
This would have influence on the coal supply capabilities and could stop the coal production
from the mine for long time.
Nevertheless the equipment is still in a condition which justifies rehabilitation in most cases.
Therefore, the costs and the financial effects when using existing equipment have been considered for the variant comparison.
It is therefore assumed that the refurbishment will lead to an increase in productivity to current
international standards.
The following table shows the existing bucket wheel excavators and spreaders:
Tab. 6.7-1
List of BWE and Spreader
Type/Capacity
Quantity

SchRs 650

2
E9M
E 10 M

SRs 1300

4
E8B
E9B
E 10 B
E8M

SRs 470

5
E5M
E6M
E3B
E4B
E6B

SRs 400

Refurbishment Annual
Program*
Maintenance*
m
m/a
each 6.5
0.45
6
7
each 6.5
0.45
6.5
5.5 - 6.5
5.5-6.5
7
0.8
out of order
under repair
out of order
heavy cracks
-

Page 72 of 120

0.8

Suitable
for Sibovc
Mine

X
X
X
X
X
X

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

E7M
SRs 315

(X)
5

E1M
E2M
E4M
E1B
E2B
SRs 250

out of order
out of order
Cracks
out of order

1
E 11 M

Type/Capacity

Quantity

Spreader

0.8

Refurbishment Annual
Program*
Maintenance*
m
m/a
each 4.5

Suitable
for Sibovc
Mine

A2Rs-B 5200
P3M
P4M

0.25
0.25

X
X

0.25
0.25
0.25

X
(X)
X

A2Rs-B 4400
P1B
P2B
P3B

A2Rs-B 2500
P1M
P2M

0.4
0.4
*estimation for comparing the variants

The excavators of the type SRs 470 / 400 are not suitable to operate as main mine equipment in
Sibovc. They do not fit into the technological scheme regarding the performance required (output of coal) and the slope heights of 20 25 m. Nevertheless the E 7M can be used as stand-by
machine for auxiliary works as far as it is required.
Necessary mechanical refurbishment of excavators and spreaders:
Corrosion protection of the complete excavator
Drive units for travelling drives and belt drives, example gearboxes, drums
Collecting and discharge units and sealing
lubrication systems complete
Refurbishment of steel construction
Electric refurbishment:
Complete renewal of the electrical system as follows:
Cable and cable run
Lighting
MV-switches
PLC-system
Drive controls (Converter)
Electric houses

Belt Conveyor
It would take 60 to 70% of the cost for new conveyor installations to lift the availability of the
conveyor lines to todays standard. In addition a big part of the current installations is below
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1800 mm width and therefore does not match the capacity of the refurbished excavators. In
summary we recommend to buy new conveyor lines including belt drive stations.

6.8 New or Used Equipment?


Financial calculations have been performed for Alternatives 1 and 4 considering the use of
valuable equipment existing today and considering complex refurbishment measures for such
equipment. The calculations have been performed under the same assumptions and conditions
as for the new equipment. In result of this calculation the real average costs for Alternative 1
(conventional BWE technology) amount to 6.5 /t and for Alternative 4 amount to 6.6 /t. The
refurbishment of useful existing main mine equipment is the most economic solution.
In summary the financial modelling favours the alternative with BWE and truck/shovel if using
new equipment and the alternative with the exclusive use of BWEs using refurbished (existing)
equipment. In absolute numbers the use of refurbished excavators is most economical and
should be chosen in case the equipment is available. This is also valid for spreaders but only
limited for conveyor systems.

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7 Alternatives of Opening-up and Mine Development


Scenarios
7.1 General Mine Design and Criteria of Evaluation
Up to here this paper dealt with geological issues and different mine equipment. In addition the
business relations between mine and power plant as well as the resettlement of Hade are of
significant importance for the development of additional mining capacities.
Lignite is typically a commodity not traded for electricity generation and therefore very often
lignite mines are captive to lignite power plants.
The following variants are possible depending on the connections to the TPP and the resettlement of Hade.

Will all TPPs be


operated
from
one Company?

No

Should the additional coal


production capacity be
captive to a new IPP?

Yes
No

Yes

One Mine

Can Hade be
resettled in
time?

Two Mines

No

Two Mines
one in Sibovc and
one in D-Field

Two Mines
in Sibovc

Yes
Var.1.1
Sibovc
from
South to
North

Var.1.2
Sibovc
from
North to
South

Var.2
D-Field
&
Sibovc

Page 75 of 120

Var.3
one in South
and the second mine in
N

Var. 4
one in Sibovc West
and the other
in East

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

For the mine development and the opening up of the Sibovc field six variants have been investigated. (Variant 3 in two sub-variants, i.e. Var.3.1 and 3.2).
For a single mine development two main variants have been compared:
Variant 1.1 Mining Sibovc from South to North
Variant 1.2 Mining Sibovc from North to South
In case of a two mines scheme the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated:
Var. 2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc and D-Field
Var. 3.1
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle)
Var. 3.2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North)
Var. 4
Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line
For selecting and evaluating different mining scenarios, criteria are used which have a decisive
influence on the production costs and investments.
These are:
1.
Geology incl. ratio overburden to coal
2.
Soil-mechanics / geotechnical safety
3.
Technology
(opening-up, transportation, dumping and equipment use)
4.
Coal supply / coal losses
5.
Coal quality
6.
Resettlement
7.
Auxiliary trades (not mining-related measures like road construction, etc.)
8.
Area demand / area use
9.
Environmental protection / ecology
10. Recultivation
11. Others /interfaces and permits
12. Risks
The coal shall be supplied to the new IPP, which will be located nearby the present power plant
B.
----------------------------------------Those coal losses are not considered which are due to interburden, unprofessional excavation and interface losses. They come to the same percentage regardless of the chosen scenario and are therefore hardly relevant for the comparison of variants.

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7.2 Description of the Main Mine Scenarios


7.2.1 Var.1: Development of the Sibovc Field as sole Supplier of
the Power Plants
Variant 1 assumes that the deposit of Sibovc is mined by a coal producer and it is intended to
supply the total output to the existing and new power plants.
The capacity of the opencast mine therefore orients to the existing power plant units B1 and B2
as well as the new power plant.
As already mentioned, there is assumed annual output of ca.16 mt.

7.2.1.1 Variant 1.1: Operation from South to North


A first scenario contains that the deposit is mined from South to North.

Fig. 7.2-1

Var. 1.1 (Development from South to North)


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A major advantage is the short transport way to the dump area Bardh/ Mirash and the saving of
a separate opening trench. Therefore the coal supply from Bardh/ Mirash can be compensated
without delay.
The following survey includes main criteria for evaluating the mining development.
Tab. 7.2-1

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.1

Geology

Soil mechanics

Technology
(opening-up, transport,
dumping,
equipment use)

Especially in the first years, relatively known geological /hydrological situation


due to vicinity to the existing mines.
Low risk to evaluate the deposit
Advance velocity is relatively slow. Attention has to be paid to surface water
collection and drainage, to avoid additional introduction of water into the slope
body. Otherwise joint water formation increases which can result in slope failures.
Irrespective of this, in-house road construction, slope design and other have to
correspond to the service life and the bench lengths.
Opening-up:
The Sibovc field is opened from the Northern boundary of the Bardh and Mirash
mines.
In general it possible to perform widening of the slope system as opening up
operation earlier / ahead of schedule. But this can only be made when accepting a
drastic shortening of the bench (if resettlement of Hade is not yet finished).
At least preparatory work can be performed without complications from the
present operation.
Transport:
The coal is transported along the existing route of the long-distance belt conveyor line. But it is considered to relocate the coal belt conveyor from the village
place to the direction of the East boundary of the Sibovc field.

Coal supply / coal


losses

Coal quality

Resettlement

Auxiliary trades
(road construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use

Environmental protection /ecology

Equipment use:
Preferably BWEtechnology with the available large equipment (of KEK).
For overburden removal it is recommended to use the two existing SchRs 650. In
addition, a new machine with along boom should be procured.
In the local operation 4 excavators of the type SRs 1300 are planned.
(Coal demand appr. 15 mt/a)
Dumping is performed on short, direct way in the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash.
For this variant, the shortest transport ways with regard to dumping exist.
Connection to coal supply possible without problem if Hade will be resettled in
time.
There will be not coal losses.
Coal quality especially in first years is very good but changes to the worse into
Northern direction in general.
Hade must be resettled as soon as possible. It is assumed that resettlement will be
finished mainly until 2008.
Other resettlements will be necessary at a later date.
The resettlement of Sibovc (main part) will only be requires after 2030.
Infrastructure (like road to Bardh, electric wiring etc.) has to be replaced right at
the beginning of the winning operation.
Areas are mostly agricultural areas.
Due to the envisaged mining of the Sibovc field, the users of the areas to be
claimed are already prepared for exploitation.
Concentration of the extraction work to one operating point (i.e. only one opencast mine with high capacity), which is moreover in an already influenced areas,
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10

Recultivation

11

Others /
interfaces
Permits

12

Risks

minimised the impacts to the environment.


Ecologically valuable areas are only affected at a later time.
The closure of the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash offers economical advantages
due to the short transport distance.
The balance return of area to claim of area is comparably favourable.
At the end of the coal extraction there will only be one residual pit in the North
of the Sibovc deposit.
As defined, interfaces to a second mining company do not exist.
In principle, this variant is technically a continuation of the existing mines.
Therefore, it will be possible to claim protection of vested rights within the permit process.
The deposit is a continuous one and so it is also extracted without a spatial separation.
It is assumed that this will simplify the permit process (operating permit). This is
supported by the fact that previous concepts included such an operating management.
a) The most important risk of this method is that the resettlement of Hade will
not be finished in time. If this happens, the possible coal exposure will be delayed by this time and consequently the coal supply to the power plants will not
be guaranteed. A possible alternative would be to advance mining only at the
South-Western boundary line of the Sibovc field. In that case the bench lengths
in the reduceD-Field part will follow the safety zone to Hade and the necessary
slope design to guarantee opencast mine safety. The original bench length of 2.0
to 2.9 km in the mine will then reduce to 1.0 to 1.2 km (with a slope angle of
10) This alternative means an increase in production costs.
b) If the consumption of raw coal will be clearly reduced the basic design including long benches would no longer be optimal and result in a specific increase of
production costs as well. On t he other hand, benches being too short would also
lead to considerable production problems and capacity losses.

Tab. 7.2-2
Var.1.1

1
2
3
4
5
6a
6b
Sum

Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.1


Area
Surface
Overburden
Volume
Overburden
thickness
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
M
mbcm
1.92
594
45.0
86.6
3.60
615
70.5
340.7
2.45
625
71.7
516.6
2.47
602
45.1
628.0
1.94
578
21.8
670.3
2.98
595
30.3
760.6
0.33
550
8.5
763.4
15.71
602
48.6
763.4

Overburden
Cumulative
Mbcm
86.6
340.7
516.6
628.0
670.3
760.6
763.4
763.4

(mentioned values in the sectors are rounded figures)

Tab. 7.2-3
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.1
Var.
Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Volume
1.1
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
M
mbcm
mt

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Coal
cumul.
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1
2
3
4
5
6a
6b
Sum

1.13
3.05
2.35
2.50
2.03
2.69
0.40
14.16

538
542
548
555
556
562
545
551

467
473
490
500
509
512
536
494

67.0
68.6
58.0
54.9
46.7
49.5
9.0
55.8

75.8
209.5
136.3
137.4
94.7
133.1
3.6
790.3

86.4
238.8
155.4
156.6
108.0
151.7
4.1
900.9

86.4
325.2
480.6
637.1
745.1
896.8
900.9
900.9

One of the most important factors to evaluate profitability of the mining-related activities is the
overburden removal to coal extraction. In Variant 1.1 it is the following:
Tab. 7.2-4
Var.1.1
1
2
3
4
5
6a
6b
Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.1


Ratio Overburden: Coal
bcm/t
1.00
1.06
1.13
0.71
0.39
0.60
0.69
0.85

Overburden to Coal cumul.


Bcm/t
1.00
1.05
1.07
0.99
0.90
0.85
0.85
0.85

The general tendency of the change of geological coal quality to the worse is illustrated by the
average values in the coal sectors.
Tab. 7.2-5
Var.1.1
1
2
3
4
5
6a
6b
Sum

Coal Quality Var.1.1


Sulphur
%
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.1

NCV
kJ / kg
8490
8647
8364
8272
8024
8249
7100
8312

Ash
%
14.7
14.3
14.8
15.3
16.4
15.8
19.6
15.3

The heating value of the coal in Sector b is particularly low and characterized by a low seam
thickness. However, the overburden cover is low so that the ratio overburden to coal seams to
be attractive to win this area too. Otherwise there would result additional cost by leaving out
this area especially when using a BWE-technology (additional belt segments and drive stations).
Outside dump:
Within Sector 2 an additional outside dump shall be considered (OD Shipitulla) which is not
included in the above mass balance. The winning process shall be designed to maintain slopes
of ca. 8.
The area of the outside dump is 0.564 m m according to the available data.

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There are no other outside dumps worth mentioning that exist within the field boundaries of
Variants 1.

7.2.1.2 Variant 1.2: Operation from North to South


Approach of this mining variant is to develop the Sibovc deposit from a new independent and
spatial separate area.
So there is no temporal need to resettle the village centre of Hade.

Fig. 7.2-2

Var.1.2 (Mine Development from North to South)

Tab. 7.2-6

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 1.2

Geology

Soil-mechanics

Technology
(opening-up, transport,
dumping ,
equipment use)

With reference to the entire field, there is the same geological situation like in
Variant 1.1. But there are some cost-effective differences due to the time-delayed
effect.
For example, for the first 100 mt of coal in Var. 1.1 an overburden to coal ratio
of 1bcm:1 t is yielded, whereas in Var. 1.2 this ratio is only ca. 0.75 bcm : 1 t .
Due to the inclining layers, the development of the deposit from North to South
seems to me more (at least at the beginning) favourable. Altogether there are
slightly better geotechnical conditions.
Opening-up:
The opening in the North is done on virgin land used for agriculture. Equipment
has to be transported to this place.
Transport:
Transport distances coal to power plant are shorter in this variant.

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Equipment use:
With the general development over the whole period in mind, BWEtechnology
was preferred.
At the beginning, overburden thickness is clearly lower, i.e. by 30 m (range from
10 to 70 m), whereas in Var. 1.1 on the average 45 m (range from about 40 to
120 m).
Therefore only 3 excavators are needed fro overburden removal on the Northern
part of the deposit (instead of 4 in the Southern part).
Irrespective of the choice of BWE-equipment with belt conveyor system it would
be in general simpler to start also with alternative equipment from the North as.
Reason for this are the missing low dependencies on the present production area
of KEK and the low cutting heights.

Coal supply / coal


losses

Coal quality

Resettlement

Auxiliary trades
(road construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use

Opening up masses are dumped via long transport distance in the residual pit of
m Bardh / Mirash. If inner dumping is started as soon as it will be technologically possible, dump masse for closing the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash are
missing. It should then be considered how to finance the considerable excess
costs.
Connection of the coal supply is not linked to the resettlement of Hade.
But there are coal losses in the South of the deposit because the alternative of
recovering dump material would be more unfavourable from the present point of
view. The coal loss amounts to approximately 38 mt of coal, provided that the
adjacent area (residual area of Bardh/ Mirash) will not be dumped higher than the
roof of the coal seam (directed to the South with 7 inclining).
Especially in the first years, coal quality is poorer than with Var.1.1 and will get
better into Southern direction (see Sectors). The lower heating value shall be
mentioned here especially.
Apart from one safety pillar, Hade must not be resettled for the present.
Resettlement of (the entire) place of Hade will only be necessary far beyond
2030 from the point of view of excavating the Sibovc-field.
Instead, resettlement of Sibovc will be earlier.
Infrastructure included in Var.1.1 (like road to Bardh, electric cables etc.) can be
maintained for the present time.
Areas are mainly sued for agriculture.
Due to changed schedule of excavation of Sibovc, users of the areas to be
claimed are less prepared to exploitation.
Parts of the areas are already owned by KEK.

Environmental protection /ecology

In the North of Sibovc, the mine boundary was drawn opposite the concession
line. Reason for this was a valuation process between coal loss and maintenance
of relatively valuable areas for ecological grounds.

10

Recultivation

Closure of the residual area of Bardh/ Mirash will be extremely expensive due to
the long transport distance.
The balance return of area to claim of area will depend to a large extend on the
decision about shaping the residual pit area of Bardh/ Mirash.

11

Others /
interfaces
Permits

12

Risks

At the end of the coal extraction there will only be one residual pit in the South
of the Sibovc deposit
Here also, interfaces to a second mining company do not exist.
Although it is the same deposit like in Variant 1.1, it will be more difficult to get
permits, because works will start in an area that has been virgin till today. The
permitting procedure has to be performed as a green field project.
a) Like for Var.1.1 the following applies:
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if the consumption of raw coal will be reduced considerably the basic design of
long benches would not be optimal and result in an increase in specific production costs. Effects, however, would not occur already when starting exploitation
but will become effective later on.
b) problems may occur with the possible start of coal output, since two basic
conditions must be given: 1. permits and 2. main extraction equipment must be
installed in-situ right in (and/or relocated) and sufficient coal has to be exposed.

The sectors are characterised as follows:


Tab. 7.2-7
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Variant 1.2
Var.1.2 Area
Surface
Overburden
Overburden
Volume
Thickness
Cumulative
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
M
mbcm
mbcm
1
0.94
596
22.9
21.6
21.6
2
2.63
588
29.4
98.9
77.3
3
5.01
598
42.3
310.9
211.9
4
2.17
628
77.6
479.1
168.2
5
2.84
612
68.5
673.9
194.8
6
2.00
594
44.4
762.4
88.6
Sum
15.59
602
48.9
762.4
762.4
(Parameters in the sectors are rounded figures)
Tab. 7.2-8
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 1.2
Var.1.2 Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
M
mbcm
1
0.32
569
532
36.6
11.8
2
2.40
559
515
44.0
105.4
3
3.99
556
506
50.2
200.6
4
1.94
553
498
55.6
107.7
5
2.72
543
480
63.6
173.1
6
2.28
539
470
69.6
158.4
Sum
13.64
551
496
55.5
756.8

Volume
Coal

Coal
cumul.

mt
13.4
120.2
228.7
122.7
197.3
180.6
862.8

mt
13.4
133.6
362.2
485.0
682.2
862.8
862.8

In Variant 1.2, the ratio overburden removal to coal extraction is in the first decisive years
(apart from the opening-up itself) better than in Variant 1.1, as is illustrated in the following:
Tab. 7.2-9
Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 1.2
Var.1.2 Ratio Overburden: Coal
bcm/t
1
1.61
2
0.64
3
0.93
4
1.37
5
0.99
6
0.49
Sum
0.88

Overburden to Coal cumul.


bcm/t
1.61
0.74
0.86
0.99
0.99
0.88
0.88

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The general change to the worse of O : C from 0.85:1 to 0.88:1 bcm/t results from the coal
loss, which already becomes effective at the end of the mining activities in Sibovc.
The general tendency of the change of geological coal quality to the worse is illustrated by the
average values in the coal sectors.
Tab. 7.2-10
Var.1.2
1
2
3
4
5
6
Sum

Coal Quality Var.1.2


Sulphur
%
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.1

NCV
kJ / kg
8050
8130
8106
8242
8618
8558
8306

Ash
%
16.5
16.2
16.1
15.1
14.4
14.3
15.4

7.2.2 Variant 2: Development in den Opencast Mine Field of Sibovc and D-Field
The general approach of Variant 2 is that parallel to the exploitation of Sibovc a second opencast mine of operated. In principle this could be KEK, its legal successor or even a new investor.
Position, content and the former use of the coal field area can lead to the consideration to assign exploitation of that field to KEK.
Analogue to var.1.2 works can start and the deposit can be exploited, respectively here in DField, irrespective of the development of the area Bardh/ Mirash or Sibovc.
The basic development is from West to East.

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Fig. 7.2-3

Development D-Field - Var.2

The concept of the available mining development aims at an output capacity of 7 mt/a. This
means that there is enough fuel to supply to Power plant B.
Tab. 7.2-11

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Variant 2

1
2

Geology
Soil-mechanics

Technology
(opening-up, transport,
dumping,
equipment use)

Apart from the material dumped on the field there are no geological problems.
With regard to the natural overburden, the requirements of the extraction are
simpler as against Sibovc due to the lower thickness to be removed. This also
applies to the coal to be mined. More problems are occurring due the former
underground mines and especially from, the dump massif which blocks the deposit.
Opening-up:
The Sibovc field is opened in the West of D-Field.
After a first pivoted advance mining is then continued in parallel operation.
Transport distance of coal to power plant is ca. 8.7 km (depending on the location of the newly built power plant) and/or 7.7 km to power plant B.
Equipment use:
Preferred alternative in this variant is BWEtechnology with available old
equipment.
Average overburden thickness is 30m (range 20 to 60m).
Due to the low overburden thickness only two excavators of the type SRs 1300
and/or SchRs 650 are sufficient.
In the coal operation three bucket wheel excavators of this size are planned.
Opening masses are dumped in the open pit room of Bardh/ Mirash. Afterwards
dumping shall be continued this way for making residual area safe.
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Coal supply / coal


losses

Coal quality

6
7

Resettlement
Auxiliary trades
(road
construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use
Environmental protection/ ecology

8
9

10

11

Recultivation

Others /
interfaces
Permits

12

Risks

Coal supply is independent from expensive resettlements of villages.


Planning shall take into account the on the average lower heating value with
regard to the power plant.
Coal quality is by 10% lower than in Var.1 and/or by 12% regarding the entire
field in the first years.
Resettlements do not play any role.
Exploitation of D-Field does not require any measures worth mentioning which
are not related to the mining business.
The area was partly used as outside dump; at present it is used for storing ash.
Compared with the exploitation of the Sibovc field the interference with nature is
by far reduced. On the contrary: the removal of the existing disposal sites eliminated a considerable part of problem sites.
Alternatively, measures have to be carried out anyway to remediate those areas,
which have to be deducted from the extra expenses of their recovery.
Closure of the residual area of Bardh/ Mirash is made directly from D-Field. But
the overburden masses are not sufficient to achieve for example dumping to the
natural surface level.
Also in this variant, the balance return of area to claim of area will depend to a
large extend on the decision about shaping the residual pit area of Bardh/ Mirash.
It might be possible to dump the whole overburden in Bardh/ Mirash.
In this case, there is a residual lake, which could be fed with water from the Sitnica and therefore shaped to a lake for swimming. Thus, a valuable recreation
area could be established nearby Pristina.
There are interfaces due to the dumping in Mirash/ Bardh.

There are no obstacles for granting permits, because exploitation contributes to


ecological recovery. Nevertheless, special permits are to be taken into account
for recovery of power plant ash.
Risks occur in connection with phenols from earlier disposals and the underground mines. The construction of a motorway on the D-Field hinders the use of
the D-Field (if put into reality as recently envisaged).

The main sectors are characterised as follows:


Tab. 7.2-12
Development of overburden removal Variant 2
Var.2
Area
Surface
Overburden
thickness
m m
+ MSL
M
1
1.22
541
38.5
2
0.75
558
49.8
3
1.34
570
37.6
4
3.35
570
20.1
Sum
6.66
563
30.3

Tab. 7.2-13
Development mining according to sectors. Variant 2
Var.2
Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
M
mbcm
1
0.32
504
438
66.2
21.2

Page 86 of 120

Overburden.
cumulative
mbcm
46.8
84.2
134.7
201.8
201.8

Volume
Overburden
mbcm
46.8
37.4
50.4
67.2
201.8

Volume
Coal

Coal
cumul.

mt
24.2

mt
24.2

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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2
3
4
Sum

0.56
1.09
3.24
5.21

504
525
548
536

434
461
512
488

70.2
64.4
35.6
47.2

39.3
70.2
115.3
246.0

44.8
80.1
131.4
280.5

69.0
149.0
280.5
280.5

The ratio overburden removal to coal extraction is better in view to the geological conditions
than in the Sibovc field.
Tab. 7.2-14

Overburden : Coal ratio. Variant 2

Var.2

Ratio Overburden: Coal


bcm:t

Overburden to Coal cumul.


bcm:t

1
2
3
4
Sum

1.94
0.83
0.63
0.51
0.72

1.94
1.22
0.90
0.72
0.72

The above mentioned volumes still not contain the masses of the outside dump as well as the
masses from the ash dump.
These additional overburden masses lie within the Sectors 1 to 3 including also the beginning
of Sectors 4. The area is ca. 2.3 m m.
Assuming an estimated volume of 50 mbcm the overburden : coal ratio changes to the worse
from 0.72:1 to 0.90:1 bcm/t.
The general change of the geological coal quality to the worse from West to East can be shown
by the average values in the coal sectors.
Tab. 7.2-15
D-Field
1
2
3
4
Sum

Coal Quality Var.2


Sulphur
%
0.9
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.0

NCV
kJ / kg
7791
7800
7427
7189
7341

Ash
%
19.2
19.0
20.2
21.4
20.8

Within the last 600 m of the Eastern field part (corresponds to 40 m t coal) the average heating
value is only 6900 kJ/kg. Especially in the North-East, low heating values and high ash contents are yielded.
The average coal quality for the whole field is about 7340 kJ/kg (see table). However, the excavation process for the mining of D-Field has potential for optimization. The heating value for
the raw coal supplies improves if coal horizons with especially low quality will be cut off by
selective mining. Even taking into account these coal losses the overburden to coal ratio of DField compares favourable to the South-West part of Sibovc.
The above mentioned statements regarding D-Field will not be valid if the newly envisaged
motorway blocks more than 25 or 30% of the lignite content.

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7.2.3 Variant 3: Separation of the Sibovc-Field in East-WestDirection


Alternatively to exploitation of D-Field it is considered, how the development looks like if two
mining operators are working in the Sibovc field at the same time. Variant 3 assumes an interface line in East-West-direction.
This may be accomplished by
a) extraction moves together either from North and/or South or
b) parallel to the development from the South (i.e. from the existing mines), a new investor extracts the Northern part of Sibovc from the middle.

7.2.3.1 Variant 3.1: Separate Opening-up in the Middle of the Sibovc Field
Three advantages lead to the assumption to develop the new mine from the middle of the
field:
1. thickness of coal seam is higher than in the North of the field
2. coal quality is slightly better
3. transport distance to dump areas Bardh/ Mirash is shorter
Southern Part:
Since the Southern part will be developed from the existing boundary system it seems to be fair
to assign this part to KEK. The maximum technical extraction area is results from the openingup figure in the middle of the field.

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Fig. 7.2-4

Development South to North Var.3.1

The borderline illustrated above implies the total exploitation of the deposit without any coal
losses.
This will only be possible when the company operating in the North will take this already into
consideration for the dump development, i.e. no high dumps in the border area.
Tab. 7.2-16

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3.1 (Southern Part)

1
2

Geology
Soil-mechanics

Technology
(opening-up, transport,
dumping,
equipment use)

The geological conditions correspond to var.1.1.


The same applies for the soil-mechanical aspects with the modification that due
to the lower advance, the dumps will stay longer and therefore great importance
shall be attached to securing the slopes.
Opening-up:
The field is opened from the Northern rim slope.
Then, parallel operation is carried out until closure of power plant unit B1 and B2
or reaching the excavation boundary according to the assigned mining property.
Transport distance coal to power plant B is identical with var.1.1.
Equipment use:
Most efficient technology is use of available old BWE.
In coal operation, three BWE of the type SRs 1300 are planned; in the overburden removal the tow available SchRs 650 as well as one SRs 1300 are used.
The equipment must be refurbished.
Initial masses are dumped to the open pit areas of Bardh/ Mirash. During the

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further mine advance, dumping shall be continued this way to help secure the
residual pit.
4

Coal supply / coal


losses

Coal quality

Resettlement

Auxiliary trades
(road construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use

9
10

11

Environmental protection/ ecology


Recultivation

Others /
interfaces
Permits

12

Risks

Connection to the coal supply without difficulties will be possible if Hade will be
resettled in time.
There will be no coal losses if the dump design will allow this in the Northern
part. But this means among others, to use a long-distance belt conveyor over a
long period for transporting overburden to the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash for
closure. Apart from this, an unfavourable relief is shaped which would exist for
many years.
Probably, there will be a coal loss of at least 28 mt (coal stripe of 50m crest with
22 slope angle).
Especially in the first years, coal quality is very good but in general changes to
the worse into Northern direction.
Like in Variant 1.1 Hade has to be resettled very early. It is assumed that the
main part of the resettlement will be completed until 2008.
Like in Var.1.1:
Infrastructure (i.e. road to Bardh, electric cables etc.) must be changed right at
the beginning of the extraction operations.
Like in Var.1.1:
Areas are mostly agricultural areas.
Due to the envisaged mining of the Sibovc field, the users of the areas to be
claimed are already prepared for exploitation.
Parts of the areas are already property of KEK.
Splitting of extraction into two operating points within the Sibovc field increases
impacts to the environment.
See Var.1.1:
The closure of the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash offers economical advantages
due to the short transport distance.
The balance return of area to claim of area is not so favourable than in Var.1.1
due to less overburden material. This can be balanced by enough overburden
masses from the second opencast mine.
At the end of the coal extraction there will only be two residual pits in the middle
and in the North of the Sibovc deposit.
Interfaces mainly exist by dumping operation in the area Bardh/ Mirash. Should
the occasion arise, there will be additional interfaces at the border of the two
mines and in case of supplies from one mine to the power plant unit of the other
(i.e. in case of delivery problems of a mine).
Getting of permits (operating permit) is more difficult because different interest
of two independent mining-power plant companies have to be tackled.
a) The risk of this variant is similar to that in Variant 1.1 and refers in the first
line to the resettlement of Hade right in time. If not, coal exposure will reduce
resulting in delivery problems to the power plant. The alternative to develop
mining only at the South-Western boundary line of the Sibovc field would be
simpler due to the lower capacity that is assigned to KEK.
However, this would mean specific extra costs for KEK.
b) The co-existence of two competing mining companies could lead to conflicts
as the economic activities of both companies may have different success. Unequal production costs in the mines and/or power plants, different salary and
perspectives for the personnel may lead to discontent or even disapproval which
in turn can have negative influence on the operating result.

Page 90 of 120

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

The main sectors are characterised as follows:


Tab. 7.2-17
Development of overburden removal. Var. 3.1 (Southern Part)
Var.3.1
Area
Surface
Overburden
Volume
thickness
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
M
mbcm
1
1.92
594
45.0
86.6
2
3.60
615
70.5
254.1
3
3.03
622
67.7
205.2
Sum
8.56
613
545.9
545.9

Overburden
cumulative
mbcm
86.6
340.7
545.9
545.9

Tab. 7.2-18
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1(Southern Part)
Var.3.1 Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Volume
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
M
mbcm
mt
1
1.13
538
467
67.0
75.8
86.4
2
3.05
542
473
68.63
209.5
238.8
3
2.96
548
491
57.46
170.0
193.8
Sum
7.14
544
480
63.75
455.2
518.9
Tab. 7.2-19
Var.3.1
1
2
3
Sum
Tab. 7.2-20
Var.3.1
1
2
3
Sum

Coal
cumul.
mt
86.4
325.2
518.9
518.9

Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 3.1 (Southern Part)


Ratio Overburden: Coal
Overburden to Coal cumul.
bcm/t
bcm/t
1.00
1.00
1.06
1.05
1.06
1.05
1.05
1.05
Coal Quality Var.3.1
Sulphur
%
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.1

NCV
kJ / kg
8490
8647
8348
8312

Ash
%
14.7
14.3
14.8
15.31

Northern Part:
The design of the new second opencast mine will be developed to meet the requirements of the
new independent power plant.
The opening up figure is designed at such a place where it does not affect the place of Sibovc
already during the opening up phase.

Page 91 of 120

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Fig. 7.2-5

Mine Development Var.3.1 (Northern Part)

Tab. 7.2-21

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development Var.3. (Northern part)

1
2

Geology
Soil-mechanics

Technology
(opening-up, transport,
dumping,
equipment use)

Geological conditions correspond to Variant 1 Northern part.


Same applies to the soil-mechanical aspects, with the modification that due to the
lower advance slopes will stay longer and therefore great importance shall be
attached to securing the slopes.
Opening-up:
Opening-up South of the Sibovc field.
Afterwards, parallel operation up to Northern boundary of the approved coal
field.
Very short transport distance to power plant.
Equipment use:
BWEtechnology with new excavators seems to be best.

Coal supply / coal


losses

5
6

Coal quality
Resettlement

Auxiliary trades
(road
construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use
Environmental protection/ ecology

8
9

Dumping of initial masses into the open mine space of Bardh/ Mirash. Also in
case of further mine advance, dumping shall be continued to help secure residual
pit.
Opencast mine is developed parallel to new power plant. Problems are not expected.
No coal losses in the Northern part.
Coal quality is good but slightly changes into North.
Most problems are occurring due to the partial resettlement of Lajthishte already
during the opening-up phase. Resettlement of Sibovc must follow directly afterwards.
Not mining-related measures are already necessary during the opening phase.

Specific area demand is high due to separate opening-up in the middle of the
field.
Environmental impacts are very high.

Page 92 of 120

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10

Recultivation

At the end of coal extraction, a residual pit remains in the North of Sibovc.

11

Others /
interfaces,
permits
Risks

See formulations for the Southern part.

12

Risks exist for the IPP operator if troubles among the miners will result in stop of
production in the whole mining area.

The main sectors are characterised as follows:


Tab. 7.2-22
Development of overburden removal. Var.3.1 (Northern Part)
Var.3.1
Area
Surface
Overburden
Volume
thickness
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
M
mbcm
1
1.29
604
48.0
62
2
2.54
581
24.6
62
3
2.98
595
30.3
90
4
0.33
550
8.5
3
Sum
7.15
590
30.4
217.5

Overburden
cumulative
mbcm
62.0
124.3
214.7
217.5
217.5

Development extraction of coal according to sectors:


Tab. 7.2-23
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.1 (Northern Part)
Var.3.1 Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Volume
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
M
mbcm
mt
1
1.12
557
500
56.95
63.8
72.7
2
2.81
556
508
47.97
134.6
153.4
3
2.69
562
512
49.52
133.1
151.7
4
0.40
545
536
9.03
3.6
4.1
Sum
7.02
558
510
47.8
335.1
382.0
Tab. 7.2-24
Var.3.1
1
2
3
4
Sum
Tab. 7.2-25
Var.3.1
1
2
3
4
Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.1 (Northern Part)


Ratio Overburden: Coal
bcm:t
0.85
0.41
0.60
0.69
0.57
Coal Quality Var.3.1
Sulphur
%
1.2
1.2
1.0
1.1
1.1

NCV
kJ / kg
8326
8068
8249
7100
8123

Page 93 of 120

Overburden to Coal cumul.


bcm:t
0.85
0.55
0.57
0.57
0.57

Ash
%
15.1
16.2
15.8
19.6
16.1

Coal
cumul.
mt
72.7
226.1
377.8
382.0
382.0

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

7.2.3.2 Variant 3.2: Separate opening in the North of the Sibovc Field
Variant 3.2 differ from Var.3.1 in the positions opening-up figure and development direction of
mining operation in the Northern part.
Development in the Southern part is not affected by that.
Main advantage of such a variant: no resettlements at the beginning in the Northern part.
Apart from this, pivoting lines correspond to those of Variant 1.2.

Fig. 7.2-6

Mine Development Var.3.2 (Northern Part)

Important difference is the output quantity and therefore the reduced use of excavators and
personnel.
This variant offers the chance to have more efficient operation by shovel/truck than with use of
BWE.
Tab. 7.2-26
Var.3.2

1
2
3
Sum

Development of overburden removal Var.3.2 (Northern Part)


Area
Surface
Overburden
Volume
thickness
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
m
mbcm
0.94
596
22.9
21.6
2.63
588
29.4
77.3
5.01
598
42.3
211.9
8.58
595
36.2
310.9

Tab. 7.2-27
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var.3.2
Var.3.2 Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
M
mbcm

Page 94 of 120

Overburden
cumulative
mbcm
21.6
98.9
310.9
310.9

Volume
Coal

Coal
cumul.

mt

mt

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

1
2
3a
3b
Sum

0.32
2.40
3.99
0.31
7.02

569
559
556
556
557

532
515
506
499
510

36.6
44.0
50.2
56.7
47.8

Tab. 7.2-28
Overburden: Coal ratio Var. 3.2
Var.3.2
Ratio Overburden: Coal
bcm:t
1
1.61
2
0.64
3
0.93
Sum
0.81
Tab. 7.2-29
Var.3.2
1
2
3a
3b
Sum

Coal Quality Var.3.2


Sulphur
%
1.0
1.0
1.2
1.2
1.1

NCV
kJ / kg
8050
8130
8106
8106
8112

11.8
105.4
200.6
17.3
335.1

13.4
120.2
228.7
19.7
382.0

13.4
133.6
362.2
382.0
382.0

Overburden to Coal cumul.


bcm:t
1.61
0.74
0.86
0.81

Ash
%
16.5
16.2
16.1
16.1
16.2

7.2.4 Variant 4: Splitting of the Sibovc Field in North-South Direction


Last part of the considerations is the question if splitting of the Sibovc field in North-South
direction offers advantages. This Variant 4 includes the parallel operation of two mining company temporally and spatially.
Practically, the Western part would be handed over to KEK whereas in the East a second new
company will get the mining license.
First is appears, that in case of such a distribution the village centre of Hade will be saved for a
long time.
However, the village Lajthishte has to be resettled right at the beginning by the new company.

Page 95 of 120

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Fig. 7.2-7

Mine Development Var.4

a) Western Part (Company 1)


Tab. 7.2-30
1
2
3

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 (West)

Geology
Soil-mechanics
Technology
(opening-up, transport,
dumping,
equipment use)

Geological conditions correspond to var.1.1. and/or var.3.


Same applies to soil-mechanical aspects.
Opening-up:
Field is opened up from the Northern rim slope the Western part.
Afterwards parallel operation till closure of power plant unit B1 and B2 and/or
the excavation boundary according to mining license.
Transport distance of coal to power plant B is slightly higher than in Var.1.1.
Equipment use:
BWEtechnology with available equipment seems to be most economic.
In the coal operation three BWE of the type SRs 1300are planned, in the overburden the two already available SchRs 650 and one SRs 1300 are used.
Excavators have to be refurbished.
Excavation of the outside dump in the South-West has considerable more negative effects than with var.1.1 or 3.

Coal supply / coal


losses

Initial masses are dumped into the open pit area of Bardh/ Mirash. Also in case
of further mine advance, dumping shall be continued to help secure residual pit.
Connection to the coal supply does not depend of the resettlement of the village
centre of Hade.
There will be no coal losses, theoretically, if the dump design will allow this at
the West and/or East border of the two companies. But this requires a lot of coordination and possibly additional costs.
Page 96 of 120

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5
6
7

9
10
11

12

Coal quality
Resettlement
Auxiliary trades
(road construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use

Environmental protection/ ecology


Recultivation
Others /
interfaces
permits
Risks

Coal quality almost identical to var.1.1.


It is assumed that at least safety zone (close to Hade) is cleared.
Infrastructure (i.e. road to Bardh, electric cables etc.) has to be replaced only
partly.
Like in Var.1.1 (Western part):
Areas are mostly agricultural areas.
Due to the envisaged mining of the Sibovc field, the users of the areas to be
claimed are already prepared for exploitation.
Splitting of extraction into two operating points within the Sibovc field increases
impacts to the environment.
At the end of the coal extraction there will be two residual pits in the South and
North of the mining area.
Problematic interfaces establish at the mine boundaries of the opencast mines.
To get permits (operating licenses) is also complicated, since different interests
of two independent companies have to be treated who partly work in same areas.
The co-existence of two competing mining companies will lead at least to problems and/or conflicts. Among others, this is due to the fact that one of the companies will extract overburden for the other company to a considerable extend.
If this should be avoided, coal losses will result along the whole demarcation line
between the companies (over 4.1 km) which cannot be accepted.

The main sectors are characterised as follows:


Tab. 7.2-31
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var. 4 West
Var.4
Area
Surface
Overburden
Volume
(West)
thickness
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
m
Mbcm
1
0.78
576
34.1
26.6
2
1.14
598
49.4
56.4
3
1.30
625
78.6
102.2
4
1.11
638
90.3
99.8
5
1.12
608
54.7
61.3
6
1.28
578
19.6
25.0
7
3.31
591
28.1
93.2
Sum
10.04
600
46.3
464.5

Overburden
cumulative
mbcm
26.6
83.0
185.1
284.9
346.2
371.3
464.5
464.5

Tab. 7.2-32
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Variant 4 West
Var.4
Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
Volume
(West)
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
m
Mbcm
mt
1
0.40
543
467
67.0
26.9
30.6
2
0.75
548
473
75.0
56.0
63.9
3
0.84
547
477
69.6
58.1
66.2
4
0.86
544
475
69.6
59.7
68.1
5
1.08
547
486
61.3
66.3
75.6
6
1.16
555
501
54.6
63.4
72.3
7
3.09
559
515
44.2
136.7
155.8
Sum
8.18
552
495
57.1
467
532.4

Page 97 of 120

Coal
cumul.
mt
30.6
94.5
160.7
228.8
304.4
376.7
532.4
532.4

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Tab. 7.2-33
Var.4 (West)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sum
Tab. 7.2-34
Var.4 (West)
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio. Variant 4 West


Ratio Overburden: Coal
bcm:t
0.87
0.88
1.54
1.47
0.81
0.35
0.60
0.87
Coal Quality (West)
Sulphur
%
1.1
1.0
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.4
1.0
1.1

NCV
kJ / kg
8490
8746
8830
8650
8250
8112
8100
8332

Overburden to Coal cumul.


bcm:t
0.87
0.88
1.15
1.25
1.14
0.99
0.87
0.87

Ash
%
14.7
14.5
14.3
14.6
15
15.7
16.3
15.4

To summarise this variant:


Such mine as in var.4 (Western part) would be sufficient to feed the existing power plants with
approx. 7 mt coal per annum. Due to the short bench, the O : C ratio is increased against Variant 1.1. For the mining of 100 mt (mineable) coal until decommissioning of the today existing
TPP B the overburden to coal ratio will be between 1.0 - 1.1 to 1 m/t. For the whole Western
part the ratio comes to 0.87:1 (see table).
b) Eastern Part (Company 2)
Tab. 7.2-35
1
2
3

Main criteria for evaluating the mining development. Var.4 East

Geology
Soil-mechanics
Technology
(opening-up, transport, dumping,
equipment use)

Geological conditions in the first year more unsafe than in Southern part.
Same applies for soil-mechanical aspects.
Opening-up:
The field is opened-up in the South of a fault area. In this fault area, coal
thickness is on the average only 9 m.
Afterwards pivoted advance follows and then parallel operation until the mine
boundary in the South is reached. (= Northern mine boundary of Mirash)
The transport distance coal to power plant B is the shortest for all variants.
Equipment use:
Preferred use of BWEtechnology with new equipment.

4
5

Coal supply / coal


losses
Coal quality

Resettlement

Opening-up masses shall be dumped in the open pit of Bardh/ Mirash.


Mine development is directly coupled with the new power plant.
Possibly occurring coal losses are mentioned above.
Coal quality of the Eastern part is almost identical to the Western field. Differences are only marginal.
Resettlement of the village Lajthishte is precondition for the opening-up.
Page 98 of 120

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

8
9
10
11

Auxiliary trades
(road
construction,
etc.)
Area demand / area
use
Environmental protection / Ecology
Recultivation
Others /
interfaces

The respective infrastructure must be replaced.

The specific degree of building of this mining field is the highest from all
variants. Both, Lajthishte and Hade are within the field.
Splitting of extraction into two operating points within the Sibovc field increases impacts to the environment.
As already mentioned: At the end of the coal extraction there will be two
residual pits in the South and North of the mining area.
Problematic interfaces establish at the mine boundaries of the opencast mines
The new mine requires a permit according to new standard.

12

Permits
Risks

There is a risk that the new permit process will last too long and delays the
exposure of the coal.
Another problem which is much more important is caused by the resettlement
measures.
It is assumed that the time needed for this will determine the date of commissioning of the new IPP.

The main sectors are characterised as follows:


Tab. 7.2-36
Development of overburden removal according to sectors. Var.4 East
Var.4
Area
Surface
Overburden
Volume
(East)
thickness
Overburden
m m
+ MSL
m
Mbcm
1
1.07
582
27.2
29.0
2
2.07
611
51.7
106.8
3
1.96
612
73.6
144.5
4
0.58
612
32.1
18.6
Sum
5.68
606
52.7
299.0
Tab. 7.2-37
Development extraction of coal according to sectors. Var. 4 East
Var.4
Area
Top
Bottom
Coal
Volume
(East)
Coal Sec- Seam
Seam
Thickness
Coal
tors
m m
+ MSL
+ MSL
m
Mbcm
1
0.38
555
512
43.2
16.5
2
2.19
559
512
46.8
102.4
3
2.68
543
485
57.9
155.4
4
0.73
534
467
67.0
48.9
Sum
5.98
548
494
54.0
323.2
Tab. 7.2-38
Var.4 (East)
1
2
3
4
Sum

Overburden: Coal ratio. Var.4 East


Ratio Overburden: Coal
bcm:t
1.54
0.92
0.82
0.33
0.81

Page 99 of 120

Overburden
cumulative
mbcm
29.0
135.8
280.4
299.0
299.0

Volume
Coal

Coal
cumul.

mt
18.8
116.7
177.2
55.8
368.5

mt
18.8
135.5
312.7
368.5
368.5

Overburden to Coal cumul.


bcm:t
1.54
1.00
0.90
0.81
0.81

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part I
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Tab. 7.2-39
Var.4 (East)
1
2
3
4
Sum

Coal Quality Var.4 East


Sulphur
%
1.0
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.0

NCV
kJ / kg
7290
8280
8374
8490
8285

Ash
%
19.1
15.6
14.4
14.7
15.2

------------------------------------------------The above mentioned data of all variants do not contain coal losses in the contact zones
to roof and floor strata as well as in the vicinity of geological structures.
For this 8% coal losses further are estimated.

7.2.5 Selection of Preference Variant


7.2.5.1 Single Coal Mine Variants
The evaluation of all considered mining variants from a technical and cost point of view leads
to the conclusion that a single mine supply scenario has advantages for the future coal supply
to the existing and new TPP. It ensures higher concentration of production and opens scale and
synergy effects. Such a large single mine requires more space what means longer faces and
mining front compared to the existing mines. For such single mine development only two main
variants can be compared:

Variant 1.1
Variant 1.2

Mining Sibovc from South to North


Mining Sibovc from North to South

Disadvantages of such a schemes would be that the technical possibilities for low cost production and high performance are principally there but problems could occur with motivation to
use such opportunities (in case of state own enterprise) or with profit maximization (in case of
private mining operator) since the mining operator would be a monopoly supplier.
The comparison of Variant 1.1 versus Variant 1.2 illustrates the most cost-effective influences:
Tab. 7.2-40

Comparison of Single Coal Mine Variants 1.1 and 1.2


Variant 1.1
Influences from the geology
(a. o. overburden : coal exposure)
Soil-mechanics / geotechnical safety
Expenses for opening up
+
Equipment use
Transport to dump
+
Transport coal to power plant
Coal quantity / coal losses
+
Page 100 of 120

Variant 1.2
+
+
+
+
-

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic Investigations

Coal quality
Resettlements
Not mining-related substitute measures
Area balance
Environmental protection
Recultivation
Interfaces
Permits
Risks (except resettlement of Hade)

+
+
+
+
+
+
+

+
+
-

Variant 1.2 has its advantage from:


o technically requirement for a very late resettlement of the village centre of Hade
o a better overburden : coal ration in the first years after the opening-up.
Variant 1.2 has disadvantages in most of the evaluation criteria as against basic variant 1.1.
Great disadvantage is the fact that Variant 1.2 would be a classical green field project with additional land withdrawal and higher impact to the environment. It is doubted if the permits will
be granted in time. It is supposed to be better to work in an area which has already been influenced by mining activities instead of unnecessary claiming of other additional areas.
The latter facts discussed above favour Var.1.1.
Moreover, mining development from the South (Var.1.1) has a shorter transport distance to the
dump and dumping is intended to contribute to shaping the residual pit of Bardh/ Mirash.
Var.1.1 is applicable, if KEK or their legal successor will take over the supply obligation for
both the existing and the new lignite-fired power plants. Basic condition for this Variant 1.1 is
the resettlement of the entire Hade village by an accelerated scheme (mainly till 2008).

7.2.5.2 Independent Coal Mines Variants


The following comparison becomes useful when considering the risks which are given by the
monopoly of one single supplier of raw coal for the lignite-fired power plants. There are requirements for flexibility and independence in terms of time, physical interfaces and development of existing and new TPP. In case of a competitive two mines scheme for an independent
coal supply to the existing and the new TPP the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated:
Var. 2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc and D-Field
Var. 3.1
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle)
Var. 3.2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (beginning at
Northern border)
Var. 4
Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line
Tab. 7.2-41

Comparison of the Independent Coal Mines Variants


Variant 2
Variant 3.1
Influences from the geology
+
(a. o. overburden : coal exposure)
Soil-mechanics / geotechnical safety
Expenses for opening up
Equipment use
+
-

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Variant 3.2
+

Variant 4
-

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Transport to dump
Transport coal to power plant
Coal quantity / coal losses
Coal quality
Resettlements
Not mining-related substitute measures
Area balance
Environmental protection
Recultivation
Interfaces
Permits
Risks (except resettlement of Hade)
Total +

+
+
+

+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+

+
+
+
-

+
+
+
+
+
+
11

+
+
+
11

The evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages leads to the clear result that Variant 3.1
and Variant 4 can be excluded from further comparisons. This is mainly owing to the considerable expenses involved in the resettlements (of Sibovc and Lajthishte). However Variant 4
demonstrates that the Sibovc field could be opened up from the South West part by a small
compact mine without the resettlement of the entire Hade village. Such mine would be sufficient to feed the existing power plant TPP B with approx. 7or 8 mt coal per annum.
The remaining comparison between Variant 3.2 and Variant 2 refers to the comparison between excavation in Sibovc (Northern part) and excavation of D-Field, because the second
opencast mine (in the South of the Sibovc field) can be shaped identically as alternative.
Variant 2, which includes the excavation of D-Field, is highlighted because there is removed a
problem site and the public interest in this case will also simplify the granting of permit.
Even if this is linked to the provision of financial means from the public hand this field only
offers a restricted coal supply basis for a new investor. This investor might only accept the private investments if the duration of the fuel supply will be guaranteed over a period of 40 years.
The envisaged motorway-route across the field would block the use of the coal field to a great
deal for several decades.

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8 Environmental Aspects
As this report represents a study to find the best fitting new mining field, in addition to the
technical selection the potential environmental impacts are to be addressed. This is done to
follow the requirements of EIA procedure enclosing the collection of knowledge about the environmental situation and expected effects as preparation for a Scoping Direction.

8.1 General Ecological Effects of Lignite Coal Exploitation


Production of lignite coal stands for large scale excavation of soil using heavy duty equipment.
Mining exploitation of mineral resources thus causes negative impact on the environment as
well as each penetration into natural resources. Negative effects accompanying the development of this economy branch are related to violating of ecological system of a wider zone
where exploitation is taking place and forms of violations are numerous.
Questions concerning environment can be formulated having in mind how lignite coal is
mined. The coal itself is buried deep under the surface. As the open cast pit that comes into
being mostly reaches a depth of more than hundred meters and covers an area of several hundred hectares first of all land for excavation is needed. As slopes of the open cast pit have to be
constructed in a soil mechanically safe way the extension of the mine openings need to be considerably larger than the area of coal production itself. This means estates used either for agricultural or for housing have to be bought. Residents have to be resettled.
Surface soil has to be removed resulting in a nearly complete loss of fauna and flora. Groundwater within the overburden strata and covering the coal must be adequately lowered before
starting excavation. While excavating rain water and remaining ground water have to be
pumped out of the mine. In general this water has low pH values with probably larger contents
of heavy metals.
The excavation and exploiting of lignite coal causes noise and dust due to the excavation operations, maintenance works and coal transportation. Where the coal face comes in contact
with the atmosphere oxidation processes can lead to self ignition of coal. This affects employees at the working places as well as the surroundings and neighbouring residents.
The overburden strata have to be removed. In case direct back-filling into the pit can not be
performed dumps for overburden outside the open pit are needed. Hence additional land is
needed whereby floral cover will be disturbed, animals lose their habitats and the landscape
changes as hills come into being.
After excavation of coal the mined area generally is devastated. In order to re-utilize the area a
complete refill of the pit should be achieved wherever possible. But because of the coal extracted leading to a deficit in volume not the whole mined area can be totally refilled. Therefore a well prepared Mine Closure Plan should be prepared and implemented showing the
future landscape and possibilities of re-selling of land. The post-mining utilization should consider agricultural use of land, commercial and industrial use as well as restored areas as habitats for fauna and flora.
Summarizing main impacts on the environment by coal mining and production of significant
quantities of ash is reflected in following main aspects:

Influences on surrounding terrain by excavation;


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Total loss of naturally grown environmental contents and relations;


Change of hydro-geological regime in wider area;
Soil pollution and ground-/surface water pollution (wider area in the water shed) owing
to soil alterations and coal processing (ash deposits, processing water release);
Air pollution due to dust expositions while excavating and conveying;
Influences on terrain stability within mine (working slopes) and surface deformation
(subsidence of the soil);
Noise due to working conveyor belts

8.2 Hydrological Conditions


Values for precipitation were collected from different sources. The Hydro-Meteorological Institute of Kosovo provided a study showing in the year 1999 the monthly average for a period
of 25 years (25 years average). The Institute provided also monthly values for the years 1979 to
1995. By adding values for the years 2001 to 2004 this data base was widened to cover a period of 25 years (1979 2004). The data base was completed by an existing evaluation for the
duration 1948 to 1978.
The average yearly precipitation amounts 600 mm. Minimum precipitation can be described
using the year 1990 with 372 mm. Using monthly values maximum yearly precipitation is
documented with 1010 mm in the year 1995. An enlarged value of 1028 mm is presented by
Rudarski Institute (1985) but the year of appearance is lacking in that document.
Following figure shows the distribution of average monthly precipitation. Statistically precipitation is rather evenly distributed with lower values from January to March and higher values
throughout summer and harvest.

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Fig. 8.2-1

Long term Distribution of monthly Precipitation

The range of monthly precipitation can be described using the recorded values from the year
1979 to 2004. Figure above shows a wider range of monthly precipitation. For example within
the month of August a minimum of 5 mm (year 1992) stands against 184 mm (year 2002). The
average monthly precipitation is 56 mm. The figure shows that more than 80 mm precipitation
per month can appear all over the year.

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Fig. 8.2-2

Monthly Range of Precipitation

To show the variation in daily precipitation values for the years 2001 to 2004 were made available from the Hydrometeorological Institute of Kosova. High quantities of precipitation were
recorded with 44.5 mm on 11 April 2001 and 42.5 mm on 8 August 2002. The absolute recorded maximum was achieved on 5 September 1954 with 64.1 mm (INKOS; 1987).

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Fig. 8.2-3

Daily Precipitation

The Kosova basin is characterized by continental climate with dry and warm summers and indifferent winter temperatures depending on the influence of high-pressure areas from Siberia or
low-pressure areas from the Atlantic Ocean.
Reviewing data from the Hydro-Meteorological Institute as well as other documents describing
the mining area average annual temperature results in +10C. On a basis of the years 1979 to
1991 the range of temperatures is shown in figure below with minimum temperatures in January and maximum in July. Lowest Temperature ever measured counts 25.2C.

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Fig. 8.2-4

Distribution of Temperatures

Supplementary information was found at www.qwikcast.com presenting in 2004 a statistic on


an eighteen years basis.

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Fig. 8.2-5

Monthly Temperatures

The wind is predominantly blowing from north and northeast with average velocity near 3 m/s.
Rudarski Institute in the year 1985 gave an overview about wind velocities and directions that
are repeated in following figure. The greatest wind velocity was recorded with 34.3 m/s blowing from the north.

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Fig. 8.2-6

Direction and Velocity of Wind

8.3 Surface Waters Run-Offs and their Qualities


The Kosova Basin forms a smoothly shaped plain that is bordered by hills and mountains. This
basin includes a developed hydrological network with the main collector given by the river
Sitnica. This river crosses the basin from south to north and drains off 80 % of the accumulating surface water northward. Major tributary rivers in the vicinity of the site are river Drenica
in the west and river Lab in the east. The Sitnica run-off of water varies between a minimum of
0.5 1.5 m/sec and a maximum of 50 120 m/sec with an average of 5 10 m/sec. In flooding periods, the course of the river reaches a width of up to 1000 m in the flooding areas. On 3
May 1958 a maximum run-off for river Sitnica near to the mines was measured with 90.3
m/sec.
Because not being available the usual basis to assess the quantities of water discharged by
tributary rivers and creeks was prepared as catchment area map shown in following figure.
Using run-off coefficients like mentioned in chapter 4.7 allows first assessments on the quantities of water to be delineated when opening up a mining field.

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Fig. 8.3-1

Catchment Areas

By now surface water quality data are available from the INKOS Institutes monthly measurements for the main run-offs Drenica and Sitnica. As basis for assessments on the effects of the
outlet from a future mine water drainage values from the years 2001 to 2003 for the river Sitnica upstream the existing mines can be presented.

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Fig. 8.3-2

Characteristic water quality values for river Sitnica (INKOS Institute)

The parameters shown in the figure above are found adequate to represent the up to date quality of river water without effects of the mines.
The expected quality of drainage water without any treatment can be assessed using the quality
parameters from the water pumped out of Mirash mine. It has to be taken into consideration
that the sampling point does not always show the quality of pumped out water as thinning by
rainwater might have falsified the sample.

Fig. 8.3-3

Characteristic Drainage Water Quality


(INKOS Institute, Mirash mine)
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The following table compares the values and shows, that the receiving river might be affected
mainly by sulphate and chloride as well as organic materials, if no purification will be foreseen. Concerning heavy metals or other trace elements no argumentation can be given by now
because those analytical results are lacking.
Tab. 8.3-1

Comparison Water Qualities

pH value
El. Conductivity
Chloride
Sulphate
Hydrogen carbonate
Nitrate
KMnO4 Consumption

Minimum
Sitnica
Mirash
6.8
6.7
230
175
3
4.5
29
75
104
232
0
0
5
3

Average
Sitnica
Mirash
7.9
7.8
486
1,381
28
90
78
924
284
447
3.7
10.3
15
45

Maximum
Sitnica
Mirash
8.4
8.7
1,100
3,700
70
290
516
1,741
381
600
14
72
26
183

Following those results it is necessary to purify the mine water. At least settling ponds should
be implemented to diminish the load of soil and coal dust.

8.4 Groundwater Situation


The knowledge about the general groundwater situation is described in chapter 4.7. Environmental effects are expected when groundwater will be withdrawn by excavation works. The
present knowledge from the existing mines shows groundwater not to be a major problem for
the mining activities, but is to be taken into consideration that the long term exploitation has
affected the groundwater levels extensively. In case of creating a new and uncoupled mine the
dewatering especially within the sandy layers of the overburden might be more expensive. To
achieve a better knowledge of this it is essential to explore the groundwater conditions more
detailed before opening up.
Indications are given that the groundwater within the coal north to the existing mines might be
polluted by liquid phenol bearing waste. Hence, before lowering the groundwater table, investigations are to inform about the extent of pollution by quantity and quality to adjust the mine
dewatering system to necessary purification of water.

8.5 Soil Qualities


Investigations on available soil qualities by now led the way to the community of Kastriot
(Obiliq). Unfortunately no answer on the promised information was delivered. By this reason
Consultant started to digitalize the soil map scale 1:100,000. Interim results are presented in
following figure.

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Fig. 8.5-1

Soil Map

8.6 Waste Water Purification and Re-utilization


Up to now mine water purification and re-utilisation seems to be unknown in connecting with
mining activities. Any new mining activity has to take into consideration that water purification is needed not only for the sewage resulting from workers social services but also from the
mining drainage. Here at least settling ponds are needed to purify the mining drainage from soil
and coal dust. Other needs of purification will result from heavy metals and trace element
analyses or the appearance of fluid phenol bearing waste. By now adequate analyses, allowing
more detailed assessments, are not available. The need to take into consideration those parameters is expected to be relevant for any new mining activity in Kosovo.

8.7 Environmental Monitoring and Management Structures


Reflecting the up to now experience at Kosovos lignite mines it has to be stressed that any
new mining activity has to be combined with a well educated environmental management
team. The management has to be informed not only about the activities within the mine but
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also about the situation in the nearer and remote surroundings. Analyses for water and groundwater qualities and quantities, dust and noise emissions etc. should be reflected regularly leading to dynamic improvements on the entire environmental situation.
To achieve this, a close connection to official bodies is advised. Already in the phase of concrete planning for the new mining area a first monitoring system has to be implemented and
surveyed to document effects on air, soil ground and surface waters, neighbouring inhabitants
as well as the faunal and floral population. Hence a trained team is needed to assess the expected detailed effects, to prepare an adequate monitoring plan before opening up the mine and
develop this throughout the lifetime of the mine.

