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Pneumatics

Basic level

Workbook
TP 101

With CD-ROM

1A1

1B1

1Z1

1Z2

1V3

2
1V2

14

1V1
1

12

2
1

1S1

1V4

1B1

1S2

Festo Didactic
541088 en

Use for intended purpose


The training system from Festo Didactic has been developed and manufactured for training and vocational
education in the field of automation technology. The respective training companies and/or trainers must
ensure that all trainees observe the safety precautions which are described in this workbook.
Festo Didactic hereby excludes any and all liability for damages suffered by trainees, the training company
and/or any third parties, which occur during use of the equipment sets in situations which serve any
purpose other than training and/or vocational education, unless such damages have been caused by Festo
Didactic due to malicious intent or gross negligence.

Order no.
Status:
Authors:
Editor:
Graphics:
Layout:

541088
03/2012
W. Haring, M. Metzger, R.-C. Weber
Frank Ebel
Doris Schwarzenberger
03/2012

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, D-73770 Denkendorf, Germany, 2013
Internet: www.festo-didactic.com
E-mail: did@de.festo.com

The purchaser shall receive a single right of use which is non-exclusive, non-time-limited and limited
geographically to use at the purchaser's site/location as follows.
The purchaser shall be entitled to use the work to train his/her staff at the purchaser's site/location and
shall also be entitled to use parts of the copyright material as the basis for the production of his/her own
training documentation for the training of his/her staff at the purchaser's site/location with
acknowledgement of source and to make copies for this purpose. In the case of schools/technical colleges
and training centres, the right of use shall also include use by school and college students and trainees at
the purchaser's site/location for teaching purposes.
The right of use shall in all cases exclude the right to publish the copyright material or to make this available
for use on intranet, Internet and LMS platforms and databases such as Moodle, which allow access by a
wide variety of users, including those outside of the purchaser's site/location.
Entitlement to other rights relating to reproductions, copies, adaptations, translations, microfilming and
transfer to and storage and processing in electronic systems, no matter whether in whole or in part, shall
require the prior consent of Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG.

Table of contents
Preface _________________________________________________________________________________ V
Introduction ____________________________________________________________________________ VII
Technology module for pneumatics (TP100) ____________________________________________________X
Learning objectives for the basic level (TP101) _________________________________________________ XI
Overview of learning objectives per exercise __________________________________________________ XII
Equipment set for the basic level (TP101) ____________________________________________________ XIV
Allocation of equipment per exercise _______________________________________________________ XVIII
Practical tools for the trainer _______________________________________________________________ XIX
Structure of the exercises _________________________________________________________________ XIX
Designations of the components____________________________________________________________ XIX
CD ROM contents ________________________________________________________________________ XX
Equipment set for the advanced level (TP102) ________________________________________________ XXII
Learning objectives for the advanced level (TP102)____________________________________________ XXIII

Solutions
Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses _________________________________________________________________1
Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo _____________________________________________________________9
Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench __________________________________________________ 15
Exercise 4: Sorting packages _______________________________________________________________ 21
Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles ___________________________________________________________ 31
Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline ___________________________________________________ 37
Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline ___________________________________________________________ 45
Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device _______________________________________________________ 51
Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses ___________________________________ 59
Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece __________________________________________________________ 65
Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets __________________________________________________________ 73
Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door ________________________________________________________ 79
Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards ________________________________________________________ 87
Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans ______________________________________________________ 93
Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures ________________________________________________________ 99
Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins_________________________________________________________ 105
Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots___________________________________________________________ 111
Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces __________________________________________________________ 117
Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place ______________________________________________________ 123

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

III

IV

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Preface
Festo Didactics training system for automation and technology is geared towards various educational
backgrounds and vocational requirements. The training packages are therefore broken down as follows:
Basic modules impart basic, interdisciplinary, technological knowledge.
Technology modules address the important topics of open and closed-loop control technology.
Function modules explain the fundamental functions of automated systems.
Application modules enable training and further education that is aligned with real-life practice.
The technology modules deal with various technologies including pneumatics, electro-pneumatics,
programmable logic control systems, automation using a personal computer, hydraulics, electrohydraulics,
proportional hydraulics, sensor technology, electric drives and applications technology (handling).