8.8 Environmental Aspects of Mining Fields Alternatives


Population Changes
The opening of a field in all cases will mean that resettlement of inhabitants is needed. By now
it is assessed that in case of Sibovc-Field the largest quantity of at least three villages and nine
settlements with their population will be affected. South-Field covers two villages and one settlement whereas the D-Field effects partly one settlement as well as some detached houses.
Variant 1.1 forms an extension of the existing mines, where the excavation moves forwards to
the north. For neighbouring inhabitants this might be felt like an ongoing process deriving from
the known mining activities. The population of the village of Hade has to be resettled prior to
the start of mining activities. Major resettlements than will be needed towards the middle of the
lifetime of the mine with the villages of Sibovc and Lajthishte.
Variant 1.2 opens a new mine developing to the south. Hence erecting all needed infrastructure
and opening the mine means an intervention to a nearly unaffected area. Resettlement of the
villages of Sibovc and Lajthishte will be needed in an early stage of activities whereas the village of Hade, actually suffering from mining activities, is able to develop naturally until it is to
be resettled finally toward the end of mining activities.
Variant 2 requires a previous partly resettlement in the east of Dardhishte village. The connecting road Dardhishte Nakarade/ Fuche Kosove will form the western rim of the mine. Hence
the remaining inhabitants of Dardhishte will be affected mostly in the starting phase of mining.
While developing the mine a few additional resettlements of detached houses will be needed
towards the end of the lifetime of the mine.
Variants 3.1 and 3.2 are intensifications of the effects shown in Variants 1.1 and 1.2. As two
mines are working timely parallel the inhabitants will suffer in a extended volume especially
from dust and noise pollution as well as sooner loss of farmland. Resettlements of the villages
of Hade, Sibovc and Lajthishte will be needed nearly parallel in time prior to or at least in a
very early stage of mine development. On the other hand these variants offer the opportunity to
employ more local personal as two independent mines are operating with their full accessories.
Variant 4 causes nearly the same effects as Variants 3 but in addition communication roads
will be severed north of the village of Hade after short time of operation.
Opening the South-Field will force the villages of Doberdup (Dobri Dub) and Kuzmin as well
as new housing estates east of river Sitnica to be resettled. It has to be mentioned, that the village of Doberdup is already affected by creeping outside dump masses which up to now are
explained not to present urgent threats. Effects on humans may result from the necessary relocation of river Sitnica to the east. As only a small corridor remains between the rim of the mine

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and the railroad track at Fushe Kosove special flood prevention measures have to be implemented leading to an enlarged surface requirement at the populated outskirts of Fushe Kosove.
Local Roads and Transportation
In the areas of potential mining fields the roads from Grabovc to Kastriot (Obiliq) and Sibovc
to Kastriot (Obiliq) are assessed to be of major importance for regional transportation. Both
roads lead through the Sibovc-Field and have to be abandoned in the course of mining. The
difference for Variants 1, 3 and 4 can only be seen in the difference in time when abandoning
becomes necessary. Variant 2 with D-Field as well as South-Field does not affect roads of regional importance.
Water and Air
Emissions to water and air mainly depend on the size of the open mine. In Variants 1 and 2 as
well as South-Field only one mine is working while in Variants 3 and 4 there are two mines
working parallel in time. For the latter variants this will lead to increased dust emissions from
excavation and conveying activities.
As self ignited lignite burnings should be prevented at any new mining field there result no
specific differences between the variants even though self ignition might not be generally excluded.
Effects on waters result from the necessary mine drainage and social sewage from mine barracks and offices. In case of Sibovc-Field (var. 1, 3 and 4) excavation is performed in rather
watertight materials. Hence the quantities of water depend mainly on the precipitation. In Variant 2 (D-Field) as well as South-Field it is expected that leaking surface water and groundwater
from river Sitnica will decisively contribute to the drained quantities.
Flora, Fauna Natural Heritage
The three areas of concern contain different types of ecological habitats. The Sibovc-Field is
characterised by extensive but busy agricultural use. Areas unaffected by humans are rather
seldom. Hence useful plant varieties dominate the floral scene. Resulting from temporarily
unused or fallow land as well as minor bushes or wooded areas as well as mall creeks dividing
the landscape a reasonable diversity of floral elements is expected.
The South-Field is to the half of its area covered by overburden dumps. As this dumping area
is unused in a large extent for years an adopted natural environment came into being with different, small scaled habitats. Some areas mainly at the rims of the dumps are agricultural used.
The southern part of the South-Field is determined by the valleys of rivers Sitnica and Drenica
and mainly agricultural used. Hence the South-Field gives a wide range of habitats from wetlands to dry locations on a small floor space.
D-Field is characterised by the Dragodara ash dump (TPP A). As the surrounding is mainly
agricultural used without extensive bush, copse or tree occurrence the biological diversity is
judged rather poor compared to the other alternatives.
Soil, Natural Resources and land use
As described above and in chapter 4.2 the alternatives differ in their general soil appearance.
Sibovc-Field is characterised by clayey materials in a hilly shaped landscape forming a typical
Smonitza soil rather difficult to cultivate because of soil compression and enriched surface
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water run off in wet periods as well as deep reaching drying up in the summer time. Nevertheless the soil is described fertile but nearer information has to be inquired.
South-Field (Variant 2) holds a large area of spread soil materials where a top soil development
similar to the development outside the dumps is visible. As the soil is not as compact as the
natural grown, better hydraulic conductivities result and the top soil is intensively biological
loosened up. The slopes of the dumps are slowly creeping towards the surroundings and
thereby covering the grown soil. No polluting elements are mentioned to be contained in the
soil dumps. Hence it is judged that an ongoing and nearly unhindered agricultural use south to
the dumps will be possible in the future.
Depositing of soil and especially ash determines the surface of D-Field. The fly ash from the
dumping site influences the surroundings up to some hundred meters distance. This mainly
affects the usability of the farmland but no information is available by now concerning e.g. the
heavy metal or trace element contents of the ash.
Micro-Climate
Opening a surface mining field causes a depression in the surface. All alternatives of excavation will lead to a loss of elevated elements on the surface and wind velocity will increase. As
the mines will be artificially dewatered a change in evaporation rates will result which, in combination with the decrease in floral coverage, is assessed to lead to a decrease of evapotranspiration rates.
The influences for the three different fields are judged to be rather similar but detailed assessments will only be possible after conducting extensive measurements and computing models
for different climatic scenarios.
Phenol Deposits
The data inquiry on potential environmental risks gives indications of old neglected deposits of
fluid wastes containing phenol. These materials probably result from an abandoned gasification
plant at TPP Kosovo A, where remnants of this waste are still stored today.
In August 2004 two shafts of old underground workings at Mirash workshop were opened. A
specific chemically smell and some tar similar lumps at the rim of one shaft were observed.
Workers at the mine explained to have observed those fluids in the past at the northern slope,
where the slope cuts into underground workings.
Further investigations on the spatial spreading and the quantity of dumped waste led to no reliable results up to now. Interviews this neighbouring residents and former workers helped to
form a first idea. Two former underground workings might be affected with the Kosovo field
underneath the valley between Mirash mine and Lajthishte and the Krusevac South-Field to
TPP Kosovo A. As no maps are available showing the extension of the former mines a first
demarcation was carried out using aerial views, field observations on collapse structures and
interviews. Result is shown in following figure.

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Fig. 8.8-1

Areas of potential risk of toxic waste deposits

Because up to now it is unknown,

which chemicals the original waste really comprised and if the contents is similar to the
stored remnants,
which alterations happened to the waste and
what quantities of original or altered materials are buried in the underground workings
this problem forms a potential risk when the coal is excavated (protection of miners and water)
and burned in a TPP (conglutination of equipment, generation of hazardous gases such as dioxins).

8.9 Environmental Ranking of Alternatives


Having in mind that the whole district is historically influenced by mining and wider parts of
the landscape are determined by the mines and power plants all variants discussed are judged
to be feasible, if appropriate actions are taken to diminish the effects.
Combining the environmental aspects mentioned in this report a matrix can be presented balancing the degrees of impacts. A first judgement scale with 1 to 7 points is used describing the
growing strength of impact between the variants. A balancing between the impacts themselves
is not performed.

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Tab. 8.9-1
Effect

Environmental Impact

Population Changes
Local Roads and Transportation
Water and Air
Flora, Fauna, natural Heritage
Soil, Natural Resources and land use
Sum

Var.1.1

1.2

3
3
1
2
3
12

4
4
2
3
4
17

2
D-Field
1
1
6
1
1
10

3.1

3.2

6
6
3
6
7
28

5
5
4
5
6
25

7
7
5
4
5
28

SouthField
2
2
7
7
2
20

Following this ranking usage of D-Field (Variant 2) shows the smallest impact to be expected.
Opening the Sibovc-Field with one mine (Variant 1) should be given the preference rather than
working with two mines from the environmental point of view. Using the South-Field seems to
be minor suitable because of the developed and adjusted fauna and flora and the need of canalling river Sitnica.

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9 Final Remarks of Part I


The objective of the Part I of the documentation is to provide information which should help to
make solid decisions how to develop the lignite sector for the near future. The most suitable
mining concepts were addressed and the opportunities and risks were mentioned.
As main result (for a mine scenario with appr.15 mt/a) it is worked out that:
In the case the high investments can be provided and the government prefers a single mine operator KEK should prepare a mining development as described in Variant 1.1.
A two-mine concept would be favourable to attract private investors within a short time or if
the financial means can not be provided. The decision also depends on the power plant concept.
However the decision on which concept the detailed Main Mine Plan has to be based on is to
set by the Ministry for Energy and Mines.
---------------------------------------------------Regarding the second stage (detailed Main Mining Plan), it was decided to elaborate a mining plan similar to Variant 1.1 (see MMP-Part II Technical Planning).

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European Agency for Reconstruction

PREPARATION OF A MID TERM PLAN FOR EXISTING COAL MINES AND A MAIN
MINING PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SIBOVC MINE
EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

FINAL REPORT
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine
Part II

Technical Planning

June 24, 2005


prepared by:

Vattenfall Europe Mining AG

VATTENFALL

Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH

Key Experts of Project Team

Ullrich Hhna
VEM
Team Leader, Senior Expert Mine Planning

VEM
Hans Jrgen Matern
Senior Expert Mining Operation

Thomas Suhr
VEM
Senior Expert Computer-Aided Mine Planning Applications

Stephan Peters
Senior Expert Geology

DMT

VEM
Helmar Laube
Senior Expert Soil Mechanics

Joachim Gert ten Thoren


DMT
Senior Environmental Expert

Table of Contents
1 Summary Part II ............................................................................14
2 Introduction...................................................................................47
2.1
2.2

Allocation and Geographical Overview ................................................................... 47


Approach / Methodology.......................................................................................... 49

3 Coal Demand and License for Coal Extraction.............................50


3.1
3.2

Forecast of Future Coal Demand.............................................................................. 50


License for Coal Extraction from Sibovc Open Cast Mine...................................... 52

Geological Conditions .............................................................53

4.1
4.2

Introduction .............................................................................................................. 53
Sedimentology and Petrography of the Pliocene Lignite Deposit
in the Sibovc Area ................................................................................................... 55
Development of the Overburden Section ................................................................. 59
Geophysical Exploration Work Performed .............................................................. 60
Available Borehole Data .......................................................................................... 60
Coal Qualities from Borehole Data.......................................................................... 61
Sampling And Analysis Methods ............................................................................ 61
Geological Model ..................................................................................................... 64
Structural Model ...................................................................................................... 65
Coal Quality Distribution Model ............................................................................. 67
3D Block Model of Net Calorific Value Distribution ............................................. 68
Model Parameter and Methodology......................................................................... 68
Other Aspects influencing the Geological Situation ................................................ 72
Former Underground Mining................................................................................... 72
Uncontrolled Coal Fires........................................................................................... 75
Development and locations of coal fires.................................................................. 75
Counteractive measures ........................................................................................... 77
Prevention of coal fires ............................................................................................ 78
Geological Resource Assessment............................................................................. 78
Classification and Calculation Method.................................................................... 78
Lignite Resources..................................................................................................... 80
Further exploration for the new Sibovc Mine .......................................................... 81

4.3
4.4
4.5
4.5.1
4.5.1.1
4.6
4.6.1
4.6.2
4.6.3
4.6.3.1
4.7
4.7.1
4.7.2
4.7.2.1
4.7.2.2
4.7.2.3
4.8
4.8.1
4.8.2
4.9

5 Soil-mechanical Parameters ..........................................................82


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9

General ..................................................................................................................... 82
Soilphysical Parameter ............................................................................................. 82
Soil mechanical Calculation Methods ...................................................................... 83
General Stability Factors .......................................................................................... 84
Soilmechanical Calculations for Border Slope Systems .......................................... 85
Soilmechanical Calculations for Advance Slope Systems ....................................... 86
Static Stability of Single Slopes ............................................................................... 86
Soilmechanical Calculations for Dumping Slope Systems ...................................... 88
Geotechnical Requirements to a Safe Operational Management ............................. 89

6 Technological Development of the Sibovc Mine..........................90


6.1
6.2
6.3

Preconditions ............................................................................................................ 90
General Remarks on Mine Development ................................................................. 93
Technological Equipment Parameter ....................................................................... 94

6.4
Capability / Capacity Calculation for MME ............................................................ 95
6.4.1
Capability of Excavators .................................................................................. 95
6.4.2
Capability of Belt Conveyors ......................................................................... 105
6.4.3
Capability of Spreaders .................................................................................. 109
6.5
Mine Planning ........................................................................................................ 110
6.5.1
Follow-up to mining in Bardh / Mirash.......................................................... 110
6.5.2
Excavation Boundary / Boundary Line .......................................................... 111
6.5.3
Conveyor Belts ............................................................................................... 115
6.5.4
Bench Design ................................................................................................. 116
6.5.5
Division of Cuts.............................................................................................. 117
6.5.6
Mass Calculation ............................................................................................ 120
6.5.7
Overburden Removal...................................................................................... 123
6.5.7.1 Excavation .................................................................................................. 123
6.5.7.2 Dumping ..................................................................................................... 129
6.6
Lignite Operation.................................................................................................... 130
6.7
Stockpile Operation ................................................................................................ 133
6.7.1
Stockpile TPP A ............................................................................................. 133
6.7.2
Stockpile TPP B ............................................................................................. 134
6.8
Opening-up Operation ............................................................................................ 139
6.8.1
Preparatory Works in the Year 2007/2008..................................................... 139
6.8.2
Mining Development in the Year 2009 .......................................................... 140
6.8.3
Mining Development in the Year 2010 .......................................................... 142
6.8.4
Mining Development in the Year 2011 .......................................................... 142
6.8.5
Mining Development in the Year 2012 .......................................................... 143
6.8.6
Mining Development in the Year 2013 .......................................................... 144
6.9
Regular Operation .................................................................................................. 144
6.9.1
Mining Development in the Period 2014 2018 ........................................... 144
6.9.2
Mining Development in the Period 2019 - 2023 ............................................ 145
6.9.3
Mining Development in the Period 2024 - 2028 ............................................ 146
6.9.4
Mining Development in the Period 2029 - 2033 ............................................ 146
6.9.5
Mining Development in the Period 2034 2038 ........................................... 147
6.10 Production Schedule............................................................................................... 148

7 Main Mining Equipment .............................................................149


7.1
Technical Status of existing Main Mining Equipment........................................... 149
7.1.1
Technical Status of Excavators ...................................................................... 149
SRs 1300 und SchRs 650 ........................................................................................... 149
b) Electrical Equipment.............................................................................................. 149
a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering............................................. 151
7.1.2
Technical Status of Belt Conveyor Systems .................................................. 152
7.1.3
Technical Status of Spreaders ........................................................................ 153
a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering ................................................... 153
7.1.4
Technical Status of Belt Wagons ................................................................... 154
7.1.5
Technical Status of Stacker / Reclaimer......................................................... 155
7.2
Rehabilitation Measures for MME......................................................................... 158
7.2.1
Measures for Excavators ................................................................................ 158
7.2.2
Measures for Belt Conveyor Systems ............................................................ 159
7.2.3
Measures for Spreaders .................................................................................. 160
7.2.4
Measures for Belt Wagons ............................................................................. 161
7.2.5
Measures for Stacker / Reclaimer (Stockpile Equipment) ............................. 161
7.2.6
Conclusion for the Field Sibovc ..................................................................... 162
7.3
Technical Specification of Main Mining Equipment ............................................. 164

8 Power Supply System and Electrical Equipment ........................165


8.1
8.2

Future Energy Demand .......................................................................................... 165


Investment for Electrical System............................................................................ 167

9 Auxiliary Equipment...................................................................171
9.1
Assessment of Technical Status in the Existing Mines .......................................... 171
9.2
Auxiliary Equipment and Devices for the Sibovc Mine ........................................ 171
9.2.1
Maximal Demand of auxiliary Equipment ..................................................... 171
9.2.2
Yearwise Development of Auxiliary Equipment Fleet .................................. 173
9.3
Heavy Auxiliary Equipment for Sibovc Mine........................................................ 179
9.4
Draglines ................................................................................................................ 179
9.4.1
Transport Crawler........................................................................................... 180
9.4.2
Derricks .......................................................................................................... 181
9.5
Investment and Cost Calculation for Auxiliary Equipment ................................... 181

10 Infrastructure and Surface Facilities ...........................................183


10.1 General Principles .................................................................................................. 183
10.2 Social facilities and administration ........................................................................ 184
10.2.1
Mine Offices................................................................................................... 184
10.2.2
Mine Control Centre....................................................................................... 187
10.2.3
Washrooms and Sanitary Facilities ................................................................ 187
10.3 Supply and Disposal ............................................................................................... 188
10.3.1
Transformer Station........................................................................................ 188
10.3.2
Erection Yards ................................................................................................ 188
10.3.3
Road Construction .......................................................................................... 189
10.4 Workshops and Warehouses................................................................................... 191
10.4.1
Principles ........................................................................................................ 191
10.4.2
Central- and plant workshops......................................................................... 194
10.4.3
Warehouses..................................................................................................... 199
10.4.4
Petrol Station / Fuel Depot ............................................................................. 203
10.5 Investment and Cost Calculation for Infrastructure ............................................... 204

11 Mine Dewatering.........................................................................209
11.1
11.2
11.3

General Information ............................................................................................... 209


Dewatering Measures / Dimensioning of Dewatering Elements ........................... 211
Investment and Cost Calculation for Dewatering .................................................. 214

12 Mine Closure and Recultivation Planning ..................................216


12.1
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5

Principles ................................................................................................................ 216


Present Land Use.................................................................................................... 216
Mine Closure Plan .................................................................................................. 216
Concept of Post-Mining Use for the Fields Bardh, Mirash and Sibovc................. 218
Investment and Cost Calculation............................................................................ 221

13 Resettlement................................................................................222
13.1 General Remarks / Situation................................................................................... 222
13.1.1
General Conditions......................................................................................... 222
13.1.2
Legal Resettlement Regulations ..................................................................... 222
13.2 Resettlement of Hade ............................................................................................. 223
13.2.1
Conditions / Situation in Hade ....................................................................... 223
13.2.2
Buildings in Hade ........................................................................................... 224
13.2.3
Valuation of Compensation............................................................................ 225
13.2.4
Locations for Resettlements of Hade ............................................................. 228

13.2.5
Resettlement Process ...................................................................................... 228
13.2.6
Resettlement Procedure .................................................................................. 229
13.2.7
Time Scheduling for Resettlement Measures................................................. 230
13.2.8
Status of the Hade Resettlement..................................................................... 231
13.3 Resettlement of Villages in the field Sibovc .......................................................... 232
13.3.1
Communities affected by Resettlement.......................................................... 232
13.3.2
Valuation of Compensation............................................................................ 234
13.3.3
Locations for Resettlements ........................................................................... 234
13.3.4
Time Scheduling for Resettlement Measures................................................. 235
13.4 Investment and Cost Calculation for Resettlement ................................................ 236

14 Manpower Developemente and Organisation .............................243


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4

Actual Situation ...................................................................................................... 243


Proposed Improvement / Benchmark ..................................................................... 244
Employment of Staff and Organisation Sibovc...................................................... 246
Organisational Structure......................................................................................... 249

15 Final Remark (Part II) .................................................................257

Content of Tables
Tab. 3.1-1
Tab. 3.1-2
Tab. 4.2-1
Tab. 4.2-2
Tab. 4.6-1
Tab. 4.6-2
Tab. 4.6-3
Tab. 4.7-1
Tab. 5.2-1
Tab. 6.1-1
Tab. 6.1-2
Tab. 6.1-3
Tab. 6.3-1
Tab. 6.3-2
Tab. 6.3-3
Tab. 6.4-1
Tab. 6.4-2
Tab. 6.4-3
Tab. 6.4-4
Tab. 6.4-5
Tab. 6.4-6
Tab. 6.4-7
Tab. 6.4-8
Tab. 6.4-9
Tab. 6.4-10
Tab. 6.4-11
Tab. 6.4-12
Tab. 6.4-13
Tab. 6.4-14
Tab. 6.4-15
Tab. 6.4-16
Tab. 6.4-17
Tab. 6.4-18
Tab. 6.5-1
Tab. 6.5-2
Tab. 6.5-3
Tab. 6.5-4
Tab. 6.5-5
Tab. 6.6-1
Tab. 6.6-2
Tab. 6.7-1
Tab. 6.7-2
Tab. 6.8-1
Tab. 6.8-2
Tab. 6.8-3
Tab. 6.8-4
Tab. 6.8-5
Tab. 6.8-6

Defined Coal Demand......................................................................................... 50


Coal haulage required from new mines .............................................................. 51
Summary of Interburden Occurences thicker than 0.5 m in the
Sibovc Concession Area ..................................................................................... 56
Petrographic Analysis ......................................................................................... 59
Structural Characterisation of the Sibovc Concession Area ............................... 66
Sibovc Concession Area, Average Coal Qualitiesfor the Lignite Seam from
Geological Model Grid ....................................................................................... 67
Block Model volume report of several categories ........................................... 71
Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source:
INKOS) ............................................................................................................... 74
Soil-mechanical Parameters ................................................................................ 83
Coal Output (Part 1: in the extended Development Period) ............................ 90
Coal output from Sibovc in regular operation..................................................... 91
Release Time for Main Mine Equipment............................................................ 92
Basic Geometry of the Bucket Wheel Excavators .............................................. 94
Cutting Heights and block Width of Excavators................................................. 94
Maximum Inclination of working Levels and Curve Radii of Excavators ......... 95
Theoretical Digging Capacity in lcm/h ............................................................... 97
Theoretical Capacity of Excavators in bcm/h resp. t/h ....................................... 97
Effective Capacity of Excavators - Overburden ................................................. 98
Effective Capacity for Excavator - Coal ............................................................. 99
Planned Working Time Tb of single Equipment ............................................... 101
Normal Capacity and maximum Capacity - Overburden.................................. 102
Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in Overburden Operation .................. 103
Capability of Excavators in Coal Operation ..................................................... 103
Nominal Capacity of the Pit System ................................................................. 104
Bulk Density, Angle of Repose and Inclination of Belt Conveyor................... 105
Factor fi for Considering the Inclination........................................................... 106
Possible Conveying Capacity for the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor, loose ................... 106
Eff. Conv Capacity Ve in bcm/h of the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor (Overburden) ... 107
Possible Conveying Capacity for the 2.0 m Belt Conveyor, loose ................... 107
Eff. Conv. Capacity Ve of the 2.0 m Overburden Belt Conveyor in bcm/h ..... 108
Conveying Quantity of a 1.8 m Coal Conveyor in t/h ...................................... 108
Conveying Quantity of a 2.0 m Coal Belt Conveyor (wc = 1.75 m) in t/h ....... 109
Comparison of possible Volume Streams ......................................................... 110
Overburden and Coal Output in Mirash / Bardh............................................... 110
Sector calculation of the entire field ................................................................. 121
Division of slices / overburden SRs 1300 ...................................................... 128
Block length and division of slices / overburden SchRs 650............................ 128
Block length and divisions of slices new BWE .............................................. 129
Block length and division of slices / coal SchRs 650 .................................... 132
Block length and division of slices / coal SRs 1300 ...................................... 132
Overview of mine potential and power plant requirerment .............................. 137
Belt Length of charging conveyor to the power plant....................................... 138
Output in overburden and coal in 2007/08........................................................ 140
Output in overburden and coal in 2009............................................................. 141
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 142
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 143
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 143
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 144

Tab. 6.9-1
Tab. 6.9-2
Tab. 6.9-3
Tab. 6.9-4
Tab. 6.9-5
Tab. 6.10-1
Tab. 7.2-1
Tab. 7.2-2
Tab. 8.1-1
Tab. 8.1-2
Tab. 9.2-1
Tab. 9.2-2
Tab. 9.2-3
Tab. 9.2-4
Tab. 9.2-5
Tab. 9.4-1
Tab. 9.5-1
Tab. 9.5-2
Tab. 10.3-1
Tab. 10.4-1
Tab. 10.5-1
Tab. 10.5-2
Tab. 10.5-3
Tab. 10.5-4
Tab. 10.5-5
Tab. 10.5-6
Tab. 11.2-1
Tab. 11.3-1
Tab. 11.3-2
Tab. 11.3-3
Tab. 12.2-1
Tab. 12.5-1
Tab. 13.2-1
Tab. 13.2-2
Tab. 13.2-3
Tab. 13.3-1
Tab. 13.4-1
Tab. 13.4-2
Tab. 13.4-3
Tab. 13.4-4
Tab. 13.4-5
Tab. 13.4-6
Tab. 13.4-7
Tab. 13.4-8
Tab. 14.2-1
Tab. 14.3-1
Tab. 14.3-2
Tab. 14.3-3

Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 145


Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 145
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 146
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 147
Output in overburden and coal.......................................................................... 147
Production Schedule.......................................................................................... 148
Measures for MME ........................................................................................... 158
Measures MME for Sibovc ............................................................................... 162
Capacities .......................................................................................................... 166
Required installed capacity ............................................................................... 166
Number of auxiliary Equipment........................................................................ 172
Number of auxiliary Equipment up to 2012 ..................................................... 174
Annual Purchase of auxiliary Equipment up to 2017 ....................................... 176
Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2018 and 2028 ............................... 177
Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2029 and 2038 ............................... 178
Technical Data of Esch 10/70 ........................................................................... 179
Investments and Reinvestments for auxiliary Equipment................................. 182
Yearwise Investments for auxiliary Equipment in m...................................... 182
Road construction.............................................................................................. 189
Further use of buildings for Sibovc................................................................... 193
Investments 2005 2008 surface facilities ....................................................... 205
Investment and cost calculation for infrastructure ............................................ 206
Lease prices....................................................................................................... 207
Required areas for workshops and warehouses ................................................ 207
Lease costs for workshops and warehouses ...................................................... 208
Lease costs for workshops, warehouses, offices and washrooms ..................... 208
Pump Capacity .................................................................................................. 213
Example for a Channel System ......................................................................... 214
Length of Channels ........................................................................................... 215
Price of Channels .............................................................................................. 215
Claim of building and farm Land...................................................................... 216
Area Balance in Sibovc and Costs .................................................................... 221
Households and other Facilities in the Village Hade 2003 ............................... 224
Timetable for the Resettlement of the remaining Part of Hade ........................ 230
Compensation for the Inhabitants of Hade........................................................ 231
Steps for a joint resettlement of a village.......................................................... 235
Cost Calculation for Resettlement of Properties with constructed Buildings... 237
Resettlement of Households and Land Claim................................................... 237
Resettlement of Public Facilities....................................................................... 238
Substitute Measures Infrastructure inside the Village and other Costs............. 238
Substitute measures for infrastructure outside the village ................................ 239
Claim of farmland ............................................................................................. 239
Provisional estimation of resettlement .............................................................. 240
Cost of resettlement - schedule ......................................................................... 242
Benchmark mining ............................................................................................ 245
Employees in Mirash /Bardh............................................................................. 247
Employees in Sibovc......................................................................................... 248
Number of employees ....................................................................................... 249

Contents of Figures
Fig. 2-1
Fig. 4-1

Sibovc Concession Licence Area Location Map................................................ 48


Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003)......................... 54

Fig. 4-2
Fig. 4-3
Fig. 4-4
Fig. 4-5
Fig. 4-6
Fig. 4-7
Fig. 4-8
Fig. 4-9
Fig. 4-10
Fig. 4-11
Fig. 4-12
Fig. 4-13
Fig. 4-14
Fig. 5-1
Fig. 5-2
Fig. 5-3
Fig. 5-4
Fig. 5-5
Fig. 6-2
Fig. 6-3
Fig. 6-4
Fig. 6-5
Fig. 6-6
Fig. 6-7
Fig. 6-8
Fig. 8-1
Fig. 8-2
Fig. 8-3
Fig. 9-1
Fig. 10-1
Fig. 10-2
Fig. 10-3
Fig. 10-4
Fig. 10-5
Fig. 10-6
Fig. 10-7
Fig. 10-8
Fig. 10-9
Fig. 10-10
Fig. 10-11
Fig. 10-12
Fig. 10-13
Fig. 10-14
Fig. 10-15
Fig. 10-16
Fig. 10-17
Fig. 10-18
Fig. 10-19
Fig. 12-1

Typical vertical lithological sequence and Net CV distribution for the lignite
deposition in the Sibovc Concession Area, Borehole G1-XXXIII3...................... 55
Histogram for the Interburden Distribution by Lignite Seam
Thickness Increments of 20 m............................................................................... 57
Sibovc Concession Area, Lignite Seam Interburden Thickness[m].................... 57
Correlation Problems of Interburden Layers ......................................................... 58
Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot........................................................................... 66
Block Model of the Sibovc Mining Concession area. Explanation see below...... 68
Sibovc Block Model Master Definition ................................................................ 69
Compositing by elevation...................................................................................... 70
Collapse structures from former underground mining NE of Hade (arial
photograph)............................................................................................................ 73
Private coal mining near the western border of the Sibovc Field.......................... 76
Private coal mining area within the Sibovc Field.................................................. 76
Fritted, red colored clays in the hanging wall of the coal seam ............................ 77
Sibovc Concession Area, Ressource Classification .............................................. 79
Principal Scheme ................................................................................................... 84
Required general inclination of slopes with a safety factor of 1.2 ........................ 85
Sliding in the coal-uncovering cut......................................................................... 86
Geologically occurring weak zone in the overburden material............................. 87
Exposed parting plane with large polished surface ............................................... 87
Scheme of conveyor belts.................................................................................... 115
Scheme of working levels and equipment........................................................... 122
Workscheme / overburden SRs 1300.24 .......................................................... 124
Free-cut angle horizontal view ............................................................................ 125
Free-cut angle horizontal view ............................................................................ 126
Scheme calculation of block length..................................................................... 127
Work scheme coal excavator............................................................................... 131
Energy distribution system .................................................................................. 168
35 kV power supply coal extraction ................................................................. 169
35 kV power supply - overburden ....................................................................... 170
Scheme Esch 10/70.............................................................................................. 180
Mine office Bardh................................................................................................ 184
Mining Office (Gate 1) ........................................................................................ 185
Plan of Mine Office ............................................................................................. 186
Current Mine control centre Mirash .................................................................... 187
Survey workshops and warehouses ..................................................................... 194
New Central Auxiliary equipment workshop Bardh ........................................... 195
Mechanical workshop intervention ..................................................................... 195
Electrical workshop intervention Bardh .............................................................. 196
Electrical workshop Kosovomont ....................................................................... 197
Mechanical workshop Kosovomont 1 ................................................................. 197
Mechanical workshop Kosovomont 2 ................................................................. 198
Electrical and mechanical workshop ................................................................... 199
New warehouse Mirash ....................................................................................... 200
Warehouse idler and vulcanization...................................................................... 200
New central warehouse........................................................................................ 201
Electrical warehouse Bardh ................................................................................. 202
Mechanical warehouse Bardh.............................................................................. 202
Petrol Station Mirash........................................................................................... 203
Petrol Station Separation plant ............................................................................ 204
Plant scheme for wind erosion protection ........................................................... 220

Fig. 14-1
Fig. 14-2

Age structure ....................................................................................................... 244


Employees in Sibovc ........................................................................................... 248

List of Annexes
Annexes to Geology:
II/ 4.4-1

II/ 4.4-2

II/ 4.4-3

II/ 4.4-4

II/ 4.4-5

II/ 4.4-6

II/ 4.4-7

II/ 4.4-8

II/ 4.4-9
II/ 4.4-10
II/ 4.4-11
II/ 4.4-12

Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Fm. Topography and Borehole Location


(with Seam Thickness [m]), 1:10,000
Zona e konsesionit t Sibovcit Topografia dhe lokacionet e shpimeve (
me trashsi t shtress [m]), 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden Thickness [m],
1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Trashsia e Djerrins [m],
1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu m/t],
1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Raporti Qymyr - Djerrin [cu m/t],
1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam Interburden Thickness [m],
1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, shtresa Qymyrore - Trashsia e Ndrfut Jeve [m],
1: 10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 0-20 m Slice Interburden
Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, 0-20 m Prej Tavanit t
Shtress Qymyrore - Trashsia e Ndrfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 20-40 m Slice Interburden
Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, 20-40 m Prej Tavanit t
Shtress Qymyrore - Trashsia e Ndrfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 40-60 m Slice Interburden
Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, 40-60 m Prej Tavanit t
Shtress Qymyrore - Trashsia e Ndrfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, >60 m Slice Interburden Thickness
[m], 1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Shtresa Qymyrore, >60 m Prej Tavanit t
Shtress Qymyrore - Trashsia e Ndrfut Jeve [m], 1: 10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Ash Content [%],1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Prqindja e Hirit [%], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Total Sulphur [%], 1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. - Sulfuri Total [%], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Low Calorific Value [kJ/ kg],
1:10,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc, Qymyri Fm. Vlera Kalorike [kJ/ kg], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area Geological Cross Sections S1 & S2 with Differentiation of Overburden Layer, 1: 5,000/ 1:1,250
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc -Profilet gjeologjike S1 & S2 mi diferencim
t sakt t shtress tavanore, 1: 5,000/ 1: 1,250

II/ 4.4-13 to 21

II/ 4.4-22 to 33

Sibovc Consession Area Geological Cross Sections NS 1 to NS 9 (from


Block 21 Model) with Low Calorific Value (for Humidity of 45 %), 1:
5,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc - Profilet trthore t Sibofcit NS1 dhe NS9 (
nga Bllokmodeli) me shprndarje t vlerave kalorike ( pr lagshti 45%)
1: 5,000
Sibovc Consession Area Geological Cross Sections WE 1 to WE 12
(from Block Model) with Low Calorific Value (for Humidity of 45 %) 1:
5,000
Zona e Konsesionit Sibofc - Profilet trthore t Sibofcit NS1 dhe NS9 ( nga
Bllokmodeli) me shprndarje t vlerave kalorike ( pr lagshti 45%) 1:5,000

Annexes to Mining:
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II
Part II

6.5-01
6.5-02
6.5-03
6.5-04
6.5-05
6.5-06
6.5-07
6.5-08
6.5-09
6.5-10
6.5-11
6.5-12
6.5-13
6.5-14
6.5-15
6.5-16
6.5-17
6.5-18
6.7-01
6.7-02
6.7-03
6.7-04
6.7-05
6.7-06
6.8-01
6.8-02
6.8-03
6.8-04
6.8-05
12.2.-01
12.3-01

Scheme of West Bank Part 1


Scheme of West Bank Part 2
Scheme of West Bank Part 3
Scheme of East Bank Part 1
Scheme of East Bank Part 2
Scheme of Excavation Part 1
Scheme of Excavation Part 2
Ramp Excavation
Scheme of Dumping Slope System
Mining Development Truck and Shovel
Mining Development Overburden Level 1
Mining Development Overburden Level 2
Mining Development Overburden Level 3
Mining Development Overburden/Coal Level 4
Mining Development Coal Level 1
Mining Development Coal Level 2
Mining Development Coal Level 3
Mining Development Coal Level 4
Preparatory Works in the Period 2007-2008
Mining Development in the Year 2009
Mining Development in the Year 2010
Mining Development in the Year 2011
Mining Development in the Year 2012
Mining Development in the Year 2013
Mining Development in the Year 2018
Mining Development in the Year 2023
Mining Development in the Year 2028
Mining Development in the Year 2033
Mining Development in the Year 2038
Claim of land
Recultivation

1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 2000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 5000
1 : 5000
1 : 5000
1 : 5000
1 : 5000
1 : 5000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000
1 : 10000

List of Abbreviations
a
bcm
bcm/h
EN
EnO
ESTAP
GWh
IPP
kt
mt
lcm
m
m
m
mbcm
mlcm
MME
mMSL
mt
NCV
OCM
RAC
sqm
TOR
TPP
TPS
`000 bcm
`000 lcm

year
bank cubic meter
bank cubic meter per hour
European Norm
Energy Office
Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project
Gigawatt-hours
International Power Provider
thousand tonnes
million tonnes
loose cubic meter
million
square meter
cubic meter
million bank cubic meter
million loose cubic meters
Main Mine Equipment (BWE, belt conveyor and spreader)
meter above Mean Sea Level
million tonnes
Net Calorific Value
Open Cast Mine
Real Average Costs
square meter
Terms of Reference
Thermal Power Plant
Thermal Power Station
thousand bank cubic meter
thousand loose cubic meter

Glossary of Statistic Terms


Minimum
25%-tile
Median
75%-tile
Maximum
Midrange
Midrange
Range
Interquartile Range
Median Abs. Deviation

Mean
Trim Mean (10%)

Standard Deviation
Variance

Coef. of Variation
Coef. of Skewness

minimum value
lower quartile; 25 percent of the values are smaller than this number
and 75 percent of the values are larger
middle data value, 50 percent of the data values are larger than this
number and 50 percent of the data are smaller than this number
upper quartile; 75 percent of the values are smaller than this number
and 25 percent of the values are larger than this number
maximum value
the value halfway between the minimum and maximum values
= (Minimum + Maximum) / 2
separation between the minimum and maximum value. Range = Maximum - Minimum
separation distance between the 25%-tile and 75%-tile.This shows the
spread of the middle 50 percent of the data, similar to standard deviation, though this statistic is unaffected by the tails of the distribution
Median Absolute Deviation is the median value of the sorted absolute
deviations. It is calculated by
1. computing the data's median value
2. subtracting the median value from each data value
3. taking the absolute value of the difference
4. sorting the values
5. calculating the median of the values
arithmetic average of the data
Trim Mean is the mean without the upper five percent and lower five
percent of the data, therefore, extreme value influence is removed. If
there are fewer than 20 data points, the minimum and maximum data
points are removed instead of the upper and lower five percent.
square root of the variance

The Coefficient of Variation is calculated by dividing the standard deviation by the mean. If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of variation
could not be computed.
The Coefficient of Skewness is calculated by

If a "-1" is reported, the coefficient of skewness could not be computed.


The coefficient of skewness is computed only for the Z values.

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

1 Summary Part II
Terms of Reference
According to the Terms of Reference (TOR), chapter 2.1 the main goal of the Main Mining
Plan for the New Sibovc Mine is:
to provide security, both in the technical and economic terms, of future electrical power
production in Kosovo, as defined in the White Paper, through the guarantee the coal supply security and economical viability over the entire life of the existing power plants and the
new power plants (approximately 30 years).
The Main Mining Plan has to contain all necessary facts, calculations and elements needed
to guarantee sufficient coal production for Kosovos energy demand. (TOR, chapter 2.3.2)
Thus, general geological aspects which do not affect the future coal production processes are
not contained.
As a result of the agreed final comments on the draft Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine
of May 2005 the project documentation consists of:
Executive Summary of all Parts
Part I
Basic Investigations
Part II
Technical Planning
Part III
Environmental Impact Study
Part IV
Economical and Financial Analysis
Appendices
A, B, C and D
The project was conducted in two stages:
1st stage: In the first stage (Part I) it was focused on developing different scenarios of mine
development and to draw conclusions for the mining development of Sibovc on
that basis. The objective was to obtain information on alternative developments in
the mining sector and to make a decision on how to supply the power plants. In addition to the Sibovc Field, alternatives like Field D and the Southfield have
been evaluated.
2nd stage: The second stage (Part II, III and IV) was focused on the detailed mine planning of
coal extraction in Sibovc including determination of the required workforce and the
accruing investments and costs.
While the Part I addresses different scenarios of mining developments the Parts II up to IV deal
with the chosen mining variant (which start from the existing mines Mirash/Bardh and advances in Northern direction of the Sibovc field).
The work for the Part I of the main mine plan was mainly focused on:
survey possibilities of the future coal supply to the existing and new power plants,
compare different mining equipment alternatives,

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Main Content and Results of Part I (the 1st Stage)


Power Plant Concept and Coal Demand
The current coal consumption level of the power plants amounts to 6-7mt/a. This level is not
sufficient to secure the demand for electricity in Kosovo. Also in the coming years, the production could increase only insignificantly (to approx. 8.7 mt according to the Mid Term Plan).
To meet the demand for electricity better, UNMIK committed to launch a project for the establishment of a new power plant. The detailed concept and the coal demand of the new power
plant were not available at the time, when the work on the study had begun.
Under consideration of the above, it was worked out that i.a. a new power plant could not be
commissioned before 2012 at the earliest. The demand for raw coal should moderately increase
to avoid a too high investment peak. Thus costs (in particular financing costs) could be kept
low (see Part I).
Alternatives of equipment
After having analyzed various main mining equipment solutions and mining methods the following four Alternatives have been recognised as suitable:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Conventional bucket wheel excavator (BWE), belt conveyors and spreader


Compact BWE, belt conveyors and spreader
Truck and shovel (mobile equipment)
Combination of BWE belt conveyors, spreader and truck and shovel

Comparing the real average costs the alternative 4 turned out as most suitable. The performance of truck /shovel should be limited of the work for achieving a constant extraction performance of the BWEs. That means the trucks and shovels work in areas where peaks of overburden occur.
Opening up / Mine development
For the mine development and the opening up of the Sibovc field six variants have been investigated.
Var. 1
One single mine in Sibovc (as Var. 1.1 and 1.2)
Var. 2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc and Field D
Var. 3.1
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle)
Var. 3.2
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North)
Var. 4
Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Var.1 is applicable, if the mine operator will take over the supply obligation for both the existing and the new lignite-fired power plants. While Variant 1.1 is a development from South to
North the Variant 1.2 starts in the very North.
The comparison between advantages / disadvantages favour Var.1.1 (against Var.1.2) provided
the total resettlement can be done up in time.
Two mine scenarios were discussed and despite of certain advantages of it regarding the attraction of private investors it was not given preference. Hence the Main Mine Plan Sibovc consists of a mining development beginning in Bardh/Mirash and heading in Northern direction.

Main Content and Results of the Second Stage (Part II)


For the detailed preparation of the mining development, the following guideline has been laid
down by the Ministry:
a) Power generation forecast and yearly coal demand
With the objective to make sufficient electricity available for the domestic market as
quickly as possible and to make exports in addition to it, new power plant capacities up
to 7 x 350 MW will be established. Preferentially, they can be erected at the locations
of TPP A and TPP B.

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Year

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
SUM

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP A

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP B1+B2

1.8
2.0
2.0
3.3
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
3.14
1.57

5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
2.65

56.56

102.7

New
TPP Kosovo
B3-B6

2.71
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.24
5.24
5.42
8.13
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
246.4

New
IPP
C1 C3

2.71
5.42
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
176.7

Other
Lignite
Consumers
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
14.0

Total
Coal Demand
6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
10.35
10.35
10.35
13.06
15.77
15.87
15.87
18.40
21.11
22.49
23.63
24.59
24.41
24.41
24.77
21.94
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
596.45

b) Resettlement
This issue was discussed with the responsible authorities including the beneficiary and
the European Agency. Resulting from these discussions a decision was made to assume
the timely resettlement of Hade for the Main Mine Plan.

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

c) Number of mines
Considerations regarding a possible second mine are not subject of the second part of
the study.
d) Mine development scenario
Subject of the Main Mine Plan is the development of the Sibovc coal field from the existing opencast mines of Bardh / Mirash. This shall be carried out with a long bench in
parallel operation from the south to the north. The opencast mine Sibovc will supply
coal to all customers.
The assessed output of coal from the existing mines (Bardh/ Mirash) and the coal haulage required from the new mine is shown as follows:
Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Sum

Coal from
Bardh
Mt
6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
7.9
3.2
2.5

43.7

Mirash

/ Coal from new


Mine(s)
Mt
0
0
0
0
2.45
7.15
7.85
13.06
15.77
15.87
62.15

Sum = Demand of
Coal
mt
6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
10.35
10.35
10.35
13.06
15.77
15.87
105.85

One essential principle for granting a license for coal extraction is:
The purpose of coal production is to ensure the short-term, mid-term and long-term fuel supply
for the existing and future power plants with lignite. Therefore the licenses for coal mining
should be compliant to the power generation licenses. The mining licenses should provide sufficient security of supply in term of coal quantities. The new investor should be able to receive
a mining license over the total amount of mineable coal necessary over the total life time of the
power plant to be supplied.
License for Sibovc:
In the case of new TPPs with 40 years life time and annual coal demand of 19 m t/a the total
mineable coal reserves dedicated to the license would be 760 mt. To supply the existing TPPs
Kosovo A and B with fuel till their decommissioning a license over max. 140 m t mineable
reserves would be necessary in addition to the remaining reserves in the existing coal mines
Bardh and Mirash. Due to the mineable amount of coal in Sibovc the following can be provided:
Existing power plants and other consumer
140 mt
New power plants (TPP B3 B6)
430 mt
New power plants (TPP C1 C3 = IPP)
260 mt (remaining coal content).

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Geological Setting
The fill of Kosovo Basin in the Sibovc Concession Area consists of Upper Cretaceous strata
which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays in which lignite is interbedded.
The Sibovc area was site of luxuriant vegetation growth that finally became overwhelmed by
sedimentation and led to the formation of substantial stratiform lignite deposits of up to 90 m
seam thickness. The average thickness is about 50 m.
Towards the West the lignite deposition is tectonically bounded by the development of a series
of predominantly NNW-SSE striking faults. The geological work for the Main Mining Plan for
New Sibovc Mine reveals that the tectonic movements were already active during the lignite
formation and controlled the deposition of organic material and anorganic clay.
The eastern limit is characterized by sedimentological pinch-out.
The bottom of the lignite prone Pliocene sequence is formed by massive green clay. Intercalation of lignite and clay with varying lignite content and subordinated ash layers are developed
in the basal part of the overlying Lignite Formation. The middle and upper part of the Lignite
Fm. is built by a frequently massive lignite seam. Intercalations of clay layers generally decrease upwards. Within the seam section generally Net CV is increasing upwards. Occasionally, the hanging wall contact of the Lignite Seam is gradually with a development of a thin
transition from lignite to the grey clay.
The terms Lignite Fm. and Lignite Seam were introduced for the Main Mining Plan for the
New Sibovc Mine in order to define vertical upper and lower mining boundaries. Hereby, Lignite Fm. represents the litho-stratigraphic interval between the overlying massive grey clay and
the bottom massive green clay. The lignite seam is defined for the section where the Interburden-to-Coal ratio is below 50% and the thickness of an individual clay interburden layer is below 5 m.
The distribution of interburden layers that are larger than 0.5 m has been recorded for the boreholes in the Sibovc Concession Area
Within the Lignite Seam interburden layers constitute 6.9% of the gross seam thickness
whereby 53% are represented by layers under 1 m thickness. 30% are between 1 and 2 m, 17%
are thicker than 2 m. The vertical distribution shows an increasing trend from top to bottom
seam.
Outside the Lignite Seam but still within the limits of the stratigraphic unit of the Lignite Formation the interburden volume is 65%.
Maps of the interburden thickness distribution show a patchy distribution of high thickness
values without any clear directional trends. Most of the high contour areas are generated by
only one borehole recording.
We can not distinguish whether the scattered and patchy contour pattern is caused by inconsistent qualities of borehole descriptions and/or by geological reasons, i.e. the clay intercalation
has a very limited extent below the borehole spacing.
Regardless of the causes it is obvious that a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model cannot be realized.
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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Petrographic analysis describe the lignite as xylit rich with small or big marshy coaly clay The
medium content of the clay is 35-40%, and it appears in the form of independent grains or almost linked with organic material. Pyrite appears in the form of spherical impregnations grainsize around 25 microns.
The Lignite Formation is overlain by grey clay which is partially described as marly or sandy.
Layers with abundant fossil content are frequently mentioned but the borehole descriptions do
not allocate the depths of these.
Sporadically sand layers of up to several meters thickness occur apparently concentrated along
the morphological highs. They may have been deposited as aeolian sands. However, detailed
descriptions of the sedimentological texture are missing.
Sand in the immediate hangingwall of the lignite has been only recorded in one borehole along
the generated detailed cross-sections across the Sibovc Concession Area.
In the river cuts of the Sitnitca and the Sibovc River no direct lignite-to-sand contact has been
recorded in the boreholes. However, such setting cannot generally be excluded due to the limited areal extent of the sand bodies.
The uppermost 10 m describe the weathering zone and consist of yellow clay (i.e. the weathering product of the grey clay) and of generally 2-3 m humus.
Geological Modelling
443 borehole data (lithological descriptions, 334 with coal quality assays) were available for
the area within Sibovc Concession Area
Until the introduction of the regulation on classification and categorization of the hard raw
minerals (Official gazette no.53 of 19/10/1979) the sampling intervals for coal analyses had not
been uniform and been ranging between 0.50 and 26 m, commonly between 5-10 m. Large
sample intervals (over 15m) are quite rare and include mainly the lowest parts of the coal seam,
where the volume of interburden intercalations thicker than 0.50m increase. These intercalations are mainly removed from the quality analysis. The boreholes drilled after October
1979 have testing intervals between 4.0-15.0m, often 10.0m.
Drilling with bentonite and water mud may have influenced substantially the natural moisture
content of the coal as a consequence of the artificial increase of water.
A detailed geological model has been generated for the Lignite Seam. It integrates all available
sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data. The results are documented on
1:10,000 maps and 1:5,000 cross-sections.
For the Net Calorific Value Distribution, a 3D Block Model has been generated by using SURPAC.
The block model provides comprehensive information to characterise the Lignite deposit
within the Sibovc concession area. The following table summarizes splits by various categories
and cut-offs.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Percentage of Total
Seam Volume
(990 mio tons)

Category

Average
(kJ/kg)

1. 1000 kJ Increments
3000-4000
0.0
4000-5000
0.1
5000-6000
0.6
6000-7000
5.8
7000-8000
23.4
8000-9000
48.1
9000-10000
21.5
10000-11000
0.5
Total
100.0
2. Cut-off 5400 kJ
<5400
0.2
=>5400
99.8
3. Minimum Input for TPP A (6270 kJ/kg)
<6270
1.2
=>6270
98.8
4. Minimum Input for TPP B (6720 kJ/kg)
<6720
3.5
=>6720
96.5
5. KEK Classification Scheme
0-5440
0.2
5440-6700
3.2
6700-7950
24.5
7950-9210
58.2
9210-11000
13.9
Total
100.0

3798
4639
5668
6675
7600
8510
9350
10113
8359
4953
8365
5802
8390
6289
8435
4974
6352
7478
8574
9525
8359

Historical underground mining uncontrolled coal fires affect the development of the new Sibovc Mine.
Old underground structures have been detected in the southeastern part of the Sibovc field and
are connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in
Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope. The galleries probably reach to a zone about 2
km at North of the Village of Hade.
The documented coal mining using galleries and shafts reach back to 1922.
Underground mining was abandoned in 1966. The following table shows the overall coal production of the underground mine. There is no futher reliable documentation on the extension of
the old underground mine or the information is at least incomplete.
Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin
"Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 - 1966

years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Under
consideration of these production rates for the field Kosovo can be calculated an area of app.
5 km2 and for the field Sibovac of at least 2 km2. The minor production rates from the field
Sibovac show that the excavation only took place near the surface.
The evaluation of all available information proves the assumption that the extension of the galleries in a northward direction may be larger than supposed.
Within a wide area a large amount of lignite in the Kosovo open pit mines is affected by spontaneous combustion which occurs in all locations where the coal is exposed to air or air can
penetrate the underground and reach the coal
Self-ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat
energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the
coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually.
In a first phase coal fires take place within weakness zones like joints or slope failures or old
mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by released methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer is influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or
within the roof strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of
energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mining facilitate supplementary ventilation and therefore best conditions for oxygen inflow are given. Burned out galleries result in
large cavities and therefore decrease stability of the slopes. The experiences from the BardhMirash mine proved that a lot of fires Bardh Mine were associated with slide faults and occurred also in other parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period as slopes
(especially the central pillar in front of the face between the actual excavation areas) and
dumped coal masses. Frequently the coal fires begin at the base of the dumps and affect the
whole dump until it is burned out.
The geological and geotechnical conditions in the future Sibovc Mine will be comparable due
to also existing remains of the old underground mining. It is assumed that the potential danger
for coal fires will be high as in the Bardh-Mirash mine.
Further complications could result of the fact that the area of the future Sibovc mine was affected by illegal (private) coal mining. Due to the morphology and geology in the western part
of the Sibovc Field the coal can be excavated without use of heavy equipment. Some valleys
cut the overburden nearly completely facilitating the excavation only by manpower without
excavators. Numerous small quarries and open shafts prove the extensive private coal excavation. In the most cases the quarries and shafts are not refilled and remain exposed for a long
period. This fact and the unascertainable distribution of the private excavation localities retrieve an unpredictable potential of coal fire development in the future.
The following counteractive measures could be advisable:

Direct fire fighting (small fires)

Excavation of local burning coal (hot spots)

Levelling of surface and drilling of injection holes

Injection of water or slurry to the fire centre

Surface sealing (excavation front, dumps)

Cooling with water spraying equipment

Inertisation

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Flooding (surface near galleries)


Burnout control

Prevention of coal fires is synonymous with the avoidance of the contact of coal and oxygen.
The most problematic locations of oxygen entry are the underground corridors.
Cut old galleries have to be protected against ventilation. If an excavator hits a gallery, the entry should be closed as soon as possible with adapted material (clay or other impermeable material) to prevent further oxygen entry. These actions have to be taken permanently during the
excavation process.
Collapsed old galleries near the surface or shafts have to be inspected if oxygen can penetrate
somewhere and where appropriate, openings need to be filled. In this context the underground
mining map (Annex I/ 4.7- 1) e information where to aspect potential fires in the future.
Self combustion and fires near the surface can be avoided minimising a permanent contact of
the coal with atmospheric oxygen. Dumped coal should be sealed and the sealing should be reg
ulary controlled for dehydration and crack formation. Slide faults can cause deep and complexcracks and are often the origin of coal fires within the Bardh Mine, which are very difficult to
extinguish. Therefore it is essential to prevent land slides.
Generally, the length of the excavation front has to be adapted to the yearly coal output. Thus,
the time of exposition of the excavation front can be reduced.
In the 1st halfyear of 2006 a project will be started by EAR for fire fighting in the Kosovo Coal
Mines.
Geological Resource Assessment
The geological resources of the lignite deposit were computed in accordance with the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC).
The lignite resources were classified applying the area-of-influence method with the following
distances between points-of-observation:

Measured
Indicated
Inferred

Borehole distance
<= 250 m
250 - 500 m
> 500 m

radius of area-of-influence
<=177 m
177 - 354 m
> 354 m

According to the classification scheme 94% of the total area is classified as measured resources, the remaining 6% as indicated resources.
The resource calculation is bounded to the concession areas of Sibovc. Losses of resources due
to underground mine workings in the upper part of the seam in some isolated areas are not yet
estimated since no accurate volume estimates are available yet.
A specific gravity of 1.14 g/cm was applied in order to calculate the tonnage of lignite resources. This value is in accordance with former assumptions and allows a comparison of resource figures with various former studies.

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The volumetric calculation of geological resources for the Lignite Seam within the Sibovc
Concession Area resulted in a total of 990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2. 931 mt (i.e. 94%) are
classified as measured, 59 mt as indicated.
The resource estimate includes the seam interburden since these intervals were chemically not
evaluated and a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model could not be realized.
The volume of not mineable interburden is considered as the main uncertainty in the resource
assessment.
Further uncertainties in the resource estimate exist on the narrow fault blocks in the West of the
Sibovc Concession Area. Here, uncertainties exist in the extent and size of faults which have
controlled the seam development.
Soil-mechanical Parameters
For the determination of geotechnical parameters, all available data have been used (also from
previous explorations) and also data which have been identified in the framework of the Main
Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.
To achieve a short-term improvement of the knowledge about the geological/soil-physical
situation or the area of the Northern head slope of the Bardh opencast mine (towards the Sibovc field), 9 boreholes were drilled in 2003/2004 down to the floor of the coal seam. All drillings were sampled; the samples were and/or are still analysed in the laboratories of KEK, DMT
and GMB to their soil-physical properties.
The calculation methodology after BISHOP as yet apllied by KEK/INKOS does not reflect the
actual conditions and is therefore not suited to guarantee a soil-mechanically safe operational
management. The soil-mechanical recalculations were carried out by adopting the calculation
method of BOROVICKA for circular cylindrical and polygonal sliding surfaces and the sliding
block method.
Analysis results of the core samples from the drilling made by the laboratories of GMB und
KEK show the following parameter
Soil-physical parameter
c

(kN/m)
()
(kN/bcm)
Gray and yellow clay Overburden 14.3
16.2
17.5
2)
(16)
(30)
(17.5)
Coal seam
40
50
12.2
Green Clay (floor strata)
14
16
17.5
2)
(16)
(30)
(17.5)
Geological Layers

R
(kN/m)
8
(8)
8
(8)

1)

cR
(kN/m)
5
(10)
5
(10)

1)

1) Residual shear resistance (resistance after a long sliding way)

Based on the analysis of available reports of the soil mechanical laboratory tests performed on
samples from the drill holes SH 3, SH 4 und SH 5 the coefficient k (coefficient of water permeability) is:
Overburden (grey und yellow clay)
k = 4 * 10-10 2.6 * 10-11
Green clay (floor strata)
k ca. 4 * 10-11
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

To ensure both a geotechnical safe and efficient opencast mine operation the following safety
factors are regarded necessary from soil-mechanical aspects for the specific objects.

Single slopes
Partial slope systems
Total system
Objects to be protected

Si > 1.05
Si > 1.20
Si > 1.20
Si > 1.30

Experiences, a. o. from the Mirash and Bardh opencast mines are used to dimension the Border
Slope System.
Based on the static stability investigations the following general inclinations for the slope systems were determined, among others t o ensure static stability of partial slope systems and the
entire slope system. The soil-mechanical calculations base on the safety factor of Si > 1.20.

General inclination for the coal slope system


General inclination for the slope system in the overburden

G, coal < 22
G, overburden < 10

In order to prevent coal fires during the lifetime of the coal slope and the connected
endangering of the static stability of the coal head slope and
the resulting pollution
the following can be done:
In the overburden operation a general slope angle of 15... 20 shall be produced by the
large equipment. Directly afterwards, the general slope angle of < 10 shall be produced by
means of crawlers.
It is known from practical soil-mechanical experiences in the existing opencast mines that
slides may occur at the single slopes.
Considering the above mentioned soil-physical parameter the following slope angles erf are
required in dependence on the slope height hB. This ensures the static stability of the single
slopes against slides on circular cylindrical and polygonal directed sliding surfaces in the long
run:
0 m <hB < 10 m
10 m < hB < 15 m
15 m < hB < 20 m

erf < 65
erf < 40
erf < 30

An angle of 30 cannot be cut into the side slope by the existing excavators. The slope remains
stable during the excavation process. However the slope stability reduces during the weeks
especially under unfavourable climatic conditions (rainfalls and variations in temperature).This
means that the presence in direct proximity to the slope has to be limited to the operationally
required extent in any case. Therefore operating instructions have to be formulated in accordance with the actual conditions.
Excavation and the subsequent transportation on a belt conveyor to the spreader cause changing of the soil-physical properties of the clay.

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Taking into account the following changed soil-physical calculation parameter for the material
to be dumped
Angle of effective internal friction
= 14
Effective cohesion
c = 10 kN/m
Specific weight of earth-moist soil
= 17.5 kN/m
and carrying out static stability calculation on the basis of these values the following results are
obtained:
Assuming the dump slope angle of 30 is achieved the dump will have a static stability of
Si 1.0 with a height of hdump 12 m. A further increase in height of the dump will lead to
slope failure. This slope failure will result in formation of shear planes (so-called polished surface planes). The material strength will decrease to residual shear strength in these shear
planes. The dump flows out and settles below a slope angle of 6... 8.
The following measures for a safe operational management are proposed:
1) A detailed and continuously updated geological model which is approved by the responsible geologist must exist for the opencast mine operation (illustration in maps,
sections and reports).
2) Each opencast mine requires data on the hydrological situation (f. e. location and direction of aquifers, data on the level of existing ground-water level; data have to be
recorded in written form).
3) Actual soil-physical parameters are required for the important geological layers in
the roof and floor of the coal seam. These parameters shall be continuously verified.
Soil samples shall be investigated in a recognized soil-physical laboratory. The result shall be laid down in written form
4) The position of the mine is to be recorded in a layout plan in regular periods (results
from flights of terrestrial surveying).
5) Due to the advancing mining slopes it is necessary to keep at least three representative geological profiles in which the achieved mining position have to be recorded
in regular periods. Profiles shall be at right angle to the bench.
6) Position and progress of the head slopes shall be planned forward looking. The
planed geometries shall be illustrated at least by one advance cut through the respective head slope. The cuts shall be in right angle to the head slope system.
7) The track lines of all cuts shall be entered into the a. m. layout plan.
8) A geotechnical expert shall prepare soil-mechanical static stability investigations
for
a) all single slopes of the mine, including the advancing slopes as well as the head
slopes and
b) the total slope system (containing also the partial systems).
Resulting from the investigations on the static stability, specifications shall be formulated for the safe shaping of the single slopes and the entire slope system (including partial systems) with the specific technological conditions in mind. The results shall be set out in written form (experts report).
9) These experts reports shall be justified to representatives of the opencast mine, the
justification shall be recorded in a minutes.
10) A geotechnical specialist is needed for the opencast mine, who, among others, supervises the implementation of the requirements from the a.m. geotechnical expert
reports and the necessary measures for a safe geotechnical operational management.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

11) The geotechnical specialist shall perform regular inspections (at least twice or three
times a week, or if required). These inspections shall be recorded (protocol).
12) A control and supervision regime shall be elaborated for the mines. This document shall contain all specific operational points which shall control and supervise
continuously the geotechnical conditions. The kind of control and the required reaction in case of deviations from the specifications shall be documented.

Technological Development of the New Sibovc Mine


The development of the New Sibovc Mine starts from the existing opencast mines of Bardh /
Mirash.
Important preconditions determined for planning the development of the Sibovc mine are:
a)
Ensuring the defined coal supply t the power plants
b)
Take into consideration the release dates of the main mine equipment from
Bardh/Mirash
c)
Preconditions for resettlement
The mine development bases on the prepared geological model. It aims at mining the saleable
product raw coal at most favourable costs. That means that essential changes of the targets and
premises will lead also to corresponding changes in the mining concept and costs. The overburden removal operation ensures the uncovering of the necessary coal quantities for the supply to the power plant having regard to the geotechnical safety requirements (see chapter: soil
mechanical parameters).
It is agreed that the necessary resources will be made available, such as:
Qualified employees in the respective trades and
Sufficient financial means for the investment and maintenance
Furthermore, it is assumed that all permits for the operation will be available in time.
With regard to the mining technology, the present mining of the deposit will be continued
whereby available equipment and a part of the KEK plants will be used to a great extent.
Dumping of power plant ash in the mines lies in the responsibility of the power plants and is
not included within the framework of Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.
The capacity calculation and/or assessment of excavator capacities bases on the estimation of
the principle capability of the equipment under the conditions of the Sibovc deposit, whereby a
tolerance range is taken into account (lower and upper limit).
The mass movements (especially overburden) resulting from the determined coal supplies are
then compared with this capability in order to show the feasibility.
All relevant influencing parameters are considered when determining the overburden and coal
capacities. These influencing parameters are split into two columns:
Firstly, the influencing factors, which determine the filling and the emptying of the excavator
buckets. Resulting from this the load factor (and/or excavator effect) is yielded and the hourly
capacity and
Secondly, the time factors [time factor T], which determined the annual output capacity.
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The following normal- and maximum capacities have been calculated for the planning of Sibovc:

1)
Normal daily
capacity
Maximum daily
capacity
Normal weekly
capacity
Maximum
weekly capacity
Normal
monthly capacity
Maximum
monthly capacity
Normal annual
capacity
Maximum annual capacity

Operating VE
time
new
BWE
with
1560
bcm/h
Tb
VE
1,000
bcm
h
19.2
29.95

with:
1950
bcm/h
VE

VE
SchRs
650
with:
800
bcm/h
VE

with:
1,000
bcm/h
VE

VE
SRs
1300
with:
700
bcm/h
VE

with:
850
bcm/h
VE

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

37.44

15.36

19.2

13.44

16.32

21.6

33.70

42.12

17.28

21.6

15.12

18.36

110.4

172

215

88

110

77

94

128.2

200

250

102

128

89

109

385

600

750

308

385

270

327

484

755

944

387

484

338

411

4,266

6655

8318

3413

4266

2986

3626

5,474

8540

10670

4380

5474

3832

4653

The long-term planned overall capacity for the overburden operation is shown in the below
table:
Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in Overburden Operation

Reliable assumption
VE
SRs 1300
SRs 1300
New BWE
SchRs 650
SUM

m bcm/a
3.6
3.6
8.3
4.3
19.8

Maximum assumption
In
4.6
4.6
10.6
5.4
25.2

The listed equipment is therefore in principle capable of meeting the required coal supply of
19.1 to 24.8 mt per year (Ratio Overburden to Coal is 1.17 m:1 t).

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The results for the pit system (up to the place of delivery power station) as nominal capacity
are:
Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in the Pit System

Reliable assumption
VE
m t/a
SchRs 650
SRs 1300
SRs 1300
New SchRs 650 /SRs 1300
SUM

5.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
20.9

Maximum assumption
in
7.3
5.9
5.9
5.9
25.0

The conveying capacity is assessed on the basis of:


Belt width
Belt troughing
Belt speed
Utilization ratio of belt width
Inclination and
Bulk density of material
Coal inclined belt conveyor
The inclined coal belt conveyor is planned with an inclination of 1:6, i.e. about 10.
According to the belt speed, a 2.0 m wide belt conveyor can handle between 6900 and 8600 t/h
coal per single conveyor. For a 1.8 m wide belt conveyor this would amount to 5500 t/h to
6900 t/h.
Relations coal production to capability of long-distance belt conveyor:
If all coal excavators would operate simultaneously with a capacity of 1200 t/h this would result in a production of 4800 t/h. Considering the unequal belt charge of all pit excavators of 2530 % there follows a necessary effective total belt capacity of 6240 t/h.
This requirement is met by one single 1.8m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s.
Two long-distance belt conveyors lead to the power plants.
Head belt conveyor:
Two coal excavators charge the coal to one head belt conveyor.
Calculating the short-term peak load (< 1h) of one single coal excavator with a Vth von ca.4000
lcm/h and an addition of 25% there results the dimension of the discharging belt conveyor of
ca. 5000 lcm/h. Two excavators shall have the following size:
8000 lcm/h x 1.1 = 8800 lcm/h or 6600 t/h for one belt conveyor line
This can also be met with a 1.8 m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s.
In principle there shall be a conveying reserve of 25% between belt conveyor and excavator
and 10% between belt conveyor and spreader.

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Except the new A2Rs B 8000, the available spreaders will be used for saving costs. These
spreaders are the bottleneck in the conveying chain. Measures to stabilise / increase the capability should therefore be included in the refurbishment.
Mine Planning
The following was taken into consideration when the excavation boundary (upper edge of first
level) was established:
a)
Course of concession line
b)
Permissible approach to villages
c)
Thickness of mineable coal seam at the boundary
d)
Necessary general inclination from geotechnical point of view
e)
Necessary minimum profile from technological point of view
f)
Requirements to bench lengths which are meaningful from technological point
of view
g)
Ecological aspects
Bench Design
Position of benches
The Sibovc field shows a varying thickness and a varying inclination of the bench and of the
roof and floor of the seam. The benches must follow these inclinations with the least possible
mining loss.
4 levels are needed for overburden removal with the 4th level (Overburden Level 4) provided
as a mixed level for both overburden and coal mining.
Coal mining is also implemented in 4 levels.
Admissible inclination of benches
The inclination possible to be managed by the machines is 1:33 for excavator operation. For
the inclination of the benches inclinations of 1:40 were chosen in order to be able to follow the
big inclinations of the terrain, roof and floor.
Taking inclination for water drainage into consideration
The planned inclinations provide water drainage. The minimum inclination should not be less
than 1:150. A drainage ditch must be provided on the benches and pump stations shall be provided in the deep positions of the benches.
Slope heights
For the machines SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 slope heights of ca. 20 m have been planned. The
new BWE operates with an average slope height of about 25 m. Greater slope heights can be
carried out using the ramp excavation und interim bench.
Division of Cuts
During the period under review until 2038 there will mostly be parallel operation with varying
advance at the ends of the bench according to the shape of the field. Overburden Levels 2 and 3
will be operated in parallel until the end of the field is reached. For the Overburden Level 1 and
for the coal levels a turning point will be established north of Lajthisht (after 2045). Then the
excavation of the field can be completed by turning round clockwise.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Overburden and Coal Levels


are described in Annexes II/6.5-11 to -18
Mass Calculation
On the basis of the topographic isoline maps, the existing borehole data submitted by KEK and
the results of additional exploration measures a digital deposit model was prepared for the purpose of the computer-aided mass calculation. The technological mass calculation has been realised with MicroStation-Programs as well as specialised programs developed by Vattenfall on
the basis of triangulation.
The following data and criteria of mineability have been considered in the mass calculation:

Density of lignite 1.14 t/m


Extraction of lignite from a thickness of at least 0.5 m
Separate excavation of intercalations from a thickness of more than 0.5 m
Consideration of a mining loss of 0.4 0.5 m at each strata boundary

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Sector calculation of the entire field


Section

Sum

Overburden - Levels Coal - Levels


OverburCoal
OverCoal
den
burden
10m
10t
10m
10t
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum

45,054
0
0
4
656
45,058
656
55,661
0
0
739
5,684
56,400
5,684
100,137
0
0
1,114
9,321
101,251
9,321
132,603
0
0
1
4,383
132,604
4,383
166,865
0
0
264 17,034
167,129 17,034
105,633
0
0
2,891 23,404
108,524 23,404
59,518
0
0
3,219 30,139
62,737 30,139
84,014
0
0
2,560 18,789
86,574 18,789
749,485
0
0
0
0
0
10,792 109,410
760,277 109,410

0
0
0
0
7
408
10
0
425
0
1,447
1,209
2,656
0
1,896
1,925

11,018
11,018

23,261
23,261

84,649
84,649

110,760
3,821 110,760
0
2,035
1,327
123,282
3,362 123,282
11
1,688
9,536
99,986
11,235 99,986
401
2,355
11,218
138,839
13,974 138,839
332
2,302
13,294
128,596
15,928 128,596
751
0
12,131
0
38,519
0
0 720,391
51,401 720,391

Page 32 of 257

Sum
Overburden
10m
45,054
0
0
4
45,058
55,668
408
10
739
56,825
100,137
1,447
1,209
1,114
103,907
132,603
1,896
1,925
1
136,425
166,865
2,035
1,327
264
170,491
105,644
1,688
9,536
2,891
119,759
59,919
2,355
11,218
3,219
76,711
84,346
2,302
13,294
2,560
102,502
750,236
12,131
38,519
10,792
811,678

Sum
Coal

O :C

10t

11,674
11,674

3.86 : 1

28,945
28,945

1.96 : 1

93,970
93,970

1.11 : 1

115,143
115.143

1.18 : 1

140.316
140.316

1.22 : 1

123.390
123.390

0.97 : 1

168,978
168,978

0.45 : 1

147,386
147,386

0.70 : 1

829,802
829,802

0.98 : 1

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Preparatory Works in the Year 2007/2008


In 2007 the establishment of the operation position for Overburden Level 1 will start. Truck
and Shovel as well as bulldozers will be used to remove ca. 2 million m of soil. The belt conveyor system for the overburden level will be established in two segments in the valley west
of Hade in a V shape. The mass removal will start in 2007 with 1.6 m m and will continue in
2008 with 0.4 m m.
In 2008 the overburden excavators from the existing opencast mines will be used after having
been refurbished and will start the development excavation in the transfer area of the opencast
mine fields Bardh/Mirash up to the new field of Sibovc. After the excavators have started
their operation there will be an adjustment period for improving the capacity until the time
when they will have reached their full capacity, i.e. ca. 6 months.
The utilization of the machines has been planned as followed:
April 2008 Excavator E9M SchRs 650
This efficient excavator is planned for utilization in the Overburden/Coal Level 4, where coal
and overburden have to be excavated alternately. As this level has not been cut free yet, the
operation will start in Overburden Level 1 with the excavation of the western wing of the belt
conveyor system. In the period from 4/2008 to 9/2008 an amount of 1.8 m m will be excavated. From 10/2008 the excavation in Overburden/Coal Level 4 will start. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and
Truck and Shovel.
May 2008 Excavator E9M SRs 1300
This excavator is planned to work in Coal Level 2 due to its digging forces. Until the use of
the scheduled Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in Overburden Level 1 , excavator E9M can start the
ex-cavation in the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system.
After use of Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in June 2009, the excavator will be transported to its
place of operation in Coal Level 2.
In 2008, about of 2.6 m m will be removed in Overburden Level 2.
June 2008 Excavator E9B SRs 1300
The excavator will be used in its new operation position in Overburden Level 2. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers
and Truck and Shovel. West of Hade the bench will end on the grass. One bench will be used
together with Overburden Level 1. The belt conveyor systems of both levels will be led
around the Bardh/Mirash mines in southern direction and start the inside dumping in Mirash.
September 2008 new BWE
The Overburden Level 3 is the level with the greatest thickness which goes over the whole
length of the bench. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines
will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel.
There is a spreader dump in the western transition area of the Bardh mine. The heavily watersaturated clayey dump cannot be excavated any more. Therefore the excavator will have to
make a new cut north of this dump. Discharge will take place in west-east direction. The excavator will operate in interim bench operation on a plane of 8 m be-low the belt conveyor
systems. Before moving the belt conveyor system the slope must be levelled to an inclination
of 1 : 3 and the belt conveyor system will then be moved over this inclination. This process

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will be repeated until the required bench height is reached. At the same time the general inclination of < 10 necessary from a geotechnical point of view must be kept.
Mining Development in the Year 2009
The overburden removal of the development will continue in 2009 until the utilization of the
opencast machines starts.
Until use of Excavator E8B SRs 1300, Excavator E8M SRs 1300 will work in Overburden
Le-vel 1. Afterwards, the excavator is shifted to Coal Level 2.
The excavator in Overburden Level 1 will work exclusively at the eastern wing of the belt
conveyor system. The residual overheights above Level 1 at the eastern wing will be removed
by Truck and Shovel.
The mine equipment from the Bardh/Mirash mines will also stop working step by step. They
will be refurbished basically and travel to their new operation positions.
The use of the machines is planned as follows:
-

April 2009 Excavator E10M SchRs 650

In the first coal level the major part shall be removed by the efficient mine excavator.
The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using
bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The mining direction will be the same as with all the other
levels west-east. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine
overburden.
-

June 2008 Excavator E8B SRs 1300 in overburden level 1


Excavator E 8M SRs 1300 transportation in coal level 2
The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using
bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The same machines as in Level 1 will be used. A belt
wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine overburden.
September 2008 Excavator E10 B SRs 1300
The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using
bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. In Level 3 the excavator will carry out the coal excavation
of Level 4 at first until 2016. During this time the machine capacity will be sufficient for both
levels. Level 4 will not be fully developed by then. The excavator can be used to excavate the
coal in interim bench excavation south of the belt conveyor system. A belt wagon BRs 1600
will be used for this and the residual overburden.
Mining Development in the Year 2010
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
The overburden levels will continue their development excavation. In Overburden
Level 1 the excavator E 8B will work at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. Overburden Level 2 and 3 will work on a straight bench. In Level 4 the planned bench will have
been reached with the new cut of the excavator in the western part. From this time the regular
operation in overburden can start.

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The coal levels will still work with a shortened bench so that the full capacity cannot
be reached.
Mining Development in the Year 2011
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In the Overburden Level 1 the excavator will start to work alternately at the western
and eastern wing of the divided belt conveyor system.
In the other overburden levels there will be a regular operation.
In the coal extraction all levels will still work with shortened benches.
Mining Development in the Year 2012
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned.
At the end of 2012 the bench in Coal Level 1 will be extended into the direction of the
western boundary line. The other levels will still work with a shortened bench.
Mining Development in the Year 2013
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned.
In 2013 the Coal Level 1 will have reached its planned bench in the area of the western boundary line. In Level 2 the cutting of the bench and the bench extension into the direction of the western boundary line will have started by which a regular operation in the main
excavation levels of the coal is possible. By this the development operation for the mine can
be regarded as finished.
Mining Development in the Period 2014 2018
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In Overburden Level 1 the pivoting of the west and eastern wings of the belt conveyor system
will almost be finished. Levels 2 to 4 will develop as planned. The head conveyors of Level 1
and 2 will still be on one bench.
The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will reach their planned benches. In 2016 a newly built excavator SRs
1300 or equivalent will be used for Level 4. The excavator will mostly work in the west part
of the deposit. In the east the belt conveyor system will be moved to the height of Level 3.
Both bench conveyors will charge to one head conveyor system.
Mining Development in the Period 2019 2023
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In Overburden Level 1 the bench will finally be straightened. In the west part there is a rise
within the area of the hill of Shipitull in all levels. Owing to the increased cut height the ramp
Page 35 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

excavation will have to start. The bench between Level 1 and 2 is divided so that the head
conveyors will be separated in future.
The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will continue their normal work on their planned benches.
Mining Development in the Period 2024 - 2028
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. The major part
of the mass extraction will be carried out during the period under review.
In the Overburden Level 1 both belt conveyor systems will be pivoted separately. There will
be a greater advance at the beginning and the end of the bench compared to the middle by
which the shape of the terrain will adapt to the valley of Sibovc. The other overburden levels
will pivot normally. In the west the benches will rise in the area of the hill of Shipitull. The
Overburden Level 2 will reach the highest area of the hill.
The coal levels will develop as planned. Towards the end of the period under review a new
inclined conveyor system will be used for the coal transport. From this time the Coal Levels 1
and 2 will be on the same height so that one head conveyor can be used. At that time the distribution station within the area of the inclined conveyor of the Overburden/Coal Level 4 will
also be rebuilt to fit the new inclined conveyor system.
Mining Development in the Period 2029 - 2033
The use of Truck and Shovel to support Overburden Level 1 will come to an end during the
period under review.
During the period under review the excavation in the Overburden Level 1 immediately at the
valley of Sibovc will finish.
The other overburden levels will leave the hilly area of the village of Shipitulle.
The coal levels will develop as planned. Coal Levels 3 and 4 will finally be converted to the
new inclined conveyor system, too, and continue to charge to one head conveyor system.
Mining Development in the Period 2034 2038
Overburden will only be excavated in the Overburden Levels 2, 3 and 4. The Overburden
Level 2 will end on the main part of the bench in the valley of Sibovc and will continue on a
shorter bench in the west part in order to resume the excavation with a new cut in the north of
Sibovc at a later time.
Towards the end of the period under review the third overburden level will also reach the valley of Sibovc. After 2038 the mining direction will have to change from west-east to eastwest.
The coal levels will develop as planned. In the Coal Level 3 the removal of overburden from
the floor will become more and more necessary owing to the course of the bench.

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Main Mine Equipment


The condition of the main mining equipment was considered especially under the aspect, if
the equipment should be used in Sibovc. In view of the high output performances, it is recommended to relocate all excavators of the type BWE SchRs 650 and BWE SRs 1300 and the
spreaders of the types A2RsB-5200 and A2RsB-4400 to Sibovc. In addition the excavator
E 7M is envisaged as floating machine.
Technical Specification
The technical specification describes the measures / standards needed for the main mining
equipment in Sibovc. It is mainly focussed on the new equipment to be procured. This is a
new equipment system of the 40000 m/d size with a 2.0 m belt conveyor and the relevant
spreader (approx. 8000 lcm/h theoretical capacity) as well as another excavator to be deployed in the pit.
Mine Development
The lacking advance in the preparation works of the opening-up of Sibovc is problematic.
Therefore, a high capacity will be required right at the beginning of works. Already in 2008 a
new equipment complex consisting of BWE, conveyor belt and spreader will have to be
commissioned. Nevertheless considerable overburden removal works will be required using
shovel / truck. This service should be contracted with third parties.
The following main equipment will be used:
Overburden - E 8B SRs 1300
- E 9B SRs 1300
- New BWE
- E 9M SchRs 650 and in coal operation
Coal
- E 10M SchRs 650
- E 8M SRs 1300
- E 10B SRs 1300
- New SchRs 650 or SRs 1300 or equivalent (2016).
In addition there are two spreaders A2RsB-5200 and one A2RsB-4400. The new spreader
should have a capacity of 8000 lcm/h matching the new BWE.
The capacity for overburden removal with the afore-mentioned equipment is calculated as
follows:
Reliable asMaximum assumpsumption
tion
VE in
SRs 1300
SRs 1300
New BWE
SchRs 650
SUM

m bcm/a
3.6
3.6
8.3
4.3
19.8

4.6
4.6
10.6
5.4
25.2

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The nominal capacity for the coal excavation in Sibovc amounts to:
Reliable assumption
VE
m t/a
SchRs 650
SRs 1300
SRs 1300
New SchRs 650 /SRs 1300
SUM

5.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
20.9

Maximum assumption
in
7.3
5.9
5.9
5.9
25.0

Owing to the overburden to coal ratio of 1.2 m : 1 t, this equipment complex is suited for the
long-term operation of Sibovc.

Development of employees
The following tables and graph give a survey on the staffing:
Year
Sibovc per 01.01.
+ new staff from
Mirash/Bardh
- Fluctuation
+ newly employed/recruited
Average of the year
Sibovc per 31.12.

2007
01.01.
0

2009
31.12. 01.01.
1370

31.12.

500

870

630

10
10

10
10

10
10

250

1150
500

Year
Sibovc per 01.01.
+ new staff from
Mirash/Bardh
- Fluctuation
- redundancy to market
Average of the year
Sibovc per 31.12.

2008
31.12. 01.01.
500

2010
01.01.
2000

1685
1370

2011
31.12. 01.01.
2110

2000

2012
31.12. 01.01.
2800

31.12.

160

765

40

50
0
2055

75
0
2455

55
85
2750

2110

Page 38 of 257

2800

2700

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Administration
Main Equipment+Belt
Conveyor
Auxiliary Equipment
Workshops
Other
SUM Personnel

2012

2013

2014
270
1125

20152022
260
1090

20232032
270
1100

20332036
250
1080

20372038
250
1040

280
1220

275
1180

370
590
240
2700

370
570
235
2630

365
560
230
2550

360
530
210
2450

360
550
220
2500

360
510
200
2400

360
500
200
2350

Employees in the mines Kosovo


4000
3500

Employees in all mines

3000
2500
2000
1500

Sibovc

Employees in
Mirash / Bardh per 01.01.
Employees in Sibovc
per 01.01.
Staff per 01.01. - all Mines

Mirash / Bardh

1000
500
0
2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Year

Further Energy Demand


Feeding of power cables and lines shall guarantee a safe supply for the described mining concept for Sibovc.
In the Sibovc mine a large part of the currently available mining equipment will be reused. It
is important to consider that the equipment shall be rehabilitated and that the future annual
capacity will be much higher than in the present Mirash and Bard mines.The long-term demand of installed energy is about 120 MW.
Auxiliary Equipment
For ensuring the production processes in the pit, a whole number of auxiliary machines and
equipment are necessary. The auxiliary equipment is attached to the different operational sections and operated in one up to three shift operation according to requirement.
A take-over of auxiliary equipment from the existing fleet for a further use in the Sibovc mine
will not be possible or only in to limited extent. The further plans for the Sibovc mine assume
a complete new auxiliary equipment fleet.
Page 39 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The optimal stock on auxiliary equipment in case of maximum production is shown in a Table
below.
Type
Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3-axle
Truck with hydraulic crane
Truck with lifting Platform
Dump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler)
Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel)
Grader
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep 12 seats
Personnel Transporters (36
Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

[ kW ]
230 - 300
180
250
180
120

Overb.
10
3
3
1

340
270
270
200

130
130
230

60t
180

1
1

200
180 - 200

1
1
1
2

160

Number of auxiliary Equipment


Coal
Stockp
Drain.
Maint.
6
6
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1

150
100
75
100
140

1
3
2
1
4
1
2
1
3

3
2
1
4
1

0.5

2
1

2
1
1

2
1
4
10

Page 40 of 257

7
9

1
2
3
1
2
2

total
22
5
2
8
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
7
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
5
2
2
1
1
17
15
2
9
2
2
1
3
1
2
6
1
2
4
1
4
10

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The establishment of the auxiliary equipment fleet will be adjusted to the development of capacity in the opencast mine. The first auxiliary machines have to be put in operation already
before the heavy-duty equipment will start work to prepare their starting position
The mobile auxiliary equipment has a smaller economic service life compared to the main
equipment. Depending on the type of equipment and the conditions of use this time varies between 3 and 12 years.
For special works, linked with large mass movements, the application of draglines has been
foreseen. These machines can be variably used at reasonable costs and they can be shifted
within the mine with low expenses.
A transport crawler is required for the shifting of the belt driving station and other heavy assemblies up to a weight of 350 t. Such a transport crawler is available in the existing mines
Bardh and Mirash. The transport crawler, financed by the EAR was delivered in 2003 and is
in a good technical status. Thats why a general rehabilitation is not foreseen before recommissioning in the Sibovc mine.
For further auxiliary equipment the total cost estimate is as follows:
The investments/reinvestments for auxiliary equipment amount to 133 MEUR until 2038.
About 26.5 MEUR are for initial investments, for rehabilitation measures of the heavy auxiliary equipment 2.1 MEUR and a sum of 104.1 MEUR for replacement investments. The replacement investments include a sum of 13.5 MEUR for the purchase of 3 new draglines.
Yearwise Investments for auxiliary Equipment in m:
Year
Investments

07
5.7

08
6.4

09
10.2

10
1.8

11
1.2

12
3.3

13
1.1

14
3.5

15
5.9

16
2.2

17
4.0

Year
Investments

18
2.5

19
3.6

20
4.5

21
7.2

22
1.8

23
1.5

24
3.6

25
2.7

26
3.4

27
11.6

28
6.9

Year
Investments

29
1.8

30
2.8

31
7.8

32
5.1

33
8.8

34
1.6

35
0.4

36
2.9

37
3.3

38
3.5

Infrastructure and Surface Facilities


In principle it is not planned to install new surface facilities for various reasons; among others
the available technical plants in Bardh/ Mirash, which are presently part of ongoing rehabilitation measures, the neighbourhood to Sibovc and the extensive investments, anyhow.
It seems to be reasonable to use the available buildings and plants to a great extend also for
the Sibovc opencast mine.
The different buildings of the following departments of KEK were checked for a follow-up
use:
Office Gate 1
Mine BARDH
Mine MIRASH
SEPARATION PLANT
KOSOVAMONT
Page 41 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The following construction measures are required for preparing the development of the lignite
opencast mines as well as for securing the auxiliary processes:

Social facilities and administration


Supply and disposal
Workshops and warehouses

The determination of the investment costs for infrastructure for the Sibovc mine base on the
assumption that the costs for the basic rehabilitation of the buildings and facilities which can
be used for this mine are already contained in the scope of investment of the Mid Term Plan.
Lease costs for workshops, warehouses, offices and washrooms
Infrastructure and 20072009- 201420192024Surface Facilities
2008
2013
2018
2023
2028
[T]
[T]
[T]
[T]
[T]
Mine roads (gravel)
2.806
7.015
7.015
7.015
7.015
Mine roads (as800
250
250
250
250
phalt)
Subtotal roads
3.606
7.265
7.265
7.265
7.265
Erection yards
200
500
500
500
500
Workshops
and
2.040
5.100
5.100
5.100
5.100
Warehouses
Mine offices
1.750
4.375
4.375
4.375
4.375
Washrooms
and
1.426
3.564
3.564
3.564
3.564
Sanitary facilities
Total

9.022

20.804

20.804

20.804

20.804

20292033
[T]
6.391

20342038
[T]
3.895

20072038
[T]
41.152

250

250

2.300

6.641
500

4.145
500

43.452
3.200

5.100

5.100

32.640

4.375

4.375

28.000

3.564

3.564

22.810

20.180

17.684 130.102

Mine Dewatering
The Kosova Basin includes a developed hydrological network with the main collector given
by the river Sitnica. This river crosses the basin from south to north and drains off 80 % of the
accumulating surface water northward.
In the past years opencast mine dewatering was not sufficient due to the bad condition of the
auxiliary equipment fleet. This lead to problems in the production process, since passing of
the working benches and the mine access roads could not be guaranteed. However, drainage
in Sibovc shall be improved as against the present status.
The following works shall be realised for a sufficient dewatering:
Planned installation of main collecting ditches from the working levels and dump
surfaces to the main drainage plants with continuous adjustment to the mining position
Establishment of the drainage of rainwater on all working levels
Discharging of permanent water accumulations on the dumps
Drainage of dammed up water at the slope foot of the inside dumps
Page 42 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Maintenance of all ditch systems


Installation and maintenance of sedimentation basins before feeding into rivers
Use of the collected water to reduce dust formation /dust control

The costs were determined on the basis of length and number of drainage ditches.
Basic prices are:
70 / m channel (concreted)
7 / m channel (not concreted)
Due to the opencast mine advance (100 120 m per annum) there have to be installed the
ditches for those lengths 1.5 times per year. These are 41.25 km per year. The annual expenses come to 288.7 T/a.
Length of Channels and Costs

Up to
2013
of 115
on km

Length
ditches
benches
Length in km/a

19

20142018
127
km

20192023
147
km

20242028
164
km

20292033
164
km

20342038
135
km

25.4

29.4

32.8

32.8

27.0

Ditches in km/a

28.5

38.1

44.1

49.2

49.2

40.5

Price in 1000

199.5

266.7

308.7

344.4

344.4

283.5

SUM

Average

852
km

27.5 km
27.5

1278
km
8950

41.25
288.7

Mine Closure and Recultivation Planning


The proposed main principles are:
The areas occupied by mining shall be recovered in such a way that the later use
will be rather better than the original one. This efforts aim at enhancing the value
of the areas compared with the actual state at least however a similar scenery.
Areas which are no longer needed for mining activities shall be recultivated as
soon as possible. If a final renaturing will not be possible, suitable temporary
measures shall be taken like for example an interim greening.
Financial means will be reserved already during the active mining operations to
ensure the proper closure of the mining field. This money will also be available in
case of in-solvency for revitalisation.
Authorities and the concerned people (later users) are integrated in the process of
planning and detailed shaping of the post-mining areas. This process shall start before dumping because it already defines the shape of the surface.

Page 43 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Investment and Cost Calculation


The following area balance is included in the financing model:
Area Balance in Sibovc and Costs

Measures
Production of Coal in t
Claim of land in ha
Return of areas in Sibovc

2007- 20092008 2013

20142018

20192023

20242028

2029- 20342033 2038

Sum

0.15
271
0

46.28
137
0

93.74
102
0

121.81
140
0

98.74
183
38

96.09
89
42

96.09
236
132

552.9
1158
212

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.5

2.4

0.5

0.1
16.6
33

0.2
17.9
32

Preparation of areas incl.


0
interim greening
Planting
(handing over of areas)
Other
Provisions *
0.02
2
Total in m

0.1
5.9
15

0.1
13.0
14

0.1
18.6
25

3.5

0.4
1.0
19.6
91.6
36
112
* escalated
The main part is reserved for the provisions needed for the final shaping. This amount to be
provided for the shaping of the post-mining landscape (until handing over and release from
the mining authority) will come to about 0.15 /t coal.

Resettlement
The resettlements and especially the resettlement of Hade village with its 2500 heads population have great influence to the future mining development. On the entire Sibovc field live
approximately 5700 people in four villages and separate settlements. Hade is the largest village. There are two resettlement cases of Hade village: (a) the emergency evacuation of people living in the dangerous zone close to the unstable Northern slope of the existing Bardh and
Mirash mines; (b) the resettlement of the remaining larger part of Hade outside the endangered zone.
The (a) emergency resettlement has been started in 2002. This partial resettlement of village
Hade was unavoidable since public safety must be ensured and the safety zone must be used
for the final rehabilitation of the unstable Northern slope of the existing mines. Now, (June
2005) it is almost finished.
The (b) resettlement of the larger remaining part of Hade has not been started yet. There are
doubts that such resettlement could be undertaken by using emergency procedure. In the
worst case such action might disturb the public acceptance for new lignite mining activities in
Kosovo.
A democratic socially acceptable resettlement procedure of the Hade village compliant to EU
standards would take at least 8 years. Bad practise by the mining enterprise in the past caused
a loss of trust by the villagers. There are still ongoing court challenges against KEK from prePage 44 of 257

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

vious unsatisfactory resettlements of removed Southern parts of Hade village. Furthermore,


the financing of the remaining resettlement is still not ensures yet [of the (b) resettlement].
So it is a very ambitious target to resettle Hade in time.
Taking into account the above mentioned production level Hade should be resettled up to
2009 for overburden removal at the latest. In this period the removal of all basements and the
transference of the land to KEK are included.
Apart from the emergency resettlement the cost amounts to approximately 59 m, which has
to be paid mainly in the period from 2007 to 2009. It proportionally includes all measures for
the deconstruction of the village and the establishment of a new social- and infrastructure.
Allocated to 597 households, the sum is totally 100000 per household.
Furthermore, considerable resettlement costs are yielded with regard to the villages of
Leskovic, Janina Voda and Sibovc.
Time and costs resulting from the resettlement are shown in the following tables.
a) Households
Year of Reset- Households
Payment
per Investment
tlement
household
Year
No.
1000 / no.
m
Hade
2007 -2009
597
90
53.7
Leskovcic
2027 - 2037
85
100
8.5
Janina Voda
ca. 2027
7
100
0.7
Sibovc
2009 - 2032
54
100
5.4
Sum
743
68.3
b) Public facilities, infrastructure and land claim (farmland)
Public Facilities Infrastructure
Infrastructure
Hade
Leskovcic
Janina Voda
Sibovc
Sum

m
1.02
0.21
0.02
2.1
3.35

(inside villages)

(outside villages)

m
4.19
0.98
0.09
0.75
6.01

m
0.82
0.94
0.31
1.50
3.57

Sum
m
6.03
2.13
0.42
4.35
12.93

c) Land claim (farmland)


The total land use is 1,158 ha of which 1,081 ha are farmlands. This land will be claimed according to the mine advance until 2038.
The price assumed for compensation is 47,500 /ha (4.75 /m). This comparably high price
includes the full compensation for the harvests.
Therefore costs of 51.4 m are yielded.
The following costs will arise over a period of 30 years:
68.3 m for households
12.9 m for facilities and infrastructure
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

51.4 m for claim of land


132.6 m
Referring to the households the sum is ca. 178000 and referring to the ca. 5200 inhabitants
(until 2038) the sum is ca. 25000 Euro per person.

Environmental aspects
The investigations did not indicate any obstacles to use the Sibovc coal field as fuel supplier
for the existing or new planned power plants. The environmental impact is described in Part
III of the Main Mining Plan.

Economic and financial analysis


The calculations have been made in accordance with the usual European standards of IFRS
(International Financial Reporting Standards).
The economical and financial analysis is described in Part IV demonstrating that the mine
development will be generally profitable. In this context it must be pointed out that high investments will be required during the opening-up phase.

License for coal extraction from Sibovc open cast mine


Principle: The licenses for coal mining in the Sibovc field should be compliant to the power
generation licenses and provide sufficient security of supply in term of coal quantities. With regard to the coal reserves, they should be sufficient to supply coal to the
power plant over the entire service life of 40 years. It seems to be reasonable to
limit mining licenses to the total amount of coal necessary for the entire service live
period of a power plant. This ensures the best resources utilisation and minimises
losses of coal. Further such approach allows keeping of the remaining geological
reserves for future TPP projects.
Sibovc license: Pursuant to the principle and considering the coal demand of the existing and
new power plants the entire Sibovc field is required for the license.
The mineable coal reserves amounts to about 830 mt. The following quantities can
be supplied to:
Existing power plants + external market
140 mt

New power plants (TPP B3 B6)


430 mt

New power plants (IPP)


260 mt (remaining coal content).

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

2 Introduction
2.1 Allocation and Geographical Overview
The geological evaluation and interpretation for Part II Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc
Mine Technical Planning was conducted for the Sibovc Licence Area which covers some
19.7 km2 (Fig. 2.1-1).
According to the Terms of References (TOR), chapter 2.1 the main goal of the Main Mining
Plan for the New Sibovc Mine is:
to provide security, both in the technical and economic terms, of future electrical power
production in Kosovo, as defined in the White Paper, through the guarantee the coal
supply security and economical viability over the entire life of the existing power plants and
the new power plants (approximately 30 years).
The Main Mining Plan has to contain all necessary facts, calculations and elements
needed to guarantee sufficient coal production for Kosovos energy demand. (TOR, chapter 2.3.2)
Thus, general geological aspects which do not affect the future coal production processes are
not contained. These can be found in Part I Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Basic
Investigations and in the Elaborat O klasifikaciji, kategorizaciji i proraunu reservi ugla
eksploatacionog polja Sibovac kosovskog ugljenog basena, Knjiga I, Tekst (Rudarski Institute 1997)

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Fig. 2.1-1

Sibovc Concession Licence Area Location Map

Morphologically the Kosova Coal Basin forms a extended valley where the differences in
elevation do not exceed 80 m. Around the river Sitnica stretches a central plane part followed
by a more hilly terrain nearing the mountains icavica Golesh and Sharr.
The basin is surrounded by an elevated relief with Kopaonik massive, Kozic, Zhegovc Lisic
in the East, Montenegro massive in the South and icavica, Golesh, Carnaleva as well as
Sharr mountains in the West and Northwest. The mountains around reach elevations from 900
to more than 1600 m.
The Sibovc Concession Area follows to the West roughly the limit of the lignite deposition;
towards the North it extents to 4729000 Northing; in the Northeast it is defined by a Northwest-Southeast aligned diagonal in the main flow direction of the Sitnitca and is bend in the
Southeast to a southernly direction along the border of the decoaled Brand mine; the southern
boundary is long the Bardh-Mirash concession boundaries.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

2.2 Approach / Methodology


In the first months of the project implementation major activities were undertaken to provide
additional geophysical exploration works, process new and existing geological and exploration data, making field observations about the geological structures of the deposit and incorporate it into the model.
In order to meet the tight time schedule for the preparation of the Draft Report we had to use a
version of the geological model available in January 2005. Thus, some absolute figures and
data regarding overburden and coal might slightly differ compared to the Main Mining Plan
for New Sibovc Mine.
Compared to the beginning of the work, the knowledge of the mining development, the part
resettlement and financial analysis have been evaluated in more detail. These issues were particularly affected by the new defined coal demand on which the Main Mining Plan for New
Sibovc Mine is based on. However, the description of the different alternatives and mining
variants developed in both work stages will be helpful for an overall evaluation of the development possibilities and consequences in the coal mining and generation sector of Kosovo.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

3 Coal Demand and License for Coal Extraction


3.1 Forecast of Future Coal Demand
On the basis of the targets set by the Ministry for Energy and Mining (from 2009 onwards),
the following coal demand figures have been defined:
Tab. 3.1-1

Year

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
SUM

Defined Coal Demand

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP A

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP B1+B2

1.8
2.0
2.0
3.3
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
3.14
1.57

5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
2.65

56.56

102.70

New
TPP Kosovo
B3-B6

2.71
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.24
5.24
5.42
8.13
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
246.40
Page 50 of 257

New
IPP
C1 C3

2.71
5.42
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
176.70

Other
Lignite
Consumers

Total
Coal Demand

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
14.00

6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
10.35
10.35
10.35
13.06
15.77
15.87
15.87
18.40
21.11
22.49
23.63
24.59
24.41
24.41
24.77
21.94
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
596.45

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The coal demand scenario set out in table above bases on the following principles and assumptions:
For the time 2005 up to 2007 the production level already planned is applied, that
means 6.9 up to 7.4 mt/a will be provided.
The geological reserves of the existing mines come to about 43.7 mt (mineable). This
is calculated from 2005 on (see Mid Term Plan).
Kosovo will export energy based on lignite (so it will enter in South East European
Regional Market)
Construction of new TPPs (7*350 MW-units) mainly for electricity supply into REM
(Regional Electricity Market). The start of production of new Thermal Power Plants is
2012
The grid of the REM will be reinforced to allow power transmission
The assessed output of coal from the existing mines (Bardh/Mirash) and the coal haulage required from the new mine(s) is shown as follows:

Tab. 3.1-2

Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
Sum

Coal haulage required from new mines

Coal from
Bardh
Mt
6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
7.9
3.2
2.5

43.7

Mirash

/ Coal from new


Mine(s)
Mt
0
0
0
0
2.45
7.15
7.85
13.06
15.77
15.87
62.15

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Sum = Demand of
Coal
mt
6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
10.35
10.35
10.35
13.06
15.77
15.87
105.85

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

3.2 License for Coal Extraction from Sibovc Open Cast


Mine
One essential principle for granting a license for coal extraction is:
The purpose of coal production is to ensure the short-term, mid-term and long-term fuel supply for the existing and future power plants with lignite. Therefore the licenses for coal mining should be compliant to the power generation licenses. The mining licenses should provide
sufficient security of supply in term of coal quantities. The new investor should be able to
receive a mining license over the total amount of mineable coal necessary over the total life
time of the power plant to be supplied.
License for Sibovc:
In the case of new TPPs with 40 years life time and annual coal demand of 19 m t/a the total
mineable coal reserves dedicated to the license would be 760 mt. To supply the existing TPPs
Kosovo A and B with fuel till their decommissioning a license over max. 140 m t mineable
reserves would be necessary in addition to the remaining reserves in the existing coal mines
Bardh and Mirash. Due to the mineable amount of coal in Sibovc the following can be provided:
Existing power plants and other consumer
140 mt
New power plants (TPP B3 B6)
430 mt
New power plants (TPP C1 C3 = IPP)
260 mt (remaining coal content).

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4 Geological Conditions
4.1 Introduction
The basement of the Kosovo Basin in the Sibovc Concession Area and the exposed surrounding areas to the West are built up by Palaeozoic to Mezozoic crystillane rocks (Fig. 4.1-1).
The basin fill consists of Upper Cretaceous strata which are unconformably overlain by Tertiary clays in which lignite is interbedded.
The Sibovc area was site of luxuriant vegetation growth that finally became overwhelmed by
sedimentation and led to the formation of substantial stratiform lignite deposits of up to 90 m
seam thickness.
Towards the West the lignite deposition is tectonically bounded by the development of a series of predominantly NNW-SSE striking faults. The geological work for the Main Mining
Plan for New Sibovc Mine reveals that the tectonic movements were already active during the
lignite formation and controlled the deposition of organic material and anorganic clay (Annex
II/4.4-12).
These findings differ to the previous geological model (Rudarski Institute 1997) which assumes purely post depositional tectonic movements. Thus, in that model depth differences at
top or base of the Lignite Formation and thickness variations were attempted to explain by
extensive faulting.
The eastern limit is characterized by sedimentological pinch-out.
The characteristic development of the overburden section is shown on the two cross-sections
in Annex II/4.4-12.

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Fig. 4.1-1

Stratigraphic Standard Profile of the Kosovo Basin (KEK 2003)

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4.2 Sedimentology and Petrography of the Pliocene Lignite Deposit in the Sibovc Area
A characteristic vertical development for the Pliocene lignite deposition is shown in Fig. 4.2-1
for borehole G1-XXXIII3.

Fig. 4.2-1

Typical vertical lithological sequence and Net CV distribution for the lignite deposition in the Sibovc Concession Area, Borehole G1-XXXIII3.

Overlying the massive footwall green clay interbedded lignite and clay with varying lignite
content and subordinated ash layers are developed and form the basal part of the Lignite Formation. The middle and upper part of the Lignite Fm. is built by a frequently massive lignite
seam with generally upwards decreasing intercalation of clay layers. Within the seam section
generally Net CV is increasing upwards. Occasionally (as in the shown borehole) the hangingwall contact of the Lignite Seam is gradually with a development of a thin transition from
lignite to the grey clay.
The terms Lignite Fm. and Lignite Seam were introduced for the Main Mining Plan for
New Sibovc Mine in order to define vertical upper and lower mining boundaries. Hereby, the
Lignite Fm. represents the litho-stratigraphic interval between the overlying massive grey clay
and the bottom massive green clay. The lignite seam is defined for the section where the Interburden-to-Coal ratio is below 50% and the thickness of an individual clay interburden layer
is below 5 m.
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It should already be mentioned here, that clay intercalations more than 0.50 m have been
mainly removed from the [coal quality] samples (Rudarski Institute 1997). Consequently,
main properties as Net CV are not known.
The distribution of interburden layers that are larger than 0.5 m has been recorded for the
boreholes in the Sibovc Concession Area (Appendix B, Table 4.2-1), which is summarized
Tab. 4.2-1 and Fig. 4.2-2.
Tab. 4.2-1

Summary of Interburden Occurences thicker than 0.5 m in the Sibovc Concession


Area

Seam Increments

Interburden
Layers
0.5 to <1.0m

Interburden
Layers
1.0 to <2.0m

Interburden
Layers
=>2.0m

Cumulative
Thickness
[m]

Interburden to
Coal Ratio [%]

Slice 0 to <20m

127

66

43

327.6

4.1

Slice 20 to <40m

169

81

47

361.1

5.3

Slice 40 to <60m

195

124

68

536.6

11.3

76

54

26

207.3

12.9

Total Lignite Seam

567

325

184

1432.6

6.9

Lignite Fm. Outside Seam

252

277

296

1611.6

65.4

Slice >60 m

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Fig. 4.2-2

Histogram for the Interburden Distribution by Lignite Seam Thickness Increments of


20 m

Within the Lignite Seam interburden layers constitute 6.9% of the gross seam thickness
whereby 53% are represented by layers under 1 m thickness. 30% are between 1 and 2 m,
17% are thicker than 2 m.
The vertical distribution shows an increasing trend from top to bottom seam. The 0-20 m slice
has only 4% interburden increasing to 13% for the deepest interval.
Outside the Lignite Seam but still within the limits of the stratigraphic unit of the Lignite
Formation the interburden volume is 65%. This figure stresses the undertaken necessary mining boundary definitions for the mineable Lignite Seam against the stratigraphic unit.
The interburden thickness has been mapped for the Lignite Seam Fig. 4.2-3 and Annex II/4.44 and for the 20 m increments (Annexes II/4.4-5 to 8).

Fig. 4.2-3

Sibovc Concession Area, Lignite Seam Interburden Thickness[m]


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Already on Fig. 4.2-3 which displays lumped interburden layers regardless their stratigraphic
position a patchy distribution of high thickness values without any clear directional trends can
be observed. Most of the high contour areas are generated by only one borehole recording. As
expected that is even more pronounced on the maps for the 20 m slices.
We can not distinguish whether the scattered and patchy contour pattern is caused by inconsistent qualities of borehole descriptions and/or by geological reasons, i.e. the clay intercalations have a very limited extent below the borehole spacing.
Regardless of the causes it is obvious that a correlation of the interburden between the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model cannot be realized.
The following figure illustrates the correlation problems between boreholes which are actually
closer spaced than on the average.

Fig. 4.2-4

Correlation Problems of Interburden Layers

A
B
C

Layers do not extent between two boreholes


Different details in description (interburden not recorded)
No unique solution for correlation (alternatives shown as red lines)

We understand the produced interburden distribution map as guidelines to indicate the possibility of the development of interburden layers. A predictive model could only be generated

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during accurate recording of the geological situation during the movement of the excavation
front and by gathering closer spaced additional boreholes.
Petrography analyses of the coal
(compiled from Rudarski Institute 1997)
Reliable petrographic analysis is available from three boreholes. They qualify the lignite as
xylit rich with small or big marshy coal proslojcima. The medium content of the clay is 3540%, and it appears in the form of independent grains or almost linked with organic material.
The pyrite appears in the form of spherical impregnations grain-size around 25 microns.
The following table shows the results of quality and quantity of the analysis.

Tab. 4.2-2 Petrographic Analysis


Sample No.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)

Borehole
DJ4-XXXXIV
DJ4-XXXXIV
DJ4-XXXXIV
DJ4-XXXIII4
DJ4-XXXIII4
DJ4-XXXV
DJ4-XXXV

From (md)
7.6
19.8
24.2
44.5
48.0
6.7
24.1

To (md)
7.8
20.0
24.5
44.7
48.2
6.8
24.4

Material and
Sample No.
Volume %
______________________(1)____(2)_____(3)_____(4)_____(5)____(6)_____(7)____________
Tekstinit
9.5
31.5
35.5
20.5
18.5
16.0
32.5
Ulminit
6.0
18.0
17.5
17.0
21.0
5.5
18.0
Atrinit
11.0
11.5
12.5
11.5
12.5
12.0
11.0
Densinit
2.5
2.0
5.0
3.5
4.5
0.5
3.0
Gelinit
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.5
2.0
0.5
Liptinit
2.0
3.0
4.5
4.0
3.5
4.5
3.5
Inertinit
3.5
3.5
2.0
1.0
2.5
1.5
Clay
63.5
28.5
21.5
49.5
34.5
59.0
26.5
Pyrite
1.5
1.0
0.5
1.0
0.5
3.5

4.3 Development of the Overburden Section


The characteristic development of the overburden section is shown on the two cross-sections
in Annex II/4.4-12.
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The Lignite Formation is overlain by grey clay which is partially described as marly or sandy.
Layers with abundant fossil content are frequently mentioned but the borehole descriptions do
not allocate the depths of these.
Sporadically sand layers of up to several meters thickness occur apparently concentrated
along the morphological highs. They may have been deposited as aeolian sands. However,
detailed descriptions of the sedimentological texture are missing.
Sand in the immediate hangingwall of the lignite has been only recorded in one borehole
along the cross-sections (SbDJ6XXXIII0).
In the river cuts of the Sitnitca and the Sibovc river no direct lignite-to-sand contact has been
recorded in the boreholes. However, such setting cannot generally be excluded due to the limited areal extent of the sand bodies.
The uppermost 10 m describe the weathering zone and consist of yellow clay (i.e. the weathering product of the grey clay) and of generally 2-3 m humus.

4.4 Geophysical Exploration Work Performed


From the eight seismic 2D profiles acquired during the seismic survey from June 21, 2004 to
July 03, 2004 by DMT Lines01 and 07 are located in the Southwest of the Sibovc Concession
Area.
The geological interpretation of these lines is included in the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Part I.
The results of the survey reveal that seismic provide a high quality method for the investigation of the structural setting of the lignite seam and tectonics in areas which are not affected
by mining or advanced sliding.

4.5 Available Borehole Data


443 borehole data (lithological descriptions, assay data) were available for the area within
Sibovc Concession Area (Appendix B: Tab. App-B-4.5-2)
After applying the auditing methodology as described in the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Part I, seven boreholes were removed from the active database. They represented
extreme deviations in the surface elevation or lignite depth compared to adjacent boreholes.
436 boreholes remained as active data in the borehole database.
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A total of 217,395.30 m were drilled by these boreholes. The total depth is ranging between
6.80 m and 200.50 m with an average at 103.26 m. On the average the boreholes were drilled
to some five meters into the green clay. 41 holes were not drilled to the base of the seam.
The top of the seam has been encountered between 2.30 m and 137 m md (measured depth)
with an average at 43.85 m. The base was penetrated between 3.00 and 193.20 m md with an
average at 93.20 m. The structural position for the top of the seam is between 494.60 and
623.10 mMSL (meter above mean sea level) with an average at 550.28 mMSL. The elevation
for the base is between 530.90 and 663.30 mMSL with an average at 594.00 mMSL.
The seam thickness is between 0 and 93.30 m. The average is at 51.07 m.
Drillhole locations, depths and thickness for the Lignite Fm. and Lignite Seam are given in
Appendix B:Tab. App-B-4.5-1 of the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.

4.5.1 Coal Qualities from Borehole Data


For 334 boreholes in the Sibovc Concession Area coal quality data were available as paper
copies. All were digitally recorded. The coal quality sample data and thickness weighted averages per borehole for Ash, Net CV and Total Sulphur (counted on 45% moisture) are listed
in Appendix B: Tab. App-B-4.5-2 of the Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.

4.5.1.1 Sampling and Analysis Methods


(compiled from Rudarski Institute 1997)
Until the introduction of the regulation on classification and categorization of the hard raw
minerals (Official gazette no.53 of 19/10/1979) the sampling intervals for coal analyses had
not been uniform and been ranging between 0.50 and 26 m, commonly between 5-10 m.
Large sample intervals (over 15m) are quite rare and include mainly the lowest parts of the
coal seam, where the volume of interburden intercalations thicker than 0.50m increase. These
intercalations are mainly removed from the quality analysis. The boreholes drilled after
October 1979 have testing intervals between 4.0-15.0m, often 10.0m.
The samples for chemical analyses were taken from the drillcores. They were taken from the
entire sample interval and the samples were packed into plastic bags. The size of the samples
was depending on the coal seam quality and drill diameter.
Afterwards, the coal samples have been transferred to the unit for sample preparation where
the samples were treated as follows: drying, grinding, and finally quartering of the grinded
sample until obtaining sample amounts sufficient for at least two identical samples. The first
sub-sample was used for chemical analyses and the second one for eventual arbitral control.

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Drilling with bentonite and water mud may have influenced substantially the natural moisture
content of the coal as a consequence of the artificial increase of water. However, part of the
moisture from the sample was removed by evaporation process depending upon prevailing
weather conditions since the recovery of the sample from the drillcore up to the start of sample preparation in the lab was consuming indefinite time intervals.
Coal samples acquired from the geological exploration drills include several examination
processes: not fully technical analyses, fully technical analyses, chemical analyses of the coal
and ash, as well as ash solubility.
The not-fully technical analyses imply the determination of the moisture content (V), ash content (P), combustion material (S.m.) and lower heating value. Moisture, ash, and combustion
material are stated as percentage, while the heating value is shown in KJ/kg.
The fully technical analyses include moisture content, ash content, fixed Carbon volatile matter, combustion material, total sulphure, sulphure in the ash, and lower heating value. All
mentioned parameters are shown in percents except the heating value which is shown in
Kcal/kg, respectively in KJ/kg.
Chemical analyses of the coal and ash include the determination of the SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3,
CaO, MgO, SO3, TiO2, Ns2O, and K2O.
All mentioned analyses are determined on the basis of the following standards:
FULL TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
Moisture
Ash
Remaining coke
Volatile material
Combustion material
Bottom heating value
Total sulphide
Sulphide in the ash
Combustion sulphide

gravimetric method
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
calculation method
calorimeter bomb
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
calculation method

JUS.B.H8.311
JUS.B.H8.312
JUS.B.H8.317
JUS.B.H8.317
JUS.B.H8.318
JUS.B.H8.315
JUS.B.H8.313

CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ASH COAL


Determination SiO2
Determination Fe2O3
Determination Al2O3
Determination CaO
Determination MgO
Determination SO3
Determination TiO2
Determination Na2O
Determination K2O

gravimetric method
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
gravimetric method
photometric method
hot-photometric method
hot-photometric method
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JUS.B.H8.360
JUS.B.H8.362
JUS.B.H8.364
JUS.B.H8.365
JUS.B.H8.366
JUS.B.H8.369
JUS.B.H8.363
JUS.B.H8.368
JUS.B.H8.368

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Besides the described methods for the above mentioned parameters spectrophotometric
atomic absorption and hot atomic absorption methods were also applied.

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4.6 Geological Model


A detailed geological model has been generated for the Lignite Seam. It integrates all available sources as surface observations, borehole and seismic data.
The results are documented in the following maps and cross-sections:
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Part II, Annexes to Geology

II/4.4-1

II/ 4.4-2

II/ 4.4-3

II/ 4.4-4

II/ 4.4-5

II/ 4.4-6

II/ 4.4-7

II/ 4.4-8

II/ 4.4-9
II/ 4.4-10
II/ 4.4-11

II/ 4.4-12

Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Fm. Topography and Borehole Location


(with Seam Thickness [m]), 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden Thickness [m],
1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Overburden-To-Coal Ratio [cu
m/t], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam Interburden Thickness [m],
1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 0-20 m Slice Interburden
Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 20-40 m Slice Interburden
Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, Top 40-60 m Slice Interburden
Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam, >60 m Slice Interburden Thickness [m], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Ash Content [%],1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Total Sulphur [%], 1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area, Lignite Seam - Low Calorific Value [kJ/ kg],
1:10,000
Sibovc Consession Area Geological Cross Sections S1 & S2 with
Differentiation of Overburden Layer, 1: 5,000/ 1:1250

Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Part I, Annex

I/ 4.6-1
I/ 4.6-2

Depth Structure Map: Top Lignite Seam [m]


Depth Structure Map: Base Lignite Seam [m]

For the Net Calorific Value Distribution a 3D Block Model has been generated (see chapter
4.6.3).
The applied Methodology during the Modelling is described in Main Mining Plan for New
Sibovc Mine Part I

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4.6.1 Structural Model


In the Sibovc Concession Area the structural dip at top lignite is low with overwhelming values below 5. Steeper dipping is indicated along two SW-NE alignments which are believed
to represent erosional channels. The erosion is also seen on the depth structure map at Top
lignite, the isochore map and even expressed on the low CV map (Annex II/4. 4- 11).
The mapped area is characterised by a NNW-SSE striking basin. Along the axis the seam
thickness reaches up to 70-80 m. The coal basin is delineated to the West by a series of stepping fault blocks which separate the Tertiary fill from the Mesozoic basement.
The lignite pinch-out to the NE appears to be a unconformal without recognized boundary
faults.
Cross-faults which strike roughly perpendicular to the basin axis are developed in the North
of the Sibovc Concession Area.
The cross-plot lignite thickness versus depth (Fig. 4.6-1) reveals a strong correlation which
indicates that subsidence and very likely faulting took already place during the lignite deposition. If the movements were commencing later the data would show high scattering.
The seismic data indicate a highly faulted area along the Mirash northern slope directly to the
south of Hade. It appears to be affected by reverse faults and a dense succession of normal
faults creating a collapse structure.

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Fig. 4.6-1

Lignite Thickness vs. Depth Plot

The following table provides structural characterisation data for the evaluated areas:
Tab. 4.6-1

Structural Characterisation of the Sibovc Concession Area

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4.6.2 Coal Quality Distribution Model


For the model of the coal quality distribution length weighted averages have been calculated
from the assay data within the Lignite Seam on a single borehole basis.
Vertical profiles of the net calorific value assay data are included in the geological crosssections from the 3D Block Model (Annexes II/4. 4- 13 to II/4. 4- 33).
The Sibovc Concession Area is characterised by the following quality populations:
Tab. 4.6-2

Sibovc Concession Area, Average Coal Qualitiesfor the Lignite Seam from Geological
Model Grid

Univariate Statistics - Coal Qualities From Geological Model Grid


Sibovc
Ash Content
Net CV
Total Sulphur
[%]
[kJ/kg]
[%]
Samples
8115
8115
8115
Minimum:
25%-tile:
Median:
75%-tile:
Maximum:

11.29
14.28
15.33
16.87
38.19

1748
7834
8296
8657
9683

0.69
0.95
1.07
1.19
2.93

Midrange:
Range:
Interquartile Range:
Median Abs. Deviation:

24.74
26.90
2.59
1.20

5716
7935
823
402

1.81
2.25
0.23
0.12

Mean:
Trim Mean (10%):
Standard Deviation:
Variance:

15.86
15.64
2.31
5.35

8146
8214
762
580561

1.09
1.08
0.20
0.04

Coef. of Variation:
Coef. of Skewness:

0.15
1.88

0.09
-1.72

0.18
1.66

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4.6.3 3D Block Model of Net Calorific Value Distribution


4.6.3.1 Model Parameter and Methodology

Fig. 4.6-2

Block Model of the Sibovc Mining Concession area. Explanations see below.

The Sibovc Block Model is a spatially-referenced database that provides a multitude of querying and reporting possibilities. Information contained in the Block Model may be retrieved as
text reports or may be accessed interactively supplying colour coded representations. Records
in the Block Model are related to discrete volume elements or blocks.
Each block of the Sibovc Block Model assumes values for each of the coal quality parameters,
(net calorific value, ash content and total sulphur content). These values were applied to the
entire volume represented by each block. Fig. 4.6-3 gives a summary of the Sibovc Block
Model Master definition, and its details of the attribute types (coal quality parameters).

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Fig. 4.6-3

Sibovc Block Model Master Definition

A block size of 50m x 50m x 10m has been selected to consider borehole spacing and previous
grid modelling concepts. Sub-blocking has been performed to enable creation of smaller blocks
of 25m x 25m x 5m, if necessary. The chosen parameters allow the model to more effectively
represent the various constraints which are applied during the course of modelling. Constraints
are spatial delimitations which determine the shape of the Block Model and the ranges which
have to be filled by interpolating values. The Sibovc Block Model Master has been constrained
by the Structural Model which contains information of
Sibovc concession area (polygonal line string file)
Seam base (surface digital terrain model, DTM file)
Seam top (surface digital terrain model, DTM file)
Interburden boreholes, i.e. assigned gaps in sampling (23 solids 3DM file)
Topography with mining situation of 2012 (surface digital terrain model, DTM file)
Fault west1 (vertical surface digital terrain model, DTM file)
In preparation for populating the Sibovc Block Model with data, elevation composites of sample data taken from the coal table of the Geological Database have to be produced. For this
reason an elevation range of 430,620,10 was specified with an extent of 5 and a type of +/-
(Fig. 4.6-4). This means between 430m and 620m (above mean sea level) a composite was
formed for every 10m. The usage of +/-method ensures that a range of 5m is applied both
below and above the nominal elevation. The resulting grades are weighted by length and stored
in 20 string files (one string file for each nominal elevation).

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Fig. 4.6-4

Compositing by elevation
(with a range of elevation between 430 and 620,stepwidth 10 m, an extent of 5 and a
type of +/-; see text for further explanation).

The 20 string files which store the elevation sample data were used to estimate values of each
appropriate block of the Block Model based on the weighted values of data points closest to the
central point of the blocks. In this case the weighting is the result of kriging the data points to
provide the best linear unbiased estimator. The required variogram parameters have been developed from a Geostatistical study. Variogram model / kriging run parameters and additional
search parameters have been used to estimate values for each coal quality parameter (net calorific value, ash content, total sulphur content):

Additional search parameters:


Ellipsoid parameters:
- Bearing of the major axis: 172
- Isotropic search ellipsoid
Other interpolation parameters:
- Max search distance:
- Max vertical search distance:

900
005

For the nugget a value of 0 has been used to ensure that the estimated values are not dampened
and the input sample values are not diluted by kriging interpolation.
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An interpolation was made considering the fault west 1 (Fig. 4.6-2) separating the Sibovc concession area into two subranges, the Sibovc west and the Sibovc east one. The suggested vertical dislocation of the coal seam along fault west1 substantially affects the interpolation. Therefore the interpolation has been processed separately in the two subranges.
The block model provides comprehensive information to characterise the Lignite deposit
within the Sibovc concession area. The following table Tab. 4.6-3 summarizes splits by various
categories and cut-offs. The horizontal sections are included in Appendix B of the Main Mining Plan (Geological Database).
Tab. 4.6-3

Block Model volume report of several categories

Category

Percentage of Total
Seam Volume
(990 mio tons)

1. 1000 kJ Increments
3000-4000
0.0
4000-5000
0.1
5000-6000
0.6
6000-7000
5.8
7000-8000
23.4
8000-9000
48.1
9000-10000
21.5
10000-11000
0.5
Total
100.0
2. Cut-off 5400 kJ
<5400
0.2
=>5400
99.8
3. Minimum Input for TPP A (6270 kJ/kg)
<6270
1.2
=>6270
98.8
4. Minimum Input for TPP B (6720 kJ/kg)
<6720
3.5
=>6720
96.5
5. KEK Classification Scheme
0-5440
0.2
5440-6700
3.2
6700-7950
24.5
7950-9210
58.2
9210-11000
13.9
Total
100.0

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Average
(kJ/kg)
3798
4639
5668
6675
7600
8510
9350
10113
8359
4953
8365
5802
8390
6289
8435
4974
6352
7478
8574
9525
8359

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4.7 Other Aspects Influencing the Development of the New


Sibovc Mine
4.7.1 Former Underground Mining
Compared with the situation in the Bard-Mirash mine and the resulting problems, remains of
the old underground mining will also have an impact on geotechnical conditions and mine
planning in the future Sibovc Mine.
Old underground structures have been detected in the southeastern part of the Sibovc field and
are connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in
Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope. The galleries probably reach to a zone about 2
km at North of the Village of Hade.
First attempts to reach the seam were made along river erosion channels which cut the coal
seam. In areas of the seam which were affected by erosion it can be mixed completely or at
least partly with humus strata resulting in a decrease of the coal quality. Therefore, the initial
excavation of the stalls began about 7 meters under the roof of the seam. In the proximity of
the riverbanks water handling was difficult. At a later stage vertical shafts were deepened.
The documented coal mining using galleries and shafts reach back to 1922

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Fig. 4.7-1

Collapse structures from former underground mining NE of Hade (arial photograph)

For the stabilisation of the galleries with a height of 2 m and width of 3 m was used a wooden
timber set support system. The parallel galleries had a distance of 20 m one to each other,
every 100 m a cross cut was excavated and they followed the given directions of the separations planes. The old roadways were driven parallel to the joint system within the mine. The
galleries were widened to caverns with intervals of 7-20 m and the coal was broken from the
roof.
Due to this method sections of the galleries show a low stability and there is a potential danger
of collapse of the undermined levels under load if they are not already broken or refilled.
In the area North-Western of Hade these caverns frequently collapsed forming more or less
round craters, which show a regular alignment (Fig. 4.7-1).
The dimension of the undermined area in the Sibovc Field has been calculated considering the
following factors:
Calculation of the excavated coal during 1922 to 1966
Existing underground mining maps of the Mirash mine
Position of the old shafts
Site visits of the Sibovc Field for a specific delimitation of the underground mines

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Determination of the mining methods by means of the characteristics of exposed galleries


Interpretation of aerial photographs for the acquisition of typical structures (patterned
alignment of collapse structures)
Interpretation of seismic investigations
Acquisition of the fault pattern
Acquisition of topographic elements and natural boundaries (old bed of the river Sitnitca, location of villages)
Extension regarding the maximum practicable distance between shafts and galleries

The underground mining was abandoned in 1966. The following table shows the overall coal
production of the underground mine. There is no futher reliable documentation on the extension of the old underground mine or the information is at least incomplete.
Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin
"Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 - 1966

years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

Tab. 4.7-1

Coal production of old underground mines within area investigated. (source: INKOS)

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Under
consideration of these production rates for the field Kosovo can be calculated an area of app.
5 km2 and for the field Sibovac of at least 2 km2. The minor production rates from the field
Sibovac show that the excavation only took place near the surface.
The evaluation of all available information proves the assumtion that the extension of the galleries in a northward direction may be larger than supposed.
In the past inhabitants noticed noises from the underground (hammering, picking) about 2 km
in the North of the Village of Hade. Nearby there was probably a shaft, which could have functioned as entrance to the underground mine system. This shaft strengthens the presumption of
such a large extension. The largest distance between a shaft and the outermost galleries did not
exceed 700 meters for technical reasons.
Annex I/4.7-1 shows the complete undermined area how it can be supposed under consideration of all aforementioned arguments and facts.

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4.7.2 Uncontrolled Coal Fires


4.7.2.1 Development and locations of coal fires
Within a wide area a large amount of lignite in the Kosovo open pit mines is affected by spontaneous combustion which occurs in all locations where the coal is exposed to air or air can
penetrate the underground and reach the coal
Self-ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat
energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the
coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually.
In a first phase coal fires take place within weakness zones like joints or slope failures or old
mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by released methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer is influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or
within the roof strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of
energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mining facilitate supplementary ventilation and therefore best conditions for oxygen inflow are given. Burned out galleries result in
large cavities and therefore decrease stability of the slopes. The experiences from the BardhMirash mine proved that a lot of fires Bardh Mine were associated with slide faults and occurred also in other parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period as slopes
(especially the central pillar in front of the face between the actual excavation areas) and
dumped coal masses. Frequently the coal fires begin at the base of the dumps and affect the
whole dump until it is burned out.
The geological and geotechnical conditions in the future Sibovc Mine will be comparable due
to also existing remains of the old underground mining. It is assumed that the potential danger
for coal fires will be high as in the Bardh-Mirash mine.
Further complications could result of the fact that the area of the future Sibovc mine was affected by illegal (private) coal mining (Fig. 4.7-2 and 4.7-3 ). Due to the morphology and geology in the western part of the Sibovc Field the coal can be excavated without use of heavy
equipment. Some valleys cut the overburden nearly completely facilitating the excavation only
by manpower without excavators. Numerous small quarries and open shafts prove the extensive private coal excavation. In the most cases the quarries and shafts are not refilled and remain exposed for a long period. This fact and the unascertainable distribution of the private
excavation localities retrieve an unpredictable potential of coal fire development in the future.
A secondary effect is the fritting of the clay in the seam roof. Due to the heat the material becomes dehydrated and oxidised and takes a red colour (Fig. 4.7-4). The hardness of the fritted
clay allows a use as gravel to improve the stability of transport roads within the mine.

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Fig. 4.7-2

Private coal mining near the western border of the Sibovc Field

Fig. 4.7-3

Private coal mining area within the Sibovc Field

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Fig. 4.7-4

Fritted, red colored clays in the hanging wall of the coal seam

4.7.2.2 Counteractive Measures


The responsible personnel should attend to the prevention of coal fires, but if they occur nevertheless the procedures for coal fire extinguishing and thus saving coal resources have to be
adapted to the exploitation operations and to be done by the mines staff during the current mining activities.
Convenient extinguishing technologies have to be selected depending on the coal fire type and
under consideration of the local geotechnical conditions. The extended use of water in most
cases may cause landslides. The following methods could be advisable:

Direct fire fighting (small fires)

Excavation of local burning coal (hot spots)

Levelling of surface and drilling of injection holes

Injection of water or slurry to the fire centre

Surface sealing (excavation front, dumps)

Cooling with water spraying equipment

Inertisation

Flooding (surface near galleries)

Burnout control

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4.7.2.3 Prevention of coal fires


Prevention of coal fires is synonymous with the avoidance of the contact of coal and oxygen.
The most problematic locations of oxygen entry are the underground corridors.
Cut old galleries have to be protected against ventilation. If an excavator hits a gallery, the entry should be closed as soon as possible with adapted material (clay or other impermeable material) to prevent further oxygen entry. These actions have to be taken permanently during the
excavation process.
Collapsed old galleries near the surface or shafts have to be inspected if oxygen can penetrate
somewhere and where appropriate, openings need to be filled. In this context the underground
mining map (Annex I/ 4.7- 1) e information where to aspect potential fires in the future.
Self combustion and fires near the surface can be avoided minimising a permanent contact of
the coal with atmospheric oxygen. Dumped coal should be sealed and the sealing should be reg
ulary controlled for dehydration and crack formation. Slide faults can cause deep and complexcracks and are often the origin of coal fires within the Bardh Mine, which are very difficult to
extinguish. Therefore it is essential to prevent land slides.
Generally, the length of the excavation front has to be adapted to the yearly coal output. Thus,
the time of exposition of the excavation front can be reduced.
In the 1st semester of 2006 a project will be started by EAR for fire fighting in the Kosovo Coal
Mines. The results of this project shall, so far as the instructions will be carried out strictly,
achieve sustained success and lead to a significant reduction of coal fires.