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

The modular design of the training system makes it possible to focus on applications above and beyond
those covered in the individual modules, such as, for example, PLC actuation of pneumatic, hydraulic and
electric drives.
All training modules have the same structure:
Hardware
Teachware
Software
Seminars
The hardware is comprised of industrial components and systems that are specially designed for training
purposes.
The structure of the teachware corresponds to that of the training hardware. It includes:
Textbooks (with exercises and examples)
Workbooks (with practical exercises, supplementary instructions and solutions)
Transparencies and videos (for dynamic instruction)
The working materials for TP101 consist of 19 exercises and a workbook. Each exercise has its own set of
ready-to-use worksheets. The solutions are included in the workbook, which also has the worksheets and a CD
ROM. The exercises can be purchased without the workbook and are used as consumables. They can thus be
easily made available to trainees. Data sheets for the hardware components are made available along with the
training module and on the CD ROM.
The teaching and learning media are available in several languages. Theyre intended for use in classroom
instruction, but are also suitable for self-study.
Where software is concerned, computer training programs and programming software are made available
for programmable logic controllers.
A wide range of seminars covering the contents of the technology module round off the programme for
training and further education.

VI

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Introduction
This workbook is part of the training system for automation and technology from Festo Didactic GmbH & Co.
KG. The system provides a solid basis for practical training and further education. The TP100 technology
module only includes pneumatic control systems.
The TP101 basic level is suitable for basic training in the field of pneumatic control technology. It covers the
fundamentals of pneumatics as well as the function and use of pneumatic equipment. The equipment can be
used to set up simple pneumatic control systems.
The TP102 advanced level comprises vocational training in the field of pneumatic control technology. The
equipment can be used to set up extensive combinatory circuits with linking of the input and output signals
as well as control systems with stepper modules.
A permanent workstation equipped with a Festo Didactic profile plate is a prerequisite for setting up the
control systems. The profile plate has 14 parallel T-slots at 50 mm intervals. A portable compressor with
silencer (230 V, max. 8 bar = 800 kPa) can be used for compressed air supply.
Working pressure should not exceed 6 bar (600 kPa).

Ideal control sequence reliability can be achieved by operating the control system at a working pressure of 5
bar (500 kPa) without oil.
All the control systems for the 19 exercises are set up using the equipment set for the TP101 basic level. The
theoretical fundamentals for understanding this series of exercises are included in the textbook:

Pneumatics, basic level

Data sheets for the individual components are also available (cylinders, valves, measuring instruments etc.).

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

VII

Work instructions and safety precautions

General
Trainees should only work with the control systems under the supervision of a trainer.
Observe specifications included in the data sheets for the individual components and in particular all
safety instructions!
Mechanical
Mount all the components securely onto the profile plate.
Limit switches must not be actuated frontally.
Danger of injury during troubleshooting!
Use a tool to actuate the limit switches, for example a screwdriver.
Only reach into the set-up when its at a complete standstill.
Electrical
Electrical connections must only be established and interrupted in the absence of voltage!
Only use connector cables with safety plugs for electrical connections.
Only use low-voltage (max. 24 V DC).
Pneumatics
Do not exceed the maximum permissible pressure of 6 bar (600 kPa).
Do not switch on the compressed air until all of the tubing connections have been completed and
secured.
Do not disconnect tubing while under pressure.
Danger of injury when switching compressed air on!
Cylinders may advance and retract automatically.
Danger of accident due to tubing slipping off!
Use shortest possible tubing connections.
Wear safety glasses.
In the event that tubing slips off:
Switch compressed air supply off immediately.
Pneumatic circuit set-up:
Connect the components using plastic tubing with an outside diameter of 4 or 6 mm. Push the tubing
into the push-in connector as far as it will go.
Switch compressed air supply off before dismantling the circuit.
Dismantling the pneumatic circuit:
Press the blue release ring down, after which the tubing can be pulled out.

VIII

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

The mounting boards for the components are equipped with mounting variant A, B or C:
Variant A, snap-in system
Lightweight components that are not load-bearing (e.g. directional control valves). Simply clip the
components into the slot on the profile plate. Release the component from the slot by actuating the blue
lever.
Variant B, bolt-on system
Components with medium load capacity (e.g. actuators). These are clamped onto the profile plate using
T-head bolts. The blue knurled nut is used for clamping and loosening.
Variant C, screw system
For components with high load capacity and components that are seldom removed from the profile plate (for
example on-off valve with filter regulator). These components are secured with socket head screws and
T-head bolts.
Observe specifications in the data sheets regarding the individual components.

A stopwatch is required in order to evaluate the control systems once they have been set up. The stopwatch is
used to:
Adjust the one-way flow control valves so that the cylinder stroke times comply with the specified
values
Adjust time delay valves

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

IX

Technology module for pneumatics (TP100)


The TP100 technology module consists of a multitude of training materials and seminars. The subject matter
is focused entirely on pneumatic control systems. Individual components included in the TP100 technology
packet can also be included in any of the other modules.
Important components of the TP100
Permanent workstation with Festo Didactic profile plate
Compressor (230 V, 0.55 kW, max. 8 bar = 800 kPa)
Equipment sets or individual components (e.g. cylinders, directional control valves, preset counters,
stepper modules, logic components, pneumatic proximity switches)
Optional training materials (e.g. optical displays, 5/3-way valve, pulling/pushing load)
Practical training models
Complete laboratory set-ups
Training documentation
Textbooks

TP101 basic level


Fundamentals of pneumatic control technology
Maintenance of pneumatic equipment and systems
Pneumatics/electropneumatics

Workbooks

Optional teachware

TP101 basic level


TP102 advanced level
Set of transparencies
Magnetic symbols, drawing template
FluidSIM pneumatic simulation software
WBT Pneumatics
Set of cutaway models with storage case

Seminars
P100

Basic pneumatics for machine operators

P111

Fundamentals of pneumatics and electropneumatics

P121

Maintenance and troubleshooting for pneumatic and electropneumatic systems

P-OP

Tracking down wastage economic use of pneumatics

P-NEU

Pneumatic refresher and update

IW-PEP

Repair and maintenance in the field of control technology pneumatic and electropneumatic systems

P-AL

Pneumatics for further education

P-AZUBI

Pneumatics and electropneumatics for trainees

Please refer to the current seminar planner for locations, dates and prices.
Youll find further training materials in our catalogue and on the Internet. The training system for automation
and technology is continuously updated and expanded. Transparencies, videos, CD ROMs and DVDs, as well
as textbooks, are offered in several languages.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Learning objectives for the basic level (TP101)

Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a 3/2-way valve.
Be able to recognise and sketch the various types of actuation for directional control valves.
Be able to explain and set up direct actuation.
Be able to analyse and evaluate circuits.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a 5/2-way valve.
Be able to explain and set up indirect actuation.
Become familiar with the mode of operation of a 5/2-way valve with pneumatic actuation.
Become familiar with the difference between a signalling element and a control element.
Be able to measure pressure in pneumatic control systems.
Be able to differentiate between the various types of flow control and use them in accordance with
specifications.
Be able to adjust cylinder advancing and retracting speeds.
Become familiar with one type of signal storage in pneumatic control systems.
Be able to explain and implement AND/OR/NOT logic operations.
Be able to explain and set up latching circuits.
Become familiar with one option for end-position sensing in cylinders.
Be able to combine logic operations.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a magnetic proximity switch.
Be able to differentiate between 5/2-way valves and to select and use them in accordance with
specifications.
Be able to further develop existing circuits.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a pressure sequence valve.
Be able to set up pressure-dependent control systems.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a pressure regulator.
Be able to analyse existing circuits and optimise them in accordance with specifications.
Become familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a time delay valve.
Be able to set up circuits with oscillating motion.
Be able to use time delay valves in accordance with specific constraints.
Be able to analyse and set up circuits with two cylinders.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XI

Overview of learning objectives per exercise


Exercise

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Learning Objective
Become familiar with the set-up
and mode of operation of a
single-acting cylinder.
Become familiar with the set-up
and mode of operation of a 3/2way valve.
Be able to recognise and sketch
the various types of actuation for
directional control valves.
Be able to explain and set up
direct actuation.
Be able to analyse and evaluate
circuits.

Become familiar with the set-up


and mode of operation of a
double-acting cylinder.

Become familiar with the set-up


and mode of operation of a
5/2-way valve.
Be able to explain and set up
indirect actuation.

Become familiar with the


difference between a signalling
element and a control element.
Be able to measure pressure in
pneumatic control systems.