4.8 Geological Resource Assessment


4.8.1 Classification and Calculation Method
The geological resources of the lignite deposit were computed in accordance with the UN International Framework Classification for Reserves/Resources of 1997 (UNFC). The technical
cut-offs were adjusted to the geological situation of the deposit. Meaning that in compliance
with the UNFC particularly referring to the function of the Competent Person the geological assurance was evaluated in order to define acceptable limits for inter- and extrapolation of
geological data. The lignite resources were classified applying the area-of-influence method
with the following distances between points-of-observation:

Measured
Indicated
Inferred

Borehole distance
<= 250 m
250 - 500 m
> 500 m

radius of area-of-influence
<=177 m
177 - 354 m
> 354 m

A limitation of the inferred resource area is established by the concession boundary or the
structural boundaries of the coal basin. The resulting classification for the Sibovc Concession
Area is shown in Fig. 4.8-1.

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4729000
Lignite Pinch-out

4728000

TPP B

Lajthisht

4727000

Sibovc
Janjina Voda

4726000
Palaj

4725000

Indicated
Spacing 250-500

Hade
Outside
Dump

4724000

177

Mesozoic
Outcrop

Measured
Spacing <=250

4723000
Outside
Dump
Dump

7500000
0

Fig. 4.8-1

7501000

7502000

7503000

7504000

7505000

500 1000 1500 2000

Sibovc Concession Area, Ressource Classification

The Sibovc Concession Area is relatively dense sampled by boreholes. Main parts are covered
by a regular North-South, West-East orientated 250x250 m borehole spacing. Infill drilling
took place mainly South of the village Sibovc and between Hade and Palaj. Along the northeastern concession boundary ehere the seam thickness decreases to less than 30 m the spacing
is larger than 250 m but still below 500 m.
According to the classification scheme 94% of the total area are classified as measured resources, the remaining 6% as indicated resources.
No cut-off for minimal thickness of the seam is required as the lignite seam is always well
above the technical mineability. Also a cut-off for the thickness of partings was not applicable
for the evaluated concession areas. The boundaries of the seam at the top and the floor are
lithologically defined and also established by the sampled seam section.
The calculation of resources defines solely geological resources or in-situ-resources. The
resource figures are not considering any factors based on the mineability, such as mining losses
or dilution.
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The resource calculation is bounded to the concession areas of Sibovc. Losses of resources due
to underground mine workings in the upper part of the seam in some isolated areas are not yet
estimated since no accurate volume estimates are available yet.
A specific gravity of 1.14 g/cm was applied in order to calculate the tonnage of lignite resources. This value is in accordance with former assumptions and allows a comparison of resource figures with various former studies.

4.8.2 Lignite Resources


The volumetric calculation of geological resources for the Lignite Seam within the Sibovc
Concession Area resulted in a total of 990 mt over an area of 19.7 km2. 931 mt (i.e. 94%) are
classified as measured, 59 mt as indicated.
The resource estimate includes the seam interburden. As explained in chapters 4.2 and 4.5.1.1
these intervals were chemically not evaluated and thus, no coal quality data are available which
would allow to assess whether the have do be excavated seperatly or could be included as dilution material. It was explained in chapter 4.2 that a correlation of the interburden between
the boreholes and a subsequent generation of predictive model cannot be realized. Consequently, no reliable estimate of the interburden volume can be provided. From the borehole
data it may be guestimated that the maximum portion of interburden layers thicker than 0.5 m
is in a range of 7% of the total lignite resource.
The volume of not mineable interburden is considered as the main uncertainty in the resource
assessment.
Further uncertainties in the resource estimate exist on the narrow fault blocks in the West of the
Sibovc Concession Area. Here, uncertainties exist in the extent and size of faults which have
controlled the seam development.

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4.9 Further exploration for the new Sibovc Mine


The seismic lines over the South of the Sibovc Concession Area proved that reflection seismic
surveys provide clear definitions for both hanging- and footwall vertical boundaries of the lignite seam in exploration areas which are not affected by mining or advanced sliding.
The lateral continuations of these interfaces will allow to detected and describe tectonic structures which would remain ambiguous from the interpretation of borehole data alone.
The future mining areas should be examined with geological and geophysical methods under
special regard of geotechnical conditions and the coal quality.
The investigations should include:

Detailed lithological and structural recording of outcrop setting during progressing excavation process including detailed description of interburden layers,
Borings executed with three drilling rigs for the examination of 2500 m of core material
each year. For a reliable geological prognosis, in any case the respective borings should
penetrate the whole seam till the lying green clay of the foot wall is reached. On demand (e.g. in the range of faults) the boring grid should be closer for obtaining more
structural information (recognition of small size structures),
Registration of the strike and dip of the seam. This allows a better planning of the excavation,
Determination of the coal quality on the basis of the samples from the new borings,
Investigation of the whole future field by line seismics,
E-W orientated 2D seismic line investigation for the verification of the extent and
throw of the faults,
Hydrogeological evaluation in the boreholes,
Geotechnical investigations including valuation of the parting plane texture.

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5 Soil-mechanical Parameters
5.1 General
For the determination of geotechnical parameters, all available data have been used (also from
previous explorations) and also data which have been identified in the framework of the Main
Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.
To achieve a short-term improvement of the knowledge about the geological/soil-physical
situation or the area of the Northern head slope of the Bardh opencast mine (towards the Sibovc field), 9 boreholes were drilled in 2003/2004 down to the floor of the coal seam. All drillings were sampled; the samples were and/or are still analysed in the laboratories of KEK, DMT
and GMB to their soil-physical properties.
The soil-physical investigation results of the a.m. 9 boreholes can also be used for the establishment of a soil-mechanical model and the specific static stability calculations for Sibovc due
to the analogue geology of the coal fields.
Update of soil-mechanical slope calculations and geotechnical safety concept
The original soil-mechanical calculations by KEK / INKOS base on the calculation method
according to BISHOP. The soil-mechanical parameters for the top overburden and coal used in
the former calculation originate from the exploration report dating back to nineteen seventies.
Newer findings and investigations were not available. No information was available about the
strength parameters of the underclay.
The calculation methodology after BISHOP does not reflect the actual conditions and is therefore not suited to guarantee a soil-mechanically safe operational management. The soilmechanical recalculations were carried out by adopting the calculation method of
BOROVICKA for circular cylindrical and polygonal sliding surfaces and the sliding block
method. To compensate the missing soil-physical properties it was necessary to make assumptions and derive the relevant parameters on the basis of experience with similar material.

5.2 Soilphysical Parameter


The soil-mechanical examinations base on the soil-physical data which are already available
in-situ and actual investigation results recorded in the following expert papers:

Soil-mechanical expert opinion about the static stability of the advancing slope system
in the Bardh mine in Kosovo dated 06.12.2002
1. Supplement dated 09.01.2003 to the Soil-mechanical expert opinion about the static
stability of the advancing slope system in the Bardh mine in Kosovo dated 06.12.2002
2. Supplement dated 23.01.2003 to the Soil-mechanical expert opinion about the static
stability of the advancing slope system in the Bardh mine in Kosovo dated 06.12.2002
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First intermediate analysis results of the core samples from the drilling made by the laboratories of GMB und KEK show a partly conformity with the previously used soil-physical calculation parameter.
The following table contains the soil-physical parameters which were bases for the soilmechanical calculations of the slopes and slope systems. The figures in brackets represent the
analyses of the laboratory samples of the three drillings SH 3, SH 4 and SH 5 for comparison.
Tab. 5.2-1

Soil-mechanical Parameters
Soil-physical parameter
Geological Layers
c

(kN/m)
()
(kN/bcm)
Gray and yellow clay Overburden 14.3
16.2
17.5
2)
(16)
(30)
(17.5)
Coal seam
40
50
12.2
Green Clay (floor strata)
14
16
17.5
2)
(16)
(30)
(17.5)

R
(kN/m)
8
(8)
8
(8)

1)

cR
(kN/m)
5
(10)
5
(10)

1)

1) Residual shear resistance (resistance after a long sliding way)

1) The residual shear strength (i.e. the residual strength against shearing after extended
shearing, > 15%)
2) The figures in brackets represent the soil physical investigations of the soil samples
from drillings SH3, SH4 and SH5. They represent a partial result originating from statistical evaluations. These values show a good conformity with the previously used
soil-physical parameters. The tendency noticed is that the parameters of the three drillings show more favourable values. Therefore the soil-mechanical investigation results
are more on the safe side.

Based on the analysis of available reports of the soil mechanical laboratory tests performed on
samples from the drill holes SH 3, SH 4 und SH 5 the coefficient k (coefficient of water permeability) is:
Overburden (grey und yellow clay)
k = 4 * 10-10 2.6 * 10-11
Green clay (floor strata)
k ca. 4 * 10-11

5.3 Soil mechanical Calculation Methods


The necessary soil-mechanical static stability calculations for the geological deposition conditions in the slopes and slope systems of the opencast mines are carried out using the soilstatically tested calculation methods according to BOROWICKA (circular cylindrical and polygonal sliding surfaces) and the BLOCK METHOD (internal Software of Vattenfall Europe
Mining AG). For reasons of comparison, the methods according to BISHOP and
KREY/BRETH (for circular cylindrical) are used for the calculations of static stability. These
are methods, which deliver plausible and realistic results within the framework of the soilmechanical examinations for the opencast mines of Vattenfall Europe Mining AG are which
are cut out for such deposits.

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Fig. 5.3-1

Principal Scheme

The static stability calculation consider both circular cylindrical sliding surfaces (KZP) and
geologically occurring plain, possibly polygonal directed weak zones (VG) in the cohesive
layers of the overburden and the floor.
If location and direction of fissures in the coal and geological faults in the overburden are
known they are not taken into account for the static stability calculations.

5.4 General Stability Factors


To ensure both a geotechnical safe and efficient opencast mine operation the following safety
factors are regarded necessary from soil-mechanical aspects for the specific objects. It should
be taken into account, that the chosen safety factor is decisively determined by the state of
knowledge about geological and hydrological situation and by statistically valid and/or not
valid soil-physical calculation parameters. The better the knowledge about the respective objest the lower the necessary safety factor to be chosen.
A different selection of the safety factor may also be possible between the advancing mining
and dump slopes and the rim slopes. In many cases lower safety factors are possible if the advancing extraction and dumping slopes have only a short lifetime.

Single slopes
Partial slope systems
Total system
Objects to be protected 1)

Si > 1.05
Si > 1.20
Si > 1.20
Si > 1.30

1) Theses are objects to be considered within the framework of static stability calculations as for example roads, rivers, buildings nearby the upper surface edge and the used
large opencast mine equipment

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5.5 Soilmechanical Calculations for Border Slope Systems


Experiences, a. o. from the Mirash and Bardh opencast mines are used to dimension the Border
Slope System.
Based on the static stability investigations the following general inclinations for the slope systems were determined, among others t o ensure static stability of partial slope systems and the
entire slope system. The soil-mechanical calculations base on the safety factor of Si > 1.20.

General inclination for the coal slope system


General inclination for the slope system in the overburden

Fig. 5.5-1

G,coal < 22
G,overburden < 10

Required general inclination of slopes with a safety factor of 1.2

The above defined angels are valid for an overburden and coal thickness of 70
m.
In order to prevent coal fires during the lifetime of the coal slope and the connected
endangering of the static stability of the coal head slope and
the resulting pollution
the following can be done:
In the overburden operation a general slope angle of 15... 20 shall be produced by the
large equipment. Directly afterwards, the general slope angle of < 10 shall be produced by
means of crawlers.

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5.6 Soilmechanical Calculations for Advance Slope Systems


The specifications made in the above item shall also be used for the design of the advancing
slopes of the opencast mine.

5.7 Static Stability of Single Slopes


It is known from practical soil-mechanical experiences in the existing opencast mines that
slides may occur at the single slopes. The following picture shows such a slide.

Fig. 5.7-1

Sliding in the coal-uncovering cut

These slides are caused by single slopes that are too high and cut too steep.
Polygonally directed weak zones with low strengths (polished surfaces) are occurring in certain
areas which are predestined for the formation of slides (see picture below).

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Fig. 5.7-2

Geologically occurring weak zone in the overburden material

Fig. 5.7-3

Exposed parting plane with large polished surface

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Another important factor for reducing the static stability is the jointing of the top clay. Partly,
these joints act as available sliding surfaces on which the slopes fail suddenly, unexpectedly
and rapidly.
Considering the above mentioned soil-physical parameter the following slope angles erf are
required in dependence on the slope height hB. This ensures the static stability of the single
slopes against slides on circular cylindrical and polygonal directed sliding surfaces in the long
run:
0 m <hB < 10 m
10 m < hB < 15 m
15 m < hB < 20 m

erf < 65
erf < 40
erf < 30

An angle of 30 cannot be cut into the side slope by the existing excavators. The slope remains
stable during the excavation process. However the slope stability reduces during the weeks
especially under unfavourable climatic conditions (rainfalls and variations in temperature).This
means that the presence in direct proximity to the slope has to be limited to the operationally
required extent in any case. Therefore operating instructions have to be formulated in accordance with the actual conditions.

5.8 Soilmechanical Calculations for Dumping Slope Systems


Excavation and the subsequent transportation on a belt conveyor to the spreader cause changing of the soil-physical properties of the clay.
Taking into account the following changed soil-physical calculation parameter for the material
to be dumped
Angle of effective internal friction
= 14
Effective cohesion
c = 10 kN/m
Specific weight of earth-moist soil
= 17.5 kN/m
and carrying out static stability calculation on the basis of these values the following results are
obtained:
Assuming the dump slope angle of 30 is achieved the dump will have a static stability of
Si 1.0 with a height of hdump 12 m. A further increase in height of the dump will lead to
slope failure. This slope failure will result in formation of shear planes (so-called polished surface planes). The material strength will decrease to residual shear strength in these shear
planes. The dump flows out and settles below a slope angle of 6... 8.
The a.m. results have to be taken into account in the practical operation when producing the
dump.

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5.9 Geotechnical Requirements to a Safe Operational


Management
1) A detailed and continuously updated geological model which is approved by the responsible geologist must exist for the opencast mine operation (illustration in maps, sections
and reports).
2) Each opencast mine requires data on the hydrological situation (f. e. location and direction of aquifers, data on the level of existing ground-water level; data have to be recorded
in written form).
3) Actual soil-physical parameters are required for the important geological layers in the
roof and floor of the coal seam. These parameters shall be continuously verified. Soil
samples shall be investigated in a recognized soil-physical laboratory. The result shall be
laid down in written form
4) The position of the mine is to be recorded in a layout plan in regular periods (results from
flights of terrestrial surveying).
5) Due to the advancing mining slopes it is necessary to keep at least three representative
geological profiles in which the achieved mining position have to be recorded in regular
periods. Profiles shall be at right angle to the bench.
6) Position and progress of the head slopes shall be planned forward looking. The planed
geometries shall be illustrated at least by one advance cut through the respective head
slope. The cuts shall be in right angle to the head slope system.
7) The track lines of all cuts shall be entered into the a. m. layout plan.
8) A geotechnical expert shall prepare soil-mechanical static stability investigations for
a) all single slopes of the mine, including the advancing slopes as well as the head slopes
and
b) the total slope system (containing also the partial systems).
Resulting from the investigations on the static stability, specifications shall be formulated
for the safe shaping of the single slopes and the entire slope system (including partial systems) with the specific technological conditions in mind. The results shall be set out in
written form (experts report).
9) These experts reports shall be justified to representatives of the opencast mine, the justification shall be recorded in a minutes.
10) A geotechnical specialist is needed for the opencast mine, who, among others, supervises
the implementation of the requirements from the a.m. geotechnical expert reports and the
necessary measures for a safe geotechnical operational management.
11) The geotechnical specialist shall perform regular inspections (at least twice or three times
a week, or if required). These inspections shall be recorded (protocol).
12) A control and supervision regime shall be elaborated for the mines. This document shall
contain all specific operational points which shall control and supervise continuously the
geotechnical conditions. The kind of control and the required reaction in case of deviations from the specifications shall be documented.

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6 Technological Development of the Sibovc Mine


6.1 Preconditions
Subject of the hereinafter described Main Mine Plan is the development starting from the existing opencast mines of Bardh / Mirash. This opencast mine will supply coal to all customers in
Kosovo.
Important preconditions determined for planning the development of the Sibovc mine are:
a)
Ensuring the defined coal supply t the power plants
b)
Take into consideration the release dates of the main mine equipment from
Bardh/Mirash
c)
Preconditions for resettlement
a) Targets for coal output
The most important item for developing the mining concept is the extraction of the planned
coal output.
The annual outputs for Sibovc base on the planned power plant concept (see chapter 3) and the
residual coal output from the Mirash/Bardh mines.
For the period of parallel operation of Bardh/ Mirash and Sibovc the following results:
Tab. 6.1-1

2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
SUM

Coal Output (Part 1: in the extended Development Period)

Coal to
TPP A incl.
run-of-mine coal
1.6
1.8
2.1
3.4
5.05
5.05
5.05
56

Coal to
TPP B

Coal from
Mirash/Bardh

SUM
Coal from Sibovc

5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
56

6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
7.9
3.2
2.5
77

0
0
0
0
2.45
7.15
7.85
161

Further more, the following coal output from the new opencast mine is scheduled on the basis
of the power plant planning defined by the Ministry for Energy and Mining:

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Tab. 6.1-2

Coal output from Sibovc in regular operation

2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
SUM (2012-2038)

Coal to
TPP A and
other Consumer
5.05
5.05
5.15
5.15
5.15
5.15
3.64
2.07
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
271

SUM (2005-2038)

69.96

Coal to
TPP B
(B1 B6)
8.01
10.72
10.72
10.72
10.54
10.54
10.72
13.43
16.14
15.96
15.96
16.14
13.31

Coal to
additional
TPP

10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84

2.71
5.42
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13

1965

1533

349.79

176.7

SUM
Coal from Sibovc

13.06
15.77
15.87
15.87
18.40
21.11
22.49
23.63
24.59
24.41
24.41
24.77
21.94
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
1555
552.75 Sibovc + 43.7
= 596.45 from all Mines

b) Release of the Main Mine Equipment


The main equipment use in the existing mines was planed considering of the following aspects:
technological aspects (overburden removal, uncovering and extraction of coal)
soil-mechanical aspects (flattening of border slope systems, safeguarding of advance conditions between the single working fronts)
technical aspects (capability of main equipment regarding the mechanical and
electrical status)

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organisational aspects (capability of support operations, like dewatering, auxiliary


equipment, road construction, availability of spare parts)

Special attention was paid to an earliest possible release of equipment that was intended for a
further use in the follow-up field. These machines can only be released for rehabilitation from
mid of 2007 which is mainly due to their low present capacity.
The table below illustrates the utilization time of the single machines according to Quarters.
The belt wagons are released parallel with the coal excavators. The coal excavators are decommissioned stepwise within the period from 2009 to 2011 according to the declining capacity in the Mirash/Bardh mines (see Mid Term Plan).
Tab. 6.1-3

Release Time for Main Mine Equipment


2005

E1M
E2M
E3M
E4M
E5M
E6M
E7M
E8M
E9M
E10M
E1B
E2B
E4B
E6B
E7B
E8B
E9B
E10B
P1M
P3M
P4M
P1B
P2B
P3B

2006

2007

2008

2009

2011

2010

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X
X
X
X X X X X
X X X X X X X X X X X X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X X
X X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X
X
X

X X X X X X X
X X X X X X
X X X X X X X
X

X X X X X

X X X X X X X X X X X X X
X
X
X X X X X X X X X X
X X X X X X

The equipment used in the mining field shall be refurbished after releasing. This measure aims
at achieving a considerable increase in the hourly capacity and reliability. Such a refurbishment
will last at least for 6 months (incl. acceptance of extra costs). It would be advisable to calculate 8 to 9 months, since then only normal costs are incurred.
The following utilization times were taken as basis:

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1. SchRs 650
2. SRs 1300.26
3. SRs 1300.24
4. SchRs 650
5. SRs 1300.24
6. SRs 1300.24

E 9M
E 8M
E 9B
E 10M
E 8B
E 10B

April 2008 with spreader P 4M A2RsB-5200.55


May 2008
with spreader P 1B A2RsB-4400.60
June 2008
April 2009
June 2009
Sept. 2009 resp. April 2011 (with P 3M A2RsB-5200)

c) Preconditions for the resettlement


Precondition for the planned opencast mine development is the resettlement of the village of
Hade because the mine will be developed starting from the existing northern rim slope of
Bardh / Mirash (with long bench).
After having started the detailed project work the Consultant expressed their concerns that the
complete resettlement of Hade will be accomplished in time and made clear that considerable
financial means have to be made available for a timely resettlement.
This issue was discussed with the responsible authorities including the Ministry for Energy and
Mining. Resulting from this discussion a decision was made to require the timely resettlement
of Hade for the Main Mine Plan work. Following this, the resettlement including the deconstruction and removal of the building foundations has to be finished until 2010. This also includes the acquisition of land by KEK.

6.2 General Remarks on Mine Development


The mine development bases on the prepared geological model. It aims at mining the saleable
product raw coal at most favourable costs. That means that essential changes of the targets and
premises will lead also to corresponding changes in the mining concept and costs. The overburden removal operation ensures the uncovering of the necessary coal quantities for the supply to the power plant having regard to the geotechnical safety requirements (see chapter: soil
mechanical parameters).
It is agreed that the necessary resources will be made available, such as:
Qualified employees in the respective trades and
Sufficient financial means for the investment and maintenance
Furthermore, it is assumed that all permits for the operation will be available in time.
With regard to the mining technology, the present mining of the deposit will be continued
whereby available equipment and a part of the KEK plants will be used to a great extent.
The following items regarding mining operation as for example:
Employment of labour / organisation
Auxiliary equipment
Drainage
Resettlement and
Recultivation
are described in separate chapters.

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Dumping of power plant ash in the mines lies in the responsibility of the power plants and is
not included within the framework of this Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine.

6.3 Technological Equipment Parameter


The basic technology is among others determined by the constructive parameters of the available large opencast mine equipment. Furthermore, the construction data of the new bucket
wheel excavator for overburden removal have to be taken into account. Based on the preliminary investigations, an excavator of the size 40,000 bcm/d with 30 -35 m cutting height seems
to be technically and economically reasonable. For planning purposes the following parameters
are used:
Tab. 6.3-1
Type

Basic Geometry of the Bucket Wheel Excavators


Length of Width of
Height of Bucket
machine
machine
machine
wheel
diameter

SchRs 650
(E 9M, E10M)
SRs 1300.24
(E8B, E9B and E10B)
SRs 1300.26
(E 8M)
New BWE
Tab. 6.3-2
Type

m
141

m
24

M
36

m
10.56

Mid of
bucket
wheel to
mid of
excavator
m
36

125

22

32

36.5

82.5

135

22

32

36.96

92

ca. 150

ca. 25

ca. 40

ca. 12

ca. 44

ca. 100

Cutting Heights and block Width of Excavators


Max.
Max.
cutting height
cutting depth
m

Mid of
excavator
to mid of
discharge
chute
m
90

Block width
m

45 1)
SchRs 650
28
5
(E 9M, E10M)
SRs 1300.24
26 (24)
5
37
(E8B, E9B and E10B)
37 / 45
SRs 1300.26
26
5
New BWE
ca. 32
ca. 3 (5)
ca. 43 1)
1) in case of shifting operation /reconstruction of belt conveyor every 2 blocks

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Tab. 6.3-3
Type

Maximum Inclination of working Levels and Curve Radii of Excavators


Smallest curve
Max.
Max. cross incliAdmissible incliradius
longitudinal incli- nation
nation for transnation
port
m
-

SchRs 650
(E 9M, E10M)
SRs 1300.24
(E8B, E9B and
E10B)
SRs 1300.26

60

1 : 25

1 : 25 1)

1 : 20

80

1 : 33
1: 20

1 : 20 or
1 : 33

1 : 20

80
ca. 80

1: 20 or
1 : 33
1: 20 or
1 : 33

1 : 20

New BWE

1 : 33
1 : 20
1 : 33
1 : 20

or equivalent

1 : 20
1)

as resulting inclination

6.4 Capability / Capacity Calculation for MME


6.4.1 Capability of Excavators
The capacity calculation and/or assessment of excavator capacities bases on the estimation of
the principle capability of the equipment under the conditions of the Sibovc deposit, whereby a
tolerance range is taken into account (lower and upper limit).
The mass movements (especially overburden) resulting from the determined coal supplies are
then compared with this capability in order to show the feasibility.
All relevant influencing parameters are considered when determining the overburden and coal
capacities. These influencing parameters are split into two columns:
Firstly, the influencing factors, which determine the filling and the emptying of the excavator
buckets. Resulting from this the load factor (and/or excavator effect) is yielded and the hourly
capacity and
Secondly, the time factors [time factor T], which determined the annual output capacity.
The following scheme gives an overview over the calculation method.

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Princple Calculation Scheme of


effective Capacity of
Tb = TbA - Ts

VE = Ve * Tb

Tb = TbA * EtaTA
Ve = Vth * EtaB

EtaB = fbu * fload

Subdivision of T

Tb = Tk - Tp -Ts

or

Tb = Tk * EtaT

or

Ve = Vtheo * fload

Vtheo = Vth * fbu

Vth = Vbu * nbu* 60

Ts = Tb * s
Ts = TbA * sA

TbA = Tk -Tp
Tb =Tb1+Tb2+Tb3+Tb4

T b1

planned

not plan ned

High Cut

Tp = Tp1 +Tp2 +Tp3

T b2

Ts = Ts1 +Ts2 +Ts3+Ts4+Ts5

Deep Cut

T p1
Working time r egime
(shift use)

T b3
special oper ation
(reduced perfor mance)

T p2

T b4
double r emoved
masses

Tran sport

T p3
Planned Maint e nance

Fig. 6.4-1

Principle Capacity Calculation Method

Page 96 of 257

T s1 technical breakdowns on BWE


T s2 standstill, operational reasons on BWE
T s3 standstill caused by conveyor sy stem
T s4 standstill by mining system / Environm.
T s5 other stan dstills

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

First column: The load factor Expression of the hourly capacity


Basis of the calculation is the theoretical capacity level of the single machines which is determined by the construction/mechanical engineering..
This theoretical digging capacity (Vth in lcm/h) is determined from the bucket size (Vbu) and
the bucket discharges (nd). In most cases, the manufacturer specifies it as round value and it
includes a volume portion of the cell space of the bucket wheel.
The theoretical digging capacity (Vth in lcm/h and Vtheo in bcm/h or t/h)

Vth = Vbu x nd x 60
Tab. 6.4-1
Typ

Theoretical Digging Capacity in lcm/h


Volume Number Rotation
of
of
Bucket
buckets buckets wheel

Vbu
lcm

nbu
-

Ubu
1 / min

Number
of bucket
discharges
nd
1 / min

Calculated
theoretical
digging
Capacity
Vth(calc)
lcm/h

Theoretical
Capacity according
documentation
Vth
lcm/h

SchRs 650
(E 9M, E10M)
SRs 1300.24
(E8B, E9B and E10B)
original
currently
SRs 1300.26
original
currently
New BWE

0.65

21

5.15

108

4212

4212

0.52

18

128.6

4011

4000

0.52
0.52
0.52
1.3

21
23
23
18 - 21

7.14
/5.857
7.5
5.857
7.5
ca. 4.28

157.5
134.7
172.5
ca. 77

4914
4203
5382
6000

Comparison: SRs 1300.24


Germany

0.63

14

6.5

91

3440

4200
6000

3500

The mineable solid and compact masses are of special practical interest. In order to take this
into account the loosening of the excavated material (overburden or coal) inside the digging
tool has to be considered. This value mainly depends from the excavated material itself and to
a certain extent from the form of the cut (kind of excavation) and the bucket form.
For the conditions in Sibovc the following can be applied:
Tab. 6.4-2
Type

SchRs 650
(E9M,E10M)

SRs 1300.24

Theoretical Capacity of Excavators in bcm/h resp. t/h


Material
Theoretical
loosening
loosening
(transport
digging
in bucket
/dumping)
Capacity
Vth
fd
fbu
lcm/h
lcm/bcm
lcm/bcm
(1.4)
Overburden
4212
1.55
(Clay)
(1.52-1.55)
Coal
1.7
(1.4)
Overburden
4000
1.55
Page 97 of 257

Theoretical
Capacity
Vtheo
bcm/h
2700

t/h
2800

2580

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

(E8B,E9B,E10B)

SRs 1300.26
(E 8M)
New BWE

Comparison:
SRs1300 Germany

(Clay)
Coal
Overburden
(Clay)
Coal
Overburden
Coal

4200
ca.6000

Overburden

3500

Coal

3500

(1.52-1.55)
(1.4)
(1.52-1.55)
(1.4)
(1.52-1.55)
(1.4)

1.7
1.55

2680
2700

1.7
1.55

2800
ca. 3900

1.7

1.55

ca. 4000

2260

(1.52-1.55)
1.7
2350
Please note: the loosening factors vary and cannot be calculated
safely. Therefore the theoretical capacity (in bcm/h or t/h) is a round
value.

The effective capacity Ve

Ve = Vth x fbu x fload


Ve = Vtheo x fload
Considerations of the effective capacity focus on the present capacity level for reasons of comparison. It has to be born in mind when considering these figures that the previously realised
capacities were negatively influenced by the insufficient technical status and the inadequate
organisation and lack of motivation.
This capacity level which is considered too low shall be raised step-by-step by means of implementing several measures. This should already be performed within the period of the mid
term plan (see study).
One example for the reduced capacity was the fact that excavation was not continuously carried out in full block operation (partly due to instable and failing slopes). Moreover, the discharging system (belt conveyor and spreader) cut down the possible excavator capacity. Further reductions were caused by the excavation of slide masses.
Before their use in Sibovc, all machines will be refurbished. This measure aims at improving
the realisable load factor directly.
The human factor has a decisive influence on the actual result (effective capacity). In order to
allow for this fact and the specific conditions, a minimum and a maximum bucket filling (loading factor) is indicated.
Tab. 6.4-3
Type

Effective Capacity of Excavators - Overburden


Theoretical
Validity
Capacity

Vtheo
SchRs 650

bcm/h
2700 bcm/h

SRs 1300.24

2580 bcm/h

Currently
Plan Mid term
Min MMP
Max MMP
Currently (2004)
Page 98 of 257

Load factor

Effective
Capacity *

fload

Ve

%
23%
27%
30%
37%
18%

bcm/h
615 bcm/h
740 bcm/h
800 bcm/h
1000 bcm/h
470 bcm/h

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

(E8B,E9B,E10B)

2700 bcm/h

SRs 1300.26

Plan Mid term


Min MMP
Max MMP
Currently

22%
27%
33%
15%

575 bcm/h
700 bcm/h
850 bcm/h
400 bcm/h

Plan Mid term


Min MMP
Max MMP
Min MMP
Max MMP

21%
26%
31%
40%
50%

575 bcm/h
700 bcm/h
850 bcm/h
1560 bcm/h
1950 bcm/h

Average*
Max

53%
66%

1200 bcm/h
1500 bcm/h
* round values

(E 8M)

New BWE

3900 bcm/h

Comparison
SRs 1300 Germany

2260 bcm/h

The comparison with bucket wheel excavators in Germany reveals that further capacity increases would be possible in case of good working conditions. This cannot be assumed for the
conditions in Kosovo within the period under review. Additionally, a relatively high portion of
ramp excavation is to be accomplished in Sibovc which lowers the excavator effects.
It was considered that selective mining / quality management will slightly reduce the excavator
effect in the coal operation.
Tab. 6.4-4
Type

Effective Capacity for Excavator - Coal


Theoretical
Capacity
Validity

Vtheo

Load factor

Effective
Capacity

fload

Ve

%
43%
54%
37%

t/h
1200 t/h
1500 t/h
1000 t/h

SchRs 650

t/h
2800 t/h

SRs 1300.24

2680 t/h

Min MMP
Max MMP
Min MMP

2800 t/h

Max MMP
Min MMP

45%
36%

1200 t/h
1000 t/h

Max MMP

43%

1200 t/h

Average
Max

76%
89 %

1800 t/h
2100 t/h

(E8B,E9B,E10B)

SRs 1300.26
(E 8M)

Comparison
SRs 1300 Germany

2350 t/h

The human factor plays an important role for the loading factor. For the long-term planning it
is assumed that
qualified / experiences personnel is employed
the personnel is better motivated than presently and
losses due to missing spare parts or bad work organisation will be reduced

Page 99 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Second column: Time factor


The annual capacity (VE) achievable is determined by the actual operating hours (Tb) depending primarily on the chosen operation regime (planned working and maintenance time) and the
unscheduled stops (down-times).

VE = Ve x Tb
VE = Ve x Tk x T
Tk = Tb + Ts + Tp
VE = Ve x (Tk-Tp) x TA
The table below which contains the range of planned operating time assumes the following
premises:
The calendar time of 8,760 h per year is assumed as potential working time
a 3-weeks general repair is scheduled
per working week, two shifts are reserved for short maintenance / inspection /
function tests and shifting operation
Unscheduled stops/accidents are taken into account with 5% - 7% of the possible
working time (Tk Tp)
Handing over of shifts is performed on the equipment
It is furthermore differentiated between a so-called normal and maximum capacity. This enables consideration of influencing factors like:
Meteorological conditions (stop due to fog, continuous rain, extreme freeze and
wind)
Utilization of shift working time (usual rate is 80% -90%)
Time needed for auxiliary works / smaller shifting operations and transports
Human factor (efforts of personnel / work organisation) and
Reserve time.
All these influences are also taken into account for the so-called maximum capacities. In case
of a lot of unfavourable factors occurring exceptionally in one year, the achievable operating
time reduces towards the normal value.

Page 100 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The following table includes the absolute efficient working time:


Tab. 6.4-5

Validity

Planned Working Time Tb of single Equipment

Calendar
time
Tk
h
24

Normal-daily
capacity
Maximum daily
capacity
Normal weekly 168
capacity
Maximum
weekly capacity
730
Normal
monthly capacity
Maximum
monthly capacity
Normal annual 8760
capacity
Maximum annual capacity

Avail
able
work
ing
time
TbA
h
24

Downtimes
(additional)

Operating time

Temporal
rate
of
utilization

Tadd
h
4.8

Tb
h
19.2

T
%
80

24

2.4

21.6

90

110.4

65.7

128.2

76.3

385

52.7

134.4 24
151.2 23

480

95

557

73

4620

354

5808

334

Function tests,
shift change
Smaller down-times
Reserve
Like daily, otherwise
additional:
2 * 8 h/week
for repair / maintenance
or reserve and 7% / 5%
unscheduled down-time
as week but in addition:
shifting/

reconstruction belt con- 484


veyors,
shifting, meteorology
(6d / 4d)
In addition:
4266
3x7 d general repair and
1x7 d reserve in normal 5474
case

Page 101 of 257

66.3

48.7
62.5

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Basing on the above mentioned down-times /operating times the following normal- and maximum capacities result for the planning of Sibovc:
Tab. 6.4-6

Normal Capacity and maximum Capacity - Overburden

1)
Normal daily
capacity
Maximum daily
capacity
Normal weekly
capacity
Maximum
weekly capacity
Normal
monthly capacity
Maximum
monthly capacity
Normal annual
capacity
Maximum annual capacity

Operating VE
time
new
BWE
with
1560
bcm/h
Tb
VE
1,000
bcm
h
19.2
29.95

with:
1950
bcm/h
VE

VE
SchRs
650
with:
800
bcm/h
VE

with:
1,000
bcm/h
VE

VE
SRs
1300
with:
700
bcm/h
VE

with:
850
bcm/h
VE

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

1,000 bcm

37.44

15.36

19.2

13.44

16.32

21.6

33.70

42.12

17.28

21.6

15.12

18.36

110.4

172

215

88

110

77

94

128.2

200

250

102

128

89

109

385

600

750

308

385

270

327

484

755

944

387

484

338

411

4,266

6655

8318

3413

4266

2986

3626

5,474

8540

10670

4380

5474

3832

4653

1) after Refurbishment

There is only a low interdependence between the systems due to the relatively low number of
machines and the mine development planned in detail resulting in a very low reduction the
overall of capacity (low system interdependence).

Page 102 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The long-term planned overall capacity for the overburden operation is show in the below table:
Tab. 6.4-7

Capability of Bucket Wheel Excavators in Overburden Operation

Reliable assumption
VE
m bcm/a
3.6
3.6
8.3
4.3
19.8

SRs 1300
SRs 1300
New BWE
SchRs 650
SUM

Maximum assumption
In
4.6
4.6
10.6
5.4
25.2

The listed equipment is therefore in principle capable of meeting the required coal supply of
19.1 to 24.8 mt per year (Ratio Overburden to Coal is 1.17 m:1 t).

Capability of coal operation


Tab. 6.4-8

Capability of Excavators in Coal Operation

Operating
time

1)
Normal daily
capacity
Maximum
daily capacity
Normal weekly
capacity
Maximum
weekly capacity
Normal
monthly capacity
Maximum
monthly capacity
Normal annual
capacity
Maximum annual capacity

1200 t/h
VE
1000 t
23.0

SchRs
650
with
1200 t/h
VE
1000 t
23.0

1500 t/h
VE
1000 t
28.8

3*
SRs 1300
SchRs 650
min
VE
1000 t
80

21.6

25.9

25.9

32.4

90

110

110.4

110

132

132

165

462

561

128.2

128

153

153

192

537

651

385

385

462

462

577

1617

1963

484

484

580

580

726

2032

2466

4266

4260

5120

5120

6399

17900

21759

5474

5470

6560

6560

8211

22970

27891

Tb
h
19.2

SRs
1300
with:
1000 t/h
VE
1000 t
19.2

21.6

Page 103 of 257

and 1*
max
VE
1000 t
97.8

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

When using three excavators in the coal operation with capacities of excavators of the type S
SRs 1300 and one excavator of the type SchRs 650 it would be theoretically possible to extract
up to 27.9 m t coal and 25 mt, respectively, when taking into account inter-dependencies.
This means that one excavator has to be purchased because only three bucket wheel excavators
from the Mirash / Bardh mine are available for the coal operation in Sibovc. This can be other
SRs 1300 or an excavator like the SchRs 650. Only three coal excavators would not meet the
demanded capacity and in case of an accident in the coal operation reduced output would result
for a limited period.
The alternative deployment of an available excavator of the type SRs 400 as a fourth machine
would not fill this gap.
[Reason: The annual output capacity of such an excavator of the SRs 400 type is
under the given conditions between 2.6 to 3.3 m t/a.
Calculation: Vth
= 2600 lcm/h
Vtheo = 1530 t/h
fload = 0.4
Ve
= 612 t/h
Tb
= 4266 5474 h/a
VE
= 2.6 3.3 mt/a
The before mentioned data are annual specifications which are only valid if the supply in every
single week would be guaranteed. Reduced supplies of coal even in such small units of time
like weeks will inevitably result in losses of the annual output capacity.
The variations in the output during the year shall be taken into account for the entire system.
The more uneven the possible coal supply to the consumers, the more unscheduled additional
stops will occur. Comparisons with other brown coal districts show that further approximately
10-15% which will be lost. That applies to normal basic load operation without unusual requirements to the quality management. This is accepted for Sibovc.
The following results for the pit system (up to the place of delivery power station) as nominal
capacity:
Tab. 6.4-9

Nominal Capacity of the Pit System

Reliable
assumption
VE
m t/a
SchRs 650
SRs 1300
SRs 1300
New SchRs 650 /SRs 1300
SUM

5.9
5.0
5.0
5.0
20.9

Maximum
assumption
in
7.3
5.9
5.9
5.9
25.0

Page 104 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

6.4.2 Capability of Belt Conveyors


The conveying capacity is assessed on the basis of:
Belt width
Belt troughing
Belt speed
Utilization ratio of belt width
Inclination and
Bulk density of material
The capability of the belt conveyor with a belt troughing of 36 is determined according to the
following relation:

me = V e x l
Ve = A x vc x fi x 3600
Ve = we* x we x (390 + 725* tan ) x vc x fi
we = 0.9 x wc - 0.05
l density of the conveyed material, loose
Ve effective conveying capacity on the belt
A bulk surface of the conveyed material
vc speed of the belt conveyor
fi factor considering belt inclination
we effective belt width
wc belt width
. angle of repose

in t/lcm
in lcm/h
in m
in m/s
in m
in m
in

Density and maximum belt inclination for the conveyed material:


Tab. 6.4-10

Bulk Density, Angle of Repose and Inclination of Belt Conveyor

Material
Overburden, dry
Overburden, wet
Coal

Bulk density
t/lcm
1.6 1.7
1.7 1.8
0.75

Angle of repose

15
4
15

Page 105 of 257

Maximum inclination

17
10 - 15
18 - 20

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-11

Factor fi for Considering the Inclination

Inclination c
fi

0
1

12
0.97

15
0.93

18
0.89

20
0.85

22
0.84

25
0.78

Example for determining capacity of the 1,800 mm belt conveyor:


Effective belt width
we = 0.9 x 1.8m + 0.5 = 1.57 m
Vc 5.24 m/s
15
conveying capacity ( = 15) Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 15) x 5.24 fi = 7546 x fi lm/h
conveying capacity ( = 4) Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 4) x 5.24 fi = 5692 x fi lm/h
conveying capacity ( = 0) Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 0) x 5.24 fi = 5037 x fi lm/h
Summarizing, the following results for a 1.8 m belt conveyor at 36 belt troughing angle considering the bench inclination:
Tab. 6.4-12

Possible Conveying Capacity for the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor, loose

Angle
of repose

Bulk
surface

Belt
inclination

A
m
0.2670

0.3017

10

0.3545

15

0.4000

0
10
15
0
10
15
0
10
15
0
10
15

Factor Conveying
capacity, loose
fi
1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93

Belt speed
1.00 m/s
961.311
1086.274
1276.417
1440.150

in
vc
5.24 m/s
5,037
4,936
4,684
5,692
5,578
5,293
6,688
6,554
6,220
7,546
7,395
7,018

lcm/h
5.85 m/s
5,624
5,511
5,230
6,355
6,228
5,910
7,467
7,318
6,944
8,424
8,255
7,834

6.55 m/s
6,296
6,170
5,855
7,115
6,973
6,617
8,360
8,193
7,775
9,433
9,244
8,772

To illustrate the conveying capacity in bank condition, the loosening factor 1.4 lcm/bcm is
considered for the overburden in Sibovc:

Page 106 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-13

Eff. Conv Capacity Ve in bcm/h of the 1.8 m Belt Conveyor (Overburden)

Angle
of repose

Bulk
surface

Belt
inclination

A
m
0.2670

0.3017

10

0.3545

15

0.4000

0
10
15
0
10
15
0
10
15
0
10
15

Tab. 6.4-14

Factor Conveying
capacity, loose
fi
1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93

Belt speed
1.00 m/s
961.311
1086.274
1276.417
1440.150

in
vc
5.24 m/s
3,598
3,526
3,346
4,066
3,984
3,781
4,777
4,681
4,443
5,390
5,282
5,013

bcm/h
5.85 m/s
4,017
3,936
3,736
4,539
4,448
4,221
5,333
5,227
4,960
6,017
5,896
5,596

6.55 m/s
4,497
4,407
4,182
5,082
4,981
4,726
5,971
5,852
5,554
6,739
6,603
6,266

Possible Conveying Capacity for the 2.0 m Belt Conveyor, loose

Angle
of repose

Bulk
surface

Belt
inclination

Factor Conveying
capacity, loose

A
m

fi
-

Belt speed
1.00 m/s

vc
5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

0.3318
0.4970

1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93

1194.375

15

0
10
15
0
10
15

6,258
6,133
5,820
9,376
9,188
8,720

6,987
6,847
6,498
10,467
10,258
9,734

7,823
7,666
7,275
11,720
11,485
10,900

1789.306

Page 107 of 257

in

lcm/h

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-15

Eff. Conv. Capacity Ve of the 2.0 m Overburden Belt Conveyor in bcm/h

Angle
of repose

Bulk
surface

Belt
inclination

Factor Conveying
capacity, loose

A
m

fi
-

Belt speed
1.00 m/s

vc
5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

0.3318
0.4970

1.00
0.98
0.93
1.00
0.98
0.93

853.125

15

0
10
15
0
10
15

4,470
4,381
4,157
6,697
6,563
6,228

4,991
4,891
4,641
7,476
7,327
6,953

5,588
5,476
5,196
8,371
8,203
7,786

1278.076

in

bcm/h

Coal belt conveyors:


Belt width: 1.8 m
Angle of repose = 15
Ve = 1.572 x (390+725 tan 15) x 5.24 fi
Ve = 1440.15 x 5.24 x fi = 7,546 x fi in lcm/h
me = l x Ve
f = 1.14 t/bcm
l = 0.75 t/lcm
loosening factor log-distance belt conveyor: fl = f / l = 1.52 lcm/bcm
me = 7,546 x fi x 0.75
[t/h]
me = 5,660 x fi
[t/h]
A horizontally positioned 1.8 m belt conveyor is capable of conveying approximately 5,660 t/h
with a belt speed of 5.24 m/s.
This means that two coal excavators can charge on head belt conveyor.
In case of a speed of 5.85 m/s the conveying capacity will increase to 6,318 t/h and in case of a
speed of 6.55 m/s to 7,075 t/h.
Considering the inclination the following results:
Tab. 6.4-16

Conveying Quantity of a 1.8 m Coal Conveyor in t/h

Angle
of repose

Bulk
surface

Belt
inclination

Factor Conveying
quantity me

A
m

fi
-

Belt speed
1.00 m/s

vc
5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

15

0.4000

0
10
12
20

1.00
0.98
0.97
0.85

1080.112

5,660
5,547
5,490
4,811

6,318
6,191
6,128
5,370

7,075
6,933
6,862
6,014

Page 108 of 257

in

t/h

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 6.4-17

Conveying Quantity of a 2.0 m Coal Belt Conveyor (wc = 1.75 m) in t/h

Angle
of repose

Bulk
surface

Belt
inclination

Factor Conveying
quantity me

A
m

fi
-

Belt speed
1.00 m/s

vc
5.24 m/s

5.85 m/s

6.55 m/s

15

0.4970

0
10
12
20

1.00
0.98
0.97
0.85

1341.980

7,032
6,891
6,821
5,977

7,850
7,693
7,614
6,672

8,790
8,614
8,526
7,471

in

t/h

Coal inclined belt conveyor


The inclined coal belt conveyor is planned with an inclination of 1:6, i.e. about 10.
According to the belt speed, a 2.0 m wide belt conveyor can handle between 6,900 and 8,600
t/h coal per single conveyor. For a 1.8 m wide belt conveyor this would amount to 5,500 t/h to
6,900 t/h.
Relations coal production to capability of long-distance belt conveyor:
If all coal excavators would operate simultaneously with a capacity of 1,200 t/h this would result in a production of 4,800 t/h. Considering the unequal belt charge of all pit excavators of
25-30 % there follows a necessary effective total belt capacity of 6,240 t/h.
This requirement is met by one single 1.8m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s.
Two long-distance belt conveyors lead to the power plants.
Head belt conveyor:
Two coal excavators charge the coal to one head belt conveyor.
Calculating the short-term peak load (< 1h) of one single coal excavator with a Vth von
ca.4,000 lcm/h and an addition of 25% there results the dimension of the discharging belt conveyor of ca. 5,000 lcm/h. Two excavators shall have the following size:
8000 lcm/h x 1.1 = 8,800 lcm/h or 6600 t/h for one belt conveyor line.
This can also be met with a 1.8 m belt conveyor with a belt speed of 6.55 m/s.

6.4.3 Capability of Spreaders


In principle there shall be a conveying reserve of 25% between belt conveyor and excavator
and 10% between belt conveyor and spreader.
Except the new A2Rs B 8000, the available spreaders will be used for saving costs. These
spreaders are the bottleneck in the conveying chain. Measures to stabilise / increase the capability should therefore be included in the refurbishment.

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Tab. 6.4-18

Comparison of possible Volume Streams

Vth 1)

planned
Ve
(> 1 d)

E 8M SRs 1300

lcm/h
4,200

bcm/h
850

lcm/h
1,300

Ve
peak,
estimated
(15 min)
lcm/h
4,000

E 9B SRs 1300

4,000

850

1,300

4,000

new BWE

6,000

1,950

2,960

6,000

E 9M SchRs 650

4,212

1,000

1,530

4,200

Volume Stream
of Excavator

Belt
System
1800
mm
1800
mm
2000
mm
1800
mm

Volume
Stream
of Belts
2)

Spreader

lcm/h
4,684
7,546
4,684
7,546
5,820
8,720
4,684
7,546

Nominal
Capacity
Spreader
1)
lcm/h

P 4M

5,200

P 1B

5,000

new
A2RsB

8,000

P 3M

5,200

1) Nominal capacity
2) With 5.24 m/s. Depends on inclination of belt and bulk material. Misalignment of belt reduces
capacity additionally.

6.5 Mine Planning


6.5.1 Follow-up to mining in Bardh/ Mirash
The planning was made to directly follow up mining operations of Bardh/ Mirash. The Mid
Term Plan includes:
Tab. 6.5-1

Overburden and Coal Output in Mirash / Bardh


Overburden [ mbcm ]

thereof

Coal [ mt ]

thereof

thereof

Advance Widening Widening


total
Slope
North
South

Bardh

Mirash

Southeast
(Reserve)

6.9

2.0

4.9

0.5

2.6

7.1

0.35

6.78

2.4

1.4

7.4

1.36

6.04

3.2

3.2

0.8

8.7

3.45

5.25

0.5

2.1

7.9

3.08

4.85

0.8

0.8

3.2

0.28

2.91

2.5

2.51

56.8

31.1

25.7

41.4

8.7

6.7

43.7

10.5

33.2

total

Bardh

Mirash

2005

14.4

6.9

7.5

12.0

0.5

1.9

2006

18.2

9.0

9.2

13.0

2.6

2007

14.1

7.9

6.2

10.3

2008

7.2

5.7

1.5

2009

2.1

1.6

2010

0.8

2011

total

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6.5.2 Excavation Boundary/ Boundary Line


The following was taken into consideration when the excavation boundary (upper edge of first
level) was established:
a)
Course of concession line
b)
Permissible approach to villages
c)
Thickness of mineable coal seam at the boundary
d)
Necessary general inclination from geotechnical point of view
e)
Necessary minimum profile from technological point of view
f)
Requirements to bench lengths which are meaningful from technological point
of view
g)
Ecological aspects
Altogether the excavation boundary or the technological depletion boundary represents a compromise between the criteria mentioned above.
The following applies to the single criteria:
For a) Concession line
The partial field of Sibovc has already been foreseen for excavation. This area is defined by a limitation line.
The limitation of the excavation area planned in the Main Mine Plan is within this area.
For b) Approach to villages
The relocation of villages within this field has already been taken into consideration
As for villages at the edge of the future opencast mine minimum distances of 100 m to the
residential buildings have been kept.
This applies to buildings for which a building permit is available and which have been entered
in the available maps.
Near the village of Shipitulle little coal losses have been accepted to keep the infrastructure.
The same applies to the southern part of the eastern boundary line. The viability of the village
of Palaj has been kept.
For c) Thickness of mineable coal seam at the boundary
The coal seam takes a V form towards the edge so that the horizontal distance, e.g. at the western boundary line between 20 and 50 m seam thickness, is merely 100 to 200 m. Insofar the
margin for selecting the boundary line is relatively small. Nevertheless, when it comes to a
decision between a possibly complete use of the geological deposit and the economic aspects
we recommend using the isoline of 20 m coal thickness.
This value was used for planning in Sibovc. In addition to that it has been taken into consideration that belt lengthening or shortening is not always necessary and the head conveyors with
a straight position can be constructed with a justifiable number of single conveyors.

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For d) Geotechnical safety


All slope systems comply with the requirements regarding the stability required from a geotechnical point of view. i.e.:
general inclination / overburden system
< 10
overburden (single slope)
< 45 (few exceptions)
general inclination / coal
< 22
coal (single slope)
< 75 to 20m or < 70 to 25m
To e) Requirements regarding the bench length
There are requirements regarding the spontaneous ignition of coal slopes that are there for too
long a time as well as the manageable belt length of the belt conveyor systems.
The chosen form of excavation complies with the requirements necessary regarding the bench
lengths. This statement applies to the planned excavation output of the opencast mine.
Spontaneous ignition of coal slopes:
In the coal slope there is the danger of spontaneous ignition in case the lifetime of a coal slope
is too long (much longer than 3 months). This danger is not to be expected for the planned parameters for the active coal levels.
This can be explained by the example of the first coal level:
The bench length of the first, i.e. the longest, coal level is between 2.7 and 3.2 km (mostly
about 2.9 km).
In the most unfavourable case the following applies when a 20 m slope is used:
Cut height:
20 m
Block width:
37 m
Volume for 1 block:
2.368 m m = 20m x 37m x 3200m
Coal content:
2.70 mt/block = 2.368 m m x 1.14 t/m
Annual output:
19.11 mt/a
Number of blocks per year: 7.078 blocks per year = 19.11 mt / 2.7 mt
Time of excavation:
1.7 months = 12 months / 7.078
Therefore in the most unfavourable case a block circle takes 1.7 months or 7.35 weeks. In such
a time period no spontaneous ignition will develop in the coal seam (with stable slopes). Moreover the block width can be reduced up to 20 m without any considerable output losses. Then
the time necessary for one block circle is merely 1 month (by calculation 0.92).
In the normal case the excavation time is much shorter because:
the coal levels 2 to 4 have a shorter bench length than the upper first coal level
the coal levels are somewhat shorter on average
the thickness is not always 20 m
the annual output is partly higher than 19.11 m t/a
Annual mine advance:
In relation to the whole deposit the annual mine advance is 100 to 150 m.
(Rough calculation for better understanding:
800 mt / 19 mt/a = 42 a
Total mine advance over the deposit for ca. 800 mt: 5,000 m
5,000 m / 42 a = 120 m/a)
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In the first three decades of mining the advance is ca. 110 m/a.
When the geotechnical specifications of the slope design are followed, there is then no noteworthy danger of a spontaneous ignition for the normal side slope in the selected parallel operation.
As far as the geotechnical specifications for slope design are kept, there is no relevant danger
of spontaneous ignition for the normal side slope in the chosen parallel operation.
For f) Ecological aspects
It is recommended to consider the boundary line in the north of the deposit compared to the
original boundary (see chapter 9).
For g) Necessary minimum profile from technological point of view
In addition to that minimum distances have been taken into consideration owing to the constructive dimensions of the excavation machines.
The slope design is specified in the annexes:
Schemes of Westbank
Scheme of Westbank Part 1 (Annex 6.5-1):
Part 1 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of < 40 m. The head convey-ors
for Overburden 1 and 2 are positioned on one level. The coal is up to the height of Overburden
Level 3 so that there is a general inclination of 22o for the coal slope.
Along the upper edges of the berms a drainage ditch and embankment are provided. Within the
area of the belt conveyor system there is a sand-washed gravel road (4 m wide with passing
places).
Scheme of Westbank Part 2 (Annex 6.5-2):
Part 2 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of < 80 m. The head convey-ors
for Overburden 1 and 2 are positioned on one level. The cut height of the single levels is increased by ramp excavation.
Here, too, a drainage ditch and embankment are provided along the upper edges of the berms.
The same applies to the sand-washed gravel road (4 m with passing places).
Scheme of Westbank Part 3 (Annex 6.5-3):
Part 3 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of > 80 m. The cut height of the
single levels is increased by ramp excavation. Overburden 1 and 2 are divided into two berms.
Drainage ditch, embankment and sand-washed gravel road are also provided.
Schemes of Eastbank
Scheme of Eastbank Part 1 (Annex 6.5-4):
Eastbank Part 1 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of < 20 m and a coal
thickness of 40 und 60 m. The head conveyor for Overburden 3 ends on the grass. The head
conveyor for Overburden/Coal Level 4 positioned one level below is equipped with a distribution station above the inclined coal conveyor to distribute coal and overburden..
The head conveyors for Coal Level 1 and 2 run on separate benches. The Coal Levels 3 and 4
charge to one head conveyor.
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Along the upper edges of the berms a drainage ditch and embankment are provided. Within the
area of the belt conveyor systems asphalt/concrete roads are provided (4 m wide with passing
places).
Scheme of Eastbank Part 2 (Annex 6.5-5):
Eastbank Part 2 is the scheme of the area with an overburden thickness of 2040 m and a coal
thickness of 2040 m. The head conveyors for Overburden 3 and 4 are placed on separate
levels. The head conveyor for Overburden/Coal Level 4 is equipped with a distribution station
above the inclined coal conveyor to distribute coal and overburden.
The Coal Levels 1 and 2 come together on one bench. Therefore the coal is charged to one
head conveyor. The Coal Levels 3 and 4 also charge to one head conveyor.
Along the upper edges of the berms a drainage ditch and embankment are provided. Within the
area of the belt conveyor systems asphalt/concrete roads are provided (4 m wide with passing
places).

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6.5.3 Conveyor Belts

Fig. 6.5-1

Scheme of conveyor belts

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Type of conveyor belts


For the planning of the Sibovc Main Mine Plan we chose belt conveyor systems with steel rope
belts.
They have the following advantages over textile belts:
long lifetime (> years)
less risk of misalignment
less wear and thus a better utilization time of conveying system
Thus the disadvantage of the higher investment costs is compensated very well.
The idler stations should be constructed of three parts. The troughing angle is 36.
Length of conveyor belts
The belt lengths in the overburden area are from < 2 to max 3.5 km.
Being in horizontal position, these belt lengths can be managed by one drive station. Nevertheless it is planned to divide the long benches using additional drive stations. Thus the system
can be operated in a cost-efficient way from an energetic point of view because only one of the
two parts of the belt conveyor system will be in operation almost half of the time. There will
also be a higher flexibility.

6.5.4 Bench Design


Position of benches
The Sibovc field shows a varying thickness and a varying inclination of the bench and of the
roof and floor of the seam. The benches must follow these inclinations with the least possible
mining loss.
Taking both the cut height and the capacity of the machines into consideration, 4 levels were
provided for overburden removal with the 4th level (Overburden Level 4) provided as a mixed
level for both overburden and coal mining.
Coal mining is also implemented in 4 levels.
Admissible inclination of benches
The inclination possible to be managed by the machines is 1:33 for excavator operation. For
the inclination of the benches inclinations of 1:40 were chosen in order to be able to follow the
big inclinations of the terrain, roof and floor. This maximum inclination puts very high demands to keeping the heights of the benches which can only be achieved by continuous checks.
In the direction of mining it is possible to achieve a greater decrease or increase of the bench
using the step excavation which is used for moving the belt conveyor system. In the direction
of the bench the inclination must always be kept.
Taking inclination for water drainage into consideration
The planned inclinations provide water drainage. The minimum inclination should not be less
than 1:150. A drainage ditch must be provided on the benches and pump stations shall be provided in the deep positions of the benches.
Slope heights

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For the machines SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 slope heights of ca. 20 m have been planned. The
new BWE operates with an average slope height of about 25 m. Greater slope heights can be
carried out using the ramp excavation und interim bench excavation (annex 6.5-8).
During ramp excavation the main machine cuts a ramp of 810 m thickness above the level of
the belt conveyor system. The loading unit continues to travel on the level of the belt conveyor
system. The slope height above the ramp is 20 m. The ramp is excavated in a second block.
During interim bench excavation the excavator is moved to the other side of the belt conveyor
system (remove segments, remove belt and safeguard with soil for travelling of machine, travelling of machine, close belt conveyor system again). The excavator travels over a ramp to an
auxiliary bench which can be positioned ca. 8 m below the bench. The loading unit remains on
the level of the belt conveyor system.

6.5.5 Division of Cuts


Terrain morphology
There is a hilly area starting at the village of Hade immediately north of the Mirash mine
stretching in northern direction up to Lajthisht in the east and Shipitulle in the west which is
followed by a steep transition into a valley in the north with the main village of Sibovc. Another hill continues north of Sibovc.
The eastern boundary line has an almost continuous small overburden thickness (2040 m)
which is favourable for the coal transport in the east.
The western boundary line starts with a small overburden thickness (20 m) and reaches its
maximum (90 m) near the village of Shipitulle. In this area the coal seam increases to ca. 20 m
so that the coal reaches into the overburden levels.
Mining development
During the period under review until 2038 there will mostly be parallel operation with varying
advance at the ends of the bench according to the shape of the field. Overburden Levels 2 and 3
will be operated in parallel until the end of the field is reached. For the Overburden Level 1 and
for the coal levels a turning point will be established north of Lajthisht (after 2045). Then the
excavation of the field can be completed by turning round clockwise.
Truck and Shovel
Operation position of Overburden Level 1 Annex 6.5.-10
For establishing the two bench belt conveyor systems in the valley west of Hade a total of 2 m
m of overburden must be removed of which 1.6 m m will be removed in 2007 and 0.4 m m
in 2008.
Operation position of Overburden 2, 3, 4, Coal 1, 2, 3, 4:
For preparing the operation positions for the Sibovc field from the final positions of Bardh and
Mirash a Truck and Shovel operation of 0.1 m m each is planned. This will make room for the
first construction of the belt conveyor systems and the bench levelling necessary for this.
Overburden above Overburden Level 1: From 2008 to 2030 there will be a total of ca.12.0 m
m overburden above Level 1. If it will be removed in parallel to Level 1, a maximum of 0.76
m m/year have to be excavated. If the excavation is designed constantly, ca. 0.5 m m/year has
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to be excavated. Excavation and dumping will be carried out by Truck and Shovel. Dumping
will be carried out within the area of the active dumping benches. In the beginning dumping
will also be possible in the eastern part of the Mirash mine.
Mine overburden: After the mine excavators and belt wagons have dumped the residual overburden of the mine (overburden and interburden) behind the belt conveyor system it will be
excavated and transported by Truck and Shovel. This applies in particular for Levels 1 and 2.
From Level 3 it might be possible to dump the overburden on the floor by removing it and
dumping it twice. In Level 4 the residual overburden (interburden and underburden) will be
dumped onto the floor in general.
Overburden levels
Overburden Level 1 (E8B SRs 1300) Annex II/ 6.5-11
The first level starts at the village of Hade. The bench cannot follow the inclination of the valley west of Hade. Therefore the first level starts with two conveyors that will be constructed in
a V shape at the valley side. The excavation is implemented in east-west direction.
Overburden Level 1 will end in front of the valley with the village of Sibovc in 2032.
Areas above Overburden Level 1 will be excavated using Truck and Shovel.
Excavator E8B SRs 1300 will only be available from June 2009. Till then, excavators E9M
SchRs 650 and E8M SRs 1300 will be used. E9M SchRs 650 will work in the overburden
Level 1 within the period from April July 2008 and transported afterwards to the Overburden/Coal Level 4. E8M SRs 1300 will work in the Overburden Level 1 from May 2008 to May
2009 and shifted to Coal Level 2 afterwards. Because of the higher digging forces as compared
to E8B this excavator is better suited for working in the coal operation.
Overburden Level 2 (E9B SRs 1300) Annex II/ 6.5-12
West of Hade the bench ends on the grass and rises from here to the hill of Hade. Just as Level
1, Overburden Level 2 does also not reach the east boundary line. Excavation is implemented
in east-west direction. Within the area of the west boundary line the bench will be brought together with Level 1 over a larger area so that both head conveyors can be positioned on one
bench. The conveyors will only be separated at the rise of the hill of Shipitull.
Overburden Level 2 also ends in front of the valley of Sibovc. Behind the valley there will be a
new cut and the hilly area will be excavated. Areas above the possible cut height of Level 2
will be excavated using Truck and Shovel.
Overburden Level 3 (new BWE) Annex II/ 6.5-13
The entire bench is being excavated in the main overburden level. Discharge is carried out up
to the village of Lajthisht in west-east direction. Parts of Overburden Level 3 end in the valley
of Sibovc. From this time (after 2038) the direction of mining will be changed into east-west
direction up to the end of the Sibovc field.
Overburden/Coal Level 4 (E9M SchRs 650) Annex II/6.5-14
The bench cannot follow the big changes of inclination of the seam roof. Therefore Level 4 is a
mixed level for both overburden and coal. Thus the bench is as far below the coal roof as possible. The discharge is carried out in west-east direction during the entire operation time of the
opencast mine. For the respective inclined coal conveyor a distribution drive station is set up
above the inclined conveyor from which the coal can be charged to the inclined conveyor and
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the overburden to the overburden belt conveyor system and then to the spreader. The average
share of coal is one third of the masses excavated on Level 4.
Coal Levels
Coal Level 1 (E10M SchRs 650) Annex II/ 6.5-15
Level 1 is the main coal extraction level. Partly occurring roof overburden and interburden are
dumped by the excavator behind the belt conveyor system and then discharged by Truck and
Shovel. A band wagon BRs 1600 is necessary for dumping.
The transport is carried out in west-east direction as is the case for all coal levels, and then via
the head belt conveyor system to the inclined belt conveyors. From here the coal goes to the
power plants.
An old underground mine exists in the south-western part of the Sibovc field. This mine may
affect the excavation process. The influences were considering the equipment parameters.
Coal Level 2 (E8M SRs 1300) Annex II/ 6.5-16
Level 2 starts the excavation on an independent bench. After an advance of 1100 m the bench
is brought together with the one of Level 1 in the eastern area so that both belt conveyor systems on the head bench charge to one head conveyor. The overburden of the mine which was
dumped by the excavator on a belt wagon BRs 1600 before will be discharged by Truck and
Shovel as far as possible on Level 2, too.
Coal Level 3 (E10M SRs 1300) Annex II/ 6.5-17
In the eastern part of the deposit the bench goes near the floor. From about 2030 it will be necessary to remove and dump also the overburden of the floor in order to allow the course of the
bench which also requires a belt wagon BRs 1600. The machines on Level 3 use the same belt
conveyor system as Level 4.
Coal Level 4 (new SRs 1300 or similar machine) Annex II/ 6.5-18
Level 4 will mainly be positioned in the western part of the deposit. Because it does not spread
so widely in the first years the excavation can also be carried out by the excavator of Level 3
which works in interim bench excavation.
From 2016 the use of a new machine such as SRs 1300 or a similar machine will be necessary.
The coal below the bench can be excavated in interim bench excavation. It is supposed that
70% of the coal can be excavated from below Level 4. After 2038 Coal Level 4 will be closed.
Capacity compensation
On the levels where the benches are brought together at the boundary line the machines can
help each other if capacity is needed. This applies in particular to Overburden Levels 1 and 2,
Coal Levels 1 and 2 as well as 3 and 4. Overburden Level 2 can be used to compensate the
capacity distribution of the excavators regarding the varying thickness of the coal. Appropriate
adaptations are possible for short- and medium-term planning.