Be able to differentiate between


the various types of flow control
and use them in accordance with
specifications.
Be able to adjust cylinder
advancing and retracting speeds.

XII

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Learning Objective
Become familiar with one type of
signal storage in pneumatic
control systems.
Be able to explain and implement
AND/OR/NOT logic operations.

Be able to explain and set up

latching circuits.
Become familiar with one option

for end-position sensing in


cylinders.
Be able to combine logic
operations.
Become familiar with the set-up

and mode of operation of a


magnetic proximity switch.
Be able to differentiate between
5/2-way valves and to select and

use them in accordance with


specifications.
Be able to further develop
existing circuits.

Become familiar with the set-up


and mode of operation of a
pressure sequence valve.
Be able to set up pressuredependent control systems.

Become familiar with the set-up


and mode of operation of a
pressure regulator.

Become familiar with the set-up


and mode of operation of a time
delay valve.
Be able to set up circuits with
oscillating motion.

Be able to use time delay valves


in accordance with specific
constraints.
Be able to analyse and set up
circuits with two cylinders.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XIII

Equipment set for the basic level (TP101)


The equipment set has been put together for basic training in the field of pneumatic control technology. It
includes all the components that are necessary for mastering the specific learning objectives and can be
supplemented with any other equipment sets. A profile plate and a source of compressed air are also
required in order to set up functional control systems.
Equipment set for the basic level (TP101)

XIV

Quantity

Designation

Order no.

3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed

152866

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally open

152861

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

152860

3/2-way valve with selector switch, normally closed

152863

3/2-way valve, pneumatically actuated at one end

576302

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatically actuated at both ends

576303

5/2-way valve with selector switch

152862

5/2-way valve, pneumatically actuated at one end

576307

Double-acting cylinder

152888

One-way flow control valve

193967

Pressure gauge

152865

Pressure regulator with pressure gauge

539756

Pressure sequence valve

152884

Single-acting cylinder

152887

On-off valve with filter regulator

540691

Plastic tubing, 4 x 0.75, silver, 10 m

151496

Pneumatic proximity switch with cylinder mounting

539775

Pneumatic timer, normally closed

540694

Quick exhaust valve

539772

10

Push-in sleeve

153251

10

Push-in T-connector

153128

Distributor block

152896

Shuttle valve (OR)

539771

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

539770

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Equipment set symbols


Designation

Symbol

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally open

5/2-way valve with selector switch

3/2-way valve with selector switch

Pressure gauge

3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed

1
Pneumatic proximity switch

3/2-way valve, pneumatically actuated at one end

2
12

5/2-way valve, pneumatically actuated at one end

14
5

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatically actuated at both


ends

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XV

Designation

Symbol

Shuttle valve
2
1

Dual-pressure valve

2
1

Pneumatic timer, normally closed

2
t
1

Quick exhaust valve

2
1

One-way flow control valve

Pressure sequence valve

12

Single-acting cylinder

Double-acting cylinder

XVI

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Designation

Symbol

On-off valve with filter regulator

1
2

Pressure regulator with pressure gauge

Distributor block

Connectors

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XVII

Allocation of equipment per exercise


Exercise

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

Equipment
Cylinder, single-acting
Cylinder, double-acting

1
1

One-way flow control valve

Quick exhaust valve

Pressure gauge
3/2-way valve, pushbutton,
normally closed

3/2-way valve, pushbutton,

1
2
2

1
1

normally open
3/2-way valve, selector
switch, normally closed

3/2-way roller lever valve,


normally closed

Pneumatic proximity switch

3/2-way pneumatic valve

3/2-way pneumatic double


pilot valve
5/2-way valve, selector

switch
5/2-way pneumatic valve

5/2-way pneumatic double


pilot valve

Shuttle valve

Dual-pressure valve

1
1

1
2

1
2

Pressure sequence valve

Pressure regulator with

pressure gauge
Time delay valve, normally
closed

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter

regulator

XVIII

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Practical tools for the trainer


Learning objectives
The basic learning objectives for the exercises in this module are the systematic sketching of circuit diagrams
as well as the practical set-up of a control system on the profile plate. This direct interaction involving both
theory and practice ensures faster, long-term learning. Each exercise has its own individual learning objectives;
the specific learning objectives are documented in the matrix.
Required time
The time required for the exercises depends on the learners previous knowledge of the subject matter. For
training a skilled labourer in metalworking or electrical installation: approx. 2 weeks. For training a
technician or engineer: approx. 1 week.
Equipment sets
The exercises and the equipment sets matched each other. For all 19 exercises youll only need the
components included in the equipment set for TP101 basic level.
Each exercise in the basic level can be set up on a profile plate.

Structure of the exercises


All 19 exercises have the same structure and are broken down into:
Title
Learning objectives
Presentation of the problem
Parameters
Project assignment
Layout
Worksheets
The solutions for all the 19 exercises are included in the trainers manual.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XIX

Designations of the components


Pneumatic components are designated in circuit diagrams to DIN ISO 1219 2. All the components included
in any given circuit have the same primary identifying number. Letters are assigned depending on each
respective type of component. Consecutive numbers are assigned if several components of the same type
are included within a single circuit. Pressure lines are designated with a P and are numbered separately.
Cylinders:
Valves:
Sensors:
Signal inputs:
Accessories:

1A1, 2A1, 2A2 ...


1V1, 1V2, 1V3, 2V1, 2V2, 3V1 ...
1B1, 1B2 ...
1S1, 1S2 ...
0Z1, 0Z2, 1Z1 ...

CD ROM contents
The CD ROM provides you with additional media. The worksheets and solutions have been saved as PDF
files on the CD ROM that is included with the trainers manual.
The CD ROM contains the following folders:
Operating instructions
Demo
Festo catalogue
FluidSIM circuit diagrams
Industrial applications
Presentations
Product information
Videos
Operating instructions
Operating instructions for the various components included in the technology module are available. These
instructions are helpful when using and commissioning the equipment.
FluidSIM demo version
A demo version of the FluidSIM pneumatics software package is included on the CD ROM. Even this demo
version is suitable for testing control systems developed by the user.

XX

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Festo catalogue
The relevant pages from the Festo catalogue will be provided with selected components. The
representations and descriptions of the components are intended to demonstrate how the components are
presented in an industrial catalogue. Additional information regarding the components is also included.
FluidSIM circuit diagrams
The FluidSIM circuit diagrams for all 19 exercises included in the technology module are contained in this
directory.
Industrial applications
Photos and graphics representing industrial applications are made available. These can be used to illustrate
individual tasks. Project presentations can also be supplemented with these illustrations.
Presentations
Contains short presentations of the components included in the technology module. These can be used, for
example, to create project presentations.
Product information
This directory contains product information and data sheets from Festo for the components included in the
technology module. This is intended to demonstrate which information and data are available for industrial
components.
Videos
Several videos of industrial applications complete the media provided with the technology module. Short
clips demonstrate the applications in their actual industrial environments.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XXI

Equipment set for the advanced level (TP102)


The equipment set for the advanced level has been put together for further training in the field of pneumatic
control technology. The two equipment sets (TP101 and TP102) include components that are necessary for
mastering the predefined learning objectives and can be supplemented as required with other equipment
sets from the training system for automation and technology.
Equipment set for the advanced level (TP102)

XXII

Quantity

Designation

Order no.

3/2-way roller lever valve with idle return, normally closed

152867

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

152860

3/2-way valve with mushroom actuator (red), normally open

152864

3/2-way valve, pneumatically actuated at one end

576302

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatically actuated at both ends

576303

Double-acting cylinder

152888

One-way flow control valve

193967

Plastic tubing, 4 x 0.75, silver, 10 m

151496

Pneumatic timer, normally open

539759

Non-return valve, piloted non-return function

540715

Back pressure limit valve

152868

10

Push-in sleeve

153251

Stepper module

152886

20

Push-in T-connector

153128

Pneumatic preset counter

152877

Shuttle valve (OR)

539771

Shuttle valve, 3-way (OR)

152882

Dual-pressure valve, 3-way (AND)

152883

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Learning objectives for the advanced level (TP102)