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6.5.6 Mass Calculation


On the basis of the topographic isoline maps, the existing borehole data submitted by KEK and
the results of additional exploration measures a digital deposit model was prepared for the purpose of the computer-aided mass calculation. The technological mass calculation has been realised with MicroStation-Programs as well as specialised programs developed by Vattenfall on
the basis of triangulation.
The following data and criteria of mineability have been considered in the mass calculation:

Density of lignite 1.14 t/m


Extraction of lignite from a thickness of at least 0.5 m
Separate excavation of intercalations from a thickness of more than 0.5 m
Consideration of a mining loss of 0.4 0.5 m at each strata boundary

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Tab. 6.5-2

Sector calculation of the entire field

Section

Sum

Overburden - Levels Coal - Levels


OverburCoal
OverCoal
den
burden
10m
10t
10m
10t
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum
Overburden
Interburden
Underburden
Coal
Sum

45,054
0
0
4
656
45,058
656
55,661
0
0
739
5,684
56,400
5,684
100,137
0
0
1,114
9,321
101,251
9,321
132,603
0
0
1
4,383
132,604
4,383
166,865
0
0
264 17,034
167,129 17,034
105,633
0
0
2,891 23,404
108,524 23,404
59,518
0
0
3,219 30,139
62,737 30,139
84,014
0
0
2,560 18,789
86,574 18,789
749,485
0
0
0
0
0
10,792 109,410
760,277 109,410

0
0
0
0
7
408
10
0
425
0
1,447
1,209
2,656
0
1,896
1,925

11,018
11,018

23,261
23,261

84,649
84,649

110,760
3,821 110,760
0
2,035
1,327
123,282
3,362 123,282
11
1,688
9,536
99,986
11,235 99,986
401
2,355
11,218
138,839
13,974 138,839
332
2,302
13,294
128,596
15,928 128,596
751
0
12,131
0
38,519
0
0 720,391
51,401 720,391

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Sum
Overburden
10m
45,054
0
0
4
45,058
55,668
408
10
739
56,825
100,137
1,447
1,209
1,114
103,907
132,603
1,896
1,925
1
136,425
166,865
2,035
1,327
264
170,491
105,644
1,688
9,536
2,891
119,759
59,919
2,355
11,218
3,219
76,711
84,346
2,302
13,294
2,560
102,502
750,236
12,131
38,519
10,792
811,678

Sum
Coal

O :C

10t

11,674
11,674

3.86 : 1

28,945
28,945

1.96 : 1

93,970
93,970

1.11 : 1

115,143
115.143

1.18 : 1

140.316
140.316

1.22 : 1

123.390
123.390

0.97 : 1

168,978
168,978

0.45 : 1

147,386
147,386

0.70 : 1

829,802
829,802

0.98 : 1

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Fig. 6.5-2

Scheme of working levels and equipment

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6.5.7 Overburden Removal


6.5.7.1 Excavation
Head block advance
The overburden excavators operate in head block advance. Excavator SRs 1300 is used as an
example for explaining the excavation process.
The excavator works with a block width of 37 m. A slope height of 20 m is possible when the
necessary slope angle in the overburden of 45 is kept. After one block has been completely
excavated, the excavator travels to another place and another block with a width of 37 m can be
excavated. Afterwards the belt conveyor system will be moved by 74 m and the excavator
starts a new cut (see figure).

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Fig. 6.5-3

Workscheme / overburden SRs 1300.24

Division of slices and slope design


The division of slices is used to establish the slope angles of the working slope and side slope.
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The machine starts with the excavation of the top slice. The slice height of the top slice is 0.7
times the bucket wheel diameter. By moving the machine by the cutting depth each the slice is
excavated cut by cut until the crawler has reached the foot of the working slope. The block
length to be reached by this results from the dimensions of the machines, the slope angle and
the cutting height. The excavator then travels back to the beginning of the slice positioned below and excavates with the same block length. The normal slices have a height of 0.5 times the
bucket wheel diameter. The bottom slice is at the same time the level on which the excavator
operates. For a more exact excavation of this level the slice height must be limited to 0.25
times the bucket wheel diameter and is to be excavated with the help of an instructor.
Furthermore, the slice height of 0.25 dA improves the free-cut angle in the lowest slice, because
in the lower part the width of the boom construction decreases and therefore the free-cut angle
reduces, too.

Fig. 6.5-4

Free-cut angle horizontal view

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0.5d A

0.25d A

Fig. 6.5-5

Free-cut angle horizontal view

The side slope shall be carried out by various slewing operations of the bucket wheel boom
during the excavation of the single slices. The top slice will be excavated to the maximum using an angle of 90. The slewing angles will be calculated on the basis of the slope height, the
single slice heights and the side slope angle and must be provided for a safe slope design.
Excavator SRs 1300 is used as an example for the calculations. The parameters for the other
excavators will then be specified accordingly.
Slope calculations for bucket wheel excavator SRs 1300.24:
Fixed values:
Bucket wheel diameter
Boom length
Pivot point from axis
Height of pivot point
Half crawler length

9.0
37.56
2.04
12.09
12.5

m
m
m
m
m

= da
= lR
= lRA
= hRA
= 0.5 lRaup

Calculation of block length (slice advance)


Slope angle
45 o
=
Slope height
20 m = hB
Height of top slice
5.5 m = hS
Foreland / crawler BUK
2 m = vRaup

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lVS

vRa up
Fig. 6.5-6

lVS

Scheme calculation of block length

lVS = lR (hB hs + 0.5dA hRA) + lRA = 39m


bB = (hB hS + 0.5dA w) / tan u + v = 18.7m
u = 0.5dA(1 sin ) sin = 1.74m
w = 0.5dA(1 cos ) = 1.23m
v = 0.5dA sin

(horizontal boom length from excavator axle)

lVS = lRH + 0.5 dA - 0.5 lRaup - bB - vRaup = 10 m

(Block length = slice advance)

(slope height)

Calculation of division of slices / side slope


Free-cut angle / conveyor
Free-cut angle / gear

48o
40o

= hS
= hS

The Slewing angle must be greater than the Free-cut


angle.
If < , the Slice height must be reduced to 0.25 da.

bS = hS / tan

(slice width)

lRH = lR (hrad hRA) + lRA


= arcsin((lRH 1 (bS )) / lRHn)

(wheel boom / horizontal)

(slewing angle)

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Tab. 6.5-3

Division of slices / overburden SRs 1300

Slice
height hS

Height of wheel
axle hRad

Slice
width bS

6.3 m
4.5 m
4.5 m
2.4 m
2.3 m
20.0 m

18.2
13.7
9.2
6.8
4.5

4.5
4.5
2.4
2.3

Tab. 6.5-4

Slewing
angle

39.1
39.57
39.49
39.23
38.8

90
61
50
45
41

Block length and division of slices / overburden SchRs 650

Machine parameters

Slope geometry
Calculation

Wheel boom
horizontal lRh

Bucket wheel diameter


Boom length
Pivot point from axis
Height of pivot point
Half crawler length
Free-cut angle / conveyor
Free-cut angle / gear

10.56
35.5
1.4
13.9
12.5
40
40

M
M
M
M
M
o
o
o

Slope angle

45

max. slope height

23 M

Block length
Slice height

= da
= lR
= lRA
= hRA
= 0.5 lRaup

11.0 M

=
= hB max

= lVS

Slewing angle

7.4

90

5.0

59

5.0

47

2.6

42

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(= 0.25 da)

(= 0.25 dA)
(= 0.25 dA)

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Tab. 6.5-5

Block length and divisions of slices new BWE

Machine parameters Bucket wheel diameter


Boom length
Pivot point from axis
Height of pivot point
Half crawler length
Free-cut angle / conveyor
Free-cut angle / gear

Slope geometry
Calculation

12.0
41.0
3.0
13.14
15.91
40
40

m
m
m
m
m

= da
= lR
= lRA
= hRA
= 0.5 lRaup

o
o
o

Slope angle

45

max. slope height

27 m

=
= hB max

Block length

8 m

Slice height

Slewing angle

8.4

90

6.5

56

6.5

43

3.6

37

= lVS

( = 0.25 da)

6.5.7.2 Dumping
To provide the stability of the dump slopes as a whole a minimum general inclination value
must be kept (item 5.7). From a general inclination of 6 the slope starts to flow out. To provide sufficient safety a general inclination of < 5 is specified for planning purposes.
In order to achieve a safety towards flowing-out of the cohesive soil for the single slopes, the
heights of the single slopes have to be limited.
The soil types of the Sibovc mine stand safely up to a slope height of 12 m with a stability of
1.0 with the assumed geophysical parameters taken into consideration. When the slopes are
higher, flowing-out of the slope up to half the slope height with an inclination of 68o is
possible.
Therefore the slope geometry is designed as provided in Annex 6.5-9.
The spreaders are positioned on the deep dumping side where they can provide a sufficient
foreland for the deep dumping.
In the high cut slope a flowing-out of the slope must not be allowed because otherwise the
belt conveyor system is in danger. Therefore the height of the high cut slope is limited to 8 m.
Owing to the boom length of the spreaders A2RsB 4400.60 (58 m) and A2RsB 5200.55 (54 m)
a block width of ca. 20 m is possible. The block width of the high dumping also determines the
block width of the deep dumping and thus the move width of the belt conveyor sys-tem. The
spreader travels very close to the belt conveyor system (21 m from the sleeper edge of the belt
conveyor system to the outside edge of the crawler track).
For the deep dumping the spreader travels on a wide track (35 m). The deep dumping slope can
be established with the maximum permissible height of 12 m. Therefore a flowing out of the
slope must be taken into consideration for which a natural flowing-out up to an inclination of
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6 up to half the slope is assumed. The space required for this is 50 m. Another 10 m are assumed as a safety distance up to the next deeper spreader slope. This slope system is considered the minimum slope system in order to comply with the general inclination of the dumping
system with an angle of 5.
The single heights of the slopes must be kept. If the slopes begin to move, slided faces are created which are more unstable afterwards.

6.6 Lignite Operation


Coal mining on the mixed level Overburden/Coal Level 4
The coal roof in the Sibovc field is very much inclined. The bench cannot follow these inclinations. Therefore the decision was made to establish one level for the excavation of overburden and coal. The course of the bench is mostly below the coal roof. About 2/3 of overburden
and 1/3 of coal is excavated. A decision had to be made for the transport, i.e. whether to construct two belt conveyor systems one for overburden and one for coal or only one belt conveyor system. The advantages are in favour of one belt conveyor system. Overburden and coal
are excavated alternately slice by slice. If two belt conveyor systems were set up, the discharge
would have to change from one to the other systems. Moreover the short boom of the charging
conveyor requires a belt wagon to charge to the conveyor which is far away from the excavator. Therefore twice the number of belt conveyor systems would be necessary for the bench and
the head conveyor.
Using only one belt conveyor system provides a sufficient gap for a change-over between
overburden and coal at the belt distribution point. The belt distribution point is a drive station
with distribution device above the respective inclined coal conveyor. Using the distributor either coal is supplied to the inclined conveyor or overburden to the head conveyor which goes
up to the spreader. An excavator SchRs 650 is used for the mixed level owing to its higher capacity compared to a SRs 1300.
To changeover between coal extraction and overburden removal, the belt conveying is stopped
during the changeover operation for a short-term (brake of 3 min; ca. 1,000 m empty belt speed
of 5.24 m/s). A block has a content of ca. 7,400 bcm (block width: 37 m; block height: 20 m;
block advance: 10 m). For each block coal and overburden conveyance has to be changed twice
(layer boundary in the block, change to a new block). With an average capacity of an excavator
of ca. 1,000 bcm/h, the time for the changeover between overburden and coal is < 1 min/h
(0.08 %). Nevertheless, if performance problems will occur due to selective winning, the excavator E7M SRs 470 is kept as reserve. This excavator was not taken into consideration in the
capacity planning. So the E 7M provides an additional digging capacity.
Normal coal mining
As in the overburden operation the machines work in head block advance with a block width of
37 m. After two blocks have been excavated the belt conveyor system is moved.
The work scheme for coal mining is shown in the following figure.

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Fig. 6.6-1

Work scheme coal excavator

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The basic principles established for the slice excavation apply to the coal, too. In coal mining
slope angles of 65 have been assumed so that the following block lengths and divisions of cuts
are possible:
Tab. 6.6-1

Block length and division of slices / coal SchRs 650

Machine parameters

Slope geometry
Calculation

Bucket wheel diameter


Boom length
Pivot point from axis
Height of pivot point
Half crawler length
Free-cut angle / conveyor
Free-cut angle / gear

= da
= lR
= lRA
= hRA
= 0.5 lRaup

o
o
o

65

max. slope height

25 m

= hB max

Block length

17 m

= lVS

Slice height

Slewing angle

7.4 m

90

5.0 m

69

5.0 m

62

2.6 m

59

(= 0.25 dA)

20.0 m

Block length and division of slices / coal SRs 1300

Machine parameters

Slope geometry
Calculation

m
m
m
m
m

Slope angle

Sum:

Tab. 6.6-2

10.56
35.5
1.4
13.9
12,5
40
40

Bucket wheel diameter


Boom length
Pivot point from axis
Height of pivot point
Half crawler length
Free-cut angle / conveyor
Free-cut angle / gear

8.4
37.56
2.04
12.09
12.5
54
46

m
m
m
m
m

= da
= lR
= lRA
= hRA
= 0.5 lRaup

o
o
o

Slope angle

65

max. slope height

22 m

= hB max

Block length

18 m

= lVS

Slice height

Slewing angle

Sum:

5.5 m

90

4.0 m

70

4.0 m

63

4.0 m

58

2.5 m
20.0 m

56

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(= 0.25 dA)

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6.7 Stockpile Operation


To stock coal and blend a homogenous coal quality according to the power plant parameters
stockpiles are installed upstream the power plants. These stockpiles are installed directly at the
power plant sites and belong to the responsibility of the opencast mine department.

Blocks
3, 4 and 5

6.7.1 Stockpile TPP A

Separation A

TPP A

T
Blocks
1, 2 and 3

SHT-2b

Mirash-West
Mirash-Southeast
SHT-15

SHT-5.13

MK 2

MK 1
T ..... Truck Loading Point
... Active Belt Conveyors
... Passive Belt Conveyors

Fig.: 6.7-1

Scheme Stockpile A

The stockpile provides the respective coal quantities and qualities for the power plant TPP A
and other consumers (heating purposes).
It consists of four parallel arranged stockpile sections (at surface) with a maximum total volume of 560000 t. The total filling for a continuous handling amounts to 400000 t.
The stockpiles are equipped with 2 combined stacker-reclaimers of the company TUSLA (MK
1 and MK 2), whereby each of the machines operates 2 stockpile sections. The capacity of one
machine is 1,800 t/h both for stacking and reclaiming. Due to the combined stacker-reclaimer
operation the following functions can be fulfilled:
stacking
reclaiming
by-pass operation
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mass stream separation (by-pass operation and stacking)


by-pass operation and reclaiming
The belt conveyor distribution system of Separation Plants A was very complex. In the past, a
lot of connected consumers were supplied with different coal qualities via this distribution system. Parallel to the decommissioning of some of the consumers, belt conveyors and belt conveyor systems have also been put out of operation.
In a first process, the coal is crushed in several steps down to a grain size of 30 mm. After the
crushing, the coal can directly be transported to the power plant and the stockpile for stacking,
respectively.
It is recommended to blend a homogenous coal quality in three phases.
Control of equipment use in the opencast mine by precise extraction and pre-blending
of different coal qualities
Blending of mass streams from the various mining fields
Blending within the stockpile cross section by slice-wise stacking
In separation plant TPP A it is furthermore possible to produce and load pre-dried lump coal
for sale (road transportation by trucks).
The demand for TPP A and other consumer is planned with about 5.0 mt per year.
The daily demand comes to 10 up to 15 kt. So in this case the normal filling level of 400 kt
corresponds to a coal reserve of 26 up to 40 days (at most).
This is regarded as sufficient.

6.7.2 Stockpile TPP B

t
es
W
sh
ri a h
M ard
B

Fig.: 6.7-2

TPP B

The coal is transported via two stationery belt conveyors to the stockpile.

MK B

MK A

Scheme of Stockpile TPP B

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After crushing to a grain size of 30 mm the coal can be directly transported to the power plant
and the Stockpile for stacking, respectively.
The Stockpile consists of four parallel arranged stockpile sections (at surface) with a maximum
total volume of 500000 t. The optimal total filling for a continuous handling amounts to
350000 t.
For a daily coal demand of ca. 10,000 t per block the coal reserves will last for 18 days in case
of optimal filling level and a relatively high demand.
According to the planned performance the yearly average coal demand for TPP B1+B2 in future is 5.3 mt or 15 kt per day. Hence on average the coal will be sufficient for 23 days.
The stockpiles are equipped with 2 combined stacker-reclaimers of the company MAN (MK A
and MK B), whereby each of the machines operates 2 stockpile sections. The capacity of one
machine is 1,800 t/h both for stacking and reclaiming.
The two machines can supply coal to both of the blocks. Furthermore it is also possible to directly supply coal to the power plant blocks from the mine without intermediate stacking. In
this process, too, the combined stacker-reclaimer equipment is integrated in the mass flow.
So it will be possible to blend a homogenous coal quality in a sufficient manner.
Extension of capacity
The construction of new power plant units requires an extension of the capacity of the
stacker-reclaimers. The construction and, most of all, the concrete technical specification of
these machines depend on the local conditions, the boiler design and mostly on the operation
(utilization time) of the single power plant units. Financing and tendering shall therefore be
done in parallel with the power plant.
The following applies to the dimensioning:
TPP B3 to B6
Period:
2013 to 2018
from 2020
Annual demand:
5.24 mt
10.66 mt
Relevant daily demand
(Dimensioning)
18 kt/d
36 kt/d
Total operating time
19.2 h/d
19.2 h/d
Time needed to empty stockyard (40%)
7.68 h/d
7.68 h/d
Necessary hourly capacity
2,350 t/h
4,700 t/h
A total of 2,350 t/h or from 2020 about 4,700 t/h are necessary for the system.
For dimensioning the single machines the number (position, alternatives) and utilization shall also be taken into consideration.
In the case of a failure of one machine it should be possible to cover the normal consumption of the power plant with increased efforts (organisation of operational process), i.e. the following applies to the two new units:
Annual demand:
5.24 mt
Daily average
14.36 kt/d
Time needed to empty stockyard
10 h/d
Necessary hourly capacity
1,436 t/h
Widening factor
1.25
Theoretical capacity
1,800 t/h (single machine)

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Therefore in the second step of the TPP B four machines with 1,800 t/h each should be available (in addition to the already existing stacker of TPP B1+2).
They can be used for normal repairs but also for special requirements regarding the coal quality management at times. When three reclaimers are in operation the newly built power plant
can be supplied with 3x1,436 t/h =4300 t/h or 33 kt/d. The average demand of all four new
power plant units amounts to 10.84 mt/a / 365 d/a = 30 kt/d.
Remote belt conveyor system to TPP Kosovo B
The planned consumption amounts to a total of 15.5 to 16.64 mt/a. The 16.64 mt occur only in
2 years. Because the power plant works with 4 units in base load operation (moderate fluctuations), the following can be assumed for dimensioning:
relevant annual demand TPP B
ca. 16 mt/a.
relevant monthly demand
ca. 1.48 mt/month
relevant weekly demand
ca. 350 kt/week
relevant daily demand of TPP B
ca. 56 kt/d
technical/organisational availability
21.6 h/d
supply time from the mine at 80%
17.28 h/d
necessary charge to belt conveyor systems
3,240 t/h
number of belt conveyor systems
2

The dimensioning of the single belt conveyor systems must include planned downtimes and
technical breakdowns for which the coal consumption per week is a decisive criterion. We propose to make a supply by one belt conveyor system possible for one week. Because this will be
a rather rare occasion, the following is provided for calculation:
relevant annual demand TPP B
ca. 16 mt/a.
relevant weekly demand
350 kt/week
72%
utilization of time etaT ( T)
supply time
121 h/week (17.28 h/d)
necessary supply of belt conveyor system
ca. 2,890 t/h
widening factor
1.25
theoretical capacity per belt conveyor TPP B
ca. 3,600 t/h
The theoretical capacity of the two belt conveyor to TPP B1 to 6 should also amount to 3,600
t/h (each) or 7,200 t/h in total.
Using both systems results in 5,780 t/h.
The daily demand of the power plant of 56 kt can then be supplied, if necessary, in 10 operating hours.
Remote belt conveyor system to IPP
The commission of an additional TPP (IPP) is planned for the year 2016. From 2018 the demand per year will be 8.1 mt.
relevant weekly demand IPP
180 kt/week
72%
utilization of time etaT ( T)
supply time
121 h/week (17.28 h/d)
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necessary supply of belt conveyor system


ca. 1,500 t/h
widening factor
1.25
theoretical capacity per belt conveyor system IPP ca. 1,875 t/h
Two belt conveyor systems with the respective theoretical capacity of > 1,875 t/h should be
provided for the raw coal stockyard of the new power plant (IPP).
In addition to that the appropriate stacker-reclaimers shall be provided.
Comparison of the possible capacities of the Sibovc mine:
Tab. 6.7-1

Overview of mine potential and power plant requirerment

Potential of mine

Requirement of
TPP B1 to B6
16 mt/a 1)
ca. 56 kt/d
17.28 h/d 1)
3,240t/h
2,600 t/h

Requirement of IPP

Relevant yearly output


23.6 (24.1)
Relevant daily output
ca. 103 kt/d
Relevant operating time
21.6 h/d
Max hourly output
4,800 t/h (4x1200)
Output implementation in 4,800 t/h
21.6 h/d
Theor. capacity
9,400 = 4 x 2,350 7,200 t/h
t/h
(2 Conv. Belts
(4 BWE)
each 3600 t/h)

8.1 mt/a 1)
ca. 28 kt/d
17.28 h/d 1)
1,620 t/h
1,300 t/h

Average daily output at 66 kt/d


24.1 mt/a
Average output
18.76 mt/a
for TPPs from 2025
51.4 kt/d

22 kt/d

ca. 44 kt/d

3,750 t/h
additional conv. belt
capacity

10.66 mt/a
8.1 mt/a
29.2 kt/d
22.2 kt/d
1) not necessarily at the same time

Interpretation:
As the table shows, the whole system adds up (the isochronous annual requirement of 24 mt
merely occurs in 4 years). The important thing is that the potential of the mine of max. 103 kt/d
faces a demand of 84 kt/d (+ run-of-mine coal). This is acceptable. It must also be taken into
consideration that there is a more uniform demand from the power plant compared to the excavation in the opencast mine or, in other words, the utilization time of the opencast machines is
shorter than the operating time of the boilers.
With respect to the maximum hourly demand the mine capacity seems to be a bit tight. Since a
peak demand can be compensated from the stockyards and the high demand does not occur
over the entire operating time of the mine, the opencast mine should not be dimensioned any
bigger.
In single cases the excavator E8M can be used for coal mining in addition to the other machines.
Inclined conveyor system, distribution and charging belts to the power plant
The distribution of the coal starts on the inclined conveyors. The inclined conveyors and the
other charging conveyors are provided twice which helps to ensure the supply of the power
plants also in case of repair or breakdown of a belt conveyor system.
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In order to be able to charge to both conveyors, the charging stations (last head conveyor, inclined coal conveyor and transfer conveyor to the connection conveyors to the power plant)
shall be equipped with a distribution device which can be used to charge on one discharging
conveyor each.
So there are three belt conveyor systems which supply the power plant. They change with the
reconstruction of the inclined conveyor system:
The first inclined conveyor system is installed in the transfer area from Bardh to
Mirash. The existing conveyor routes will be used further on and replaced by new belt equipment. After charging to the inclined conveyors these charge to a double intermediate conveyor
up to the distribution point for the power plants TPP A and TPP B.
When the inclined conveyor system will be reconstructed in 2026, the new inclined
conveyors will charge to about the middle of the present connection conveyors to the power
plant TPP B. The conveyors will be separated at the transfer point. The southern part of the
former charging conveyors to the power plant TPP B will be changed in the conveying direction and will become the intermediate conveyor to the location of the power plant TPP A. The
connection conveyor to the location of the power plant TPP A remains as it is.
The third inclined conveyor system will be constructed shortly after the end of the period under review in 2039 at the inflection point of the eastern boundary line of the Sibovc
mine. The basic arrangement of the belt conveyor system will remain unchanged. The connection conveyors to the power plant TPP B will be shortened and the inter-mediate conveyors to
the location of TPP A will be extended.
There will be the following belt lengths:
Tab. 6.7-2

Belt Length of charging conveyor to the power plant

Belt position / inclined conv. 1

Name
Inclined conveyors
Intermediate conveyors
Connection conv. TPP A
Connection conv. TPP B
Sum

Length
2
2
2
2

Belt position / inclined conv. 2

Name
Inclined conveyors
Intermediate conv. TPP
A
Connection conv. TPP A
Connection conv. TPP B
Sum

2009 to

x
x
x
x

700
280
3,300
2,600
6,880

2026 to

Length
2 x
2 x
2 x
2 x

2026

m
m
m
m
m
2039

850 m
1,260
3,300
2,040
7,450

Number of
drive stations
2 pcs.
2 pcs.
4 pcs.
2 pcs.
10 pcs.

m
m
m
m

Page 138 of 257

Number of
drive stations
2 pcs.
2
4
2
10

pcs .
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Belt position / inclined conv. 3

Name
Inclined conveyors
Intermediate conv.TPP
A
Connection conv. TPP A
Connection conv. TPP B
Sum

2039 till

Length
2 x
2 x
2 x
2 x

end

780 m
2,140
3,300
1,160
7,380

m
m
m
m

Number of
drive stations
2 pcs.
2
4
2
10

pcs.
pcs.
pcs.
pcs.

6.8 Opening-up Operation


6.8.1 Preparatory Works in the Year 2007/2008
Technological main emphasis
In 2007 the establishment of the operation position for Overburden Level 1 will start. Truck
and Shovel as well as bulldozers will be used to remove ca. 2 million m of soil. The belt conveyor system for the overburden level will be established in two segments in the valley west of
Hade in a V shape. The mass removal will start in 2007 with 1.6 m m and will continue in
2008 with 0.4 m m.
In 2008 the overburden excavators from the existing opencast mines will be used after having
been refurbished and will start the development excavation in the transfer area of the opencast
mine fields Bardh/Mirash up to the new field of Sibovc. After the excavators have started their
operation there will be an adjustment period for improving the capacity until the time when
they will have reached their full capacity, i.e. ca. 6 months.

The utilization of the machines has been planned as followed:


April 2008 Excavator E9M SchRs 650
This efficient excavator is planned for utilization in the Overburden/Coal Level 4, where coal
and overburden have to be excavated alternately. As this level has not been cut free yet, the
operation will start in Overburden Level 1 with the excavation of the western wing of the belt
conveyor system. In the period from 4/2008 to 9/2008 an amount of 1.8 m m will be excavated. From 10/2008 the excavation in Overburden/Coal Level 4 will start. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and
Truck and Shovel.
May 2008 Excavator E9M SRs 1300
This excavator is planned to work in Coal Level 2 due to its digging forces. Until the use of the
scheduled Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in Overburden Level 1, excavator E9M can start the excavation in the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system.
After use of Excavator E9B SRs 1300 in June 2009, the excavator will be transported to its
place of operation in Coal Level 2.
In 2008, about of 2.6 m m will be removed in Overburden Level 2.
Page 139 of 257

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June 2008 Excavator E9B SRs 1300


The excavator will be used in its new operation position in Overburden Level 2. The operation
position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mine will be prepared using bulldozers and
Truck and Shovel. West of Hade the bench will end on the grass. One bench will be used together with Overburden Level 1. The belt conveyor systems of both levels will be led around
the Bardh/Mirash mines in southern direction and start the inside dumping in Mirash.
September 2008 new BWE
The Overburden Level 3 is the level with the greatest thickness which goes over the whole
length of the bench. The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines
will be prepared using bulldozers and Truck and Shovel.
There is a spreader dump in the western transition area of the Bardh mine. The heavily watersaturated clayey dump cannot be excavated any more. Therefore the excavator will have to
make a new cut north of this dump. Discharge will take place in west-east direction. The excavator will operate in interim bench operation on a plane of 8 m be-low the belt conveyor systems. Before moving the belt conveyor system the slope must be levelled to an inclination of 1
: 3 and the belt conveyor system will then be moved over this inclination. This process will be
repeated until the required bench height is reached. At the same time the general inclination of
< 10 necessary from a geotechnical point of view must be kept.
Parameters for the period under review:
Tab. 6.8-1

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2007/08


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
2,425
0
2,602
2,230
2,273
2,767
12,295
146
146
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Sum Overb.
12,295
Sum Coal
146
O:C
-

6.8.2 Mining Development in the Year 2009


Technological main emphasis
The overburden removal of the development will continue in 2009 until the utilization of the
opencast machines starts.
Until use of Excavator E8B SRs 1300, Excavator E8M SRs 1300 will work in Overburden Level 1. Afterwards, the excavator is shifted to Coal Level 2.
The excavator in Overburden Level 1 will work exclusively at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. The residual overheights above Level 1 at the eastern wing will be removed by
Truck and Shovel.
Page 140 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The mine equipment from the Bardh/Mirash mines will also stop working step by step. They
will be refurbished basically and travel to their new operation positions.
The use of the machines is planned as follows:
-

April 2009 Excavator E10M SchRs 650

In the first coal level the major part shall be removed by the efficient mine excavator.
The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using
bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The mining direction will be the same as with all the other
levels west-east. A belt wagon BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine
overburden.
-

June 2008 Excavator E8B SRs 1300 in overburden level 1


Excavator E 8M SRs 1300 transportation in coal level 2
The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using
bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. The same machines as in Level 1 will be used. A belt wagon
BRs 1600 will be used in Level 1 for the removal of the mine overburden.
September 2008 Excavator E10 B SRs 1300
The operation position in the northern slope of the Bardh/Mirash mines will be prepared using
bulldozers and Truck and Shovel. In Level 3 the excavator will carry out the coal excavation of
Level 4 at first until 2016. During this time the machine capacity will be sufficient for both
levels. Level 4 will not be fully developed till then. The excavator can be used to excavate the
coal in interim bench excavation south of the belt conveyor system. A belt wagon BRs 1600
will be used for this and the residual overburden.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.8-2

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2009


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
976
0
4,460
4,460
9,090
4,150
23,136
337
337
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
0
0
0
0
0
708
912
433
60
2.113
Sum Overb.
23,136
Sum Coal
2,450
O:C
9.4 :1

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

6.8.3 Mining Development in the Year 2010


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.

The overburden levels will continue their development excavation. In Overburden


Level 1 the excavator E 8B will work at the eastern wing of the belt conveyor system. Overburden Level 2 and 3 will work on a straight bench. In Level 4 the planned bench will have
been reached with the new cut of the excavator in the western part. From this time the regular
operation in overburden can start.
The coal levels will still work with a shortened bench so that the full capacity cannot be
reached.
Parameters for the period under review

Tab. 6.8-3

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2010


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
567
0
4,460
4,460
9,090
4,150
22,727
1,268
1,268
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
0
0
0
0
0
1970
2538
1206
167
5.882
Sum Overb.
22,727
Sum Coal
7,150
O:C
3.2 :1

6.8.4 Mining Development in the Year 2011


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In the Overburden Level 1 the excavator will start to work alternately at the western and
eastern wing of the divided belt conveyor system.
In the other overburden levels there will be a regular operation.
In the coal extraction all levels will still work with shortened benches.

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Parameters for the period under review


Tab. 6.8-4

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2011


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
136
72
4,460
4,460
9,090
4,150
22,368
2,247
2,247
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
38
21
12
0
72
2629
1896
938
140
5,603
Sum Overb.
22,440
Sum Coal
7,850
O:C
2.9 :1

6.8.5 Mining Development in the Year 2012


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned.
At the end of 2012 the bench in Coal Level 1 will be extended into the direction of the
western boundary line. The other levels will still work with a shortened bench.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.8-5

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2012


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
136
197
4,460
4,460
9,090
4,150
22,493
2,247
2,247
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
105
58
34
1
197
5685
3234
1639
255
10,813
Sum Overb.
22,690
Sum Coal
13,060
O:C
1.7 :1

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

6.8.6 Mining Development in the Year 2013


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.
In the overburden levels the overburden machines will continue to work as planned.
In 2013 the Coal Level 1 will have reached its planned bench in the area of the western
boundary line. In Level 2 the cutting of the bench and the bench extension into the direction of
the western boundary line will have started by which a regular operation in the main excavation levels of the coal is possible. By this the development operation for the mine can be regarded as finished.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.8-6

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2013


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
580
243
4,460
4,460
9,090
4,150
22,984
2,102
2,102
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
119
74
51
75
319
6,306
4,124
2,645
594
13,668
Sum Overb.
23,303
Sum Coal
15,770
O:C
1.5 :1

6.9 Regular Operation


6.9.1 Mining Development in the Period 2014 2018
Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.

In Overburden Level 1 the pivoting of the west and eastern wings of the belt conveyor system
will almost be finished. Levels 2 to 4 will develop as planned. The head conveyors of Level 1
and 2 will still be on one bench.
The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will reach their planned benches. In 2016 a newly built excavator SRs
1300 or equivalent will be used for Level 4. The excavator will mostly work in the west part of
the deposit. In the east the belt conveyor system will be moved to the height of Level 3. Both
bench conveyors will charge to one head conveyor system.
Page 144 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Parameters for the period under review


Tab. 6.9-1

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2014-2018


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
2,939
1,485
22,300
22,300
45,450
20,750 115,223
8,447
8,447
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
592
464
428
1.209
2,693
30,411
25,876
22,347
6,658
85,293
Sum Overb.
117,917
Sum Coal
93,740
O:C
1.3 :1

6.9.2 Mining Development in the Period 2019 - 2023


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue.

In Overburden Level 1 the bench will finally be straightened. In the west part there is a rise
within the area of the hill of Shipitull in all levels. Owing to the increased cut height the ramp
excavation will have to start. The bench between Level 1 and 2 is divided so that the head conveyors will be separated in future.
The Coal Levels 1 to 4 will continue their normal work on their planned benches.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.9-2

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2019-2023


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
2,934
2,421
22,300
22,300
45,450
20,750 116,156
4,821
4,821
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
686
564
1,170
1,537
3,959
38,336
30,722
33,629
14,301 116,989
Sum Overb.
120,114
Sum Coal
121,810
O:C
1.0 :1

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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

6.9.3 Mining Development in the Period 2024 - 2028


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel for supporting Overburden Level 1 will continue. The major part
of the mass extraction will be carried out during the period under review.

In the Overburden Level 1 both belt conveyor systems will be pivoted separately. There will be
a greater advance at the beginning and the end of the bench compared to the middle by which
the shape of the terrain will adapt to the valley of Sibovc. The other overburden levels will
pivot normally. In the west the benches will rise in the area of the hill of Shipitull. The Overburden Level 2 will reach the highest area of the hill.
The coal levels will develop as planned. Towards the end of the period under review a new
inclined conveyor system will be used for the coal transport. From this time the Coal Levels 1
and 2 will be on the same height so that one head conveyor can be used. At that time the distribution station within the area of the inclined conveyor of the Overburden/Coal Level 4 will
also be rebuilt to fit the new inclined conveyor system.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.9-3

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2024-2028


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
3,813
1,582
22,300
22,300
45,450
20,750 116,195
11,681
11,681
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
570
360
652
792
2.374
31,776
18,447
26,238
10,598
87,059
Sum Overb.
118,569
Sum Coal
98,740
O:C
1.2 :1

6.9.4 Mining Development in the Period 2029 - 2033


Technological main emphasis
The use of Truck and Shovel to support Overburden Level 1 will come to an end during the
period under review.

During the period under review the excavation in the Overburden Level 1 immediately at the
valley of Sibovc will finish.
The other overburden levels will leave the hilly area of the village of Shipitulle.

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The coal levels will develop as planned. Coal Levels 3 and 4 will finally be converted to the
new inclined conveyor system, too, and continue to charge to one head conveyor system.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.9-4

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2029-2033


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
1,234
6,419
15,986
22,120
41,445
21,606 108,810
16,208
16,208
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
646
1,421
4,352
353
6,772
33,932
18,012
21,050
6,889
79,882
Sum Overb.
115,582
Sum Coal
96,090
O:C
1.2 :1

6.9.5 Mining Development in the Period 2034 2038


Technological main emphasis
Overburden will only be excavated in the Overburden Levels 2, 3 and 4. The Overburden
Level 2 will end on the main part of the bench in the valley of Sibovc and will continue on a
shorter bench in the west part in order to resume the excavation with a new cut in the north of
Sibovc at a later time.
Towards the end of the period under review the third overburden level will also reach the valley of Sibovc. After 2038 the mining direction will have to change from west-east to east-west.
The coal levels will develop as planned. In the Coal Level 3 the removal of overburden from
the floor will become more and more necessary owing to the course of the bench.
Parameters for the period under review
Tab. 6.9-5

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Overb. [10m]
Coal [10t]

Output in overburden and coal in 2034-2038


Truck+Shov.
Overburden Levels
Sum
over Level Overb.in Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
1
Coal
0
8,321
0
13,414
31,752
19,366
72,854
17,781
17,781
Coal Levels
Sum
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
800
1,632
5,890
100
8,421
35,221
17,808
20,405
4,875
78,309
Sum Overb.
81,275
Sum Coal
96,090
O:C
0.8 :1
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

6.10 Production Schedule


Tab. 6.10-1
Level
Year
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038

Production Schedule

Truck
Overb.
10m
1,600
825
976
567
136
136
580
600
600
600
579
560
560
560
560
560
696
763
763
763
763
763
763
472
0
0
0

15,740

Level 1
Overb.
10m
2,602
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
2,606
0
0
0
0
0
0
22,300

Overburden Levels
Level 2
Level 3
Overb.
Overb.
10m
10m
2,230
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,460
4,720
4,286
4,286
4,367
4,327
3,777
3,128
516
429
125,727

2,273
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
9,090
7,542
8,220
8,220
8,374
8,297
7,242
6,084
5,573
4,635
257,348

Coal Levels
Level 4
Overb.
10m
2,767
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,150
4,470
4,302
4,302
4,383
4,342
3,790
3,223
5,006
4,164
127,897

Coal
10t
146
337
1,268
2,247
2,247
2,102
2,095
2,095
2,095
1,411
751
751
751
751
751
1,817
2,336
2,336
2,336
2,336
2,336
2,336
2,929
3,625
3,625
3,693
3,659
3,625
3,616
3,409
3,473
67,286

Level 1
Overb.
10m
0
0
38
105
119
97
97
115
138
146
133
138
137
137
141
128
110
110
110
112
111
122
137
137
139
138
137
139
191
195
3,557

Coal
10t

Level 2
Overb.
10m

708
1,970
2,629
5,685
6,306
4,942
4,942
5,850
7,068
7,608
7,411
7,722
7,664
7,664
7,874
7,155
6,122
6,122
6,122
6,254
6,188
6,546
7,022
7,022
7,154
7,088
7,022
7,020
6,979
7,111
186,972

Page 148 of 257

0
0
21
58
74
75
75
89
108
116
112
117
116
116
104
81
69
69
69
71
70
213
377
377
384
380
377
372
249
254
4,593

Coal
10t
912
2,538
1,896
3,234
4,124
4,213
4,213
4,987
6,025
6,439
6,125
6,382
6,334
6,334
5,548
4,154
3,554
3,554
3,554
3,630
3,592
3,574
3,593
3,593
3,660
3,626
3,593
3,588
3,468
3,533
123,569

Level 3
Overb.
10m
0
0
12
34
51
64
64
76
92
132
235
245
243
243
206
147
126
126
126
128
127
624
1,193
1,193
1,215
1,204
1,193
1,191
1,140
1,162
12,590
*

Coal
10t

Level 4
Overb.
10m

Coal
10t

Sum
Overb.
10m

1,600
10,695
433
0
60
23,136
1,206
0
167
22,727
938
0
140
22,368
1,639
1
255
22,493
2,645
75
594
23,059
3,586
196
1,033
23,192
3,586
196
1,033
23,192
4,245
232
1,223
23,272
5,129
280
1,478
23,358
5,801
305
1,891
23,419
6,545
310
2,798
23,509
6,819
323
2,915
23,542
6,768
321
2,893
23,536
6,768
321
2,893
23,536
6,730
263
2,801
23,571
5,908
178
2,386
23,457
5,055
153
2,042
23,380
5,055
153
2,042
23,380
5,055
153
2,042
23,380
5,164
156
2,086
23,390
5,109
154
2,064
23,385
4,472
97
1,590
22,719
3,799
34
1,072
23,008
3,799
34
1,072
21,154
3,871
34
1,092
18,897
3,835
34
1,082
18,722
3,799
34
1,072
16,548
3,824
32
1,062
14,169
4,432
0
822
12,675
4,515
0
838
10,839
130,532
4,067
44,538
659,308
until start new SRs 1300, excavation with E10B

Sum
Coal
10t
0
146
2,450
7,150
7,850
13,060
15,770
15,870
15,870
18,400
21,110
22,490
23,630
24,590
24,410
24,410
24,770
21,940
19,110
19,110
19,110
19,470
19,290
19,110
19,110
19,110
19,470
19,290
19,110
19,110
19,110
19,470
552,897

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

7 Main Mining Equipment


7.1 Technical Status of existing Main Mining Equipment
7.1.1 Technical Status of Excavators
SRs 1300 und SchRs 650
a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
Main bearing structure
The main bearing structure is in a sufficient condition. Larger damage was not noticed. All
machines have extensive starting corrosion which gives no cause for concern at the moment. It
shall be considered that under the climatic conditions prevailing in Kosovo there will be an
annual reduction in thickness of up to 0.1 mm caused by corrosion.
For a medium- and/or long-term deployment, a complete corrosion protection is therefore urgently necessary for each of the equipment.
Auxiliary structure
Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial
damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they
involve dangers for the service personnel.
Mechanical engineering
Very critical is the condition of wear parts and their insufficient stock reserve, like for example
crawler base pads, ripper teeth and chains at the shovels, scrapers and side sealings. The lubrication plants of the SRs 1300 were partly overhauled in the last years but are however in an
unsatisfactory maintenance condition. This is particularly problematic in the undercarriage part
of the two SchRs 650. The brake assemblies at different drives are out of function.
Limit switch systems are essentially in function, but have defects due to a bad maintenance
condition. Hereby, defects mainly occur at the system rope tearing and tensioning at the E9B,
which cannot be activated due to unsatisfactory adjustment of the ropes "wheel boom hoist".
A drive at the wheel belt of E8M is missing (broken shaft of the belt conveyor drum).
Up to the realization of a comprehensive mechanical reconstruction for medium- and/or longterm further deployment, a substantial restriction of the equipment availability shall be taken
into account as wall as substantially increased running costs for maintenance.

b) Electrical Equipment
The technical condition of the electrical equipment on the bucket wheel excavators of the type
SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 is characterized by
Year of construction,
Operation years in the mines/pits including maintenance and
Rehabilitation measures of selected electrical equipment in the years 2001 to 2005
The electrical equipment and electronic devices of the excavators as:
6kV-bench cable und cable drums,
Medium voltage systems 6kV AC with battery plant 110V DC,

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Logic control (relay- or PLC-Systems) and low voltage systems 230V/400V AC including lighting technology;
Drive systems (400V AC-motors, travel- und slewing gear with rectifier DC),
Limit switches, buttons, local-control-boxes,
Cable and cable run and
Cabins und electric houses
are corresponding with the state of the art of the 80 years.
The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the
standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given, e.g.:
The roofs and windows of the electrical houses are leaky during precipitation (rain and
snow).
The electrical plants like for example switch cabinet cubicles and electrical operation
rooms and terminal boxes of 6 kV-incoming supply and motors are not locked and/or
not equipped with safe locking system.
The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection.
The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield.
The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and
they are in a very bad technical repair.
Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective.
The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no
to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art.
In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare
parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the
sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for
indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin.
The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and
technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables).
The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting
winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability
and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical
part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line
with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation.
In the years 2000 to 2003, mainly material for the most urgent repairs in the opencast mines
was purchased by the Consultants of the EAR, so for example high- and low-voltage cables,
6kV-protection relays and circuit-breakers, switchgears in container design for power supply
and belt conveyors and spare motors.
The bucket wheel excavators of the type SRs 1300 are distinguished according to the carried
out retrofitting measures as follow:
Main cabin new in ergonomic shape (to be accomplished in 2005)
travel gear drive and slewing gear drive with 3-phase current motors and frequency
converter,
PLC (Programmable Logic Controller),
Limit switch (end position, lever arm, pull cord),
Lubrication plant;

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The bucket wheel excavators of the type SchRs 650 (manufactured in 1986 and 1987) are
equipped with a PLC System and rectifier (DC technology) and are mostly worn out. Original
spare parts and building elements are not available for those obsolete machines.

Bucket Wheel Excavator SRs 470 und SRs 315


a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
Main bearing structure
The main bearing structures of the devices are in an insufficient condition. There are particularly serious damages at the steel structure at the main undercarriage of the E2B. The equipment is to be rehabilitated in a short-term and/or taken out of operation. Furthermore, tears are
continuously occurring at all machines, particularly in the connecting sheets, in the undercarriage and slewing device of the loading boom, in diagonals of the superstructure as well as the
bucket wheel head in nearly all devices. Pivot bearings at the tie bars are worn out. Corrosion
caused material attenuation in the intersections.
Auxiliary structures
Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial
damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they
involve dangers for the service personnel.

Mechanical engineering
Mechanical engineering can be evaluated similar to the condition of the main bearing- and auxiliary structure. Main assemblies such as pulleys and gearboxes are not grease- and/or oilproof. To a large extent the brake systems at the drives are missing and/or inefficient. Clutches
are not covered. Wear parts like crawler base pads and buckets exceeded the wear limit. The
central lubrication plants are not functioning. Side sealings and scrapers are ineffective and/or
missing. Due to the critical state of the e-plants a numerous limit switches are not in function.
Until decommissioning of these devices (devices will not be used in the new opencast mine
field) continuous restrictions in the equipment availability have to be taken into account which
are only hardly calculable and which incur high running maintenance costs.
b) Electrical Engineering
The condition of each of these excavators can be assessed as equally bad because they are
the oldest opencast mining machines (1965- 1978). Repairs and rehabilitation measures for the
electrical equipment have not been carried out so far.
These machines will not be used in the new opencast mine field. According to the present
planning these opencast mine machines will be in operation until 2011 or will be replaced by
released overburden excavators.
The electrical equipment in the E-houses like the high- and low-voltage systems is in a bad
condition. They do not comply with international standards and are a considerable danger for
the personnel.
The plants should be stabilized in short-term within the framework of running maintenance to
such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until decommissioning. The main components of the electrical equipment shall then be replaced within the
scope of complex maintenance measures.

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Conclusion: Under consideration of the equipment condition, but mainly due to the too low
capacity potential (regarding output quantity and stripping performance), it is not foreseen to
use the excavators of the type SRs 470 / 315 in the Sibovc Field. Furthermore this has advantages regarding warehouse management and interchangeability.

7.1.2 Technical Status of Belt Conveyor Systems


a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
Except the newly reconstructed drive stations D1 and TP1, all other belt conveyor parts are in a
deficient condition. The drives at the drive stations (ATS) are very sensitive due to their lifetime. Brake systems and protective covers are missing, lubrication systems are not functioning.
Drums are highly worn out and mostly have no rubber coating. Catwalks, stairs, leaders and
platforms have partially substantial damages and/or are missing. In the transfer and charging
sections sealings are defective and/or missing. Scrapers are partly ineffective which causes
considerable contamination.
At the bearing steel structure large areas with corrosion are visible. The steel construction of
about 20 % of the bearing frame sections is bended. In particular, ties show larger damages due
to corrosion. The return rolls are worn to a great extent.
Conveyor belts show considerable defects at the edges. Resulting from misalignment, the belt
edges are partly worn by more than 150 mm. The average length of belt parts is by far below
half of the length for new belts. That means, a number of additional joints (distances partly
only 12 - 30 m) have to be provided with all known disadvantages regarding reliability, higher
running costs and uncertain plant availability.
b) Electrical Engineering
The electrical equipment has been in operation since the 70ies and 80ies. It must be assessed
that the condition of electrical equipment (except D1, TP1 and T1) is unsatisfactory on all belt
conveyors.
The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the
standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given e.g.:
The roofs and windows of the electrical houses are leaky during precipitation (rain and
snow).
The electrical plants like for example switch cabinet cubicles and electrical operation
rooms and terminal boxes of 6 kV-incoming supply and motors are not locked and/or
not equipped with safe locking system.
The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection.
The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield.
The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and
they are in a very bad technical repair.
Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective.
The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no
to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art.

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In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare
parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the
sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for
indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin.
The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and
technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables).
The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting
winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability
and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical
part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line
with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation.
The electrical equipment at the belt tripper car are totally worn out and do not correspond to
the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given.
The electrical equipment on the belt conveyor and the mobile transfer conveyor should be stabilized in short-term within the framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will
be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until reconstruction and/or decommissioning.

7.1.3 Technical Status of Spreaders


a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
Main bearing structure
The main bearing structure of the A2Rs 4400 and the 5200 are in a satisfying condition. Except
some bent diagonals in the discharge booms no signs of larger damage were found. In different
places large areas with corrosion are visible, especially at the discharge booms, junctions, tie
bars and the carrying rope of the discharge boom suspension of the A2 RsB 4400. Numerous
bent diagonals, tears and large-area corrosion damages can be found at the A2 RsB 2500.
It shall be considered that under the climatic conditions prevailing in Kosovo there will be an
annual reduction in thickness of up to 0.1 mm caused by corrosion. If disregarded, this leads to
nicks and/or attenuations of the cross-sections as well as the reduction of the fatigue strength.
For a medium- and/or long-term deployment, a complete corrosion protection is therefore urgently necessary for each of the equipment.
Auxiliary structures:
Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial
damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they
involve dangers for the service personnel.
Mechanical engineering
The central lubrication plants of the machines are partly not functioning. This is especially
dangerous for the area of the travelling gear and the slewing ball bearings. Almost all drives
work without any functioning brake system. Crawler base pads are in a bad condition and
reached the wear limit. Scrapers are ineffective and/or missing.

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Until a general mechanical reconstruction for a medium- and/or long-term deployment of these
devices continuous restrictions in the equipment availability have to be taken into account
which are only hardly calculable and which incur high running maintenance costs.
b) Electrical Engineering

The electrical equipment has been in operation since the nineteen 80ies.
It can be characterized as follows:
The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the
standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given, e.g.:
The roofs and windows of the electrical houses are leaky during precipitation (rain and
snow).
The electrical plants like for example switch cabinet cubicles and electrical operation
rooms and terminal boxes of 6 kV-incoming supply and motors are not locked and/or
not equipped with safe locking system.
The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection.
The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield.
The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and
they are in a very bad technical repair.
Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective.
The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no
to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art.
In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare
parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the
sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for
indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin.
The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and
technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables).
The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting
winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability
and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical
part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line
with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation.

7.1.4 Technical Status of Belt Wagons


Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
Main bearing construction
The main bearing structure of the belt wagons is in a bad condition. A number of damages
were found at the bearing structure, e. g.:
Pivot bearings of booms are worn out
Twisted pin locks
Rusty guy ropes
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Twisted and/or missing diagonal bars


Cracks of 2- and 4-wheel bogies
Booms are partly completely out of shape
Defective repair of steel construction
Large areas with corrosion are visible.
Auxiliary structure:
Auxiliary structures such as catwalks, stairs, leaders and platforms have partially substantial
damages. These damages have no direct influence on the efficiency of the equipment, but they
involve dangers for the service personnel.
Mechanical engineering
Lubrication systems at the equipment are partly not functioning. Drums and idlers are in a bad
mechanical condition. The same applies for crawler base pads and tensioning devices at the
belts and travelling gears. Contamination is due to missing scrapers and side sealings. Limit
switches are partly ineffective or not in function.
Until decommissioning of these devices continuous restrictions in the equipment availability
have to be taken into account which are only hardly calculable and which incur high running
maintenance costs.
Electrical Engineering
The belt wagons BRs 1600 have been in operation since 1979 and/or 1982 and the belt wagons BRs 1200 since 1964 and/or 1974. Lifetime of the belt wagons and the imperfect maintenance and repair of the equipment resulted in the unsatisfactory technical condition of the
electrical equipment.
The building structures of the E-houses are completely worn (roofs, walls, doors), i.e. in case
of precipitation like rain or snow they are leaky.
The switch systems (MV, LV) and electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond
to the valid European standards and involve a considerable danger for the operating and service
personnel.
The electrical equipment on the belt wagons shall be stabilized for safety reasons so that it will
be possible to operate these machines with a minimum justifiable risk until decommissioning.

7.1.5 Technical Status of Stacker / Reclaimer


Stockpile Plant B
Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
The Stacker/Reclaimer A received a basic mechanical repair including a complete corrosion
protection in 2004 and is in a mechanically good condition. The Stacker/Reclaimer B will receive a comparable basic mechanical repair including a complete corrosion protection in the
year 2005 like the equipment A. For both devices reserve building groups of mechanical engineering are missing, so that in case of breakdown of assemblies downtimes have to be taken
into account until completion of the repair.
At the drive stations of the belt conveyor plants the drives are strongly trouble-prone due to
their lifetime. The drives at the drive stations of the belt conveyor plants are very sensitive due
to their lifetime. Brake systems and protective covers are missing, lubrication systems are
partly not functioning. Drums are highly worn out and mostly have no rubber coating. A lot of
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idlers are worn. Continuous replacement is necessary. For a long-term operation it is necessary
to systematically replace the belt drives by a new generation. This replacement should be carried out parallel with an electrical reconstruction.
Due to their lifetime and continuous repair, crushers are in a condition ready for operation.
Reserve assemblies are urgently required to reduce repair times and unexpected downtimes.
Owing to their lifetime, a number of material guidance systems is to a great extend worn out;
the most frequent occurring damage is leakage at the seam joints and transfer points. Almost all
sealings at chutes, transfer points and material guidance systems are insufficiently effective. To
continue ling-term operation continuous replacement of sealing elements is necessary which
have to be standardized according to installation places.
A dust reduction system for all transfer points is at present planned, financed by EAR funds.
Electrical Engineering:
The electrical equipment of Stacker/Reclaimer A was completely rehabilitated in 2004 and has
been in a good condition since then. A similar measure for rehabilitating the electrical equipment will be implemented for Stacker/Reclaimer B in May 2005. Reserve assemblies are available (stored) for both of the equipment so that in case of electrical failures a direct replacement
of defective assemblies can be carried out.
The electrical equipment on the belt conveyors are very frequently subject to breakdowns owing to their service life.
The electrical equipment on the belt drive station should be stabilized in short-term within the
framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until a necessary reconstruction.
Stockpile Separation Plant A
a) Steel Construction and Mechanical Engineering
Reserve assemblies of mechanical engineering are missing for both of the devices
Stacker/Reclaimer 1 and 2. In case of assembly breakdown downtimes have to be taken into
account until completion of the repair. For continuing a medium-term operation restrictions in
equipment availability and high running costs for the maintenance are to be considered.
At the drive stations of the belt conveyors the drives are highly susceptible to failure due to
their lifetime. Brake systems and protective covers are missing; lubrication plants are partially
not functioning. Drums are highly worn out and mostly have no rubber coating. A lot of idlers
are worn. Continuous replacement is necessary. For continuing a medium-term operation restrictions in equipment availability and high running costs for the maintenance are to be considered.
Due to their lifetime and continuous repair, crushers and vibration screens are in a condition
ready for operation. Reserve assemblies are urgently required to reduce repair times and unexpected downtimes.
Owing to their lifetime, a number of material guidance systems is to a great extend worn out;
the most frequent occurring damage is leakage at the seam joints and transfer points. Almost all
sealings at chutes, transfer points and material guidance systems are insufficiently effective. To
continue ling-term operation continuous replacement of sealing elements is necessary which
have to be standardized according to installation places.
A dust reduction system for all transfer points is at present planned, financed by EAR funds.

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b) Electrical Engineering
According to the present planning, the two machines will be in operation until decommissioning of Power Plant Kosova A. The condition of the entire E-equipment of both
Stacker/Reclaimer is to be assessed unsatisfactory. For a medium-term operation, restrictions
in the equipment availability and high running costs for maintenance have to be taken into account.
The electrical equipment still in operation does not correspond any longer to the valid European standards. Especially preventive measures for persons and plants in accordance with the
standard DIN VDE 0100 are in no way given e.g.:
The low voltage switch systems do not have shock protection.
The medium voltage switch systems are not sufficiently equipped with arc shield.
The 6 kV-high-voltage terminal boxes have no sufficient arc voltage protection and
they are in a very bad technical repair.
Most of the high -voltage protective relays are defective.
The medium- and low-voltage systems at the bucket wheel excavators no longer correspond no
to the valid European Norms and therefore the latest state of the art.
In addition, electrical as well as electronic safety equipment, buttons, synchros and local control boxes are worn out and partly no more in function for different reasons (missing spare
parts, deficient maintenance). According to rough estimations, more than 40 to 55 % of the
sensors are ready for operation. The sensors in the field area are an important prerequisite for
indicating safe operating and status condition (monitoring in the excavator operator cabin.
The cables and cable routes have been strongly due to environmental impacts (e.g. ozone) and
technological conditions (e.g. contamination, mechanical cramping and distortion of cables).
The electrical drive units (starter, motor and thrustor), for example for conveyor belts, hoisting
winches, tensioning devices, auxiliary motors and oil pumps, have a very limited availability
and reliability. Motors can only be repaired with large expenses. Thrustors with the mechanical
part of the brake are mainly not functioning and/or partly not reliable in their function. In line
with this the electrical drives are not applicable for a safe operation.
According to information of personnel there are only rare spare parts available for the converters of slewing- and travelling gear. The E house is partly without isolation and air conditioning
system which causes temperature problems in the summer season.
The electrical locking system Excavator-Belt conveyor is also in a bad repair (cable drums
defective) or partly not functioning.
The 6 kV-incoming feeder is needed to be completely overhauled (strongly twisted feeder, cable drums are defective).
The electrical equipment on the belt drive station should be stabilized in short-term within the
framework of running maintenance to such an extent that it will be possible to operate the devices with justifiable risk until decommissioning.
The expenses of Stacker/Reclaimer and belt conveyor system shall be within the following
scope:
Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies)
Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control
boxes)
Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake
Cables and lighting equipment
Rehabilitation of the 6 kV-bench terminal boxes
Rehabilitation of E-houses at selected areas (e.g. roofs, doors)
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7.2 Rehabilitation Measures for MME


7.2.1 Measures for Excavators
At the E8M the missing drive at the wheel belt shall be completed. Bucket wheel drives shall
be replaced due to increasing breakdowns.
The following measures are planned:
Tab. 7.2-1

Measures for MME

Type
E9M

SchRs 650

E10M

SchRs 650

E8M

SRs 1300

E9B

SRs 1300

E10B

SRs 1300

E8B

SRs 1300

Measures
Replacement of hoisting ropes wheel boom
Refurbishment of lubrication plants FW
Replacement of worn out assemblies
Replacement of hoisting ropes wheel boom
Refurbishment of lubrication plants FW
Replacement of worn out assemblies
Installation twin drive wheel belt
Horizontal alignment of drivers cabin
Overhaul of wheel boom hoist
Replacement of worn out assemblies
Replacement of bucket wheel drive
Replacement of worn out assemblies
Replacement/Renewal of the Main Control Cabin
and electrically drive for travel gear drive and slewing drive (with converter)
Replacement of bucket wheel drive
Replacement of worn out assemblies
Replacement/Renewal of the Main Control Cabin
and electrically drive for slewing drive (with converter)
Replacement of bucket wheel drive
Replacement of worn out assemblies
Replacement/Renewal of the Main Control Cabin
and electrically drive for travel gear drive

Year
Not fixed
Not fixed

Not fixed

2005

2005

2006

The expenses for running maintenance per excavator up to a complete reconstruction amount
to average 0.380 MEUR per year.
Necessary Expenditure of the Rehabilitation Needs for Electrical Equipment
A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the mentioned
bucket wheel excavators shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account
safety- and cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005.
The budget should be available before December 2005. The selected electrical rehabilitation
measures for the excavators represent minimum requirements which are needed till the end of
the operation.
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Spare parts according to priorities for excavators of the type SRs 1300 comprise:
Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies)
Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control
boxes)
Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake
Cables and lighting equipment
Rehabilitation of the cable drums and 6 kV-bench terminal boxes
Rehabilitation of E-houses at selected areas (e.g. roofs, doors)
Necessary expenses [related to 3 years]:
max. 0.60 MEUR
Spare parts according to priorities for excavators of the type SchRs 650 comprise:
Exchange of the PLC Systems from type S 5 on S 7
Selected spare parts for MV- and LV-plants
Selected spare parts for control units
Cables and lighting equipment
Motors and thrustors
Necessary expenses:
min. 0.40 MEUR

7.2.2 Measures for Belt Conveyor Systems


Mechanic:
In 2004, the drive stations D1 and TP1 were mechanically repaired within the framework of a
complete electrical reconstruction. Station T1 will be repaired in April 2005. These mechanical
repairs are only limited to repair of catwalks and the replacement of worn out mechanical assemblies. The rehabilitation of the mechanical engineering by drives of the new generation is
not planned. Repairs at all the other stations and belt conveyor systems are limited to the running repairs. The running maintenance expenditures per 2,000 m conveying distance are on the
average 0.28 MEUR per year.
Electric:
For the rest of the deployment of the belt conveyors including the mobile transfer conveyor
until the closure of the opencast mines it is only reasonable to carry out the necessary running
maintenance measures in order to ensure equipment safety and availability to a great extend.
The following priorities shall be made when planning the running maintenance:
Motors and thrustors (complete), see above listed
The outdoor plants like lighting, limit switches, buttons and transmitter technology
Refurbishment of the electrical houses (as makeshift).
A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the belt conveyors
including the mobile transfer conveyor shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking
into account safety- and cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until
June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005.
Necessary expenses [related to 5 years]:
0.60 MEUR.
The budget for the necessary expenditures of the mentioned equipment including the mobile
transfer conveyor shall be applied for as follows:
Outside facilities
0.08 MEUR
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Low-voltage plant
High-voltage plant
Slewing and travelling gear

0.12 MEUR
0.22 MEUR
0.20 MEUR

7.2.3 Measures for Spreaders


Mechanic
The spreaders can be operated until the planned shifting on the premise that the safety installations and the lubrication plants are maintained step-by-step and the running maintenance is
carried out continuously.
Based on the results from a safety inspection in 2001, the steel construction of the spreaders
P1B, P2B and P3B was repaired and all limit switches were replaced. Except the running maintenance repairs, further necessary measures are not planned at present.
The running maintenance expenditures per spreader until a complete reconstruction come to
average 0.18 MEUR per year.
Electric:
The deployment of the spreaders in a new mining field requires a complete reconstruction of
the electro-technical equipment. For the rest of the deployment of the spreaders until the closure of the opencast mines it is only reasonable to carry out the necessary running maintenance
measures in order to ensure equipment safety and availability to a great extend.
The following priorities shall be made when planning the running maintenance:
Selected spare parts for MV- and LV-switch gears as switchers, contactors, relays, ...
Motors and thrustors (complete),
The outdoor plants like lighting, limit switches, buttons and transmitter technology
Cables
Refurbishment of the electrical houses (as a makeshift).
A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the spreaders shall
be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safety- and cost-relevant aspects.
The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005. Owing to the very bad technical condition of the steel construction, mechanical engineering and electrical equipment of this equipment class it is only reasonable to
carry out the necessary running maintenance measures in order to ensure equipment safety and
availability to a great extend.
The budget for the spreaders shall be applied for as follows:
Outside facilities
0.05 MEUR
Low-voltage plant
0.09 MEUR
High-voltage plant
0.10 MEUR
Slewing and travelling gear
0.08 MEUR
Necessary Expenses [related to 5 years]:

Page 160 of 257

max. 0.32 MEUR.