Detect end-positions without limit switches


Understand and set up flip-flop circuits (flip-flop, double pilot valve)
Convert a 3/2 and/or a 5/2-way valve
Evaluate, use and adjust various sensors
Explain the function of a back pressure end stop
Explain the function of stepper modules
Develop basic sequence control systems (continuous cycle)
Implement a sequence control system with the following operating modes: automatic/manual, start and
reset
Implement an OR operation for feedback signals
Set and coordinate delays
Be able to abort delay times with an OR operation
Implement a sequence control system with idle step (3 steps)
Describe and set up variable step repetition within a motion sequence using a preset counter
Develop an input circuit with self-latching loop including the following functions: automatic/manual,
start, stop (at end of cycle) and reset
Evaluate and use sensors for material sensing
Actuate the final control element with two steps via a shuttle valve (double cylinder stroke)
Use a proximity switch within the stroke sub-range in order to reverse cylinder motion
Development of an input circuit for a sequence control system with secure pilot air, as well as start,
emergency stop and reset functions
Stop the cylinder within the sub-stroke range (positioning) by pressurising at both ends (preloading)
Adjust proximity switches in the end positions and within the sub-stroke range
Combined use of quick exhaust valve and pressure regulator with pressure gauge
Set up an inverted timer signal
Implement a control system with guide features in combination with sequence control

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

XXIII

XXIV

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder.
Youll be able to calculate the piston force of a single-acting cylinder.
Be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a normally closed 3/2-way valve.
Be able to recognise and sketch the various types of actuation for directional control valves.
Be able to explain and set up direct actuation.

Presentation of the problem


Presses are used to press cheeses into moulds during the production process. Develop a control system
with which this process can be executed

Layout

Cheese production

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Parameters
Use a double-acting cylinder.
Pneumatically control the cylinder using a manually actuated valve.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Project assignment
Describe the mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder.
Describe the mode of operation of a normally closed 3/2-way valve.
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the pressing tool.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Procedure
The cheeses are placed into the tool manually.
When the pushbutton is activated, the cylinder advances and presses the cover onto the tool.
The pushbutton is pressed and held until the pressing operation has been completed.
When the pushbutton is released, the cylinder is retracted and the tool can be accessed.
The cheese can be removed.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit for this exercise to a maximum of3.5 bar (350 kPa). Immediately
deactivate compressed air supply if the tubing slips off.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Set-up and mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder


1

Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a single-acting cylinder

Compare the circuit symbol shown above with the schematic diagram of the single-acting cylinder.
Determine whether or not the two representations coincide with each other.
The two representations coincide with each other.

Describe the set-up and mode of operation of a single-acting cylinder.


The compressed air flows into the cylinders piston chamber. Pressure is built up in the chamber and
force is applied to the surface of the piston as a result. If this force exceeds static friction, the piston is
advanced. Pressure is not built up to full operating pressure until the piston is fully advanced.
When this pressure drops, the integrated return spring forces the piston back into its initial position.
Spring force is not great enough to move heavy loads attached to the piston rod. Hence single-acting
cylinders only perform work in a single direction.

Match up each component with the corresponding number from the above drawing.

Component

Designation

Cylinder barrel

End cap

Bearing cap

Piston rod

Piston

Spring return

Supply port

Exhaust port

Table of component designations

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Calculate the piston force of a single-acting cylinder


Theoretical piston force is calculated using the following formula:
Fth
Fth
A

=
=
=
=

p
D

=
=

Ap
theoretical piston force (N)
effective piston surface (sq. metres)
D2
)
4
working pressure (Pa)
(

cylinder diameter (m)

Piston force Feff is important in actual practice. Frictional resistance has to be taken into consideration when
calculating piston force. Under normal operating conditions (pressure range of 4 to 8 bar or 400 to 800 kPa),
it is assumed that friction forces (FR) amount to roughly 10% of the theoretical piston force.
The following applies to the effective piston force of single-acting cylinders:
Feff
Feff
FR
FF

=
=
=
=

A p (FR + FF)
effective piston force (N)
friction force (approx. 10% of Fth ) (N)
return spring force (N)

Calculate the effective piston force for the advance stroke of the used cylinder with a working pressure
of 6 bar (600 kPa).

A= (

0.022 3.14
) = 0.000314
4

Feff = 0.9 A p FF
Feff = 0.9 (0.000314) 600,000 13.6
Feff = 169.56 13.6 = 155.96 N

Note
TThe piston diameter of the used cylinder is 20 mm and spring return force is 13.6 N.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Mode of operation of a normally closed 3/2-way valve

Complete the circuit symbol of a manually actuated, normally closed 3/2-way valve with spring return.