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

7.2.4 Measures for Belt Wagons


Mechanic
Continuous maintenance is required to operate belt wagons until their decommissioning. Missing assemblies shall be dismounted from decommissioned devices and rehabilitated. Maintenance concentrates on removing damages at the steel construction, repair of lubrication plants
and scraper system as well as replacement of crawler base pads. Two of the belt wagons in the
Bardh mine were repaired as a result from a safety inspection in 2001.
The running maintenance expenditures per belt wagon come to average 0.07 MEUR per year.
Electric
A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the belt wagons
shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safety- and cost-relevant
aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The budget should be available before December 2005.
The budget for the belt wagons shall amount to the following:
Necessary expenses [related to 5 years]:
0.13 MEUR.

7.2.5 Measures for Stacker / Reclaimer (Stockpile Equipment)


Separation Plant B
In 2005 Stacker/Reclaimer B in Separation Plant B will be rehabilitated. This measure will
only include a basic mechanical maintenance including a complete corrosion protection. By
means of these measures the equipment will be put into a good mechanical condition.
For both of the Stacker/Reclaimer A and Stacker/Reclaimer B as well as the belt conveyor system reserve assemblies for the mechanical engineering are missing. Downtimes have to be
taken into account in case of failure of assemblies which will last until completion of repair.
The running maintenance expenditures will amount to ca. 0.48 MEUR per year for Separation
Plant A and 0.35 MEUR per year for Separation Plant B.
The rehabilitation of the electrical equipment on the Stacker/Reclaimers in the Separation Plant
A belongs to maintenance measures which are important in order to ensure equipment safety
and availability to a great extend.
A concept including the necessary demand for new technical equipment for the
Stacker/Reclaimer shall be planned by the engineering personnel taking into account safetyand cost-relevant aspects. The planning document is to be provided until June 2005. The
budget should be available before December 2005.
The scope of expenditures for the Stacker/Reclaimer shall comprise the following:
Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies)
Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control
boxes)
Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake
Cables and lighting equipment
Rehabilitation of the 6 kV-bench terminal boxes
Motors
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Necessary Expenses [related to 5 years]:

0.40 MEUR.

The scope of expenditures for the belt conveyor plants shall comprise the following:
Spare parts for MV- and LV-plants (e.g. protection relays, relays, circuit breakers, motors, electronic assemblies)
Control devices (e.g. limit switches, buttons, switches, terminal boxes, local control
boxes)
Thrustors and parts of the mechanical brake
Cables and lighting equipment
Rehabilitation of the 6 kV-bench terminal boxes
Motors
Necessary Expenses [related to 5 years]:
0.80 MEUR.
A dust reduction system for all transfer points to be financed by EAR is planned at present and
it is expected that installation for Plant B will be in 2005 and for Plant A in 2006. After decommissioning of Power Plant A the dust reduction system can be dismounted and installed
then at other necessary transfer points.

7.2.6 Conclusion for the Field Sibovc


All bucket wheel excavators of the size classes SRs 1300 and SchRs 650 can be taken into consideration for a further operation in a follow-up field due to their condition and capacity parameters. Within the framework of a complex repair the following measures have to be implemented (please see table below).
Tab. 7.2-2

Measures MME for Sibovc

E9M

SchRs 650
[1519-21]

E10M

SchRs 650
[1516-18]

E8M

Type

SRs 1300
[19020]

Measures
Complete corrosion protection;
Reconstruction bucket wheel head;
complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel);
Replacement of travel gear units;
Rehabilitation of steel construction;
Complete corrosion protection;
Reconstruction bucket wheel head;
complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel);
Replacement of travel gear units;
Replacement of scraper- and sealing systems;
Complete corrosion protection;
Reconstruction bucket wheel head;
complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel);
Replacement ball track and ring gear excavator superstructure;
Rehabilitation of steel construction;

Page 162 of 257

Year
III/2007 up
to at the end
of I/2008

III/2008 up
to at the end
of I/2009

II/2007 up to
II/2008

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS

E8B

E10B

E9B

Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Complete corrosion protection;


SRs 1300
complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel);
[19009]
Rehabilitation of steel construction;
Complete corrosion protection;
SRs 1300 complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel);
[19010] Replacement ball track and ring gear excavator superstructure;
Rehabilitation of steel construction;
Complete corrosion protection
SRs 1300 complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable (reel);
[19008] Rehabilitation of steel construction;
Replacement of scraper- and sealing systems

IV/2007 up
to II/2008

I/2009 up to
III/2009

IV/2008 up
to II/2009

SRs 470 / 400 and SRs 315


The bucket wheel excavators SRs 470, SRs 400 and SRs 315 are not applicable for a long-term
operation. Owing to existing damages at the steel construction and the condition of the mechanical and electrical assemblies, respectively, these excavators shall be decommissioned
step-by-step until 2010/11.
Belt Conveyor
Because of the output capacities of the heavy opencast mine machines, only the lines with
1,800 mm belt width are used in the new mine. At present there are operated two of it in the
active mines with 5 drive stations each having 2 x 800 kW drives, and 853 frame sections with
a total length of 5,988 m. In the already decommissioned belt conveyors to Power Plant TPP A
(5.12 und 5.13) with a belt width of 1,800 mm, there are used belt drives with 2 x 800 kW
gears and 1 x 800 kW gears. The complete mechanical construction of 6 of the decommissioned drive stations was disassembled to get spare parts. After a reconstruction the released
belt conveyors of the Mirash mine can be shifted to the follow-up mine.
To ensure the necessary availability of the plants, the following are the minimum measures to
be carried out:
Complete reconstruction of the drive stations (electrical equipment, corrosion protection, steel construction, gears and drums)
Replacement and/or repair of defective frame sections using available reserves
Replacement of ca. 50 % of the idlers superstructure
Replacement of ca. 70 % of the idlers substructure
Replacement of 100 % of the belts
Reconstruction (or purchase) of the unshiftable 1,800 mm frame sections of the overburden conveyor lines in the Mirash mine (E9M, E10M) to shiftable frames of use of
them in stationery systems.
Complete electrical and mechanical reconstruction of the Feeding hopper car [FHC];
Complete electrical and mechanical reconstruction of the Belt Tripper car [BTC];

For the establishment or the procurement of a conveying line with an operating life greater than
10 years a new investment is recommended comprising all modern elements of the conveying
engineering adjusted to the technical standard of the reconstructed opencast mining equipments
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

(excavators, spreaders and information and instrumentation and control). The advantages lie in
a high reliability and low maintenance costs compared to reconstructed equipment. Because
after the development of the first opening up figure the distances to bridge are lager than conveyor belts are available, new investments shall be developed in advance and planned technically compatible.
Spreader
It is intended to only use the large spreaders with a capacity of 5000 lcm/h in the new mine. or
the use in the new mine. Spreaders of smaller capacity have to be scrapped. Before the spreaders are re-used again, they have to be rehabilitated with the following key issues:
Complete electrical reconstruction
Complete corrosion protection
Steel construction refurbishment
Refurbishment of travelling gears
Overhaul of conveyor systems
Replacement of belt cleaner and sealing systems
Complete electrical reconstruction including crawler-mounted cable reel car
Belt Wagon
Only the belt wagons of the type BRs 1600 are foreseen to operate in the Sibovc field.

7.3 Technical Specification of Main Mining Equipment


The technical specifications are attached in Appendix C.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

8 Power Supply System and Electrical Equipment


8.1 Future Energy Demand
Feeding of power cables and lines shall guarantee a safe supply for the described mining concept for Sibovc.
In the Sibovc mine a large part of the currently available mining equipment will be reused. It is
important to consider that the equipment shall be rehabilitated and that the future annual capacity will be much higher than in the present Mirash and Bard mines.
The following will be supplied in the Sibovc opencast mine:
a) Overburden operation in four overburden levels with the following equipment:
2 excavators SRs 1300
1 new bucket wheel excavator
1 excavator SchRs 650
2 spreader A2Rs B 5200
1 spreader A2Rs B 4400
1 new spreader (for new BWE)
3 Esch
b) Coal operation in four levels with the following equipment:
3 excavators SRs 1300
1 new excavator SchRs 650 or SRs 1300 or equivalent
3 BRs 1600
c) Stockpile operation (located TPP A and B) with:
2 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP A / IPP
2 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP B1+B2
4 Stacker / Reclaimer TPP B3+B6
d) Overburden conveyor belt system
e) Coal conveyor belt system (benches and long-distance conveyors)
f) Mine Office
Office buildings at Gate 1, Mirash and in Bardh
g) Workshop
h) Warehouse
The following table gives a survey on the capacities.
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Tab. 8.1-1

Capacities

Designation

2012

2013 - 2015

2020 - 2023

> 2025

Prod. Energy

610 MW
678 MW
350 MW
0
0 MW
1.71 t/MWh
7.5 mMWh

610 MW
678 MW
700 MW
0
0 MW
1.67 t/MWh
9.2 mMWh

0
678 MW
1,400 MW
1,050 MW
680,45 MW
1.57 t/MWh
15.3 mMWh

0
0
1,400 MW
1,050 MW
2,45 MW
1.55 t/MWh
12-12.2 mMWh

Demand Coal
Coal Demand TPPs

13.1 mt
12.8 mt

15.8 mt
15.4 mt

24.4 24.8 mt
23.9 24.3 mt

19.1 19.5 mt
18.6 19 mt

Production OCM
(all Mines)
thereof Bardh/Mirash
Necessary Energy demand installed (high
efficiency)
Installed for OCM
required continuously

35.6 mt

38.9 39.1 mt

48.1 49.2 mt

42.6 38 mt

85 MW

100 MW

150 MW

120 MW

100 MW
40-50 MW

115 MW
55-60 MW

160 MW *
75 MW *

120 MW
60 MW

TPP A
TPP B1+B2
TPP B3-B6
TPP C (IPP)
SUM TPP
Factor TPPs

*only temporary
The required installed capacity for the devices is estimated as following:
Tab. 8.1-2
Description

Required installed capacity

Operating
time

E 8M
E 9B
New
E 9M

SRs 1300
SRs 1300
BWE
SchRs 650

Year
2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038

Installed capacity per


machine
kW
1,650
1,650
2,100
1,700

P 4M
P 1B
new
P 3M

A2Rs B-5200
A2Rs B-4400
A2Rs B-8000
A2Rs B- 5200

2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038
2011 - 2038

800
800
1,200
800

1
1
1
1

5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000

E 10M SchRs 650


E 8B SRs 1300
E 10B SRs 1300
New SRs 1300 or equivalent

2009 - 2038
2009 - 2038
2009 - 2038
2016 - 2038

1,700
1,650
1,650
1,650

1
1
1
1

5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000

Overburden Belt Conveyor

2008 - 2038

1,600

26 km

6,000

Page 166 of 257

Number
of Equipment

Operating
hours

1
1
1
1

5,000
5,000
5,000
5,000

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Coal Belt Conveyor

2009 - 2038

1,600

27 km

6,000

TPP A
with 2 Stacker / Reclaimer
TPP B1 + B2
with 2 Stacker / Reclaimer
TPP B (B3 B6)
with 4 Stacker / Reclaimer
New TPP (IPP)
with 2 Stacker / Reclaimer

2008 - 2019

800

6,000

2008 - 2024

800

6,000

2012 - 2038

1,600

2016 - 2038

(800)

(2)

6,000

Mine Office
Workshop
Warehouse
other

2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038
2008 - 2038
2010 - 2038

300
800
250
250

1
1
1
1

3,500
6,000
4,000
4,000

The long-term demand of installed energy is about 120 MW.

8.2 Investment for Electrical System


Summarizing, the following basic investments are assumed:
Phase 1:
Installation of a secondary power supply from the existing transformer station of Palaj by
means of a 35 kV overhead transmission line to be new installed and a new 35 kV Power Supply with 6 kV distribution and 6 kV bench cable including cable boxes.
Estimated Costs: 0.75 m

This capacity will be sufficient to supply power to two opencast mine machines with the attached conveyor systems and an assembly yard and/or corresponding auxiliary facilities.
Phase 2:
Extension of the 110/35 kV Power Supply
New construction of a 110 kV / 35 kV transformer station for Sibovc with a capacity of 3 x
31.5 MVA including a 110 kV overhead line
Estimated Costs: 7.0 m
Phase 3:
35 kV Power Supply with 6 kV distribution:
- Completion of 4 x 35/ 6 kV each of 2 x 8 MVA Power Stations
- Installation of a uniform SFT-Technology (transportable units)
- 6 kV bench cables with clamp cable boxes and cable trestles
Estimated Cost: 4.0 m

An overview of the energy distribution system for the new mine Sibovc is shown in the figure
below:
Page 167 of 257

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Fig. 8.2-1

Energy distribution system

For an overview of the 35 kV power supply (coal) see the following schema:

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Fig. 8.2-2

35 kV power supply coal extraction

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

A scheme of power supply for overburden removal is shown below:

Fig. 8.2-3

35 kV power supply - overburden

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

9 Auxiliary Equipment
9.1 Assessment of Technical Status in the Existing Mines
A complete auxiliary equipment fleet is available in the Bardh and Mirash mines. In 2000/2001
and 2004 an extensive rehabilitation of the auxiliary equipment fleet was realized with the help
of KfW and EAR funds. Some of the old equipment have been commissioned in the 80s and is
more than 20 years old. Nevertheless, the predominant part of the auxiliary equipment is in a
strong technical status.
From 2007 overburden production in the Bardh and Mirash mines will considerably decline.
First overburden lines will be put out of operation; the number of operation points will be reduced. In the existing mine, coal production will go on with full capacity until 2008 and in
2009 and 2011 with reduced capacity. Parallel with the decline in capacity, a part of the auxiliary equipment can be put out of operation. At the time of decommissioning a part of the auxiliary equipment will have exceeded its normative service life. Prolongation of the normative
service life is not recommended due to the difficult conditions and the rather poor maintenance.
Moreover, the further use of selected auxiliary equipment is intended for recultivation-, securing and wrapping measures over the year 2011. Substitute investments for worn out auxiliary
devices are not planned within the medium-term planning.
The result is, that a take-over of auxiliary equipment from the existing fleet for a further use in
the Sibovc mine will not be possible or only in to limited extent. The further plans for the Sibovc mine assume a complete new auxiliary equipment fleet.

9.2 Auxiliary Equipment and Devices for the Sibovc Mine


9.2.1 Maximal Demand of auxiliary Equipment
For ensuring the production processes in the pit, a whole number of auxiliary machines and
equipment are necessary. The auxiliary equipment is attached to the different operational sections and operated in one up to three shift operation according to requirement.
The following table illustrates the optimal stock on auxiliary equipment in case of maximum
production. The given engine performance and number of equipment is based on the special
application condition in the existing mines and the experiences from other mines with comparable deposit properties.

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Tab. 9.2-1

Number of auxiliary Equipment


Type

Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3-axle
Truck with hydraulic crane
Truck with lifting Platform
Dump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler)
Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel)
Grader
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep 12 seats
Personnel Transporters (36
Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

[ kW ]
230 - 300
180
250
180
120

Overb.
10
3
3
1

340
270
270
200

130
130
230

60t
180

1
1

200
180 - 200

1
1
1
2

160

Number of auxiliary Equipment


Coal
Stockp
Drain.
Maint.
6
6
2
2
3
2
1
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
1
1
4
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
1

150
100
75
100
140

1
3
2
1
4
1
2
1
3

3
2
1
4
1

0.5

2
1

2
1
1

2
1
4
10

Page 172 of 257

7
9

1
2
3
1
2
2

total
22
5
2
8
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
7
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
5
2
2
1
1
17
15
2
9
2
2
1
3
1
2
6
1
2
4
1
4
10

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The calculation of the auxiliary equipment fleet bases on the following:


Dozers
1 per working level in overburden, coal and dumping operation
6 for the stockpiles
2 for special works
2 as reserve in case of repair measures (corresponds 10% of fleet)
For levelling work which will not be carried out continuously it is not intended to use dozers.
Such peak capacities shall be put out to tender and awarded to contractors for cost reasons
(single lots and/or framework contracts).
Personnel Transporters

2 for excavation site overburden


2 for excavation site coal
2 for dumping site and recultivation
1 for dewatering
2 as reserve in case of repair measures or breakdowns
In addition to these big personnel transporters (36 seats) smaller jeeps and microbuses are foreseen for the shift change and for the different departments for transportation. 4-Wheel-Drive is
urgent necessary for all cars and busses under consideration of the heavy material properties
particular in overburden operation.

9.2.2 Yearwise Development of Auxiliary Equipment Fleet


The establishment of the auxiliary equipment fleet will be adjusted to the development of capacity in the opencast mine. The first auxiliary machines have to be put in operation already
before the heavy-duty equipment will start work to prepare their starting position. In 2012, the
full equipment capacity will be installed both in the overburden- and coal operation. This
means that until this date the auxiliary equipment fleet shall be completed. From this period, a
constant auxiliary equipment fleet will be in operation.
The following table shows the development of the auxiliary equipment fleet up to a maximum
size.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-2

Number of auxiliary Equipment up to 2012

Type
Coal Output
[mt]
Overburden
[mbcm
Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3Truck with hydraulic
Truck with lifting PlatDump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe
Hydraulic Backhoe
Grader
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep (12 seats)

2007
0
1.6
1

Personnel Transporters (36

Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

2008
0.1
10.7
7
1
1
3
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
1
1
5
5
1
3
1
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
3

2009
2.4
23.2
15
4
2
6
2
2
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
5
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
2
2
1
1
12
10
2
6
2
2
1
3
1
2
4
1
2
3
1
3
7

2010
7.1
22.7
17
4
2
7
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
6
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
2
2
1
1
14
12
2
7
2
2
1
3
1
2
5
1
2
4
1
4
8

Page 174 of 257

2011
7.8
22.4
18
4
2
7
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
6
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
4
2
2
1
1
14
12
2
7
2
2
1
3
1
2
5
1
2
4
1
4
8

2012
13.1
22.5
22
5
2
8
2
2
1
1
1
3
2
2
3
7
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
5
2
2
1
1
17
15
2
9
2
2
1
3
1
2
6
1
2
4
1
4
10

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

The mobile auxiliary equipment has a smaller economic service life compared to the main
equipment. Depending on the type of equipment and the conditions of use this time varies between 3 and 12 years. Partly, longer service life may also be possible. Thereafter, the auxiliary
equipment is technically worn out and shall be replaced. When using the equipment it shall be
assumed that a new and technically improved generation may be available on the market. A
technical specification of these equipments for the planning of Sibovc seems to be not useful.
The following service life was assumed for the single auxiliary equipment classes:

Pumps
Cars and Busses
Ancillary Equipment
Dozer, Wheel Loader, Trucks
Special Trucks, Drilling Machine
Backhoes, Grader
Temporarily used Equipment

3 Years
6 Years
6 Years
6 Years
8 Years
8 Years
10 20 Years

The following tables illustrate the number of the auxiliary equipment to be purchased annually.
The bold number show the initial purchased machine up to completion of the auxiliary equipment fleet; the other numbers (from 2013) are replaces equipments.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-3

Annual Purchase of auxiliary Equipment up to 2017

Type
Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3-axle
Truck with hydraulic
Truck with lifting PlatDump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe
Hydraulic Backhoe
Grader
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep (12 seats)
Personnel Transporters
Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

200
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

08
6
1
2
1
1

09
8
3
1
3
1
1

1
1
1
1
3
1
1

10
2

11
1

12
4
1
1

13
1
1
1

14
6

15
8

2
1

1
3
1
1

16
2

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

17
1

1
1

3
1
1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1

1
2
1
1
1

4
4
1
2
1

7
5
1
3
1
1

1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
3

1
2

1
1

2
2

3
3

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
3

1
6

1
1

1
4

1
1

1
1

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2
2

7
5
1

1
1

4
4
1

1
2
1
1

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-4

Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2018 and 2028

Type
Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3-axle
Truck with hydraulic crane
Truck with lifting Platform
Dump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler)
Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel)
Grader
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep (12 seats)
Personnel Transporters
Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

18
4

19
1

1
1

20
6
1
2
1

21
8
3
1
3
1

22
2

23
1

1
1

24
4
1

25
1
1
1

26
6

27
8

28
2

2
1

1
3
1

1
1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1
3
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
1
1

3
3

1
1

1
3
3

1
1
1

4
4
1
1
1

7
5
1

2
2

4
4
1

2
1

7
5
1
1
1
1
1

2
2
2

1
1

1
1

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
3

1
6

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
3

1
6

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1
1
1
1
1
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 9.2-5

Purchase of auxiliary Equipment between 2029 and 2038

Type
Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3-axle
Truck with hydraulic crane
Truck with lifting Platform
Dump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe (crawler)
Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel)
Grader
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep (12 seats)
Personnel Transporters
Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

29
1

30
4

31
1

1
1

32
6
1
2
1

33
8
3
1
3
1

34
2

35
1

36
4
1

37
1

1
1

38
6

2
1

1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
3
1

1
1

1
1

1
1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

2
1
1
1

4
4
1
2
1

7
5
1
1

1
1

1
2

1
1

1
1

1
6

1
1

1
3

3
3
3

1
1
1

3
3

2
1

1
1
1

4
4
1
2
1

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1
1

1
6

1
6

1
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EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

9.3 Heavy Auxiliary Equipment for Sibovc Mine


9.4 Draglines
For special works, linked with large mass movements, the application of draglines has been
foreseen. These machines can be variably used at reasonable costs and they can be shifted
within the mine with low expenses.
The following works can be done by draglines:
Cutting of overheights
Movement of sliding masses
Design of ramps
Cleaning of surface in the area of villages
Design of water collecting basins
It is proposed to use 3 draglines in the Sibovc mine as heavy auxiliary machines. After an appropriate rehabilitation these machines can be moved from the existing mines of Mirash and/or
Bardh. There it will not be necessary to purchase new ones.
At present 6 draglines are in operation in the existing mines. Except the ESch 10/70 in the
Mirash mine which was technically overhauled, all draglines are in a bad repair. In addition to
ESch 10/70 two smaller draglines (A12 ESch 6/45 and A7 ESch 6/45) has been selected from
technical reasons for a further use in the Sibovc Mine. The two ESch 6/45 shall be rehabilitated
before use in Sibovc; for each of the machines an investment of 0.8 MEUR was calculated.
After 20 years of operation of the draglines in the Sibovc opencast mine it is planed to replace
these machines. It is proposed to completely change to the equipment class with bucket content
of 10 m. Investments of 4.5 MEUR per device (price basis 2005) shall be planned.
Tab. 9.4-1

Technical Data of Esch 10/70

Bucket Volume
Boom Length
Max. Cutting Height
Max. Cutting Depth

Ground Pressure
Service Weight
Installed Power
Time per Pass

10 m
70 m
34
30
26
22
17
12
Operation
Transport
135

35 m
30 m
25 m
20 m
15 m
10 m
0.94 kp/cm
1.49 kp/cm
767 t
1,460 kW
54 s

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Fig. 9.4-1

Scheme Esch 10/70

9.4.1 Transport Crawler


A transport crawler is required for the shifting of the belt driving station and other heavy assemblies up to a weight of 350 t. Such a transport crawler is available in the existing mines
Bardh and Mirash. The transport crawler, financed by the EAR was delivered in 2003 and is in
a good technical status. Thats why a general rehabilitation is not foreseen before recommissioning in the Sibovc mine.
Replacement within the period under review is not taken into consideration due to the discontinuous use of the transport crawler. After 25 years, a rehabilitation of the transport crawler
shall be carried out with an investment volume of ca. 20% of the new value.

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9.4.2 Derricks
Large cranes will be needed for the assembly of the heavy equipment of the new opencast mine. Two Derrick cranes from the 70ies are still available on the assembly yard/stockyard
nearby Bardh. It is not sure if the equipment is ready for operation.
Parallel to mobile cranes for the assembly of the equipment to be purchased it will be required
to use also Derricks or equivalent machines. The rehabilitation of the available Derricks shall
be checked. Investments of at least 0.1 MEUR are necessary for each of the Derricks.

9.5 Investment and Cost Calculation for Auxiliary Equipment


Based on the average prices of the single auxiliary equipment types (price basis 2004) and the
annual number of machines, the investments were determined according to equipment type and
year. The investments/reinvestments for auxiliary equipment amount to 133 MEUR until 2038.
About 26.5 MEUR are for initial investments, for rehabilitation measures of the heavy auxiliary equipment 2.1 MEUR and a sum of 104.1 MEUR for replacement investments. The replacement investments include a sum of 13.5 MEUR for the purchase of 3 new draglines.
A slight reduction of the investments within the developing phase can be achieved by a further
use of selected auxiliary machines from the existing mines of Mirash and Bardh. At present it
is assumed that the auxiliary equipment in Bardh und Mirash will be worn out at the time of
the decommissioning and cannot be further used. A revision shall be made at a later date.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 9.5-1

Investments and Reinvestments for auxiliary Equipment

Type
Dozer
Pipelayer
Wheel Dozer
Wheel Loader 17t
Wheel Loader
Excavator Loader
Telescope Crane 90t
Telescope Crane 60t
Telescope Crane 45t
Telescope Crane 30t
Forklift 2t
Forklift 5t
Truck payload 12t, 3-axle
Truck with hydraulic crane
Truck with lifting Platform
Dump Truck
Cable reel Trailer
Low Bed Trailer
Fuel Truck
Lubrication Truck
Tractor
Hydraulic Backhoe
Hydraulic Backhoe (wheel)
Grader
Tab. 9.5-2

Investment
41.0
8.9
3.4
9.0
2.3
1.0
2.0
1.9
1.7
3.2
0.2
0.3
2.0
3.5
1.3
3.0
0.4
0.9
1.1
0.6
1.4
3.0
1.2
1.1

Type
Trench Cutter
Single Drum Roller
Jeep
Pick-up
Jeep 12 seats
Personnel Transporters
Minibus
Ambulance
Fire Fighting Truck
Drilling Machine
Workshop Container
Mobile Workshop
Mobile Lightings
Winding Support Drum
Vulcanisation Set
Diesel Generator
Water Truck
Spraying Galleries
Pumps

Investment
0.8
0.3
3.1
2.6
0.4
3.9
0.4
0.2
0.4
4.8
0.2
1.3
1.2
0.4
0.6
0.6
0.1
0.1
1.5

Dragline ESch 10/70


Reha Transport Crawler
Reha Derricks

15.1
0.4
0.1

Yearwise Investments for auxiliary Equipment in m

Year
Investments

07
5.7

08
6.4

09
10.2

10
1.8

11
1.2

12
3.3

13
1.1

14
3.5

15
5.9

16
2.2

17
4.0

Year
Investments

18
2.5

19
3.6

20
4.5

21
7.2

22
1.8

23
1.5

24
3.6

25
2.7

26
3.4

27
11.6

28
6.9

Year
Investments

29
1.8

30
2.8

31
7.8

32
5.1

33
8.8

34
1.6

35
0.4

36
2.9

37
3.3

38
3.5

For auxiliary equipment, the running cost for service fluids and maintenance shall be taken into
calculation. These were determined on the basis of specific parameter.

Energy for draglines


Fuel and lubrication
Maintenance of auxiliary equipment

- 0.9 kWh / bcm overburden


- 30 % of costs for energy in the mines
- 4 ct / bcm (overburden and coal)

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10 Infrastructure and Surface Facilities


10.1 General Principles
In principle it is not planned to install new surface facilities for various reasons; among others
the available technical plants in Bardh/ Mirash, which are presently part of ongoing rehabilitation measures, the neighbourhood to Sibovc and the extensive investments, anyhow.
It seems to be reasonable to use the available buildings and plants to a great extend also for the
Sibovc opencast mine.
The different buildings of the following departments of KEK were checked for a follow-up
use:
Office Gate 1
Mine BARDH
Mine MIRASH
SEPARATION PLANT
KOSOVAMONT
-------------------------------------------------------The following construction measures are required for preparing the development of the lignite
opencast mines as well as for securing the auxiliary processes:
Social facilities and administration
change- and washrooms with sanitary facilities (wash places and toilets)
administration building
canteen
facilities for medical care
parking places
Supply and disposal
transfer stations and switch plants for power supply of the opencast mine equipment
and surface facilities
supply of drinking water, disposal of wastewater
data transmission
fire extinguishing ponds, building for fire brigade
roads (public roads, plant roads, roads on working levels of excavators spreaders)
assembly yards
Workshops and warehouses
main mechanical workshop
main electrical workshop
central auxiliary equipment workshop
vulcanizing workshop
mechanical and electrical workshop (for immediate repairs)
petrol stations
wash places or vehicles
central warehouse and various small warehouses of the departments
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10.2 Social facilities and administration


10.2.1 Mine Offices
For the future main administration ca. 250 office workplaces are necessary which can be located in the area of the daily facilities of the Bardh mine and the present main administration.
The office building of Mirash having a total area of 714 m can also be used for a short-term
period (only barrack). About 60 employees can work on an office area of ca. 600 m.
The workshops, the future Central workshop and the warehouses have integrated office complexes for the production planning- and management staff.
Presently available office spaces:
Office building in Mirash
Office building in Bardh
Head office KEK
Mechanical + E-workshop Kosovomont
Total

Fig. 10.2-1

60 employees
55 employees
85 employees
50 employees
250 employees

Mine office Bardh

The administration department is located in the office building of the daily facilities of Bardh.
This office building includes among others a canteen, a large-size meeting room as well as toilets and a washroom. The building was reconstructed in the past years.
On an office area of ca. 550 m 55 employees can work.

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The single-floor building of the main administration complex of the mines have a total area of
ca. 915 m including the canteen. About 85 employees can work on the ca. 730 m office area.
This building consists of a light-weight timber construction (barracks) and is rather inappropriate for an expected residual life of 20 years.

Fig. 10.2-2

Mining Office (Gate 1)

To centralize the administration a new office building for ca. 150 employees is assumed useful
for the opencast mine of Sibovc. This building shall be erected new or leased. The price for a
new building would come to 4.70 m . The investment appraisal bases on leasing of the building.

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14,18 m

reception

restrooms

secretary
pool

25,00 m

washroom

10,82 m

Mine Office

canteen
coffee shop

meeting room

10,82 m

27,72 m

10,82 m

49,36 m

Fig. 10.2-3

Plan of Mine Office

The above layout plan is an example for an office building in modular design. According to the
number of personnel to be accommodated those buildings can be constructed up to a height of
3 floors and/or extended by modules. This design can be used for a lifetime of up to 30 years,
smaller units consisting of only few modules can be moved flexibly.

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10.2.2 Mine Control Centre

Fig. 10.2-4

Current mine control centre of Mirash

For the Sibovc mine, a new control centre including the corresponding technical equipment
shall be constructed.
A sum of ca. 150,000 (incl. control centre Hard- and Software) shall be planned.

10.2.3 Washrooms and Sanitary Facilities


The wash- and locker rooms are attached decentralized to the respective operation unit in an
appropriate size. Central washing facilities exist in the mechanical workshop at Kosovomont,
Separation plant as well as at the daily facilities of the Bardh mine.
The washing facilities are mostly integrated in the changing rooms and have only cold water
connection (Bardh village). Kosovomont and Separation plant have separate wash- and change
rooms.
In addition to the available 1,400 wash- and changing room places (see Mid Term Plan) another 500 new places shall be provided for and/or leased. The investment costs for such a facility will come to 1.8 m .
The investment appraisal for Sibovc includes leasing prices for washrooms with a corresponding standard (showers with warm water, washing places, lockers and toilets).

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

10.3 Supply and Disposal


10.3.1 Transformer Station
Power supply for the Sibovc opencast mine is carried out via the available 110/35 kV transformer station at PALAJ. For the final development of the opencast mine field a new 110/35
kV transformer station is required in the direct neighbourhood of the opencast mine.
The power supply for the opencast mine equipment is performed by means of mobile 35 kV
Power Supply with 6kV distribution units. Input supply between Power supply units and
opencast mine equipment is made by 6kV bench cable and/or 6kV bench cable windable on
drums.
The concept of power supply is described under item Power Supply System and Electrical
Equipment.

10.3.2 Erection Yards


It is not planned to provide a new large assembly yard for the Sibovc mine because an erection
site is available in Bardh village.
For large repairs, operative assembly yards shall be provided with the following requirements:
- horizontal level
- effective size of area: 100 m x 80 m
25.00 cm
base gravel
0/56 mm
- basement:
25.00 cm
antifreeze layer
0/32 mm
0.5 m foot width
- installation of a ditch: 0.5 m deep,
- drainage ditch around repair ground with connection to River and/or collection basin
with pump
- connection to access road
- connection of media to the repair ground with power and water
- use of mobile cranes
Containers are provided for construction site management (responsible for installation: contractors).
About 100,000 per big repair shall be planned.

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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

10.3.3 Road Construction


Survey
The following network of roads can be installed for a new opencast mine:
1.
2.
2.1
2.2

Relocation of public roads (see item 17 Resettlement)


Mining roads (opencast mine)
Roads on the single working levels of the opencast mine equipment (Plant roads)
Access roads)

Categorization of road construction


Tab. 10.3-1

Road construction

Designation

Mine operating
roads,
each on 4
working
levels
Access
roads
Municipal
roads

Length
of the
road [m]

Wide of
the road
[m]

Type
of road

Planned
utilisation
(years)
<3

Excavator bench

3,000

Dump bench

1,500

<3

gravel

Head conveyor

2,000

>3

>3

asphalt with
passing places
asphalt

>3

asphalt

Main accesses
each 5,000m in
intended for a
2008, 2011, 2014,
long-term use
2017
Connecting roads Corresponding to
between the loca- the dislocation of
tions
locations

gravel

Plant roads
Parallel to the belt conveyor systems, construction of plant roads 4 m wide are planned as
gravel roads on the single working levels. In case of a lifetime greater than 3 years, these roads
will be covered by an asphalt cover.

The roads constructed in Macadam-design (First layer 16 cm chippings with grain size 60-90
mm; Second layer 9 cm chippings with grain size 30-60 mm) in the Bardh and Mirash mines in
2004 have not proved successful on the existing subsoil (clay) and the difficult dewatering
conditions.
Therefore, the gravel roads on cohesive soils shall be constructed as follows:
10.00 cm
20.00 cm
30.00 cm
1 layer
60.00 cm

gravel base
gravel base
anti-freeze layer
Geovlies-mats
Sum

0/32 mm, sand washed


0/56 mm
0/32 mm

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A unit price of 12.00-16.00 /m shall be calculated for the cost determination of the gravel
roads. Because an amount of ca. 50 % of the gravel material can be recovered the specific price
will come to 9.45 / m.
The following system of operating roads will be required in the opencast mine (depending on
the bench lengths):
Excavator bench on 4 working levels, ca. 3 km long and 4 m wide (gravel)
Dump bench on 4 working levels, 1.5 km long and 4 m wide (gravel)
Head conveyor on 4 working levels, ca.2 km long and 4 m wide with passing places
(asphalt)
Owing to the opencast mine advance and the connected shifting operations, about 27 km of
gravel roads have to be built (until 2032). From 2033 to 2038, only 20 km of gravel roads will
have to be built per year.
The main accesses along the head conveyors are made of asphalt. At the beginning of the opening of the mines about 8 km have to be constructed. During regular operating, these roads will
be extended on each working level by 100 - 120 m (totally about 0.5 km per year).
Access roads
Roads and main accesses intended for long-term use (lifetime >3 years) shall be furnished as
asphalt roads with the following layers:

4.00 cm
4.00 cm
8.00 cm
20.00 cm
44.00 cm
80.00 cm

bitumen surface
bitumen binder layer
bituminous base
gravel base
antifreeze layer
Total

0/11 mm
0/16 mm
0/32 mm
0/56 mm (compaction EV2 > 180 MN/m)
0/32 mm

Due to opposing traffic the roads shall be 6 m wide. Costs will arise at an amount of 25.00 /m
(construction mainly with local contractors).
Due to the opencast mine advance, the access roads are integrated in the cost model as follows:
2008
5 km Asphalt road
2011
5 km Asphalt road
2014
5 km Asphalt road
2017
5 km Asphalt road
From 2018, expenditures for asphalt road construction are calculated including a distance of
5 km every 5 years.
For road construction the existing building materials (limited availability of broken brick, ash
concrete) can be used. In any case a geotextile and a drainage layer shall be used in the upper
layers because it can be water-absorbing depending on the firing temperature.
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10.4 Workshops and Warehouses


10.4.1 Principles
The mining company KEK owns a number of decentralized located main-and operating workshops and stockyards which can be used owing to the low distance to the new opencast mine
field of Sibovc.
The rehabilitation of buildings intended for use at Sibovc is part of the Mid Term Plans. During
normal operation of Sibovc the existing buildings have to be maintained. An administration
building, a 500-person washing room and a mine control centre are planned to be built new.
Currently the following infrastructure elements support the maintenance process.
Auxiliary equipment workshops (total 5 locations):

Workshop (small) and yard Bardh (south-western slope Bardh), also the vulcanizing
facility of the Bardh operation is located here
Workshop and yard Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West, surface site of old underground mine)
Workshop and yard Kosovomont (Mirash Brand Field)
Rubber tired vehicles yard (Mirash gate)
Workshop separation plant

Main equipment workshops (total 7 locations):

Mechanical workshop Bardh (South of Bardh village, large construction cranes for
main mine equipment on site), also the idler repair facility of the Bardh operation is located here

Electrical workshop Bardh, also a second building for electrical rehabilitation is at the
same location (Western slope Bardh)

Mechanical workshop Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West)

Electrical workshop Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West)

Mechanical workshop Kosovomont

Electrical workshop Kosovomont

Electrical and mechanical workshop separation plant, idler repair


Warehouses (total 11 locations with one more under construction):

Warehouse electrical Bardh (Western slope Bardh)


Warehouse mechanical Bardh (Western slope Bardh)
Warehouse protective equipment Bardh (Western slope Bardh)
Warehouse aux equipment Bardh (Western slope Bardh)
Fuel station Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West)
Warehouse electrical Kosovomont
Warehouse mechanical Kosovomont
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Fuel station separation plant


Warehouse idler and vulcanization separation plant
Warehouse mechanical and electrical temporary Mirash at the gasification plant
Warehouse office supply at gate 01
There is a new warehouse under construction at the Mirash office building

Basing on the prepared maintenance concept for the Bardh and Mirash opencast mines the following available capacities will be rehabilitated and made available for Sibovc:
From these 24 locations with support functions in a first business reengineering effort 11 locations will remain. These are:
Auxiliary equipment workshops:
(1) New Central Auxiliary equipment workshop including warehouse (Bardh Southwestern slope) - completion in 2005
Main equipment workshops:
(1) Mechanical workshop Intervention (South of Bardh village)
(2) Electrical workshop Intervention (Western slope Bardh)
(3) Electrical workshop Kosovomont
(4) Mechanical workshop Kosovomont
(5) Workshop separation plant
Warehouses:
(1) Warehouse Bardh (Western slope Bardh)
(2) Fuel station Mirash (Northern slope Mirash West)
(3) New warehouse Mirash (currently under construction at the Mirash office building)
completion in 2005
(4) New central warehouse at Kosovomont
(5) Idler repair workshop separation plant

For implementing an effective maintenance, a central inventory management including a EDPsystem for acquiring, keeping and managing the inventory is planned. For registering the material it will be necessary to introduce a code system.
The following table summarizes all existing buildings of the single departments of KEK which
will be used in future.

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Tab. 10.4-1

Further use of buildings for Sibovc

Building

Designation

Departments of CPD KEK

Auxiliary equipment
New central aux. Workshop
Workshop
Mechanical workshop Intervention
Electrical workshop intervention
Main equipment
workshops

Electrical workshop
Mechanical workshop

Warehouses

SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

New warehouse

M.S. "MIRASHI"

Warehouse idler and vulcanization

SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

Warehouse electrical Bardh

M.S. "BARDHI"

Warehouse mechanical Bardh

Mine control centre

M.S. "BARDHI"
MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"
MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"
M.S. "BARDHI"

Mine control centre

M.S. "MIRASHI"

Office Building

M.S. "MIRASHI"

Office Building

M.S. "BARDHI"

Mining Office

Petrol Station

KEK Gate 01
MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"
M.S. "MIRASHI"

Petrol Station

SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

Mechanical workshop Intervention

M.S. "BARDHI"

Electrical workshop intervention

M.S. "BARDHI"
MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"
SEPARATION DEPARTMENT

Warehouse for workshops

Mine Offices

Mechanical + Electrical Workshop


Petrol Station /
Fuel Depot

Washrooms and
Sanitary Facilities

M.S. "BARDHI"
M.S. "BARDHI"
MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"
MAINTENANCE
DEPARTMENT "KOSOVAMONT"

Electrical + Mechanical Workshop

New central warehouse

Mine Control Centre

M.S. "BARDHI"

Mechanical workshop
Electrical and mechanical workshop

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The planned site of the workshop- and stockyard complex is illustrated in the following picture:
Workshop

Leshkoshiq

TPP A

Workshop (Aux. Equipm.)


Warehouse

Hade

Nakarade

Lismir

Bardh
Fig. 10.4-1

Fushe
Kosove

Survey workshops and warehouses

10.4.2 Central- and Plant Workshops


New central auxiliary equipment workshop
The future new auxiliary equipment workshop is at the territory of the present daily facilities of
Bardh Western slope. The massif hall with portal crane is a new building and shall be completed in 2005. The workshop contains the required warehouse for auxiliary equipment. This
workshop can be used by the Sibovc opencast mine.

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Fig. 10.4-2

New Central Auxiliary equipment workshop Bardh

Mechanical workshop intervention


The mechanical workshop intervention (South of Bardh village) is at present used as mechanical workshop for the Bardh opencast mine. The workshop is among other equipped with lathes
and drilling machines.

Fig. 10.4-3

Mechanical workshop intervention

For a later use as workshop it is necessary to install the already planned heating and to reconstruct the sanitary facilities. The outside area of the workshop includes a large unpaved storage
area with 2 large Derrick-cranes.
At this place it will be possible to assemble the new equipment system (new BWE). To be able
to carry out this assembling work it is required to rehabilitate the available Derricks. For this,
investments of 0.1 m per Derrick were calculated (see under item Auxiliary Equipment). Additionally another 0.1 m are required to maintain the existing plant.

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Electrical workshop intervention


The electrical workshop intervention (South of Bardh village) is used as electrical workshop
for the Bardh opencast mine. In the eastern part of the building, the metrological department is
located.
The 3-nave hall consists of a reinforced concrete skeleton construction with wall made of
brickworks and/or large glazing at the long sides. The individual workshops are accessible
form the central corridor.

Fig. 10.4-4

Electrical workshop intervention Bardh

The building is heated. The toilets are reconstructed at present. It can be assessed that the
building is in a relatively good condition.
Electrical workshop Kosovomont
The workshop complex Kosovomont is 3 km away from the opencast mine nearby the place of
Palaj.
The Electrical workshop Kosovomont belongs to the future Central Workshop of the opencast
mines. In 2004, the existing hall was extended by a built-on structure for expanding the repair
capacities. In the same year, the entire heating system of the hall including the heating pipelines from Kosovo B power plant were overhauled and/or refurbished.

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Fig. 10.4-5

Electrical workshop Kosovomont

Mechanical workshop Kosovomont

It is intended to extent the mechanical workshop of the Kosovomont site as future Central
workshop for the opencast mine Sibovc. On an area of ca. 10,000 m the necessary departments
for the central workshop are located in 3 naves; among others metal cutting, (lathing, milling,
drilling), grinding shop, welding shop, hardening shop Since 2002, considerable investments
have been made for modernising the machine park (a. o. CNC-control for milling machines,
drilling equipment and gear milling machine).

Fig. 10.4-6

Mechanical workshop Kosovomont 1

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The building condition is assessed well. The heating of the halls was overhauled and/or completely renewed in 2004.
The internal transportation in the hall is made via floor-controlled hall cranes and two railway
tracks which are connected to the separate warehouse and the building for sandblasting/corrosion protection.
The hall complex has a massive three-floor extension with office workplaces for the technical
work preparation and administration. In the ground floor there is the changing room for ca. 200
employees.

Fig. 10.4-7

Mechanical workshop Kosovomont 2

In front of the office extension of the hall complex there is a gravel-paved parking area (ca. 35
m x 50 m) for 2 new workshop mobiles, 2 new workshop trailers as well as 1 Unimog and one
90t-crane. Outside the building of the mechanical workshop there is a storage ground with portal crane. The blasting plant (including corrosion protection) is not in operation at present.
The Mid Term Plan contains a description of the necessary measures to be taken for further
operation. The available document assumes, that these measures will be realised until the beginning of operation in the Sibovc-Field (see Mid Term Plan).

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Electrical and mechanical workshop separation plant

Fig. 10.4-8

Electrical and mechanical workshop

In 2004, the production capacities of electrical and mechanical maintenance of Kosovo A and
B were brought together and concentrated in the electrical and mechanical workshop at the site
of the Separation plant. Here, repair capacities are concentrated for idlers and vulcanization as
well as the refurbishment of old gears and couplings of the mines and power plants.
The massive building (length 49.4 m x width 23.0 m x height 6.2 m) with overhead light is
heated and in a good repair. In this building there are the electrical and mechanical workshops
as well as changing facilities for originally 500 employees with separate washing facilities as
well as 20 shower installations with warm water connection.

10.4.3 Warehouses
New warehouse Mirash
The warehouse at Mirash (area ca. 1,800 m) is located in the area of the daily facilities of
Mirash. The outdoor facilities and a paved road shall be finished in 2005.

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Fig. 10.4-9

New warehouse Mirash

Warehouse idler and vulcanization separation plant


The Warehouses idler (length 60.4 m, width 12.2 m, height 4.0 m) and vulcanization (length 15
m, width 9.3 m, height 2.6 m) are in the direct neighbourhood of the mechanical and electrical
workshop Separation plant. The warehouses are in a good repair. It is envisaged that this will
be the central warehouse for idlers. The outside facilities are paved.

Fig. 10.4-10

Warehouse idler and vulcanization

New central warehouse Kosovomont


In the concept it is intended to use a massive building complex nearby Kosovomont which is
completed to 70 % as central warehouse. The building was erected before 1990 and is only

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partly roofed at present. To complete the building, about 2 m are planned within the period of
the Mid Term Plan.

Fig. 10.4-11

New central warehouse

Warehouses for workshops Kosovomont


The building complex of the mechanical workshop comprises a warehouse (ca. 15 m x 110 m),
of which only ca. 1/3 is roofed incompletely (only roof without walls). The size of the storage
areas is considered sufficient.
The storage capacities of the electrical workshop are within the building complex of the workshop as well as on an open storage place and are also considered sufficient.
Electrical warehouse in Bardh
The electrical warehouse is on the territory of the daily facilities. Directly besides the building
there is a paved storage ground.
The single-floor massive warehouse has a roofed ramp. The building also contains the warehouse for protective clothing. The required financial means for the maintenance of the building
were already planned in the Mid Term Plan.

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Fig. 10.4-12

Electrical warehouse Bardh

Mechanical warehouse in Bardh


The mechanical warehouse (length 72.4 m, width 24.0 m, height 5.0 m, area 1,775 m) of the
Bardh mine is an unheated two-nave hall consisting of a steel construction lined with aluminium sheet. Inside the hall there are two heated massive installations (ca. 35 m) for the warehousemen.
The warehouse complex also contains a warehouse (ca. 700 m) for car service.
The required financial means for the maintenance of the building were already planned in the
Mid Term Plan.

Fig. 10.4-13

Mechanical warehouse Bardh

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10.4.4 Petrol Station / Fuel Depot


At present, there are two petrol stations in the Mirash opencast mine and in the Separation
Plant.

Fig. 10.4-14

Petrol Station Mirash

The Mirash petrol station has three tap connections, the tanks having a content of (total content
126,038 l):
V 1 47,721 l
V 2 47,804 l
V 3 30,513 l
Daily consumption is ca. 6,000 l Diesel for vehicles of Bardh and Mirash opencast mines as
well as Kosovomont.
A petrol station and a lubricants warehouse belong to the Separation plant and supply all vehicles and auxiliary equipment of Separation plant and Kosova B.
The three available tanks have a content of:
V 1 10,000 l
V 2 20,000 l
V 3 10,000 l

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Fig. 10.4-15

Petrol Station Separation plant

Both of the petrol stations neither meet the environmental requirements (no oil separators,
missing tank pits) nor will be applicable for the long-term operation of Sibovc.
Instead a new petrol station shall be planned and installed in the area of the new central auxiliary equipment workshop in Bardh. The sum to be calculated for this is ca. 250 000 .
The new petrol station shall have two pieces of tanks with a content of 50 000 l each for Diesel
fuel and piece of tank for petrol. The investment appraisal contains: roof for petrol station,
building, foundation working for site pavement, canalization with separation units, automatic
tank appliance with card reader, telephone connection, power supply and lightning protection.

10.5 Investment and Cost Calculation for Infrastructure


a) Investments
Infrastructure measures in connection with the relocation of the villages of Hade, Leskovcic
and Sibovc are already considered in the project part Resettlement. This chapter includes also
new roads which will become necessary due to the resettlement.
The determination of the investment costs for infrastructure for the Sibovc mine base on the
assumption that the costs for the basic rehabilitation of the buildings and facilities which can be
used for this mine are already contained in the scope of investment of the Mid Term Plan. In
line with this, the following listed buildings were not taken into account for investments:

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Tab. 10.5-1

Investments 2005 2008 surface facilities

Surface facilities

2005-2008
Price in []

Workshops
New central Auxiliary equipment workshop
Mechanical workshop intervention
Electrical workshop intervention
Electrical workshop Kosovomont
Mechanical workshop Kosovomont
Electrical and mechanical workshop Separation plant
Subtotal Workshops
Warehouses
New warehouse Mirash
Warehouse idler and vulcanization Separation plant
New central warehouse Kosovomont
Warehouse for workshops Kosovomont
Warehouse electrical Bardh
Warehouse mechanical Bardh
Subtotal Warehouses
Washrooms and sanitary facilities
Western slope Bardh
Mechanical workshop Intervention
Mechanical workshop Kosovomont
Electrical workshop Kosovomont
Electrical and mechanical workshop Separation plant
Subtotal Washrooms and sanitary facilities
Total

1,260,000
448,000
25,000
20,000
985,000
50,000
2,788,000
30,000
0
2,000,000
0
25,000
5,000
2,060,000
180,000
80,000
120,000
120,000
360,000
860,000
5,708,000

Assumptions for calculation of investment costs for infrastructure


Access Roads:
2008
5 km Asphalt road
2011
5 km Asphalt road
2014
5 km Asphalt road
2017
5 km Asphalt road
2022
5 km Asphalt road repair and/or new construction
2027
5 km Asphalt road repair and/or new construction
2032
5 km Asphalt road repair and/or new construction
2037
5 km Asphalt road repair and/or new construction

Workshops and Warehouses


Computer equipment + Server for 80 employees:
80 employees 1,500 / 3 years
per year

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40,000

750 T
750 T
750 T
750 T
600 T
600 T
600 T
600 T

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Mine Offices
Computer equipment +Server 200 employees:
200 employees 1,500 / 3 years
per year

100,000

Mine Control Centre:


2013

1 piece

150,000

Petrol Station/ Fuel Depot:


2010

1 piece

250,000

Tab. 10.5-2

Investment and cost calculation for infrastructure

Infrastructure and
Surface Facilities

20072008

20092013

20142018

20192023

20242028

20292033

Access roads (asphalt)

[T]
750

[T]
750

[T]
1,500

[T]
600

[T]
600

[T]
600

[T]
600

[T]
5,400

80

200

200

200

200

200

200

1,280

200
0

500
150

500
0

500
0

500
0

500
0

500
0

3,200
150

Washrooms and
sanitary facilities

Petrol station

250

250

1,030

1,850

2,200

1,300

1,300

1,300

1,300

10,280

Workshops and
Warehouses
Mine offices
Mine control centre

Total

200342038

20072038

b) Operating costs
The investment appraisal for Sibovc includes costs in the amount of the leasing costs for the
required spaces for Administration, Workshops and Warehouses, Washrooms and Sanitary
Facilities.
Assumptions for the cost calculation of operating costs infrastructure
Mine Roads:
2008
2009-2038

2007-2032
2033-2038
Assembly yards:
2007-2038

8 km Asphalt road (head conveyor)


0.5 km Asphalt roads/year (extension of head conveyor)
per year
27 km gravel roads/year (excavator and dump benches)
per year
20 km gravel roads/year
per year
Operative assembly yard for general repair
per year

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800 T
50 T
1,403 T
779 T

100 T

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Mine Offices:
The calculation of the required office workplace space bases on an average demand of a total
area of 31.90 m per workplace (15.3 m office area and 16.6 m partly area for equipment
rooms, floors and toilets).
Tab. 10.5-3

Lease prices

Sum
lease per
workplace
/ per month

Sum
lease per
workplace
/ per year

Description

Lease
prices
/ m

Surface
[m]

Office space

6.80

15.30 m

104.04

1,248.48

Functional rooms (equipment, toilets, floors)

2.30

16.60 m

38.18

458.16

Cleaning

0.10

31.90 m

3.19

38.28

31.90 m

145.41

Sum lease / workplace


Sum lease / workplace - rounded

1,744.92
1,750.00

From totally 2,500 employees of the Sibovc opencast mine, ca. 500 employees require and
office workplace in the administration.
Ca. 500 office workplaces
1,750 / lease for workplace

per year:

875,000

Workshops and Warehouses:


The calculations for areas of workshops and warehouses base on the available areas which are
included in the Mid Term Plan within the framework of the realization of the maintenance concept.
Tab. 10.5-4

Required areas for workshops and warehouses


Location

Surface
[m]

No.

Designation

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

New central Auxiliary Workshop


Western slope Bardh
Mechanical workshop
Kosovomont
Electrical workshop
Kosovomont
Electrical and mechanical workshop Separation plant
Mechanical workshop Intervention
South of Bardh village
Electrical workshop intervention
Western slope Bardh
New warehouse under construction Mirash
Warehouse idler and vulcanization
separation plant
Warehouse electrical Bardh
Western slope Bardh
Warehouse mechanical Bardh
Western slope Bardh
New central warehouse
Kosovomont
Warehouse for workshops
Kosovomont

2,000
10,000
4,500
1,140
2,450
1,500
1,900
880
350
1,780
5,000
1,600

Total Workshops and Warehouses

33,100
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Tab. 10.5-5

Lease costs for workshops and warehouses

Lease
price/
/ m

Description

Workshops heated
Warehouses, not heated

Surface
[m]

3.50
0.80

Sum
lease
/ per month

21,590
11,510

Total Workshops and Warehouses

The following lease costs result:


Lease for workshops and warehouses

Sum
lease
/ per year

75,565
9,208

906,780
110,496

84,773

1,017,276

per year

1,020,000

Washrooms and Sanitary facilities:


From the total number of 2,500 employees of the Sibovc opencast mine, about 1,800 need
washroom with shower facilities.

1,800 washroom places


lease per month:
lease per year:
Tab. 10.5-6

33 / workplace
396 / workplace

712,800

Lease costs for workshops, warehouses, offices and washrooms

Infrastructure and
Surface Facilities

20072008

20092013

20142018

20192023

20242028

20292033

20342038

20072038

Mine roads (gravel)


Mine roads (asphalt)
Subtotal roads
Erection yards

[T]
2.806
800
3.606
200

[T]
7.015
250
7.265
500

[T]
7.015
250
7.265
500

[T]
7.015
250
7.265
500

[T]
7.015
250
7.265
500

[T]
6.391
250
6.641
500

[T]
3.895
250
4.145
500

[T]
41.152
2.300
43.452
3.200

Workshops and
Warehouses

2.040

5.100

5.100

5.100

5.100

5.100

5.100

32.640

Mine offices

1.750

4.375

4.375

4.375

4.375

4.375

4.375

28.000

Washrooms and
Sanitary facilities

1.426

3.564

3.564

3.564

3.564

3.564

3.564

22.810

Total

9.022

20.804

20.804

20.804

20.804

20.180

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11 Mine Dewatering
11.1 General Information
The Kosova Basin forms a smoothly shaped plain that is bordered by hills and mountains. This
basin includes a developed hydrological network with the main collector given by the river
Sitnica. This river crosses the basin from south to north and drains off 80 % of the accumulating surface water northward. Major tributary rivers in the vicinity of the site are river Drenica
in the west and river Lab in the east. The Sitnica run-off of water varies between a minimum of
0.5 1.5 m/sec and a maximum of 50 120 m/sec with an average of 5 10 m/sec. In flooding periods, the course of the river reaches a width of up to 1000 m in the flooding areas. On 3
May 1958 a maximum run-off for river Sitnica near to the mines was measured with 90.3
m/sec.
Because not being available the usual basis to assess the quantities of water discharged by
tributary rivers and creeks was prepared as catchment area map shown in following figure.
Using run-off coefficients allows first assessments on the quantities of water to be delineated
when opening up a mining field. The following figure shows in different colours and numbers
a subdivision into different drainage areas when the mine develops towards the north.

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Fig.: 11.1-1

Catchment Areas

Starting the mining activities from the existing mines in the south means that the current drainage areas of Bardh and Mirash mines (1000 in the figure) have to be drained further on. The
area 300 will be excavated from the downstream resulting in an early additional drainage area
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of about 3.6 km with the run-off directed towards the mine face. Using the precipitation values
mentioned above will result in some 90000 m of water to be drained per month and a peak
water yield of 104000 m/day with a precipitation of 64 mm/d. Excavation in the areas east
(200) and west (500) will shrink those drainage areas from aside resulting in normal increasing
mine drainage needs in the course of excavation.
Further development into the north will affect the drainage areas of Sibovc River (400) and
river Sitnica (100) in both cases from an upstream position. Special drainage will be needed as
soon as the Sibovc River itself is reached by the excavation. At that point in time first a deviation of the tributary run-off in the southwest toward the north will be needed and later on a total deviation of Sibovc River is recommended to allow discharge from the catchment area west
to the mine. Perhaps parts of the existing Iper-Lepens water canal can be used for this future
deviation.

11.2 Dewatering Measures / Dimensioning of Dewatering


Elements
In the past years opencast mine dewatering was not sufficient due to the bad condition of the
auxiliary equipment fleet. This lead to problems in the production process, since passing of the
working benches and the mine access roads could not be guaranteed. In 2003, measures were
intensified to produce ditches to collect and drain water. However, drainage in Sibovc shall be
improved as against the present status.
Basically, groundwater pumpage by means of filter wells or a groundwater blocking by means
of sealing wall can be excluded. Therefore, the planning of the dewatering is restricted to the
drainage of the surface water and the collection and drainage of the pit water.
Drainage measures aim at preventing water from flowing into the opencast mine and to keep
the benches dry and collect the water in ditches, respectively, for discharge.
The following works shall be realised for a sufficient dewatering:
Planned installation of main collecting ditches from the working levels and dump
surfaces to the main drainage plants with continuous adjustment to the mining position
Establishment of the drainage of rainwater on all working levels
Discharging of permanent water accumulations on the dumps
Drainage of dammed up water at the slope foot of the inside dumps
Maintenance of all ditch systems
Installation and maintenance of sedimentation basins before feeding into rivers
Use of the collected water to reduce dust formation /dust control
Ditch System
Drainage ditches shall be installed on all working levels (mining and dump side). An appropriate downward gradient is to be considered toward the bench ends. The water shall be connected
in equalizing basins at the bench ends and supplied alternatively by way of pipelines or open
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collecting ditches of the main dewatering. These ditches along the working levels shall be renewed regularly according to the opencast mines advance.
The ditches shall be produced by means of the available auxiliary equipment, like universal
excavators, dozers and wheel loaders. A massive development of the ditches and equalizing
basins is not envisaged. The following regular ditch profile is proposed regardless of the size of
the catchment area:

Bed width
Ditch depth
Gradient
Inclination of the ditch slope

0.5 m (effective)
0.5 - 1.0 m (effective)
min. 1 : 200
ca. 45 (in cohesive material)

Another important point is the production of ditches along the access roads into the opencast
mine. Hereby, the removal of the backwater is of special importance to increase the lifetime
and improve the conditions of the accesses. Along ramps with a larger downward gradient,
wooden weirs shall be inserted in the road ditches to reduce the flow velocity of the water and
therefore the mass discharge from the road subsoil.
Apart from the production of the ditches special importance shall be also attached to the clearing of working levels and the maintenance of the ditch systems. Flat and slightly grading working levels simplify the water supply to the installed ditches. Parallel to this the ditch systems
shall be maintained permanently. It suggested establishing a mobile group for these works, so
that damages at the ditches can be recognized and repaired.
Central Drainage Plants / Pump Sumps
The surface dewatering by ditches accumulates the rainfall water in the pump sumps and pump
it out in case of excess of the storage capacity.
The storage capacity of the sumps was dimensioned to accumulate as maximum the rainfalls of
one day.
The pumps were designed in that way that they could master a maximum of two-day rainfalls
under consideration of the accumulation capacity of the pump sumps. One additional pump per
pump sump should be reserved in the number of pumps which are required for the pumpage of
surface water.

The drainage basins shall be produced in deep cut excavation with the help of main equipment.
Pumps
The great main drainage systems of the mine shall be equipped with 5 powerful high-pressure
pumps each according to the following basic principle:
Pumps 1+2:
normal operation
Pump 3 + 4:
support of pumps 1 and 2 in case of heavy rainfall
Pump 5:
reserve
The change-over to high-pressure pumps is due to the increasing lifting height (max. 130 150
m). There are recommended pumps with a capacity of 180 m/h (90 kW) each. In order to specify the pumps it is necessary to know the quality of the water to be pumped.
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Additionally, so-called Sffel-pumps (for lifting height up to 25m) are required. These will
be applied on the working benches at the excavation site and on the dumping site.
Therefore, procurement of 5 new pumps each with 180 m/h will become necessary for the
main drainage systems. Moreover, 15 smaller pumps are proposed.
Tab. 11.2-1

Pump Capacity

Sffel - pumps
Overburden 1 -4
Duming Site 1-4
Coal
Stockpile
Sum

4
4
4
3
15

High-pressure Pumps
[m/h ]
1 * 180
2 * 180
2 * 180
0
5 * 180

Mine Water Purification


The water pumped from the drainage ditches, shows increased contents of chloride and sulphate as well as clear contents of suspended materials, consisting of dust or organic suspended
matters. When discharging the water, special attention shall be drawn to separate the suspended
materials by a sufficient residence time in sedimentation basins. A first sedimentation takes
place in the main drainage ditches. However, since these installations are frequently shifted, it
will be necessary to install additional sedimentation basins on the surface level before feeding
the water into the rivers.
These basins are made in the form of ground basins that are integrated in the course of the
ditches. At a length of at least 100 m, the bed of such a basin shall be flat on a width of at least
50 m, in order to achieve a clear reduction of the flow velocities.
When entering a basin, the water stream shall be distributed as wide as possible to achieve a
good sedimentation result. The discharge of a basin has the form of an earth dam, which is
fixed by a possibly wide overflow. The installations shall be controlled quarterly. The settled
particles shall be removed regularly once a year in the autumn before the beginning of the rainy
period. The removed material shall be examined by sampling in particular for contents of
heavy metals and hydrocarbon connections. If there are not any distinctive features, the material can be built into the dump bodies. If contaminants are determined for example in cases of
damages or accidents during the operation, the material shall be disposed separately.
Additional Actions / High Water Protection
Special drainage measures are required in the north-east of the deposit mainly in the transfer
zone of the areas 400 to 600. However, this does not belong to the scope of this Main Mine
Plan.

Particular precautions with regard to flood control are not foreseen.

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11.3 Investment and Cost Calculation for Dewatering


The costs were determined on the basis of length and number of drainage ditches.
Basic prices are:
70 / m channel (concreted)
7 /m channel (not concreted)
The following is representative for one year:
The following table includes not concreted channels or collecting and discharging surface water in normal operation:
Tab. 11.3-1

Example for a Channel System

Number of
the channel 1)
CO-1 (Overburden)
CO-2
CO-3
CO-4
CC-1 (Coal bench)
CC-2
CC-3
CC-4
CS-1 (Dumping Site)
CS-2
CS-3
CS-4
Total
1)

Length of
the channel (km)
3.0
2.8
3.1
2.9
2.6
2.5
2.3
2.3
1.4
1.4
1.6
1.6
77

Price in
1000

Type of
the channel
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted
Not concreted

192.5

C Channel
O Overburden
C Coal
S Spreader
E East
W West

Especially in autumn and spring, these not concreted channels shall be maintained. During one
calendar year, they have to be installed new due to the block-wise advance of the slope systems.
Due to the opencast mine advance (100 120 m per annum) there have to be installed the
ditches for those lengths 1.5 times per year. These are 41.25 km per year. The annual expenses
come to 288.7 T/a.

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Tab. 11.3-2

Length of Channels
Up to
20142013
2018
115 km 127 km
Length of ditches
on benches
Length in km/a
19
25.4

20192023
147 km

20242028
164 km

20292033
164 km

20342038
135 km

29.4

32.8

32.8

27.0

Ditches in km/a

28.5

38.1

44.1

49.2

49.2

40.5

Price in 1,000

199.5

266.7

308.7

344.4

344.4

283.5

SUM

Average

852 km

27.5 km
27.5

1278
km
8950

41.25
288.7

Additionally, concreted channels shall be used at the head slopes:


Tab. 11.3-3

Price of Channels

Number of
the channel
CE-1 (head wall East)
CE-2
CE-3
CE-4
CW-1 (head wall West)
CW-2
CW-3
CW-4
CW-5
CW-6
CW-7
Total

Length of
the channel (km)
2.8
2.4
1.5
1.3
2.8
2.4
1.5
1.3
0.5
0.5
0.5
17.5

Price in
1000

Type of
channel
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted
concreted

1,225

These channels will be developed parallel with the advance of the opencast mine (in steps)
The annual development / extension come to ca. 1.2 km. Annual costs are incurred of ca.
84,000 .

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12 Mine Closure and Recultivation Planning


12.1 Principles
The proposed main principles are:
The areas occupied by mining shall be recovered in such a way that the later use
will be rather better than the original one. This efforts aim at enhancing the value of
the areas compared with the actual state at least however a similar scenery.
Areas which are no longer needed for mining activities shall be recultivated as soon
as possible. If a final renaturing will not be possible, suitable temporary measures
shall be taken like for example an interim greening.
Financial means will be reserved already during the active mining operations to ensure the proper closure of the mining field. This money will also be available in
case of in-solvency for revitalisation.
Authorities and the concerned people (later users) are integrated in the process of
planning and detailed shaping of the post-mining areas. This process shall start before dumping because it already defines the shape of the surface.

12.2 Present Land Use


The Sibovc field contains a geological reserve of ca. 990 mt on an area of 19.7 km2. To meet
the demand for run-of-mine coal at an amount of 553 mt, the area claimed for mining will
come to 11.58 km within the period until 2038 (see following table):
Tab. 12.2-1

Claim of building and farm Land

Period

land use
ha

2007-2008
2009-2013
2014-2018
2019-2023
2024-2028
2029-2033
2034-2038
Sum

of it building land
ha
271.0
137.0
102.0
140.0
183.0
89.0
236.0
1158.0

27.500
11.169
0.000
2.049
11.854
16.030
7.908
76.510

of it farmland
ha
243.500
125.831
102.000
137.951
171.146
72.970
228.092
1,081.490

12.3 Mine Closure Plan


Recultivation of the Sibovc field is closely connected with the fields of Bardh and Mirash.

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After depletion of the existing mines of Bardh and Mirash, large residual pits remain. The establishment of larger final areas within the operating period of the opencast mines will not be
possible. This is due to the low overburden: coal ratio as well as in the material properties of
the overburden. The following residual pits will remain in the area of the opencast mines:
A wide and deep residual pit in the western area of the mining field (mining area of
the Bardh opencast mine and the western part of the Mirash opencast mine)
A landfill site in the former Mirash-Brand mining field in the responsibility of the
KTA
The ash dump in the former Mirash-East mining field in the responsibility of KEK
An almost closed dump area in the eastern parts of the Mirash opencast mine, which
borders the landfill site. In the areas directly contacting the landfill site there are installed large corridors due to the flat slope angle.
It is envisaged that the coal mining is continued in the follow-up field of Sibovc after depletion
of the existing opencast mines. This opencast mine will be developed from the northern rim
slope system of the existing opencast mines. It is planned to use this overburden masses to fill
the depleted area of the existing mines. This offers optimal opportunities for shaping the final
areas. Moreover, outside dumps can be avoided.
As it is mentioned in the Mid Term Plan the existing mines are responsible to shape the residual pit safely until the residual area is closed finally by the follow-up mine. The following
measures will be taken:
The natural overburden slopes along the southern rim slope system shall be shaped
safely.
The coal slopes along the southern rim slope system shall be flattened and covered
by overburden material. This measure serves the extinguishing of existing and/or
the prevention o new coal fires. A corresponding dumping technology of the overburden masses of Sibovc helps to reducing the expense for those measures considerably.
The seam floor shall be continuously covered by cohesive overburden material.
This measure also serves the prevention / extension of further coal fires and can be
further optimized by a selective dumping of the overburden material from Sibovc.
The drainage of the residual area shall be continued. This refers to the main drainage system on the lowest floor level and the drainage from the southern rim slope
system by means of suitable drainage ditches. Those ditches shall be installed on all
berms of the southern rim slope system. Extension of the ditches will not be required. A collection basin shall be installed at the deepest point of each of the berms
from which the water is fed by pipelines and/or collection ditches to the main drainage system. After dumping of the main drainage system by masses from the Sibovc
mine, a new drain-age system shall be installed and operated.
After closure of the residual area by spreading the overburden material from the Sibovc mine,
the areas shall be intended for agricultural use to provide substitute areas for claimed ones.
Connection of the dump area at the same surface level is recommended for the large residual
pit in the west of the mining field, without re-shaping the former hillside near Hade. The final
dump surface should be slightly inclined to enable good access conditions for agricultural machines as well as a natural drainage into the direction of the Sitnica and Drenica-Rivers.
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The final shaping of the eastern dump side is only possible after decommissioning of the storage sites. Both storage sites are planned with an operating period of at least 15 years. Only afterwards, a complete closure of the marginal corridors will be possible. This can be accomplished both with the overburden from Sibovc and the recovery of the ash dump of TPP A. The
preferred alternative is the recovery of the ash dump of TPP A on the mining field D for refilling the marginal corridors. The basic sealing for the masses to be installed is provided by the
inside dump masses. The masses lying below the ash on the outside dump can be used as final
cover layer and/or as recultivation layer. Due to the long period until a final shaping of this
area, an interim solution is recommended comprising to partly fill the corridors depending on
the set-up of the ash dump.

12.4 Concept of Post-Mining Use for the Fields Bardh,


Mirash and Sibovc
a) Principles and Preconditions for a detailed Reclamation Planning
The changeover from the Bardh/Mirash dump into the Sibovc field will start after 2020. The
shaping of the final surface of the opencast mines of Bardh, Mirash and Sibovc will be considered as a whole. However, the following area balance (item 12. 5) contains only the return of
areas of Sibovc.

The concept for the post-mining landscape contains the following aspects:
Demand for uses (agriculture, forestry, building site )
Area use is dependent on the available soils (quality)
Possibilities for shaping by means of the used equipment
Cost/benefit
Due to the large quantity of minable coal, it will not be possible to fill up the entire opencast
mine. Therefore, a lake will be established in the north of the Sibovc field. To return as much
areas as possible, the final surface shall be as deep as possible with regard to the surrounding
terrain. In line with this, two connecting points to the existing rivers are of importance. In the
southeast of Bardh, directly at the Bardh village there should be maintained a surface height of
550 mMSL. In the northeast of Sibovc there is a run-off to the Sitnica River with a height of
540 mMSL. The boundary of the residual lake is south of the villages of Sibovc und Lajthisht.
The water table of this lake will be at ca. 535 mMSL (ca. 5 m below surface level). The slope
to the residual lake will have a general inclination of 1 : 6. Single slopes will be flattened to
inclina-tions of 1 : 7 (8o).The wave breaking area of the residual lake will be protected against
erosion by means of rock fill.
Main aim for shaping the post-mining field is to provide a high share of areas which allow for
an agricultural use. In general, the dump area shall represent a high-value landscape element in
which agricultural use and habitat for local fauna and flora will exist in parallel.
Bases for achieving these goals:
Ensuring a maximum possible inclination of 1 : 20 (3), maximum 1 : 12.5 (4.5),
which allow for a cultivation with agricultural machines

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Ensuring discharge of excess surface water by a minimum surface inclination of 1 :


200
Collection and discharge of surface water by installation of ditches and storage basins and their connection to the existing rivers
Installation of windbreak belts as a natural boundary for reducing wind erosion
Plantation of trees and shrubs for shaping a varied landscape
Conservation of parts of the outside dump in the present form as refuge area for the
presently existing and adjusted flora and fauna.
Installation of roads and accesses

To ensure minimum inclinations of 1 : 200 even after completion of settlements in the field, an
inclination of 1 : 150 will be planned. Considering this inclination the terrain rises from the
future residual pit in the north into southern direction and from the river connection at Bardh in
the south-west into northern direction. Therefore the terrain lies below the original surface especially in the area of the hill nearby Hade. The connection to the natural terrain is ensured.
Lateral slopes have a general inclination of 10 according to the mine planning. The single
slopes shall be flattened to an inclination of 1 : 7 (8) and planted with trees and shrubs. All
areas with coal shall be covered by a sufficient amount of overburden.
b) Soil Improvement Measures
The areas are flattened after dumping to be prepared for recultivation. The final shape of the
surface should both consider a smoothly wavy structure and the free discharge of the water.
After the levelling works have been finished, deep ploughing shall be carried out with a penetration depth of 0.5 m. That applies in particular to surfaces which were finished during rainy
seasons. In principle, soil-improving measures are necessary only in to limited degree for the
agricultur-ally used surfaces because the available overburden material is rather fertile.
To raise the yield it is possible to apply fertilising measures like manure, slurry or mineral fertilizer.
c) Interim Greening and Erosion Protection Measures
For the later management it is assumed that the plots will have an average size of approx. 5 10 hectares. Provided that there is a rectangular sketch this corresponds to a dimension of 500
* 150 m. A windbreak belt shall be installed between the individual plots with a width of
approx. 5m. Its function comprises both erosion protection and a natural boundary between the
plots. A multi-line arrangement of different wood is recommended, as it is represented in the
following illustration.
This system can also be realised along the farm roads.

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Trees (1st size)


nd
Trees (2 size)
Shrubs

3.50 m

Fig. 12.4-1

Plant scheme for wind erosion protection

Fast-growing tree species are especially suitable as windbreak belts, like for example poplars
or robinias (Robinia Rectissima) and bushes. An integration of fruit trees is possible as well.
It is suggested to install stone fruit meadows and/or carry out afforestation for steeper areas,
where farming by means of machines will not be possible.
d) Irrigation and Dewatering Measures

Along the windbreak belts, paths and roads, ditches shall be installed for surface drainage. The
size of the ditches shall be chosen according to the respective catchment area.
The following standard values shall be considered:

Bed width
Ditch depth
Gradient
Inclination of the ditch slope

0.5 m 1.0 m, effective


ca. 1 m
min. 1 : 200
ca. 45

In suitable distances these ditches shall be widened to storage basins in order to be able to store
the water for a limited period of time in case of heavy rainfalls. The single ditches shall be finally connected to collecting ditches discharging the yielded rainwater from the outside dump
with a steeper gradient. These ditches shall be installed in a solid construction. The flow velocity of the water shall be reduced by means of check dams and stilling basins. An open ditch
with downward gradient towards the Sitnica-River shall be installed at the floor point of the
outside dump.

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In suitable distances these ditches shall be widened to storage basins in order to be able to store
the water for a limited period of time in case of heavy rainfalls. The single ditches shall be finally connected to collecting ditches discharging the yielded rainwater from the outside dump
with a steeper gradient. These ditches shall be installed in a solid construction. The flow velocity of the water shall be reduced by means of check dams and stilling basins. An open ditch
with downward gradient towards the Sitnica-River shall be installed at the floor point of the
outside dump.

12.5 Investment and Cost Calculation


The following area balance is included in the financing model:
Tab. 12.5-1

Area Balance in Sibovc and Costs

Measures
Production of Coal in mt
Claim of land in ha
Return of areas in Sibovc
Preparation of areas incl.
interim greening
Planting
(handing over of areas)
Other
Provisions *
Total in m

2007- 20092008 2013

20142018

20192023

20242028

2029- 20342033 2038

Sum

0.15
271
0

46.28
137
0

93.74
102
0

121.81
140
0

98.74
183
38

96.09
89
42

96.09
236
132

552.9
1,158
212

0.4

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.3

0.5

2.4

0.5

3.5

0.1
16.6
17.7

0.2
17.9
19.4

0.4
19.6
22.5

1.0
91.6
98.5

0.02
0.02

0.1
5.9
6

0.1
13.0
13.1

0.1
18.6
18.7

* escalated

Investments for auxiliary equipment are already included in chapter 13 Auxiliary Equipment.
Additional investments are:
Levelling
Interim greening
Soil preparation / nutrient enrichment
Road construction (farm roads with 60 cm bed depth, 3 m wide)
Others
Sum

620 / ha
160 / ha
490 / ha
630 / ha
190 / ha (+ 10 %)
2,090 /ha

The main part is reserved for the provisions needed for the final shaping. This amount to be
provided for the shaping of the post-mining landscape (until handing over and release from the
mining authority) will come to about 0.15 /t coal.

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13 Resettlement
13.1 General Remarks / Situation
13.1.1 General Conditions
Mainly large families with own agricultural enterprises are living in the concerned area of Sibovc, whose main incomes are secured by the production and sales of agricultural products.
The social conditions of the population in this area are complicated and can be compared with
the average living conditions in the Kosovo. The average net wages are about 150-200 /
month. According to LSMS (Living Standard Measurement Survey 2000), 12 per cent of population in Kosovo is extremely poor and another almost 40 per cent is poor. The average net
wages are higher for men than for women and higher in the private sector than in the public
sector (LSMS 2000).
The most important forms of land use are agriculture and forestry. However their importance is
decreasing. Approximately 60 % of the population living in the region are farmers and have
own land adjacent to their homes. Nevertheless, the development of the mining industry has a
social effect, too. It provides jobs with higher and securer income than it is possible by the cultivation of own land. For some families, agriculture remains the most important income source
now as before. But in the majority of households, one family member is employed with KEK.
The resettlement of the villages will change the rural structure with regard to the number and
size of agricultural enterprises. Resettlers, whose income does not to 100% originate from agriculture, are more easily ready to move to a prepared resettlement site with infrastructure or to
build a big house without farmlands at a decentral site.
Some resettlers use the resettlement effect to separate from the large family (extended family).
For example, two-room flats in the town are offered to adult family members using this occasion to set up a family. The presently frequent family size of 10-12 members will reduce to a
family size of 5-7 members.

13.1.2 Legal Resettlement Regulations


At present, the old resettlement law dating back to the Serbian era is still applicable. A new law
is only available in a draft version. Therefore, all issues relevant to resettlement have to be decided by the Parliament, which can be a very lengthy process.
To ensure the legal bases of lignite extraction and the required land purchase in the future Sibovc field it is necessary to declare this area as reserved mining area. This pre-requisite was
established with the UN-Resolution dated 18.11.2004:
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The Special Representative of the UN-Secretary-General decided about the evacuation of theHade village and related government decisions on a zone of special interest and property assessment criteria which are included in the Executive decision No. 2004/28 from the
18th of Nov 2004:
(1)
The villages of Hade/Ade, Sibovc/Sibovac, Leskovcic/Leskovcic and Crkvena
Vodic/Crkvena Vodica in the Obiliq/ Municipality are recognized as constituting a zone of
special interest for the economy of Kosovo.
(2)
Effective as of the date of signature of the present Executive Decision, no further construction activities shall be undertaken in the villages constituting the zone of special interest
for the economy of Kosovo.
(3)
In the event that economic considerations warrant mining activities in the zone of special interest for the economy of Kosovo, natural and legal persons whose validly registered
property rights may be affected by such mining activities shall be entitled to reasonable compensation based on the assessment criteria for property in the villages concerned as established
by the Government of Kosovo.
The decision to declare the concerned areas as zone of special national interest provides the
legal basis for the claim of the areas in the Sibovc field for mining and for the resettlement of
the mentioned villages.

13.2 Resettlement of Hade


13.2.1 Conditions / Situation in Hade
The village of Hade has a population about 2,500 inhabitants and is located at the north edge of
the Bardh/ Mirash mine, above a steep slope endangered by sliding. In the interest of public
safety and lignite supply security, a part of the village has to be resettled before the planned
mining works and safety measures can be continued.
All inhabitants of Hade, especially the families living close to the mine edge, have been informed about the necessity of a resettlement. This zone was declared a safety (emergency)
zone and the original 65 families (now numbering 118) have been ordered by UNMIK in
March 2004 to vacate the zone by December 2004.
Last registration of property of the village Hade (dated 22.05.2003), enforced by the Independent Housing Inspection Team (IHIT), had the following results:

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Tab. 13.2-1
Designation

Households and other Facilities in the Village Hade 2003


Total number

Houses
Auxiliary objects
Houses waiting to be finished
House bases
Burned objects (damaged by war)
Service facilities (stores)
Muslim Mosque
School

329
29
5
11
118
5
1
1

Despite the forthcoming resettlement, new houses have been built. At the time of inventory
taking by KEK 330 built-up plots were counted. Now there are about 700 houses thereof 111 in
the safety zone.
In the annual budget of the Government of Kosovo for 2004, funds were made available for
emergency resettlement, which were not called due to the slow return of the questionnaires
submitted to the affected people.
However, the resettlement of the safety zone of Hade shall be completed within the 1st halfyear of 2005.
Property Situation
According to information of the Kosovo land registry dated February 2005 there are 708 builtup estates in Hade.
The estates affected by resettlement are mainly private property.
The food stores were established by private initiative and will be compensated as such.
The compensation of Serbian property located within the cadastral district of Hade has to be
negotiated with the relevant owner.
State property in Kosovo is administered by KTA - Kosovo Trust Agency.

13.2.2 Buildings in Hade


After the war a great deal of Hade was destroyed. In 1999 the houses were reconstructed (e.g.
roof, windows, ceilings). In addition to this new houses have been constructed.
90% of the buildings constructed in the last few years have two storeys and rough upper floor.
Most of the new houses are not plastered so that the red brickwork is visible.
The school building of Hade was built after the war and is a two-storey building with hipped
roof. A sport yard belongs to the school grounds. Lunch facilities (school canteen) are not
available there.

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The mosque has a base area of approx. 16m x 12m. The construction method is the same as
applied for the residential buildings, only the used building materials are of higher quality.
The safety zone (emergency resettlement) between the high-voltage transmission line located
at the mine edge in northern direction to the east-west main road comes to approx. 500 m.
Therefore the mosque is part of the safety zone.
The cemetery of Hade is located in the northern area of the village. The land swap of a cemetery is property of the municipality. It assigns adequate areas to individual families and/or road
sections within the cemetery area.
Each family carries out grave maintenance and cares for the surroundings itself.
A cemetery hall does not exist at the Muslim cemetery. The prayer for the dead is given in the
mosque and/or at the grave.
Construction method and current condition of the buildings
The residential buildings are usually constructed by the house owners on their own and/or by
smaller building firms using domestic building materials.

The carcass (rough building) consists of a reinforced concrete skeleton which is filled with red
bricks. Usually brick ceilings are used. The two-storey residential buildings mostly have a
quadratic base area with the dimensions of 9 x 9 m. The reinforced concrete skeleton construction method is used for the reason of loamy to clayey subsoil which dries out in summer up to
10 m deep, then forming fissures in the earth surface. In autumn these fissures fill with water
and mud. Due to the alternation of frost and thaw in extremely cold winters, the subsoil is permanently loosened requiring reinforced concrete framework foundation with anchored skeleton.
Agriculturally used buildings (sheds for cows and small domestic animals as well as barns) are
to be considered separately. Obviously, the farms are relatively small (mostly 1-3 cows) because large sheds are not existing. Stockpiling of hay is carried out in the form of hay barns
and/or in one-storey, massive buildings with walls on three sides (also reinforced concrete
skeleton with brickwork and light roof covering).

13.2.3 Valuation of Compensation


The valuation of the estates will be carried out by a Commission under the head of the Government. The inventory of the houses, gardens and agriculturally used areas has been taken by
experts, among others by KEK experts.
The Government Working Group (GWG) from the Ministry of environment and spatial planning (MESP) - has established the Professional Working Group (PWG) represented by competent institutions in July 2004.
This interdisciplinary body consists of an architect, a civil engineer, two lawyers, three surveyors, two agricultural experts and three economists. They developed the rules for compensation
for the affected people. These rules have been put into effect by the government and published
on 9.7.2004:
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(1)

Criteria for evaluation of the constructed buildings in the village Hade based on the following parameters:
Real calculation of the construction price on the level of the market cost of
construction of Kosova
Executed contracts of MESP for construction of the residences.

In analysis of above listed parameters a price of 350 /m for turn-key condition residential
properties was established. In case of only partial construction this price will be multiplied with
a factor reflecting the level of completion.
(2)

Criteria for evaluation of the construction land and agricultural land based on the following parameters:
Transaction contracts in two municipalities: Fush Kosov and Kastriot (Obiliq)
signed after June 1999.
KEK compensation contracts towards persons of the same category.
The real market price for the category and position as village Hade and the possibility of buying under the similar conditions.

In analysis of above listed parameters a price of 23 /m for residential sites was established.
Agricultural property was divided in 9 categories as listed below:
Class I
5.00 /m
Class II
4.75 /m
Class III
4.50 /m
Class IV
4.25 /m
Class V
4.00 /m
Class VI
3.75 /m
Class VII
3.50 /m
Class VIII
3.25 /m
Infertile land
3.25 /m
The evaluation of the crop considers both the crop itself and the category of agricultural property.
Based on experience of former programs the working group decided to multiply the total compensation with a resettlement factor of 1.1.
When establishing the criteria for the economic and business buildings a social coefficient is
not taken into calculation (for instance the loss of working position). The special commission
should consider this issue.
The criteria for the differentiation between the construction and agricultural land are based on
the Cadastre Law. Construction land is the area of the construction registered in cadastre
documents + 500 m construction land.
Questionnaires were distributed to the inhabitants of the safety zone in order to determine the
resettlement wishes and types of compensation. The questionnaires identified four options for
the residents of Hade:
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Cash compensation for assets (replacement value) and land


Relocation to new individual housing within the municipality
Relocation to collective housing (apartment) in an urbanized part of the municipality
Land for compensation within the municipality

According to the report of Ministry for environment and regional planning, only 24 questionnaires were returned until 01.03.2005. These 24 families have the following requests:
6 families: a flat within the city of Obiliq and financial compensation of the property in form of money
15 families: financial compensation of the property in form of money
3 families: resettlement to countryside (compensation in form of plots)
The people living in the emergency zone have two temporary options:
Those who find a flat for rent, will be subsidized for an agreed period of time and
expenses covered for the time it takes to develop permanent housing sites (6 months
to a year)
Those who cannot find a flat for rent, will be resettled to a new collective shelter
(two multi-family apartment houses), until permanent housing will be available;
thereafter the shelters will be used for emergency use.
For the further resettlement of the village of Hade, the compensation process for the affected
people shall be arranged as follows:
Evidence of property by the Cadastre office
Determination of the land price, house price, price of the garden and farmland by
experts of the Governmental commission
Preparation of an offer for resettlement according to the evaluation of the questionnaire by the commission
When the offer is accepted, the compensation will be carried out as set out in the offer. If no agreement can be achieved, legal proceedings will be taken to clarify the
amount of compensation
According to statements of the representative of the Real Estate Department of KEK, the following offer has been submitted to the affected people:
Cash compensation for house and land
House (same value as the existing one) with a 500m land swap
Private-property flat
The people are meeting these promises of KEK with mistrust as some legal proceedings on
non-fulfilled promises are still pending.

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13.2.4 Locations for Resettlements of Hade


For the emergency resettlement of Hade, the municipality of Obiliq offered the inhabitants
building plots at the local connection road from Mitrovica to Pristina:
2 estates in the city of Obiliq for the building of apartment houses 2 apartment
buildings with 80 flats
Building plots in the village of Lazarevo (for single houses) total area ca. 64.8 ha
Building plots at cemetry of Milosevo (for single houses) total area ca. 30.8 ha
Building plots in Shkabaj housing estate at a total area of ca. 67.6 ha.
The previous talks with the inhabitants of Hade showed that they favour the village of Shkabaj
as substitute place.
The management of KEK informed the governmental committee, that plans are developed to
reclaim (recultivate) abandoned opencast mine areas and overburden dumps by filling of the
deep areas and removing the overburden. Within a short time sufficient agriculturally used areas and building sites could be provided by this process for the inhabitants of Hade and the
other villages to be resettled. Unfortunately, the resettlement committee was not in-formed
about this. So, this has not been taken into account in the present plans.

13.2.5 Resettlement Process


To observe the work of the Resettlement Committee of Hade, an Inter-Ministerial Working
Group was created on 02.03.2004 under the head of the Ministry of Environment and Regional
Planning. The Committee is led by the Head of the division for Development Policies. The
Department of Construction and Housing is responsible for implementation.
Members of the Resettlement Committee are representatives of the village of Hade, the municipality of Obiliq, KEK and Government experts.
The plan prepared by the Resettlement Committee to ensure the temporary relocation of the
people living in the emergency zone and permanent resettlement of the entire population by
December 2005 was adopted on 14.04.2004.
The Resettlement Committee of Hade already took the following actions in the last few
months:
Completion of inventory taking of buildings and structures (December 2002) in
May 2003
The Cadastre office had to complete a survey of the area (approx. 1.800 ha) by the
end of July 2004
Design of a GIS system has been recommended by the Governmental Commission.
Questionnaires were distributed to the residents of Hade to obtain information about
the household composition, alternative housing and compensation / resettlement
preferences.
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To establish criteria and norms for compensation, an Assessment Commission was


created on 22.06.04.
Four possible resettlement sites within the municipality have been identified, where
collective or individual homes can be constructed or land swapped. For all these options, the evidence of property is required.
On 20/06/04, 25 households and village representatives were informed that no
compensation would be paid for construction initiated after that date.
To discuss the options, preferences and timing, the Committee has held more than
20 small meetings with residents.

As quick as possible, further campaign shall be organised and realised by the mining company
and the Governmental Committee to inform the inhabitants about the timing for resettlement,
the compensation principles and standards, compensation options and their implications and
the support of the mining company.
A new census of inhabitants using direct interviews shall be conducted. The results shall be
recorded in a data base and linked with the information about the properties.
The questionnaires shall obtain reasonable data about household income sources and levels.
Within interview process, each household shall be offered a binding proposal with regard to the
resettlement options.
An additional recommendation of the World Bank Mission is the introduction of the GIS as
main element of the resettlement and data management.

13.2.6 Resettlement Procedure


Planning of the basic principles for the resettlement should be socially acceptable.
To re-organise the process, 4 principles are recommended:
The resettlement committee shall be transparent in all of its operations. All ideas,
procedures, constraints and implications shall be discussed with all people concerned. The committee shall, for example, inform the people about the fact that the
resettlement process may last for more than one year.
The committee shall negotiate with the inhabitants of Hade to divide them into two
groups those who live in the safety zone and those who live in the other.
A non-official representative (normal citizen without a professional relationship to
the municipality) of the village shall participate in the Assessment Commission. In
addition, each committee which carries out assessments should include one resident
member.
KEK shall be actively engaged in the resettlement process, as partner in an information sharing capacity. In coordination with the resettlement committee, KEK
shall conduct an information campaign that informs residents of the village about
the steps they have taken to protect the village and what next steps will be taken and
when to expansion of the mining area will take place.
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13.2.7 Time Scheduling for Resettlement Measures


A democratic socially acceptable resettlement procedure compliant to EU law would take at
least 8 years.
For Hade, this period will not be available.
The resettlement of the families living within the safety zone of Hade must be completed
within the first half-year of 2005.
The remaining part shall be cleared until 2009 if the mining development shall be followed.
This also includes the land purchase by the mining company.
Therefore it is necessary to have a tight project organisation with responsibilities and freedom
of action for the head of the project.
Since all documents from the Cadastre office in Kosovo are not complete it is necessary to resurvey all estates. This Process shall be accelerated. Obviously, there exist estates of Serbians
living outside the Kosovo. The Cadastre office was not able to give specifications with regard
to procedure and compensation method.
Furthermore, financing of the resettlement (Hade as a whole) is not ensured.
Among others it is very important that the government shall support the resettlement process
by reducing bureaucratic constraints and granting resident an incentive bonus or trying to find
an own solution in order to avoid problem cases.
A joint resettlement of all families of Hade will not be possible from the point of view of the
Consortium for reasons of time. The following organisation procedure is recommended for the
resettlement of the remaining part of Hade:
Tab. 13.2-2
Year

2005-2006
2005-2009
2005
2005-2007
2006-2007
2005-2008
2009
End of
2009

Timetable for the Resettlement of the remaining Part of Hade


Measure

Detailed information of the inhabitants, distribution of questionnaires


Establishment of a local consulting office for the inhabitants (attend to the return of
the questionnaires among others, determine demand for estates and flats/apartment
buildings)
Finish of stocktaking of estates by Cadastre office
Financial assessment of estates by a working team
Preparation of a socially acceptable offer for each household (assistance for looking
for estates and/or flat.)
Negotiations with the concerned people
Look for estates, planning and building of private houses/apartments
Resettlement of the last inhabitants until 30/06/09
Finishing of land purchase by mining company,
Completion of deconstruction works incl. basements of buildings

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13.2.8 Status of the Hade Resettlement


To ensure follow-up mining activities, Hade was declared as a zone of national interest in November 2004. The organised resettlement of a part of the village directed by the Ministry for
Regional Planning started at 18.11.2004.
Resettlement sites
At a site in Obiliq, two apartment houses with totally 80 flats will be constructed. The building
works started at 15.10.2004.
Until the beginning of February 2005 the ground floor was completed.
At the site for private houses in Shkabaj Hade 2 (total area of ca. 67 ha) building works
started at 07.12 2004. The foundation works were completed at the end of January 2005.
Due to the outside temperatures and snow the works had to be postponed at both of the sites
until March 2005.
Stocktaking for resettling of the safety zone
98 (454 members) of the 111 registered families (500 members) living in the safety zone of
Hade have already been resettled until end of February 2005. In addition to the registered 11
families, another 25 families /102 members) were resettled.
20 families (87 inhabitants) shall be resettled within the next weeks, 5 of it (14 members) refuse to be resettled.

The Government Working Group of the MESP has determined the compensation for totally
117 owners according to the agreed upon criteria as follows:
Tab. 13.2-3

Compensation for the Inhabitants of Hade

Description

Compensation in

Buildings
Building land
Agricultural land
Resettlement coefficient
Total

4,178,081
940,268
120,492
523,884
5,762,725

Since inhabitants of Hade do not agree with the compensation criteria, there are totally 80 judicial complaint procedures.
Bad practise by the mining enterprise in the past caused the loss of trust by the villagers. There
are still ongoing court challenges against KEK from previous unsatisfactory resettlements of
removed Southern parts of Hade village.
The total area of Hade is ca. 491.2 ha. Until 28.06.2004 the Cadastre office registered the area
of the safety zone with ca. 30.5 ha and 300 buildings.
Until 26.08.2004 the following state of work regarding the surveying of the estates was reported by the Cadastre office to the Ministry for environment and regional planning:
196 households with residential buildings
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38 households with only buildings


20 households with garden land
254 households
Resettlement of the residual village
The other property owners of Hade were informed about the resettlement and the further steps
in a meeting with the Government Working Group. Surveying activities and stocktaking for
valuation of the property have to be carried out. The property owners have requirements with
regard to employment time payment.

The surveying of the remaining households for the Cadastre office started in Hade at
07.02.2005. About 115 households outside the safety zone were recorded so far.
During the past months, the decisive steps for preparing the resettlement were decided upon by
the government to provide the basis for continuing coal mining in the Sibovc field.
At present, it is important to allocate the financial means and to take practical organisational
steps of the resettlement for the entire village of Hade.

13.3 Resettlement of Villages in the field Sibovc


13.3.1 Communities affected by Resettlement
Besides Hade the following villages and/or groups of houses are located within the mining
field Sibovc (north-south extension 5 km, east-west extension 3 km):
- Leskovi
- Janina Voda
- Sibovc (sparse settlement) with different districts (Bregovinska, Barbatoska, Muhicku,
Spasina, Midanska, Nicak, Kelmendi, Megjuani and Curilo)
Property Situation
The land swaps affected by resettlement are mainly private property.
The school and the doctors office in Barbatoska are located on municipal land. The substitute
is to be provided within the municipality of Obiliq.
The food stores were set up by private initiative and will be compensated as such.

The compensation of Serbian property located within the mining field (former Serbian settlement) has to be negotiated with the corresponding owner.
Upon written application and several requests the Kosovo Cadastre office submitted only information about the number of built-up estates in the concerned villages in the mining field of
Sibovc (as of February 2005). This list is the basis or determining the estimated costs of the
resettlement.

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Lajthishte (Leskovic)
The village Lajthisht-a is located in the eastern part of the mining area of the deposit Sibovc
and is to be completely resettled.

It has approx. 85 houses with about 595 inhabitants (according to Cadastre office: 85 plots with
buildings)
The village has a one-storey primary school (base area of approx. 20m x 8m) with 8 classes.
Opposite the school there is a food store.
95% of the Kosovo land has been reconstructed after the war. The latter and the newly built
houses are in a good condition. Only the fence walls (mostly brickwork) have not been reconstructed yet.
Some destroyed houses, formerly inhabited by Roma, have not been reconstructed yet.
The road to Crkvena Vodica passing the southern outskirts has been asphalted this year.
The cemetery of Leskovcic is located in west of the village, at the new road to Crkvena Vodi.
South of the road from Leskovcic to Crkvena Vodica there are approx. 6 residential real estates, which are not included in a map of 1979. In the north of the road there exists a built-up
residential real estate.
Sibovc
The following groups of houses belong to the sparse settlement Sibovc:
Bregovinska Mahala
Barbatoska Mahala
Muhicku Mahala
Spasina Mahala
Michanska Mahala
Nicak
Kelmendi
Megjuani
Curilo

Bregovinska and Barbatoska form the centre of the sparse settlement consisting of approx. 200
to 300 houses (about 1,700 inhabitants).
Also a school (8 classes, dimensions approx. 56m x 30m) with nursery school (300 pupils) and
a doctors office (9m x 10m) exist there.
Opposite the school there is a food store.
Muhicku Mahala, Spasina Mahala and Michanska Mahala (individual groups of houses) are
situated in the centre of the mining field Sibovc in the south of Bregovinska and Barbatoska.
The cemetery of the centre of Sibovc is located in the east of the village Barbatoska Mahala.

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The groups of houses of Nicak are located at the west mining boundary, close to the iqavica
Mountains.
The cemeteries of the groups of houses of Kelmendi and Megjuani are situated in the proximity of Nicak.
The group of houses of Curilo existing in the northern area of the mining field comprises about
6 residential real estates.
According to information from the administration of Obiliq, the following belong to the Sibovc area:
- Approx. 135 residential buildings (families) with approx. 945 inhabitants (according to
Cadastre office 135 plots with buildings)
- A primary school with approx. 200 pupils in Bregovinska
- A doctors office in Bregovinska
- 1 mosque in the group of houses of Megjuani (Midanska)
- The village has three food stores
- 6 cemeteries:
- main village cemetery (village centre) Barbatoska
- Serbian cemetery
- cemetery of the Kelmendi group of houses
- cemetery of the Megjuani group of houses
- The new cemetery of the Megjuani group of houses was built in 2003
- Cemetery of the martyrs and victims of war
Before the war, there was still a group of houses with Serbian population which does not exist
any longer.

13.3.2 Valuation of Compensation


The compensation data (prepared for Hade) determined by the Government Working Group
from the Ministry of environment and spatial planning (MESP) were used to calculate the costs
for resettlement of each of the villages in the Sibovc field.
In addition, practical experiences were used.
The substituted expenses for available property and buildings and the replacement value (not
the current value) of the available infrastructure were used to determine the resettlement costs.

13.3.3 Locations for Resettlements


So far, there are no ideas for the resettlement of the villages in the field Sibovc regarding the
resettlement site.
The areas shall be provided by the municipality of Obiliq. A rough inventory taking is necessary and a basic contract for a joint resettlement.

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According to the development of the opencast mine, it will not be necessary to resettle the villages at the same time and to only one site.
A possible option could be to perform resettlement in several stages which has to be adjusted
to the real opencast mine advance.

13.3.4 Time Scheduling for Resettlement Measures


Including all preparatory measures (principles and contracts) a period of 10 to 12 years is recommended to carry out a normal planned resettlement of locations. According to mining requirements this might also be implemented faster, if compromises are agreed in written form in
a contract.
To start the project, financing of the resettlement according to the single project stages shall be
ensured.
Tab. 13.3-1

Steps for a joint resettlement of a village

Measure

Minimum Period

Creating planning requirements for the resettlement


1 year
(passing of the resettlement law and resettlement criteria, conclusion of a basic
contract between municipality, mining company and government)
Information of the concerned and inventory taking

1 year

Installation of a consulting office as local contact partner for technical and social 5 years
assistance of residents)
Questionnaires with criteria (interviews about individual plans, wishes, doubts and 1 year
participation possibilities)
Preparation of an offer for an socially acceptable resettlement on the basis of the 9 months
results of inventory taking and interviews
Identification of sites, area acquisition and establishing of legal planning prerequi- 1 year
sites for the development of the joint resettlement site; start of development works
Inventory taking, contract negotiations and conclusion of notary contracts for land 1 - 2 years
swap with the private owners
Structural building measures for private owners, collective housing (apartments) 1 year
and council housing

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13.4 Investment and Cost Calculation for Resettlement


The following subdivision was made:
- Households with garden land
- Public Facilities
- Infrastructure within the villages
- Substitute measures outside the villages
- Land claim (farm land)
Households including garden
The following table includes estimated data of the villages including the land to resettle.
In cases where neither documents were available nor could be made available the project team
has made a provisional cost estimate exclusively for the purpose of this particular EAR project.

One of the bases for the following cost estimation is the unit price for the buildings and the
land compensation laid down by the Intergovernmental Committee in July 2004.
According to an analysis of documents handed over with the letter dated 01.03.2005 the following compensations were paid to 117 property owners in the safety zone of Hade:
4,178,081
940,268
120,492
523,884
5,762,725

compensation for buildings


compensation for building land
compensation for farmland
resettlement coefficient
sum

The following average values result for the safety zone of Hade:
Average compensation per built-up estate
Average compensation for building land:
Average compensation for farmland:
Average size of estates safety zone Hade

50,000
360 m
240 m
600 m

A lot of owners do not agree with these compensations so that legal proceedings can be expected. Among others, this is one reason why a sum for compensation of 90,000 will be assumed for the cost estimation of the remaining estates of Hade.
The following assumptions were made for the compensations of the villages of Leskovcic, Janina Voda and Sibovc with regard to the resettlement time and the maintenance of value to be
expected:
Average compensation per built-up estate:
100,000
Average compensation for building land:
500 m
Average compensation for farmland:
2000 m
Average size of estates:
2500 m

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The following table includes the compensation sums per estate:


Tab. 13.4-1
Title

Cost Calculation for Resettlement of Properties with constructed Buildings


Criteria for Area
Price per
evaluation
property
(Results of
the GWG)
(/ m)
(m)
()
Residence
350.00
200
70,000.00
Building land
23.00
500
11,500.00
Agriculture land - Class I
5.00
2,000
10,000.00
Economic building (workshops, farm etc.)
120.00
600
7,200.00
Auxiliary buildings (garage, depot, yard, wells etc.)
50.00
30
1,500.00
Sum
100,200.00
Round price per property with constructed buildings
100,000.00

The number of estates to be resettled was taken from the documents handed over by the Cadastre office in February 2005 and summarized in the following tables. The remaining number of
estates for Hade results from the difference of 708 built-up estates and 111 families. The number of the estates of Sibovc is yielded from the 40% occupation of areas until 2038 (total number 135 built-up estates).
Tab. 13.4-2

Resettlement of Households and Land Claim


Year
Resett- Members
of the
lers
of houseVillage
resettle(house
holds
ment
-holds) estimated

Hade (residual area)


Household without land
Building land households
Leskovic
Household without land
Building land households
Gardenland households
Janina Voda
Household without land
Building land households
Gardenland households
SibovcBedding settlement
Household without land
Building land households
Gardenland households
Total

2007-2009

[No.]
597

[No.]
2,500

Land
claim

[m]
358,200

2027-2037

85

850
42,500
170,000

2027

70
3,500
14,000

2009-2032

54

743

540

3,960

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27,000
108,000
723,200

Investments
Payment
Houseper
holds
household
[/No.]
[]
90,000 53,730,000
76,200 45,491,400
13,800
8,238,600
100,000
8,500,000
78,500
6,672,500
11,500
977,500
10,000
850,000
100,000
700,000
78,500
549,500
11,500
80,500
10,000
70,000
100,000
5,400,000
78,500
11,500
10,000

4,239,000
621,000
540,000
68,330,000

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Public Facilities
The following financial means shall be planned for compensation of public facilities (substitute
measures):
Tab. 13.4-3

Resettlement of Public Facilities


Year of the
Allocated to the
resettleVillages
ments

Landwithdrawal

Payment
per
landwithdrawal
[]

[m]
Hade (residual area)
Primary school
Evacuation of the graveyard
Leskovic
Primary school
Evacuation of the graveyard
Sibovc-Bedding settlement
Primary school
Mosque
Ambulance
Evacuation of 6 graveyards
Total

Investments
Payment
Total buildper buildings with
ing
land withdrawal
[/No.]

[]

2007
2009

4,000
4,000

92,000
13,000

800,000
120,000

892,000
133,000

2027
2035

2,000
3,000

46,000
9,750

100,000
60,000

146,000
69,750

2019
2019
2019
2019-2031

10,000
400
500
18,000
41,900

230,000
9,200
11,500
68,500
469,950

800,000
200,000
200,000
600,000
2,880,000

1,030,000
209,200
211,500
658,500
3,349,950

Infrastructure within the villages


For substitute measures of infrastructure inside the villages (Roads, Power supply, Water supply) 5,000 per estate were determined and a lump sum for social and technical assistance
depending on the size of the village. The costs for demolition were calculated from the outline
of quantities of the estates to be resettled basing on an estimated price of 3.50 /m enclosed
space.
Tab. 13.4-4

Substitute Measures Infrastructure inside the Village and other Costs

Investments
Allocated to the villages

Hade (residual area)


Leskovcic
Sibovc-Bedding settlement
Janina Voda
Total

Year of the
resettlement

Infrastructure

2007-2009
2027-2037
2009-2032
2027

[]
2,985,000
425,000
270,000
35,000
3,715,000

Demolition
[]
870,800
360,000
151,200
19,000
1,401,000

Social and
technical
assistance
[]
332,800
200,000
332,800
31,200
896,800

Total
[]
4,188,600
985,000
754,000
85,200
6,012,800

Infrastructure outside the villages


The following assumptions are bases for the determined compensation sums for the substitution of the available infrastructure outside the villages:
Page 238 of 257

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Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Power supply (80,000 for a man-sized substation 2x630 KVA, 45,000 / km disassembly and assembly of medium-voltage overhead transmission line)
Water supply (120,000 for drinking water DN 200)
Road construction (150,000 / km asphalt road from Janina Voda via Leskovcic to Sibovc, 58,440 / km for gravel roads in the villages).
Tab. 13.4-5

Substitute measures for infrastructure outside the village

Investments
Year of
resettlement

Allocated to the villages


Hade (residual area)
Leskovcic
Sibovc-Bedding settlement
Janina Voda
Total

Power
supply
[]
170,000
170,000
305,000
45,000
690,000

2007-2009
2027-2037
2009-2032
2027

Water
supply

Roads

[]
240,000
240,000
600,000
60,000
1,140,000

[]
409,080
533,760
592,200
208,440
1,743,480

Total
[]
819,080
943,760
1,497,200
313,440
3,573,480

Claim of Land (Farmland)


Tab. 13.4-6
Claim of
land

Claim of farmland

Investments
Land use

2007-2008
2008-2013
2013-2018
2018-2023
2023-2028
2028-2033
2033-2038
Total

[ha]
271.000
137.000
102.000
140.000
183.000
89.000
236.000
1,158.000

Land use
villages

[ha]
27.500
11.169
0.000
2.049
11.854
16.030
7.908
76.510

Total

Farmland

Price

[ha]
243.500
125.831
102.000
137.951
171.146
72.970
228.092
1,081.490

[ /ha]
47,500
47,500
47,500
47,500
47,500
47,500
47,500

[ ]
11,566,250
5,976,973
4,845,000
6,552,673
8,129,435
3,466,075
10,834,370
51,370,775

The table below gives a summary of the compensation sums to be expected in connection with
re-settlement and land purchase.

Page 239 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 13.4-7

Provisional estimation of resettlement


Land use
Village
Term
(m)
Hade
Households in the residual
area
Building land households
358,200
Primary School
Building
land
Primary
4,000
School
Evacuation graveyard
Land graveyard
4,000
Demolition
Social and technical assistance
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) inside
village
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) outside village
Leskovic
Households
Building land households
42,500
Garden land households
170,000
Primary School
Building
land
Primary
2,000
School
Evacuation graveyard
Land graveyard
3,000
Demolition
Social and technical assistance
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) inside
village
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) outside village
Janina Voda
Households
Building land households
3,500
Garden land households
14,000
Demolition
Social and technical assistance
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) inside
village
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) outside village
Sibovc
Households
Page 240 of 257

Investments
()
45,491,000

Total costs
per village
()
59,762,680

8,238,600
800,000
92,000
120,000
13,000
870,800
332,800
2,985,000
819,080
6,672,500
977,500
850,000
100,000
46,000

10,644,510

60,000
9,750
360,000
200,000
425,000
943,760
549,500
80,500
70,000
19,000
31,200

1,098,640

35,000
313,440
4,239,000

9,760,400

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Bedding set- Building land households


27,000
tlement
Garden land households
108,000
Primary School
Building
land
Primary
10,000
School
Mosque in Midanska
Building land Mosque
400
Ambulance
Building land ambulance
500
Evacuation of 6 graveyards
Land graveyards
18,000
Demolition
Social and technical assistance
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) inside
village
Infrastructure (Roads, Power
supply, Water supply) outside village
Farmland
10,814,00
TOTAL
11,580,000
PAYMENT

Page 241 of 257

621,000
540,000
800,000
230,000
200,000
9,200
200,000
11,500
600,000
58,500
151,200
332,800
270,000
1,497,200
51,370,775
132,637,005

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Tab. 13.4-8
Year
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
Total

Cost of resettlement - schedule

Landclaim

thereof
Infrastructure outside villages
Hade
Leskovcic Janina Voda Sibovc
Farmland
Hade
LeskovcicJanina Voda Sibovc Farmland
Hade
LeskovcicJanina Voda Sibovc
Total
[ha]
[ha]
[ha]
[ha]
[ha]
[ha]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
[m]
135.000
13.800
121.200
22.212
5.757
0.307
28.276
136.000
13.700
122.300
22.052
5.809
0.307
28.16
27.400
9.120
2.049
16.23
14.680
1.033
0.77
0.205
0.187
16.876
27.400
27.400
1.302
1.302
27.400
27.400
1.302
1.302
27.400
27.400
1.302
1.302
27.400
27.400
1.302
1.302
20.400
20.400
0.969
0.969
20.400
20.400
0.969
0.969
20.400
20.400
0.969
0.969
20.400
20.400
0.969
0.969
20.400
20.400
0.969
0.969
28.000
2.049
25.95
1.033
1.233
0.187
2.453
28.000
28.000
1.330
1.330
28.000
28.000
1.330
1.330
28.000
28.000
1.330
1.330
28.000
28.000
1.330
1.330
36.600
2.049
34.55
1.033
1.64
0.187
2.86
36.600
36.600
1.739
1.739
36.600
2.049
34.55
1.033
1.64
0.187
2.86
36.600
1.980
1.750
32.870
0.883
0.785
1.56
0.086
0.313
3.629
36.600
1.977
2.049
32.574
0.882
1.033
1.547
0.086
0.187
3.735
17.800
1.977
15.823
0.882
0.752
0.086
1.719
17.800
1.977
2.049
13.774
0.882
1.033
0.654
0.086
0.187
2.842
17.800
1.977
2.049
13.774
0.882
1.033
0.654
0.086
0.187
2.842
17.800
1.977
2.047
13.776
0.882
1.032
0.654
0.086
0.187
2.84
17.800
1.977
15.823
0.882
0.752
0.086
1.719
47.200
1.977
45.223
0.882
2.148
0.086
3.116
47.200
1.977
45.223
0.882
2.148
0.086
3.116
47.200
1.977
45.223
0.882
2.148
0.086
3.116
47.200
1.977
45.223
0.882
2.148
0.086
3.116
47.200
47.200
2.242
2.242
1,158.000
36.620
21.750
1.750
16.390 1,081.490
58.944
9.70
0.785
8.263
51.371
0.819
0.944
0.313
1.497 132.637

Page 242 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

14 Manpower Development and Organisation


The manpower of the Sibovc mine will be recruited from the personnel of KEK. Because the
employment will only be effective from 2008, both the present situation and the changes which
will become effective during the Mid Term Period have to be taken into account. Moreover, it
has to be considered that parallel operation will be done from 2007/08 in Sibovc until the closure of the Mirash and Bardh mine. For a better evaluation of the future manpower employment in the new Sibovc mine the present situation and the changes in Mirash/Bardh are regarded closer.

14.1 Actual Situation


Compared with other European opencast mines the present (specific) manpower assignment is
considerably high.
This current situation is caused by:

Unacceptable bad condition of the Main Mine Equipment

Insufficient number of and strongly worn out auxiliary equipment

Improvement of qualification and management skills

Low motivation of staff

Insufficient logistics / organisation of the production process

Social and historical conditions


For these reasons, about 3,698 employees are involved in the production operations for
ca. 6 mt coal.
The employees are divided according to the different business levels as follow:

Support functions
28

Engineering department
59

Bardh mine department


1222

Mirash mine department


1277

Separation plant department


669

Maintenance department
443
The present CPD (Coal Production Department) structure has three parallel arranged production units:

the Bardh Mine,

the Mirash mines and

the Separation Plant.


It is remarkable that the share of maintenance personnel is even too high when taken into account the insufficient conditions of the equipment. Besides the business unit Maintenance, each
of the production units has an own maintenance unit. This means a multiple Maintenance Service being difficult to coordinate. The additional concentration of the production unit on maintenance has negative effects on the efficient use of the main equipment.
Page 243 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
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Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Total Age Structure of KEK Employees

Total Age Structure

<= 40
41 - 46

18%

35%

23%

47 - 52
>= 53

24%

Fig. 14.1-1

Age structure

The above figures illustrate that almost half (47%) of the total workforce of KEK is within the
age group 41 52 years. 35% of the employees are younger than 40 years and about 18% (ca.
660 employees) are older than 53 years.
The age structure shows the relevant share of personnel at an age of over 40 years. Other than
in the opencast mines of Kosovo, the degree of knowledge and experience of this age group is
usually excellent in comparable mining companies. This is a considerable disadvantage for the
labour efficiency.
Current Qualification
As it is described in the Mid Term Plan regarding the degree of qualification, about 50% of the
employees have an average industrial training. Almost 1500 employees (40%) have only a lowgrade training and/or no qualification. Only ca. 10% of the employees have graduated at a
technical college or a university.
It must be considered that between 1990 and 1999/2000the main part of the staff was not employed in the mines and the deficits in the professional experience can be attributed to this.
Furthermore, the Embargo resulted in a limited access to modern technologies and even today
the lack of financial means makes it difficult to get or use state of the art technology.
Owing to this, specific higher number of personnel is required. The lower income balances the
involved cost increase.

14.2 Proposed Improvement / Benchmark


The envisaged improvements mainly refer to:

Improving qualification

Improvements of structure and

Adaptation of personnel employment to phasing out Mirash / Bardh operations


Page 244 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Qualification Measures
It is extremely important to develop a skilled and motivated workforce with the ambition to run
a world class operation. Therefore a strategy of training and developing human resources is
planned. The training programs are suggested for the next years and refer to:

Management qualification

Staff of main mining equipment and foremen

Dispatcher

Mechanical maintenance

Mechanical steel construction inspection

Electrical maintenance of motors (Kosovamont)

Electrical maintenance for the Mines and Separation plants and

Environmental issues

A breakdown of this is described in the Mid Term Plan.


Additionally, Appendix D of the Mid Term Plan contains an example for a Technical Specification for Personnel Training.
Organizational Development within the mid-term period
The Mid Term Mining Plan foresees significant changes in the coming years. Major developments in the coming years include:

A focus on business rather than production, as KEK evolves from a state run entity into
a profitable enterprise

The merger of Bardh and Mirash operations

More emphasis on maintenance as equipment productivity rises

A switch from reactive maintenance to scheduled preventative maintenance

Increased level of commissioning and decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure components in the course of the merger of the two mines
The structures and a description of the units are also given in the Mid Term Plan.
Adaptation of the employment of staff
Currently, the overall productivity is 1,700 tons of products per man and year (3,698 persons).
As already mentioned there are various reasons for this. A comparison to some benchmark
mines reveals:
Tab. 14.2-1

Benchmark mining

Name
Eagle Butte (US)
Jnschwalde (GER)
Foundation Coal (US)
Burton (AUS)
VEM (GER)
Cumberland (US)
Kingston (US)
Bogatyr (KAZ)
CPD (Kosovo)

Technology

Remarks

OCM / Truck & Shovel


OCM / BWE & BCE
OCM / UGM
OCM / Truck & Shovel
OCM / BWE & BCE
UGM / Longwall
UGM / Continuous Miner
OCM / BWE & Shovel & Train
OCM / BWE & Conv.

Mine only
Mine only
Organization
Mine only
Organization
Mine only
Mine only
Mine only
Division

Page 245 of 257

[mt/a]
16
16
60
6
60
6
0.8
25
6

Production
Staff [t/man]
400
40,000
550
30,000
4000 15,000
400
15,000
5,000 12,000
550
11,000
100
8,000
5,000
5,000
3,700
1,700

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

A comparison of figures only between mines and mining organizations can lead to misjudgement. Geology and Technology as well as product quality vary in a wide range but are of
great importance.
However - the only common ground for all coal mines is the market, either for the coal itself or
its refined product, electricity. And from that perspective it makes sense to compare productivities in coal mines, because productivity is one of the most important factors for production
cost.
As already mentioned in the Mid Term Plan: when comparing productivities it has to be considered:

Is the overhead accounted for in the statistics?

What additional manpower is hidden within the budget line external services, i.e. how
many contractors are working on the site?

What part of the value chain is covered by the operation itself? Examples for activities
upstream the mining processes are overhauls, repair and maintenance as well as other
services including transport, catering and medical. Downstream activities include coal
preparation, coal storage in stockpiles and coal delivery with conveyor, truck, rail or
barges.

Also the ratio of waste to product within the raw production has an impact on productivity. In opencast mines this means the overburden to coal ratio, underground the percentage of reject.

The dig ability of the material


Summarizing, it seems to be appropriate, to set the goal for the long term productivity of the
CPD with 8,000 -10,000 tons per man-year. This means a six fold increase in productivity
compared to the year 2004. The Mid Term Plan assumes this goal cant be achieved up to the
end of the existing mines. The stepwise reduction in overall staff numbers will start in 2005 has
to be continued up to 2010.

14.3 Employment of Staff and Organisation Sibovc


For the long-term development it is assumed that the already existing obstacles for the restructuring process and/or a remarkable increase in efficiency will be eliminated.
Such existing obstacles are:

insufficient social measures in case of unemployment and illness

general financially weak industry of he country

lack of sufficient alternative employment opportunities

overstaffing in the other industries and in the other trades and therefore specific staff
reductions

availability of better qualification opportunities

insufficient legal bases regarding labour law


Irrespective of the elimination of existing obstacles, the precious experiences, the mentality of
the people and the actual economic development will affect the employment of staff.

Page 246 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

An appropriate personnel policy in the company shall assist the process of improving the labour efficiency. This includes for example:

A socially acceptable personnel reduction (in the departments where necessary)

Improvement of degree of qualification (offering and demanding of sufficient qualification opportunities)

Set up and keeping (adjustment) of high safety standards

Developing of a high motivation

Individual payment according to performance


To assist the above mentioned principles and goals it is assumed that suitable staff will be
qualified for the Sibovc operations and to employ this staff if a corresponding motivation will
be available. The jobs shall be advertised throughout the company.
The following table gives a specification:
a) about the existing mines
Tab. 14.3-1

Employees in Mirash /Bardh

Year
Mirash / Bardh per 01.01.
- Fluctuation
- Employees for Sibovc
Mirash / Bardh per 31.12.

2007
01.01.
3420
140
500

110
870

2010
01.01.
1070

2009
31.12. 01.01.
1800

2780

Year
Mirash / Bardh per 01.01.
- Fluctuation
- Employees for Sibovc
Mirash / Bardh per 31.12.

2008
31.12. 01.01.
2780

100
630
1800

2011
31.12. 01.01.
850

60
160

Page 247 of 257

1070

2012
31.12. 01.01.
45

40
765
850

31.12.

31.12.
5
40

45

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

and b) about the mine in future:


Tab. 14.3-2

Employees in Sibovc

Year

2007

Sibovc per 01.01.


+ new staff from
Mirash/Bardh
- Fluctuation
+ newly employed/recruited
Average of the year
Sibovc per 31.12.

01.01.
0

2008
31.12. 01.01.
1370

31.12.

500

870

630

10
10
250

10
10
1150

10
10
1685

500

Year

1370

2010

Sibovc per 01.01.


+ new staff from
Mirash/Bardh
- Fluctuation
- redundancy to market
Average of the year
Sibovc per 31.12.

2009

31.12. 01.01.
500

01.01.
2000

2000

2011

2012

31.12. 01.01.
2110

31.12. 01.01.
2800

31.12.

160

765

40

50
0
2055

75
0
2455

55
85
2750

2110

2800

2700

Employees in the mines Kosovo


4000
3500

Employees in all mines

3000
2500
2000
1500

Sibovc

Employees in
Mirash / Bardh per 01.01.
Employees in Sibovc
per 01.01.
Staff per 01.01. - all Mines

Mirash / Bardh

1000
500
0
2006

2007

2008

2009
Year

Fig. 14.3-1

Employees in Sibovc

Page 248 of 257

2010

2011

2012

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

It is shown that there will be no need for redundancy of personnel by terminations. A few reductions will result from employees entering the retirement age and/or personal terminations.
The year 2008 will be problematic. In this year, the synergy potential with the Mirash / Bardh
mines shall be used completely. This means, among others, that the administration staff shall
work both for the existing mines and the future Sibovc mine to a certain degree. The same applies for the maintenance department.
The following gives a survey on the staffing in Sibovc:
Tab. 14.3-3

Number of employees

Administration
Main Equipment+Belt
Conveyor
Auxiliary Equipment
Workshops
Other
SUM Personnel

2012

2013

2014
270
1,125

20152022
260
1,090

20232032
270
1,100

20332036
250
1,080

20372038
250
1,040

280
1,220

275
1,180

370
590
240
2,700

370
570
235
2,630

365
560
230
2,550

360
530
210
2,450

360
550
220
2,500

360
510
200
2,400

360
500
200
2,350

14.4 Organisational Structure


The organisation chosen for Sibovc assists the goal to achieve competitive costs for coal supply and to guarantee these costs in the long run. The structure shall enable a complete overview
of all required departments of a mining company. All technical groups, including also the
commercial groups and controllers, legal and human resources department are integrated in the
organisation.

Page 249 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Mining

Chart 1

Mining

Strategic Planning *

General Service

Secretary Mining

Finance

Mine Planning &


Engineering

Personnel Affairs
Legal Affairs

Coordination
IT / Telecom.
Public Relations
Library

Mine Service

Mining Production

Mine Maintennance

* small group

Legend:
1)

Summary

1) Structure
2) Manpower

2)

Page 250 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Finance

Chart 2

Finance

Commercial Planning &


Controlling (Mining Unit)

Accounting Department/
Accountancy

Purchase & Sales Dep.

Finance
Credits/Investments

Mining Unit-Planning
Management Planning

Accounting
Balance Sheet & Financial

Purchase & Sales


Products

Credit Processing

Investment and Project


Planning
Profitability Calculation

Accounting
Investments & Assets

Aux. Euipm./Vehicles
Infrastructure

Investments

Taxes

Systems Engineering

Insurance

Materials

Controlling
Internal and Subsidiary

Legend:
1)

1) Structure
2) Manpower

Summary

2)

Page 251 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Mine Planning & Engineering

Chart 3

Mine Planning &


Engineering
Mine Surveyor/Survey
Real Estates

Civil Engineering

Secretary

Mine Planning

Systems Engineering
Maintenance Planning

Building Management

Mining Technology

Reclamation
Landscaping

Planning
Maintenance / Workshop

Civil Engineering

Geology / Coal Quality

Geotechnic
Soilmechanics

Mechanical Engineering

Site Management

Environmental Protection
for Mining Sector

Water Management
Hydrology

Electrical Engineering

Legend:
1)

1) Structure
2) Manpower

Summary

2)

Page 252 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Personnel Affairs

Chart 4

Personnel Affairs

General Human Resources


Development
Principal Planning

Applied Ergonomics

Human Resources
Development

Education and Advanced


Qualification

Coordination
( Reports)

Industrial Safety and


Fire Protection

Planning & Administration

Executive Personnel
Administration

Personnel Strategy

Occupational Medicine &


Ergonomics

OCM Sibovc

Production

Principles/Regulations

Dangerous Substances

Revitalisation
Other

Legend:
1)

1) Structure
2) Manpower

Summary

2)

Page 253 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Mine Service

Chart 5

Mine Service

Secretary Mine Service

Civil Engineering

Drilling/Exploration

Dewatering &
Water Purification

Power Supply and


Distribution

Legend:
1)

Summary

1) Structure
2) Manpower

2)

Page 254 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Mine Production

Chart 6

Mining Production

Dispatcher
Coordin. Mining Prod.

Operative Planning

Mine Secretary

Operative Management

Auxiliary/Ancillary
Operation

Operative Maintenance
Fault Clearance

Operative Mine Planning

Operative Coal Quality


Planning

Overburden Removal

Auxiliary
Equipment Operation

Mechanical
Main Equipment

Dewatering

Operative Planning
Aux. / Anc. / Service

Lignite Mining

Ancillary
Equipment Operation

Electrical
Main Equipment

Summary

Stockpiling

Auxiliary / Ancillary
Maintenance

Crushing
Stacking & Reclaiming

Legend:
1)

1) Structure
2) Manpower

Operative Maintenance
Technology

2)

Page 255 of 257

Workshop Mine
(small capacity)

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

Sibovc

Organizational Structure

Status: 15.04.2005

Mine Maintenance

Chart 7

Mine Maintenance

Secretary M. Maintenance

Planning / Design
Maintenance / Workshop

Workshop

Central Maintenance

Electrical

Mechanical

Legend:
1)

1) Structure
2) Manpower

Aux./ Anc./ Service

Summary

2)

Page 256 of 257

EAR-Project: EuropeAid/116986/D/SV/KOS
Part II
Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine Technical Planning

15 Final Remarks (Part II)


As a result of the Main Mine Plan it became obvious that there exist essential influence factors
which had been laid down for the preparation of the Main Mine Plan, but their actual development will decisively determine the future coal costs. With this production price, it is finally
influenced, if the generated power can be sold on the market.
Nevertheless the comparison of all variants (described in Part I and Part II) shows that an economically reasonable development is to be expected in any case (see also Part IV Economic
and financial analysis).

Page 257

European Agency for Reconstruction


PREPARATION OF A MID TERM PLAN FOR EXISTING COAL MINES AND A MAIN
MINING PLAN FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEW SIBOVC MINE
EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

FI NAL R E PO RT

Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine


Part III

Environmental Impact Study

June 24, 2005

prepared by: Vattenfall Europe Mining AG

Deutsche Montan Technologie GmbH

VATTENFALL

Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

Key Experts of Project Team

Ullrich Hhna

VEM

Team Leader, Senior Expert Mine Planning

Hans Jrgen Matern

VEM

Senior Expert Mining Operation

Thomas Suhr

VEM

Senior Expert Computer-Aided Mine Planning Applications

Stephan Peters

DMT

Senior Expert Geology

Helmar Laube

VEM

Senior Expert Soil Mechanics

Joachim Gert ten Thoren

DMT

Senior Environmental Expert

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EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

List of Contents
1 Summary .........................................................................................7
2 Introduction.....................................................................................9
2.1

Geographical Overview and Historical Development.................................................... 9

2.2

Coal Demand and Fuel Supply Strategy ...................................................................... 11

3 Alternatives to the Project.............................................................14


3.1

Overview of Potential Future Mining Fields................................................................ 14

3.2

Description of Alternative Mining Fields..................................................................... 15

3.3

Valuation of the Mining Fields..................................................................................... 16

3.4

Alternatives of Opening-up and Mine Development ................................................... 18

4 Hydrological Baseline Data ..........................................................19


4.1

Temperature.................................................................................................................. 19

4.2

Wind ............................................................................................................................. 20

4.3

Precipitation.................................................................................................................. 20

4.4

Surface Waters Run-Offs and their Qualities............................................................... 23

5 Soils...............................................................................................26
6 Hydrogeological Situation ............................................................27
7 General Environmental Impacts of Lignite Open Pit Mining .......30
8 Noteworthy Side Issues.................................................................31
8.1

Former Underground Mining ....................................................................................... 31

8.2

Uncontrolled Coal Fires ............................................................................................... 34

8.3

Phenol Deposits ............................................................................................................ 35

8.4

Environmental Aspects of Mining Fields Alternatives ................................................ 36

8.5

Environmental Ranking of Alternatives....................................................................... 39

9 Environmental Aspects of the Main Mine Plan ............................40


9.1

Description of the Project............................................................................................. 40

9.2

Description of the Environment ................................................................................... 42

9.2.1

Ecological Resources............................................................................................ 47

9.2.2

Economic Development ....................................................................................... 47

9.2.3

Social and Cultural Resources.............................................................................. 48

9.3

Anticipated Environmental Impacts ............................................................................. 52

9.4

Migitating Measures..................................................................................................... 57
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9.5

Irreversible and Irretrievable Impacts .......................................................................... 58

9.6

Environmental Management ........................................................................................ 58

9.7

Environmental Monitoring Needs ................................................................................ 59

10 Future Treatment of Ash Dumps...................................................61


11 Mine Closure and Recultivation Planning ....................................62
11.1

Principles ...................................................................................................................... 62

11.2

Mine Closure Plan ........................................................................................................ 62

11.3

Concept of Post-Mining Use for the Fields Bardh, Mirash and Sibovc....................... 63

12 Legal Framework ..........................................................................67


12.1

Legal Mining Regulations ............................................................................................ 67

12.2

The Environmental Protection Law.............................................................................. 67

12.3

Legal Resettlement Regulations ................................................................................... 68

Tables
Tab. 2.2-1

Existing installed TPP Capacity ........................................................................... 11

Tab. 2.2-2

Defined Coal Demand in mt................................................................................. 12

Tab. 2.2-3

Coal Production required from new Mines .......................................................... 13

Tab. 3.3-1

Valuation of the Mining Fields............................................................................. 16

Tab. 4.3-1

Intensity of Precipitation at Rainfall Gauging Station Pristina ............................ 22

Tab. 4.4-1

Comparison of Water Qualities ............................................................................ 25

Tab. 8.1-1

Underground Coal Production.............................................................................. 33

Tab. 8.5-1

Qualitative Ranking of Environmental Impacts ................................................... 39

Tab. 9.1-1

Demand of Surface Area ...................................................................................... 41

Tab. 9.2-1

Distribution of Soils in the planned Mine Area ................................................... 43

Tab. 9.2-2

Claim of occupied and farm land ......................................................................... 48

Tab. 9.2-3

Households and other Facilities in the Village Hade, status 2003 ....................... 49

Tab. 9.3-1

Development of Employees ................................................................................. 55

Tab. 9.3-2

Schedule of resettlement....................................................................................... 55

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Figures
Fig. 2-1:

Location Map ........................................................................................................... 10

Fig. 3-1:

Potential Mining Fields ............................................................................................ 14

Fig. 4-1:

Variation of monthly Mean Temperatures ............................................................... 19

Fig. 4-2:

Variation of monthly Temperatures ......................................................................... 19

Fig. 4-3:

Direction and Velocity of Wind (from Rudarski Institute; 1985) ............................ 20

Fig. 4-4:

Long term Variation of Monthly Precipitation......................................................... 21

Fig. 4-5:

Average, Minimum and Maximum Monthly Precipitation...................................... 21

Fig. 4-6:

Daily Precipitation.................................................................................................... 22

Fig. 4-7:

Catchment Areas ...................................................................................................... 23

Fig. 4-8:

Characteristic water quality values for the river Sitnica (INKOS Institute) ............ 24

Fig. 4-9:

Characteristic Mine Drainage Water Quality (INKOS Institute, Mirash mine)....... 24

Fig. 5-1:

Soil Map ................................................................................................................... 26

Fig. 6-1:

Bottom of yellow Clay (Redrawn from Rudarski Institut, Map 1.01.4375; 1985) .. 28

Fig. 6-2:

Complemented Extract from Hydrogeological Map (Rudarski Institute 1996).............. 29

Fig. 8-1:

Former underground mining in Field D ................................................................... 31

Fig. 8-2:

Gallery of an old underground mine with wooden support system ......................... 32

Fig. 8-3:

Mirash (West and Northern Slope) with underground mining structures (blue)...... 33

Fig. 8-4:
Fig. 8-5:

Coal fire at base of a dump....................................................................................... 34


Coal fire near a fault with burnt out zones in the seam ............................................ 34

Fig. 8-6:

Areas of potential risk of toxic waste deposits......................................................... 35

Fig. 9-1:

Location of Field Sibovc .......................................................................................... 41

Fig. 9-2:

Distribution of Soils ................................................................................................. 42

Fig. 9-3:

Surface Waters and Catchment Areas ...................................................................... 45

Fig. 9-4:

Complemented Extract from the Hydrogeological Map, Rudarski Institut;(1996).. 46

Fig. 9-5:

Net of Groundwater Monitoring Wells .................................................................... 60

Fig. 11-1:

Plant Scheme for Wind Erosion Protection.............................................................. 65

Maps
Scale
Map No. 1

Territorial Requirements

1 : 10,000

Map No. 2

Aerial view

1 : 10,000

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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

List of Abbreviations
a
k~
m~
m
m
t
bcm
bcm/h
`000 bcm
mbcm
lcm
`000 lcm
mlcm
GWh
mMSL
MW
EN
EnO
ESTAP
IPP
MME
OCM
TPP
TPS

year
kilomillion
square meter
cubic meter
tonne
bank cubic meter
bank cubic meter per hour
thousand bank cubic meter
million bank cubic meter
loose cubic meter
thousand loose cubic meter
million loose cubic meters
Gigawatt-hours
meter above Main Sea Level
mega watt
European Norm
Energy Office
Energy Sector Technical Assistance Project
International Power Provider
Main Mine Equipment (BWE, belt conveyor and spreader)
Open Cast Mine
Thermal Power Plant
Thermal Power Station

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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

1 Summary
The existing coal mines Bardh and Mirash, west of Pristina, will be exhausted within the next
years. A new deposit, adequate for long term supply of the thermal power plants in Kosovo, has
to be identified and developed.
The Main Mining Plan for New Sibovc Mine describes how the future lignite mine can be
operated to serve the existing power plants as well as power plants to be erected in future for a
lifetime of 30 years. This description follows the demand of coal presented by the Energy Ministry in the year 2005.
Resulting from this the mining activities will have a large scale effect on the environment. The
Environmental Study serves as a baseline description for the expected effects.
Alternative locations are discussed for coal extraction prior to the implementation of the Main
Mining Plan resulting in the location of D-field, east of the river Sitnica, to be the most favourable alternative to feed the existing power plants from the environmental point of view.
Among the other alternatives the development of the Sibovc field from the south to the north
ranked second best.
Subject of the Main Mining Plan is the excavation of overburden soil and lignite in the
neighbourhood of the existing open pit coal mines. Excavations will be performed using diesel
driven truck and shovel technologies as well as electrically driven bucket wheel and belt conveyor technologies. Mining activities will start from the existing mines using already exploited
areas for dumping the overburden material.
The Sibovc Field is situated north of the operating Bardh and Mirash mines. It is near the capital
of Kosovo, Pristina, and near to the existing power plant Kosovo B.
The field covers an area of approximately 16 km with a maximum mineable width (east-west
extension) of 3.8 km and a length of about 6 km. Until the year 2038 an area of about 11.6 km
will be needed to deliver about 553 million tonnes of lignite coal from a coal seam with a thickness up to 80 m.
The anticipated environmental effects concern, first of all, the movement of soil resulting in a
loss of surface area and living space. During operation of the mine a large void compared to the
existing mines, will be visible with completed backfill areas giving the landscape a changed appearance.
Surface waters to be affected are mainly small and of non perennial flow. The river Sitnica will
not be affected, as clayey sediments with sufficient thickness protect it from the mine. In the
final stage of mining the Sibovc River, perennial flowing, might be affected as clayey and loamy
sediments are only of minor thickness in the north-western edge of the mine.
Because of the characteristics of the overburden the impact on groundwater will be minor. Significant groundwater utilization is not known in the area. Influences on neighbouring utilizations
can be excluded.
This Environmental Study attempts to follow in general the applicable EU directives on environmental impact assessment, mainly Directive 85/337/EEC. However, there is a general lack of
baseline studies, local experts opinions, pertinent documents or other information, e.g. allowing
any specific assessment on influences on fauna and flora. Regarding this aspect additional investigations are needed to describe the floral and faunistic inventory of the mining field.
In case of proper operation and a coal demand adequate to the mining technology the mine will
become one of the most important employers of the region with up to 2,500 employees. Upon
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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

completion of backfilling areas farmable land can be returned to the inhabitants mitigating the
effects of resettlements required.
Resettlement will be needed as a consequence of the development of the mine. Approximately
5,700 persons representing some 740 households will have to be moved, with the most important
resettlement affecting the village of Hade until the year 2009.
With the objective to improve knowledge on the environment and to allow control on the environmental impact adequate monitoring activities shall be set up concerning air and water quality
measurements as well as the purification of drainage water and the utilization of humus enriched
top soil layers.
Not directly connected with the mining activities but environmentally very beneficial will be
depositing the ash from the power plants into the mines. The geological circumstances generally
favour this way of disposal.
To start the Environmental Impact Assessment process the Environmental Authorities require a
specific applicant for the Main Mining Plan. Following the legal regulations it will be the duty of
the future applicant to update this Environmental study, to file it with the Ministry and to obtain
the official Scoping Opinion.

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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

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2 Introduction
To obtain extensive and independent energy supply for Kosovo currently there is no alternative
but the excavation and combustion of lignite coal. The existing lignite coal mines of Bardh and
Mirash will be exhausted in the near future. Therefore a new mining field close to the existing
power plants is needed able to feed the power plants at least for the next 30 years.
Geological investigations and modelling showed the Sibovc field to be able to deliver the fuel
needed for the next thirty years.
All geological and technical basics of the project are described in the parts I and II of this report.
Processing of technical mine planning and Environmental Impact Assessment on the Main Mine
Plan had to be performed after December 2004 and parallel in time to meet the time schedule of
the project. This Environmental Assessment reflects information available on the area of concern
and focuses on basic needs for further investigations and monitoring activities which are mentioned as a requirement in the pertinent chapters.

2.1 Geographical Overview and Historical Development


The Kosova lignite deposits are located between the cities of Mitrovica in the North and
Kaqanik in the South. The total estimated resources of Kosovos lignite deposits are approximately 10,000 mt (Carl Bro; 2003), thus forming one of the largest lignite deposits in Europe. As
being one of at least four major deposits the Kosova Coal Basin covers about 85 km from north
to south with an average east west extension of 10 km. Hence the deposit comprises some 850
km.
Morphologically the Kosova Coal Basin forms an extended valley where the differences in elevation do not exceed 80 m. A central plane extends along the river Sitnica followed by a more
hilly terrain approaching the mountains icavica Golesh and Sharr.
The basin is surrounded by an elevated relief with Kopaonik massive, Kozic, Zhegovc Lisic in
the East, Montenegro massive in the south and icavica, Golesh, Carnaleva as well as Sharr
Mountains in the west and north-west. The surrounding mountains reach elevations from 900 to
more than 1600 m.
The resources were discovered more than hundred years ago and the first small-scale utilisation
was started in the 1920ties. First utilization has been reported to start with underground mining
in at least five locations. Underground exploitation was ongoing until the year 1966 when mining focussed on large scale surface mining at Bardh and Mirash mines. Large-scale utilisation
was already decided in the 1950ties and the first mine Mirash started coal production in 1958.
Power generation started at Thermal Power Plant Kosovo A (TPP A) in 1962. Kosovo A was
extended in the period 1962 to 1975 to the current capacity. A second Thermal Power Plant
Kosovo B (TPP B) was commissioned in 1985. Coal exploitation from surface mines in the first
period required the excavated overburden to be dumped outside the open pits. Hence at least
seven outside dumps were formed surrounding the today mines.

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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

Fig. 2-1:

Location Map

Page 10

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

2.2 Coal Demand and Fuel Supply Strategy


Kosovo has no important fossil fuel resource but it is rich in lignite. There is neither natural gas
import nor gas supply infrastructure. Kosovo has no oil refinery and depends entirely on imported liquid fuels. The hydroelectric potential is very modest.
Therefore the backbone of the power generation and the energy sector of Kosovo are the lignite
fired thermal power plants Kosovo A and Kosovo B located near Pristina.
The installed capacities of both existing lignite fired plants are set out in the table below.
Tab. 2.2-1

TPP

Existing installed TPP Capacity

Gross Power

Net Power

Available Net
Power

Start of Operation

[MW]

[MW]

[MW]

Year

Kosovo A

800

722

A1

65

58

30 - 40

1962

A2

125

113

1964

A3

200

182

130 - 145

1970

A4

200

182

120 - 145

1971

A5

210

187

135 - 150

1975

Kosovo B

678

618

B1

339

309

230 - 250

1983

B2

339

309

230 - 250

1984
(Source: KEK)

Due to the low availability and unreliable base load plants KEK needs to import peak power.
The increased net imports had to be paid for in cash very often. This led to inadequate supplies
and frequent power outages. Real time balancing of the demand and supply is managed partly by
exports and imports and partly by planned and rotating load shedding.
On the basis of the targets set by the Ministry for Energy and Mining (from 2009 onwards), coal
demand figures were defined using following principles and assumptions:
For the time 2005 up to 2007 the production level already planned is applied, that means 6.9
up to 7.4 mt/a will be provided.
The geological reserves of the existing mines total about 43.7 mt (mineable). This is calculated from 2005 onward (see report Mid Term Plan).
Kosovo will export energy based on lignite (so it will enter in South East European Regional
Market).
Construction of new TPPs (350 MW-units) for electricity supply into REM (Regional Electricity Market); the start of full production of the new Thermal Power Plants is 2016.
The grid of the REM will be reinforced to allow power transmission.

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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

Tab. 2.2-2

Year
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
SUM

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

Defined Coal Demand in mt

Lignite
Demand
existing
TPP A
1.8
2.0
2.0
3.3
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
4.75
3.14
1.57

805

Lignite Demand
existing TPP
B1+B2
5.0
5.0
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
5.3
2.65

213

New TPP
Kosovo
B3-B6

2.71
5.42
5.42
5.42
5.24
5.24
5.42
8.13
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.66
10.84
1874

Page 12

New IPP
C1 + C2

2.71
5.42
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
8.13
7.95
7.95
7.95
8.13
1533

Other
Lignite
Consumers

Total
Coal
Demand

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.4
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
140

6.9
7.1
7.4
8.7
10.35
10.35
10.35
13.06
15.77
15.87
15.87
18.40
21.11
22.49
23.63
24.59
24.41
24.41
24.77
21.94
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
19.29
19.11
19.11
19.11
19.47
1739

Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

The assessed output of coal from the existing mines (Bardh / Mirash) and the coal production
required from the new mine is shown as follows:
Tab. 2.2-3

Year

Coal Production required from new Mines

Coal from
Mirash / Bardh

Coal from
new Mines

Sum
(Demand of Coal)

mt

mt

mt

2005

6.9

6.9

2006

7.1

7.1

2007

7.4

7.4

2008

8.7

8.7

2009

7.9

2.45

10.35

2010

3.2

7.15

10.35

2011

2.5

7.85

10.35

2012

13.06

13.06

2013

15.77

15.77

2014

15.87

15.87

374

397

Sum

77

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3 Alternatives to the Project


Kosovo has no important fossil fuel resource but it is rich in lignite. There is neither natural gas
import nor gas supply infrastructure. Kosovo has no oil refinery and depends entirely on imported liquid fuels. The hydroelectric potential is very modest.
Therefore the backbone of the power generation and the energy sector of Kosovo are the lignite
fired thermal power plants Kosovo A and Kosovo B located near Pristina.
To mitigate the unavoidable environmental impact and to avoid long transportation distances
any new lignite exploitation should be realized as close as possible to the existing power plants.
Sufficient coal resources are available in the neighbourhood of the existing mines where environmental intervention already exists. For these reasons any exploitation outside of this coal
basin does not form an alternative.

3.1 Overview of Potential Future Mining Fields


The parts of the coal deposit with the most favourable mining conditions are West of Pristina,
where also the Mirash and Bardh mines were opened-up. The overburden : coal ratio is here approximately 1:1, i.e. to mine 1 t of lignite 1 m of overburden has to be removed. On an international scale this ratio is extremely favourable. The following three potential fields are considered
for further examination to choose the most effective opencast mine field (Fig. 3-1):
Field Sibovc
Field D
Field South

Fig. 3-1:

Potential Mining Fields

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3.2 Description of Alternative Mining Fields


Field Sibovc
Location:
The Sibovc Field is situated to the North of the Bardh and Mirash mines. So it is near the
capital of Kosovo Pristina and near to the existing power plant Kosovo B.
The field area covers approximately 16 million m with a maximum mineable width (EastWest extension) of 3.8 km and a length of about 6 km.
Area use:
The area of the Sibovc field is mostly used for agriculture. For a long time it has been known
that this lignite field is envisaged for excavation. Therefore, the people living in this area are
prepared for mining activities.
Previous plans included the mining from South to North whereby it was intended to develop
the field from the existing pit rim of the Bardh/Mirash mines.
Small private coal openings exist which are used for local fuel supply.
Residential areas:
The mining field is sparsely populated with the main villages being Hade, Sibovc and Lajthisht.
The village of Shipitula is for the most part outside the field to be mined.
The resettlement required for the previously mentioned villages is the major obstacle for the
exploitation. There are no other restrictions for the coal mining.
Field D
Location:
Field D lies next to the power plant TPP Kosovo A and ca. 5.5 km away (straight line) from
the power plant B. In the West it borders the village of Dardhisht and in the South the village
of Fushe Kosove including infrastructure like road and railway line.
The area within the mine configuration covers 6.7 million m.
Area use:
Already in the past coal was extracted on the territory of field D. The major part was mined
underground. For example, 2.9 mt of coal were mined at Krusevac mine between 1948 and
1966.
At present, a considerable part of the area is used by KEK as ash disposal site. Furthermore,
masses from developing the Mirash mine were deposited on this area. The dumped material is
placed on Ash Dump Dragodan with approx. 1.52 million m and Overburden Dump
Dragodan with approx. 0.69 million m.
The old dumps would need to be recovered prior to the excavation of the deposit.
Residential areas:
There are only few houses on coal Field D.

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Field South
Location:
The South Field directly borders the existing Bardh and Mirash opencast mines in the south.
Two variants of exploiting the field were examined with the mine boundary being formed by
the village of Bardh to the west and to the east by the Sitnica River (variant 1) or by the village of Fuche Kosove (variant 2).
In variant 1 the area covers more than 11 million m and in variant 2 more than 14 million m.
Area use:
Most of the area is owned by KEK and covered by dumped overburden masses. These dumps
comprise a total volume of 90 to 110 million m (slope angle ca. 6) of an entire area of 5.5
million m and an average dumping height of 20 to 30 m.
Residential areas:
In any case, i.e. for both variants, resettlement of the villages of Lismir and Kuzmin is required. In variant 2, the river Sitnica has to be relocated additionally. There are no other
buildings with relevant influence.

3.3 Valuation of the Mining Fields


The following Table shows a comparison between the different alternatives under consideration
of various technical criteria:
Tab. 3.3-1

Valuation of the Mining Fields

Criteria

Unit

Sibovc

Field D

Field South

Lignite content within technological border *?

[ mt ]

900

280

500

Overburden : Coal Ratio


incl. dumping material

[ m/t ]

0.85

0.90

2.8

Average Net Calorific Value

[ kJ/kg ]

8312

7340

similar to Sibovc

Average Sulphur Content

[%]

1.1

1.0

similar to Sibovc

Land Use

Agriculture

KEK (Dumps)

KEK (Dumps)

Covering by dumped Masses

[m m ]

0.5

2.2

5.5

Hade, Sibovc,
Lajthishte

few houses

Lismir, Kuzmin

Resettlement

* Considering the geological reserves? within the slope system in the


boundaries of the mines

One of the important cost drivers is the ratio between overburden removal and coal extraction.
The figure below shows a survey. According to that the very North and the very South of Sibovc
and the Field D are most favourable. The centre of the Sibovc field is mineable but unfavourable
for the opening up of the new mine.

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Valuation Sibovc Field:


The Sibovc field has large coal content and is characterised by favourable deposit condition.
The lignite is of high quality and the excavation is not largely affected by extensive recovery
of old dump material. Another advantage of this field is the moderate transport distance to the
power plant.
Developing the Sibovc field from the South has the best potential of all scenarios to fill the
Bardh and Mirash pits with overburden masses. The exploitation of the deposit requires resettlements.
The mining of the lignite field of Sibovc offers the best possibility to supply coal to a new
large power plant. In total it can provide coal for a 2000 - 2500 MW power plant capacity.
Valuation of Field D:
Field D is characterised by the low overburden thickness and the good overburden : coal ratio. The average heating value is by 12 % lower and the field is covered by old dump masses
and ash dumps. The previous dumping of ash did not correspond to the standards and guidelines of the EU. It has to be assumed that this dump should be either recovered or at least provided with an adequate cover.
In case the old dumps are removed, the remaining overburden : coal ration will only amount
to 0.72 to 1.0 bcm/t.
If the costs for relocating the ash disposal from its current location into the old workings of
Mirash are covered by a third party, the mining costs are expected to be lower in comparison
to the other mining fields. This alternative would still be favourable even considering the
lower average heating value.
With regard to future land use it is possible to establish an attractive lake for recreation at reasonable costs not far away from Pristina (15 minutes).
In terms of sustainable development the D Field offers the best post mining use of the land. The
environmental liability of the ash dump is eliminated and a recreational area can be established.
The building of a new power plant larger than 600 MW would not be justified in particular due
to the limited coal content. Either TPP B until end of lifetime or/and a smaller new TPP can be
supplied.
The envisaged erection of a motorway impedes the economical use of the lignite deposit. Thats
why it is requested to check whether it is possible to relocate the route eastwards at least in the
Southern part of the Field D.
Valuation of Field South
The main benefit of the field South is the fact that most of the areas are already property of
KEK. But more overburden has to be removed as the seam dips to the south. Another disadvantage of the South field is the increasing transport distance to the power plants TPP A und
TPP B.
Mining of the field South is the most expensive variant due to the unfavourable geological
conditions, especially the relatively high overburden : coal ratio. It should therefore be postponed.

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3.4 Alternatives of Opening-up and Mine Development


To find the optimum way to exploit the coal from the alternative fields six scenarios were developed.
For a single mine development two main variants have been compared:
Variant 1.1 Mining Sibovc from South to North
Variant 1.2 Mining Sibovc from North to South
In case of a two mines scheme the following principle variants have been assessed and evaluated:

Var. 2
Var. 3.1
Var. 3.2
Var. 4

Parallel mine development in Sibovc and Field D


Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (middle)
Parallel mine development in Sibovc (South) and Sibovc (North)
Parallel operation of two mines along a South-North demarcation line.

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4 Hydrological Baseline Data


The Kosova basin is characterized by a continental climate with dry and warm summers and
indifferent winter temperatures depending on the influence of high-pressure areas from Siberia
or low-pressure areas from the Atlantic Ocean.

4.1 Temperature
Average annual temperature is about +10C. For the years 1979 to 1991 the range of temperatures is shown in the following figure with minimum temperatures in January and maximum in
July. Lowest temperature ever measured is 25.2C.
25 C
d a ta so u rce : T h e H yd ro m e te o ro lo g ica l In stitu te o f K o so vo

20 C

temperature

15 C

10 C

5 C

0 C

-5 C

-10 C
J

average 1965 - 1990

Fig. 4-1:

m on th

m axim um recordings 1979 - 1991

m inim um recordings 1979 - 1991

Variation of monthly Mean Temperatures

Supplementary information was found at www.qwikcast.com presenting in 2004 a statistical


compilation on the basis of eighteen years.
40
35
30
25

temperatue in C

20
15
10
5
0
-5
H ig h e s t r e c o r d e d
-1 0

A v e r a g e h ig h
A v e ra g e

-1 5

A v e r a g e lo w

-2 0

L o w e s t re c o rd e d
-2 5
1

Fig. 4-2:

m o n th

Variation of monthly Temperatures

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4.2 Wind
The wind is predominantly blowing from north and northeast with an average velocity near 3
m/s. The Rudarski Institute in the year 1985 gave an overview on wind velocities and directions
shown in the following figure. The greatest wind velocity was recorded at 34.3 m/s blowing
from the north.

Fig. 4-3:

Direction and Velocity of Wind (from Rudarski Institute; 1985)

Currently air quality in the Sibovc field is negatively affected by private traffic, private heating
and seasonal burning of dry farm land. Main air polluter are the power plants Kosovo A and B in
case filter systems are not working properly.

4.3 Precipitation
Data on precipitation were collected from different sources. The Hydro-Meteorological Institute
of Kosovo produced a study in the year 1999 showing the monthly average for a period of 25
years (25 years average). The Institute provided also monthly values for the years 1979 to 1995.
By adding values for the years 2001 to 2004 this data base was widened to cover a period of 25
years (1979 2004). The data base was completed by an existing evaluation for the period 1948
to 1978.
The average annual precipitation amounts to about 600 mm. Minimum precipitation is described
by the 1990 data at 372 mm. Using monthly values maximum annual precipitation was recorded
at 1010 mm in the year 1995. A higher value of 1028 mm has been presented by the Rudarski
Institute (1985) but the year of appearance is lacking in the document.
Following figure shows the variation of average monthly precipitation. Statistically precipitation
is rather evenly distributed with lower values from January to March and higher values throughout summer and autumn.

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80 mm
70 mm

precipitation

60 mm
50 mm
40 mm
30 mm
20 mm
10 mm
0 mm
I

II

III

IV

25 year average

Fig. 4-4:

VI

VII

VIII

month
average 1948 - 1978

IX

XI

XII

average 1979 - 2004

Long term Variation of Monthly Precipitation

The range of monthly precipitation can be described on the basis of values recorded from the
year 1979 to 2004. The average monthly precipitation is 56 mm. The following figure shows the
range of possible monthly precipitation. For example within the month of August a minimum of
5 mm (year 1992) was recorded versus a maximum of 184 mm (year 2002). The figure also
shows that more than 80 mm of precipitation per month are possible all over the year.
200 mm
184

180 mm
166
161,5
155,4

160 mm
142

140 mm
128

120 mm

precipitation

126
119,9

117,4

97,1

100 mm

92
80,2

80 mm
62

58

60 mm

58

54

54

50

49

48

48

44
38

38

40 mm

30

29

20 mm

12,1
6
1

1,5

0,9

1,8

0 mm
I

II

III

IV

minimum readings 1979 - 2004

Fig. 4-5:

VI

VII

month
average 1979 - 2004

VIII

XI

XII

maximum readings 1979 - 2004

Average, Minimum and Maximum Monthly Precipitation

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The variation of daily precipitation values for the years 2001 to 2004 has been made available
from the Hydrometeorological Institute of Kosova. High quantities of precipitation were recorded with 44.5 mm on 11 April 2001 and 42.5 mm on 8 August 2002. The absolute maximum
recorded was achieved on 5 September 1954 with 64.1 mm (INKOS; 1987).
45 m m
40 m m
35 m m

precipitation

30 m m
25 m m
20 m m
15 m m
10 m m
5 mm
0 mm
1 1 /0 0

Fig. 4-6:

5 /0 1

1 1 /0 1

5 /0 2

d a te

1 1 /0 2

5 /0 3

1 1 /0 3

5 /0 4

Daily Precipitation

For assessment of precipitation intensities an older table from the Hydrometeorological Institute
of the Republic of Serbia (Belgrade 1990) Report on climatic conditions and parameters for the
region that accommodates the Kosovo coal deposit is quoted below.
Tab. 4.3-1

Intensity of Precipitation at Rainfall Gauging Station Pristina

mm
Repetition
(years)
1
2
5
10
50
100
1000
m/(s km)
Repetition
(years)
1
2
5
10
50
100
1000

Duration
15 min

30 min

1h

2h

8h

16 h

24 h

5.52
12.09
16.5
19.17
25.5
28.29
37.8

4.36
16.12
22.00
25.56
34.00
37.72
50.40

8.65
18.94
25.85
30.00
39.95
44.32
59.22

9.66
21.16
28.88
33.48
44.63
49.50
66.15
Duration

12.88
28.21
38.50
44.73
59.50
66.00
88.12

15.64
34.26
46.75
54.32
72.25
80.15
107.10

18.40
40.30
55.00
63.90
85.00
94.30
126.00

15 min

30 min

1h

2h

8h

16 h

24 h

6.13
13.43
18.33
21.33
28.33
31.43
42.00

4.08
8.95
12.22
14.20
18.80
20.95
28.90

2.40
5.26
7.18
8.33
11.10
12.31
16.45

1.34
2.93
4.00
4.65
6.19
6.87
9.18

0.44
0.98
1.34
1.55
2.06
2.29
3.06

0.27
0.59
0.82
0.95
1.25
1.40
1.85

0.22
0.47
0.64
0.74
0.98
1.10
1.45

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4.4 Surface Waters Run-Offs and their Qualities


The Kosova Basin forms a smoothly shaped plain that is bordered by hills and mountains. This
basin includes a well developed hydrological network with the main collector being the river
Sitnica. This river crosses the basin from south to north and drains about 80 % of the accumulating surface water into northern direction. Major tributary rivers in the vicinity of the site are the
river Drenica in the west and the river Lab in the east. The Sitnica run-off varies between a
minimum of 0.5 1.5 m/s and a maximum of 50 120 m/s with an average of 5 10 m/s. In
flooding periods, the course of the river reaches a width of up to 1000 m in the flooding areas.
On 3 May 1958 a maximum run-off for the river Sitnica near to the mines was measured at 90.3
m/s.
Due to the lack of actual run-off data the quantities of water discharged by tributary rivers and
creeks can only be assessed on the basis of a map of catchment areas, developed from topographical maps, scale 1:25,000, for this report. Following figure shows the results of delineating
catchment areas for different run-offs that might be affected when mining activities will spread
to the north, south or east of the existing mines. The colours shown in the figure indicate major
catchment areas which are subdivided using numbers, e.g. numbers 310 to 380 representing
smaller areas which together feed the run-off directly northwest of Bardh mine.

Fig. 4-7:

Catchment Areas

Surface water quality data are available from the INKOS Institutes monthly measurements for
the main catchments, Drenica and Sitnica. The measurements compiled for the years 2001 to
2003 can be taken as baseline data to assess the impact of any future mine drainage.

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Main Mining Plan Sibovc, Part III, Environmental Impact Study

Fig. 4-8:

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

Characteristic water quality values for the river Sitnica (INKOS Institute)

The parameters shown in the figure above are found adequate to represent the up to date quality
of river water without effects of the mines.
The expected quality of mine drainage water without any treatment can be assessed using the
quality parameters from the water pumped out of the Mirash mine. It has to be taken into consideration that the sampling point does not always represent the quality of pumped mine water
since dilution by rainwater might have influenced the sample.

Fig. 4-9:

Characteristic Mine Drainage Water Quality (INKOS Institute, Mirash mine)

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The subsequent table compares the values of the Sitnica river with those of the Mirash mine.
Any river receiving mine water discharge might be affected mainly by sulphate and chloride as
well as organic materials, if no purification of mine water is foreseen. With reference to heavy
metals or other trace elements no statements are possible to date because analytical data are not
available on these parameters.
Tab. 4.4-1

Comparison of Water Qualities

Minimum
Units?

Average

Sitnica Mirash Sitnica

pH value

Maximum

Mirash

Sitnica

Mirash

6.8

6.7

7.9

7.8

8.4

8.7

230

175

486

1,381

1,100

3,700

El. Conductivity

S/cm

Chloride

mg/l

4.5

28

90

70

290

Sulphate

mg/l

29

75

78

924

516

1,741

Hydrogencarbonate

mg/l

104

232

284

447

381

600

Nitrate

mg/l

3.7

10.3

14

72

KMnO4 Consumption mg/l

15

45

26

183

The above concentrations indicate a potential need for mine water treatment depending on the
quantity of mine water discharge and the quality and quantity of the receiving stream. (As a
minimum standard settling ponds should be implemented to reduce the load of suspended solids
and coal dust. Belongs to remediation!)

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5 Soils
A general description of types of soils is given with the Soil map of SAP Kosovo, scale
1:50,000 (N. Povicevic et al., Institute for development of water resources, Belgrade; 1974). An
update of soil classification on FAO standards was presented by the agricultural faculty of Pristina University allowing the Consultant to redraw the soil map. Following figure shows the
situation for the potential mine fields as well as their surroundings.
A hard copy of investigations on soil qualities is apparently available at the community of
Obiliq. Unfortunately, the community was not able to hand over any information. Therefore the
agricultural values of the land can not be presented in this report but, if needed in future, have to
be requested again.

Fig. 5-1:

Soil Map

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6 Hydrogeological Situation
The hydrogeological situation of the area is defined by three main hydrogeological layers. The
basis is given by an aquiclude formed by the green clay consisting of clay and silt with a general thickness of more than 100m.
The overlaying lignite coal with a thickness up to 70m is generally described not to be good
permeable but; because of fissures and cracks within the coal; groundwater can circulate
whereby the coal layer has to be recognized as an aquifer. This fact can be underlined by field
observations when wells were observed, which came into being while excavating coal in an elevation clearly above the water level of main drainage sump in Mirash mine.
Above the coal follows the overburden mainly consisting of silt and clay with partially appearance of sand and gravel layers. Characteristic are embedded layers with masses of snail shells.
Near to the surface this grey clay can change its appearance to a yellow clay what is explained to be a result of weathering with oxidation of the iron content within the material. The
clay material generally habits like an aquifuge but because of fissures and cracks reaching
depths of 10 m to 15 m from the surface water can penetrate the rock. Hence groundwater appears either when the fissures are dug up by excavation or where those fissures are connected to
better permeable layers within the clay such as the snail shell layers or gravel layers. Following
the resulting hydraulic conductivity depends on the locally different appearance of the clay and
fissures.
The yellow clay horizon is frequently used to supply houses and smaller villages with water,
e.g. in the village of Hade and in the valley west of Lajthishte.
Due to the lack of decent borehole descriptions an overall differentiation in the overburden clay
between the yellow and grey clay was not possible on that way. This effects as well the spatial
hydrogeological differentiation.
Information about the spreading of yellow clay strata can be given using a map presented by
Rudarski Institut (1985) which shows the elevation of the bottom of yellow clay for the area
west of Hade village.
The map gives an impression about the altitude of the basis of yellow clay. The bottom generally
follows the surface with the alteration zone reaching down to 12 m depth. This again pleads for
weathered grey clay with the precipitation leading to oxidization of the iron content within the
soil forming the typical yellow colour. The elaborate furthermore shows that at least in September 1985 a groundwater level was observable with groundwater covering up to 10 m of the yellow clay. It can be suggested that these facts can be found in other areas as well, where Pliocene
clay reaches near the surface. The observed water levels and the alteration in colour from grey to
yellow indicate that this groundwater horizon is directly fed by precipitation and it is assessed
that groundwater predominately circulates near the surface.

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Fig. 6-1:

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

Bottom of Yellow Clay (Redrawn from Rudarski Institut, Map 1.01.4375; 1985)

Recent measurements on the quantity of groundwater and flow directions as well as expressive
maps of the groundwater table are not available. Reviewing older documents and field observations show that the quantity of groundwater descending the overburden at the mines is rather
small. At the slopes groundwater can be observed after rainy periods favoured in coarse layers of
the yellow clay and, along fissures, within the grey clay. Additional vadose water horizons
can appear within courser layers of the grey clay especially where it contains larger amounts of
snail shells. Locally the overburden is eroded to a thickness of meters or less and as abandoned
underground works with broken roofs give direct access to the surface, precipitation can directly
infiltrate the coal in larger areas whereby larger quantities of groundwater might be produced.

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Utilization of groundwater concentrates on private wells dug to depth of 10 to 15 m below the


surface within the overburden clay. Production quantities are shown by Rudaski Institute (1985)
with Q = 3 l/min to Q = 11 l/min with a maximum of Q = 54 l/min, which can be judged as hydraulic conductivities in a range of kf = 10-9 m/sec to kf = 10-6 m/sec. Field observations in the
surroundings of Laitishte showed artificial wells, drilled some 5 m to 7 m deep into the yellow
clay, to serve as water supply for a village. Inhabitants described the wells rather unproductive
but sufficient for private purpose.
The quaternary deposits along the river Sitnica consist of coarser materials with sand and gravel
contents. Resulting the hydraulic conductivity can reach values up to kf = 10-4 m/sec or even
greater. Towards the depth these sediments hold growing contents of silt and clay and are underlain by grey clay preventing a direct contact between the surface water and the coal seam.
Because of the hydraulic properties of the clay and the topsoil developed to a Vertisol
(Smonitza) in case of rainfall an enriched surface run-off can be expected. To allow first assessments a run-off coefficient of 0.45 is chosen by Consultant.
The hydrogeological situation at the surface is presented by Rudarski Institut in 1996. The map
shows in brownish colour elevated and hilly plains with minor or no groundwater content as well
as in blue colours the valleys of the rivers with enriched groundwater occurrence.

Fig. 6-2:

Complemented Extract from Hydrogeological Map

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7 General Environmental Impacts of Lignite Open Pit


Mining
Production of lignite stands for large scale excavation of materials using heavy duty equipment.
Mining exploitation of mineral resources thus causes inevitably negative impact on the environment.. Negative effects accompanying the development of this industrial activity are related to
numerous impacts on the existing ecological systems, mostly affecting an area which is more
extensive than the zone where exploitation is taking place. The main impact is the occupancy of
land which is inevitably associated with this type of mining. The coal itself is buried deep under
the surface. The large open cast pits are being developed to a depth of more than hundred meters
and cover areas of several hundred hectares. As slopes of any open cast pit have to be constructed in a geotechnically sound way the pit perimeter encloses an area considerably larger
than the area of coal production itself. For safety reasons no residential settlements, public roads
or waterways shall be allowed within a certain distance from the pit rim. This means real estate
property used hitherto for agricultural, housing or other purposes will no longer be available for
the former owners and users. Residents have to be resettled. In general, a substantial effort on
compensation for land and property will become necessary.
Over large areas the soil cover has to be removed resulting in a nearly complete loss of fauna
and flora. Groundwater within the overburden strata and covering the coal must be adequately
lowered before starting the excavation. While excavating, rain water and remaining ground water have to be pumped out of the mine. In general, this water is of relatively low quality in most
cases due to the oxidization of pyrite associated with the formations excavated. This may result
in reduced pH values and some increase in concentration of sulphate and heavy metals.
The excavation and exploiting of lignite coal causes noise and dust due to the excavation operations, maintenance works and coal transportation. Where the coal face comes in contact with the
atmosphere oxidation processes may lead to self ignition of coal. This affects employees at the
working places as well as the surroundings and neighbouring residents.
The overburden strata have to be removed to uncover the coal. In case direct back-filling into the
pit can not be performed waste dumps for the overburden are needed outside the open pit. Hence
additional land is needed whereby floral cover will be disturbed, animals lose their habitats and
the landscape changes as hills come into being.
After excavation of coal the mined area generally is devastated. In order to re-utilize the area
again a complete backfill of the pit should be attempted wherever possible. Since the coal extracted leads to a deficit in volume not the whole area mined can be completely backfilled.
Proper management of open pit mines involves a dedicated Mine Closure Plan which indicates
the re-utilization of the land after mine abandonment and provides for acceptable alternatives for
its environmental and socio-economic integration. In summary the main environmental impacts
by open pit coal mining and dumping of significant quantities of ash are:
Extensive land occupany by open pit, waste dumps and ancillary structures,
Total loss of existing habitats on occupied land,
Change to flora and fauna in the area around the mine due to construction and operation activities,
Change of hydro-geological regime in a wide area,
Potential soil pollution and ground-/surface water pollution (affecting a large catchment area)
due to soil alterations and coal processing (ash deposits, mine water and processing water
discharge),

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Air pollution by dust when excavating and conveying,


Influences on terrain stability by mine slopes and surface deformation (subsidence of the
soil),
Noise from mine equipment and operating conveyor belts.

8 Noteworthy Side Issues


8.1 Former Underground Mining
Remains of old underground mining are situated in the south-eastern part of the Sibovc field,
connected with the old mining structures which are currently exposed along the coal cuts in
Mirash West and on the Mirash northern slope, and underneath the ash dump of TPP Kosovo A
(field D). Some of the old galleries have already been cut within Mirash mine and the pillar area
(see following figures).
First attempts to reach the coal seam were made along river erosion channels which cut the
seam. In areas of the seam which were affected by erosion it can be mixed completely or at least
in part with humus strata resulting in a decrease of coal quality. Therefore, the initial excavation
of the adits began about 7 meters under the roof of the seam. In the proximity of the riverbanks
water handling was difficult. At a later stage vertical shafts were deepened. The documented
coal mining using galleries and shafts reaches back to 1921.
For the stabilisation of the galleries with a height of 2 m and width of 3 m a timber support system was used. The galleries were placed in parallel and at distances of 20 m to each other, every
100 m a cross cut was excavated which? followed the given directions of the separations planes.
The old roadways were driven parallel to the joint system within the mine. The galleries were
widened to caverns at intervals of 7-20 m and the coal was broken from the roof. In the area
west of the overburden dump, in the D-Field, these caverns frequently collapsed forming more
or less round craters, which show a regular alignment (see figure).

Fig. 8-1: Former underground mining in Field D


Aerial photography showing the area of the D-Field with regularly aligned collapse structures (more or less round holes) in consequence of former underground mining. The highlighted area indicates zones with still stable galleries.

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Fig. 8-2:

EUROPEAID/116986/D/SV/KOS

Gallery of an old underground mine with wooden support system

(Mirash 7/2004)

Due to this method sections of galleries show a low stability and there is a potential danger of
collapse of undermined levels under load if the galleries are not already collapsed or refilled.
The dimension of the undermined area has been assessed considering the following factors:

Calculation of the excavated coal between 1922 to 1966


Existing underground mining maps of Mirash mine
Position of old shafts
Mapping of the outcrops of the gallery system and acquisition of data (gallery width, distance
e.g.)
Site Visits for a specific delimitation of the underground mines
Determination of the mining methods by means of the characteristics of cut and exposed galleries
Interpretation of aerial photographs for typical structures
Interpretation of seismic investigations
Analysis of fault pattern
Analysis of topographic elements and natural boundaries (old bed of the river Sitnica, location of villages)
Extension regarding the maximum practicable distance between shafts and galleries

The underground mining method was abandoned in 1966. Following table shows the overall
coal production of the underground mines. However, there is no reliable documentation on the
extension of the old underground mines or the information is at least incomplete.

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Tab. 8.1-1

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Underground Coal Production

Coal production of old underground mining in the Kosovo Basin (Source: KEK)
"Kosovo"

"Krusevac"

"Sibovac"

Years 1922 1966

Years 1948 - 1966

Years 1952-1958

6.401.434 t

2.921.233 t

255.117 t

Partially, the exploitation fields of the old underground mining were limited by faults. Considering the total production yields an area of app. 5 km2 for the Kosovo mine field and an area of
app. 5 km2 for the Sibovac mine field. The minor production rates from the field Sibovac
demonstrate that the excavation only took place near the surface.

Fig. 8-3:

Mirash (West and Northern Slope) with underground mining structures (blue)

In the past inhabitants noticed noises from the underground (hammering, picking) about 2 km to
the North of Hade. Nearby there was at least one shaft, which could have functioned as entrance
to the underground mine system. This shaft supports the presumption of such a large extension.
The reports revealed that the extension of the old underground structures may be larger than
supposed.
The largest distance between a shaft and the outermost galleries did not exceed 700 meters.

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8.2 Uncontrolled Coal Fires


Within a wide area a large amount of lignite is affected by spontaneous combustion which occurs in the mine slope and coal yards, where coal is exposed to air. Self-ignition is the consequence of the oxidation of coal, a process which is producing heat energy. If the energy production exceeds the amount of energy removed from the system, the coal will reach its ignition temperature, eventually.
Generally these fires occur at places where the coal is exposed to air or air can penetrate the underground and reach the coal.
In the Bardh-Mirash mine areas affected by these fires are especially the structures of the old
underground mines, slide areas, the central pillar in front of the face between the actual excavation areas, the N and S lateral slopes of the mine as well as parts of the mine which remain exposed to air for a longer period (slopes and dumps), fault and joints.
In a first phase coal fires ignite in mechanically weak zones like joints or slope failures or old
mining structures, where enough oxygen can reach the surface of the coal and the heat is enclosed. The fire can be boosted by methane. In the following stage the complete hanging layer is
influenced by the heat. About 60% of total coal fires are concentrated near or within the roof
strata, where the coal shows the best quality and discharges a great amount of energy. Old galleries from the ancient underground coal mines facilitate a supplementary ventilation and therefore provide for best conditions for oxygen inflow. Burnt out galleries result in large cavities and
therefore a decreasing stability of the slopes.
A lot of fires in the Bardh Mine occurred in slide faults, therefore it is essential to avoid land
slides.
Self combustion also occurs in dumped coal masses. Typically, the coal fires begin at the base of
the dumps and affect the whole dump until it is burnt out.
A secondary effect is the formation of clinker from the clay in the seam roof. Due to the heat the
material becomes dehydrated and oxidised and takes a red colour (see figure 2-17).
The characteristics (hardness) of the clinker allow to use it as gravel to improve the stability of
transport roads within the mine
The situation in the Sibovc Mine will be comparable, since remains of the old underground
mines exist there too. Therefore the Sibovc Mine will run a considerable risk of coal fires.

Fig. 8-4: Coal fire at base of a dump

Fig. 8-5: Coal fire near a fault with burnt out zones
in the seam

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8.3 Phenol Deposits


The data inquiry on potential environmental risks has given some indications on old neglected
deposits of liquid wastes containing phenol. These materials probably result from an abandoned
gasification plant at TPP Kosovo A, where remnants of this waste are still stored today.
In August 2004 two shafts of old underground workings at the Mirash workshop were opened. A
specific chemical smell and some lumps similar to tar were observed at the rim of one shaft.
Workers at the mine explained to have observed these liquids in the past at the northern slope,
where the slope cuts into underground workings.
Further investigations on the spatial spreading and the quantity of waste dumped led to no reliable results up to now. Interviewing neighbouring residents and former workers helped to form a
first idea. Two former underground workings might be affected: the Kosovo field underneath
the valley between the Mirash mine and Lajthishte and the Krusevac field south of TPP Kosovo A. As no maps are available showing the extension of the former mines a first demarcation
was carried out using aerial views, field observations on collapse structures and interviews. The
result is shown in following figure.

Fig. 8-6:

Areas of potential risk of toxic waste deposits

Because up to now it is unknown,


which chemicals really constitute the original waste and if the contents is similar to the stored
remnants,
which alterations happened to the waste and
what quantities of original or altered materials are burried in the underground workings,
this problem forms a potential risk when the coal is excavated (protection of miners and water)
and burnt in a TPP (conglutination of equipment, generation of hazardous gases such as dioxins).

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8.4 Environmental Aspects of Mining Fields Alternatives


Resettlements
The opening of a field in all cases will mean that resettlement of inhabitants is needed. By now it
is assessed that in the case of the Sibovc field the highest number residents from at least three
villages and nine settlements would be affected. Field South covers two villages and one settlement, whereas the field D impacts a portion of one settlement as well as some detached houses.
Variant 1.1 forms an extension of the existing mines, where the excavation moves forwards to
the north. For neighbouring inhabitants this might be felt like an ongoing process deriving from
the known mining activities. The population of the village of Hade would have to be resettled
prior to the start of mining activities. Major resettlements would follow towards the middle of
the lifetime of the mine involving the villages of Sibovc and Lajthishte.
Variant 1.2 opens a new mine developing to the south. Hence erecting all infrastructure needed
and opening the mine means an intervention to a hitherto almost unaffected area. Resettlement
of the villages of Sibovc and Lajthisht would be needed at an early stage of activities whereas
the village of Hade, presently impacted by current mining activities, would need to be resettled
finally toward the end of mining activities.
Variant 2 requires an earlier partial resettlement affecting the east of Dardhisht village. The connecting road Krushec Nakarade / Fuche Kosove would form the western rim of the mine.
Hence the remaining inhabitants of Krushec would be affected mostly in the starting phase of
mining. Along with the progressive extension of the mine a few additional resettlements of detached houses would be required towards the end of the lifetime of the mine.
Variants 3.1 and 3.2 are intensifications of the effects shown in variants 1.1 and 1.2. As two
mines are working in parallel the residents would be affected to a more intensive degree especially with reference to dust and noise. Also loss of farmland would happen earlier. Resettlements of the villages of Hade, Sibovc and Lajthisht would be needed practically at the same time
prior to or at least in a very early stage of mine development. On the other hand these variants
offer the opportunity to employ more local personnel as two independent mines are operating
with their full facilities.
Variant 4 causes nearly the same effects as variants 3.1 and 3.2 but in addition road traffic would
be hampered north of the village of Hade after short time of operation.
Opening the field South would force resettlement of the villages of Doberdup (Dobri Dub) and
Kuzmin as well as new housing estates east of river Sitnica. It has to be taken into account, that
the village of Doberdup is already affected by creeping outside dump masses which up to now
have been declared not to present any urgent threat. Effects on humans may result from the necessary relocation of the river Sitnica to the east. As only a small corridor remains between the
rim of the mine and the railroad track at Fushe Kosove, special flood prevention measures would
have to be implemented leading to an enlarged surface requirement at the populated outskirts of
Fushe Kosove.
Local Roads and Transportation
In the areas of potential mining fields the roads from Grabovc to Obiliq and Sibovc to Obiliq
represent routes of major importance for regional transportation. Both roads lead through the
Sibovc field and would have to be abandoned during the course of mining. The difference for

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variants 1, 3 and 4 can only be seen in the difference in time when abandoning becomes necessary. Variant 2 with Field D as well as field South would impact no roads of regional importance.
Water and Air
Emissions to water and air mainly depend on the size of the open mine. In variants 1 and 2 as
well as field South only one mine is working while in variants 3 and 4 there are two mines working parallel in time (surface in km?). For the latter variants this will lead to increased dust emissions from excavation and conveying activities.
As self ignited lignite burnings should be prevented at any new mining field there should be no
specific differences between the variants even though self ignition might not be generally excluded.
Effects on waters result from the necessary mine drainage and sewage from mine facilities and
offices. In case of field Sibovc (var. 1, 3 and 4) excavation is performed in rather watertight materials. Hence the quantities of water depend mainly on the precipitation. In variant 2 (Field D)
as well as field South it is expected that leaking surface water and groundwater from river Sitnica will decisively contribute to the quantities to be discharged.
From the hydrogeological point of view a first differentiation is possible for the potential mining
fields. The field Sibovc is nearly wholly located in less water bearing overburden. Besides some
minor waters the Sibovc river in the north of the field has to be diverted in an adequate way before excavation. In the valley of Sibovc river artesian groundwater outflow was observed in harvest of 2004. Hence beside a well prepared diversion of the river additional drainage will be
needed for the alluvial sediments in the valley. Furthermore protective measures must be foreseen were the alluvial sediments of Sibovc river join the Alluvial sediments along river Sitnica
near the village of Hamidija. It is assessed that at least an apron cutting through the permeable
sediments and a dam will be needed to prevent water inflow from the river Sitnica.
The fields D and South reach the river valleys where enlarged groundwater inflow is expected.
Especially the field South will be excavated along the river Sitnica with diversion of the river
needed and opening up the rim of the mine for more than 3 km parallel to the river. Hence intensified leakage from the river to the mine will be created and adequate measures have to be implemented to protect the mine in times of floods as half of the width of inundation area will be
lost.
Flora, Fauna, Natural Heritage
The three areas of concern contain different types of ecological habitats. The field Sibovc is
characterised by extensive and busy agricultural use. Areas unaffected by humans are rather seldom. Hence useful plant varieties prevail the floral scene. A reasonable diversity of floral elements is expected as a result of temporarily unused or fallow land as well as existing minor bush
or wooded areas and small creeks dividing the landscape. .
The field South is covered by overburden dumps to about 50 % of its total area. This dumping
area is to a large extent out of use for a number of years providing grounds for natural succession of flora and fauna resulting in a variety of small scaled habitats. Some areas mainly at the
rims of the dumps are used for agricultural purposes. The southern part of the field South is
characterised by the valleys of the rivers Sitnica and Drenica and mainly used for agriculture.

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Hence the field South entails a wide range of habitats from wetlands to dry locations varying at
small scale.
Field D is characterised by the Dragodan ash dump (TPP A). As the surrounding is mainly used
for agricultural purposes there is no extensive bush, copse or tree occurrence and the biological
diversity is judged rather poor compared to the other alternatives.
Information on locations to be looked upon as Natural Heritage was given by the Institute for
Nature and Environmental Protection of Kosova. Following a report from October 2003 following locations have to be named. All locations are situated within or near to the Sibovc field:
-

A spring in the middle of Palaj village (internal coordinates x 0504565, y 4724469)

One tree (Tilia sp.) , some 200 years old, in the settlement Nicakeve near Sibovc (internal
coordinates x 0499173, y 4725381)

A group of trees (3x Quercus sp., 1x Quercus cerris), aged up to 300 years, in the settlement
of Megjuaneve near Sibovc (internal coordinates x 0500846, y 4725051)

Soil, Natural Resources and Land Use


As shown in chapter 5 the alternatives differ in their general soil appearance. Field Sibovc is
characterised by clayey materials in a hilly shaped landscape forming a typical Smonitza (Vertisol) soil. This soil is rather difficult to cultivate because of soil compression and enriched surface water run off in wet periods as well as deep reaching drying up in the summer time. Nevertheless the soil is described fertile but additional information has to be inquired.
Field South (variant 2) holds a large area of spread soil materials where a top soil development
similar to the development outside the dumps is visible. The soil is not as compact as the naturally grown soil, which results in better hydraulic conductivities and intensive biological scarifying of the top soil. The slopes of the dumps are slowly creeping downhill and thereby cover the
grown soil. No pollutants have been reported as being part of the soil dumps. Hence it is judged
that an ongoing and nearly unhampered agricultural use south to the dumps will be possible in
the future.
Deposits of soil and especially ash determine the surface of Field D. The fly ash from the dumping site influences the surroundings up to some hundred meters distance. This mainly affects the
usability of the farmland but no information is available by now concerning e.g. the heavy metal
or trace element contents of the ash.
Micro-Climate
Opening a surface mining field causes a depression in the surface. All alternatives of excavation
will lead to a loss of elevated elements on the surface and wind velocity will increase. As the
mines will be artificially dewatered a change in evaporation rates will result which, in combination with the decrease in floral coverage, is assessed to lead to a decrease of evapotranspiration
rates.
The influences for the three different fields are judged to be rather similar but detailed assessments will only be possible after conducting extensive measurements and computing models for
different climatic scenarios.

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Phenol Deposits
Because up to now it is unknown,
which chemicals really constitute the original waste and if the contents is similar to the stored
remnants,
which alterations happened to the waste and
what quantities of original or altered materials are burried in the underground workings,
this problem forms a potential risk when
coal exploitation takes place in the southeastern part of Sibovc field as well as within the Dfield.

8.5 Environmental Ranking of Alternatives


Having in mind that the whole district is historically influenced by mining and wider parts of the
landscape are determined by the mines and power plants all variants discussed are judged to be
feasible, if appropriate actions are taken to mitigate the impacts.
Combining the environmental aspects mentioned in this report a matrix is presented below offering a relative ranking of the variants in a qualitative manner on a scale from1 to 7. The increase
in number reflects the intensity of the environmental impact. No attempt was made to weigh the
various environmental criteria.
Tab. 8.5-1

Qualitative Ranking of Environmental Impacts


Variant

1.1

1.2

3.1

3.2

Field
South

2
Field D
1

Resettlement

Local Roads and Transportation

Water and Air

Flora, Fauna, natural Heritage

Soil, Natural Resources and Land Use

Sum

12

17

10

28

25

28

20

Effect

Following this ranking exploitation of Field D (variant 2) shows the relatively lowest impact to
be expected. From the environmental point of view opening the field Sibovc with one mine
(variant 1) should be given the preference rather than working with two mines. Using the field
South appears to be less favourable because of the fauna and flora developed and adjusted already and the need of diverting and channelling the river Sitnica.

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9 Environmental Aspects of the Main Mine Plan


The comparison of alternatives shows the field D, south to TPP Kosovo A to be the most favourable new mining area from the environmental point of view.
After presentation of the alternative mining fields decision was made by the main beneficiary,
Ministry for Energy and Mining, to develop the Sibovc field as best fit to its future energy demand strategy.
On the basis of the Interim Report (including "Presentation Paper") and the goals of the Kosovo
Government (Ministry for Energy and Mining) an adopted Main Mine Plan was developed,
which for the most parts corresponds to variant 1.1. As this Main Mine Plan for the most parts
forms an adaptation of variant 1.1 with development from South to North the environmental
friendliest way was chosen to exploit the Sibovc field.

9.1 Description of the Project


Type of Project:
Subject of the project is the excavation of overburden soil and lignite coal in the neighbourhood
of existing open pit coal mines. Excavations will either be performed by diesel driven truck and
shovel technologies as well as electrical driven bucket wheel and belt conveyor technologies.
Mining activities will start from the existing mines using already exploited areas for dumping
the overburden material.
Need for Project:
The basic needs to mine lignite coal within the Sibovc field are described in Energy Strategy
and Policy o Kosovo - White Paper dated September 2003 and a letter from the Ministry of
Energy and Mining, dated 20 December 2004, both showing an increasing demand for energy in
the near future and the latter showing priority of the Sibovc field for coal exploitation. As the
existing coal mines will be exhausted within the next years a new deposit adequate for long term
supply has to be identified and developed.
Location:
The Sibovc Field is situated north of the operating Bardh and Mirash mines. It is near the capital
of Kosovo, Pristina, and near to the existing power plant Kosovo B.
The field covers an area of approximately 11 km with a maximum mineable width (east-west
extension) of 3.8 km and a length of about 6 km.
Following figure shows the location of the Main Mine Plan in the Sibovc field as well as the
distances towards the power plants and surrounding towns of Kastiot, Fushe Kosove and
Prishtina.

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Fig. 9-1:

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Location of Field Sibovc

Size of Operation:
The technical procedure of opening up and developing the mine is described in part one of this
report. Excavation will start in the year 2008 leading to following demand for surface area.
Tab. 9.1-1

Demand of Surface Area

Year

Demand (km)

Accumulated (km)

2007

1.5

1.5

2008

1.4

2.9

2009 - 2013

0.28 per year

4.3

2014 - 2018

0.2 per year

5.3

2019 - 2023

0.28 per year

6.7

2024 - 2028

0.37 per year

8.5

2029 - 2033

0.18 per year

9.4

2034 - 2038

0.47 per year

11.6

Open cast mining requires removal of soil, overburden and exploitation of the coal seam with a
total thickness of up to 70 m. Main mining equipment will consist of eight bucket wheel excavators, connected belt conveyors, spreaders and auxiliary equipment like draglines, dozers and
maintenance vehicles. For part of the excavation shovel and truck technologies will be applied.
Hence the mined area temporarily will appear as a huge hole with depths of more than 150 m.
For detail information please refer to part mining technologies of this report.

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9.2 Description of the Environment


Topography
The area is located between the valley of river Sitnica in the east with elevations of about 525
mMSL and a mountain chain extending north to south with elevations exceeding 750 mMSL. To
the west follows the valley of the Drenica river with elevations of about 550 mMSL.
The future mining field today forms a hilly surface with elevation from typically 570 mMSL to
670 mMSL. Characteristic landmarks are a N-S stretched hill with the village of Hade (up to 656
mMSL) and a range of hills extending in E-W direction between Lajthishte and Shipitulla (up to
666 mMSL). Associated with these hills are valleys following N-S directions east (down to 570
mMSL) and west (down to 550 mMSL) to the village of Hade and the valley of the Sibovc river
(about 560 mMSL) in the north following SW-NE directions.
Soil
Investigations on the qualities of soils came to the conclusion that most expressive information
is given by Soil map of SAP Kosovo, scale 1:50,000 ( N. Povicevic et al., Institute for development of water resources, Belgrade; 1974). An update of the soil classification based on FAO
standards was presented by the agricultural faculty of Pristina University allowing the Consultant to redraw the soil map. Following figure shows the situation for the planned mining field
including a border area of 1 km width.

Fig. 9-2:

Distribution of Soils

Within the future mine Vertisol soil types predominate, covering 89.6 % of the area. Pseudogley
covers the remaining 10.4 % of surface area.

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Distribution of Soils in the planned Mine Area

Type
Vertisol

Subtype

Area

Calcic

8.23 km

Dystric

0.03 km

Eutric

3.86 km

Pseudogley

1.40 km

Following the Lecture Notes on the Major Soils of the World (FAO; 2001) Vertisols are
churning heavy clay soils with a high portion of swelling 2:1 lattice clays. Parent materials can
be sediments that contain a high content in smectitic clay. The environmental conditions that
lead to the formation of a vertic soil structure are also conducive to the formation of suitable
parent materials:
Rainfall must be sufficient to enable weathering but not so high that leaching of basic components occurs.
Dry periods must allow crystallization of clay minerals that form as weathering products of
rock or sediments.
Drainage must be hampered to the extent that leaching and loss of weathering products are
limited.
High temperatures, finally, promote weathering processes. Under such conditions smectite
clays can be formed in the presence of silica and basic cations - especially Ca2+ and Mg2+ - if
the pH of the soil is above neutral.
Vertisols with strong pedoturbation have a uniform particle size distribution throughout the
solum bu