3
2

Circuit symbol and schematic representation of a normally closed 3/2-way valve

Describe the mode of operation of the 3/2-way valve.


A 3/2-way valve has 3 ports and 2 switching positions. Its represented in the normal position.
Normally closed means that compressed air cannot flow through the valve. When the pushbutton is
actuated the valve is opened, thus allowing air to flow and the piston of a connected cylinder is
advanced.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the control system and enter the port designations.
1A1

1S1

3
0Z2

0Z1

1
2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
Valve 1S1 is closed in its initial position. The piston rod of cylinder 1A1 is retracted.

Step 1-2
When the pushbutton on 3/2-way valve 1S1 is pressed, compressed air flows into the piston chamber of
cylinder 1A1 and the piston rod is advanced.

Step 2-3
When the pushbutton is released, valve 1S1 is exhausted and cylinder 1A1 returns to its initial position
due to force applied by the return spring.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 1: Pressing cheeses

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components and their quantities in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, single-acting

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally open

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Equipment list

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a normally open 3/2-way valve.
Be able to recognise and sketch the various types of actuation for directional control valves.
Be able to explain and set up direct actuation.

Presentation of the problem


The slide of a fodder silo is to be opened by pressing a pushbutton. When the pushbutton is released, the
slide is once again closed.

Layout

Fodder silo

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo

Parameters
A single-acting cylinder is to be used.
The cylinder will be pneumatically controlled using a pushbutton.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Project assignment
Answer the questions on the normally open 3/2-way valve.
Create the pneumatic circuit diagram for controlling the slide.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create the equipment list.

Procedure
1. When the pushbutton is activated, the cylinder is retracted to the retracted end position.
2. The pushbutton is pressed and held for as long as the slide is to remain open.
3. When the pushbutton is released, the cylinder is advanced and the slide closes the opening in the silo.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

10

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo

Mode of operation of a 3/2 way valve

Complete the circuit symbol of the 3/2-way valve. It needs to include the following functions: manual
actuation, spring return, normally open.
2

Circuit symbol, 3/2-way valve, normally open

1
3

Schematic representation of a 3/2-way valve, normally open

Explain the mode of operation of a 3/2-way valve, normally open.


A normally open 3/2-way valve has 3 controlled ports and 2 switching positions. Its represented in the
normal position.
This is a normally open variant of the valve. This means that compressed air flows through the valve to
the cylinder and holds the cylinders piston in the advanced end position. When the pushbutton is
activated, the valve stops the flow of compressed air, the cylinder is exhausted via the valve and the
piston is retracted.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

11

Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo

Change the pneumatic circuit diagram

Change the pneumatic circuit diagram for the control system and enter the port designations.
1A1

1S1

3
0Z2

0Z1

1
2

Circuit diagram

Note
Please note that control systems must be represented in their initial positions.

12

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
The 3/2-way valve is open in the free-flow direction and the piston chamber is pressurised. The piston at
cylinder 1A1 is advanced.

Step 1-2
If pushbutton 1S1 is activated, the piston is exhausted via the 3/2-way valve and cylinder 1A1 is
retracted.

Step 2-3
When the pushbutton is released, the spring forces the 3/2-way valve into its initial position, the piston
chamber is once again pressurised and cylinder 1A1 advances again.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit for this control system to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa).

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

13

Exercise 2: Opening a fodder silo

Change the equipment list

Change the equipment list shown below such that it corresponds with the requirements for this control
system.

Quantity

Designation

Compressed air source

Distributor block
Tubing material

Single-acting cylinder

3/2-way valve, manually actuated, normally closed

Equipment list

Quantity

Designation

Compressed air source

Distributor block
Tubing material

Single-acting cylinder

3/2-way valve, manually actuated, normally open

Equipment list

14

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to recognise and sketch the various types of actuation for directional control valves.
Be able to explain and set up direct actuation.
Be able to analyse and optimise control systems.

Presentation of the problem


Boards are manually laid on the saw bench where they are cut to length with a circular saw. The sawing
operation is controlled from a separate control panel and thus the boards are pneumatically clamped to the
saw bench. The control system is implemented with only one cylinder for the test set-up.

Layout

Sawing fixture

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

15

Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench

Parameters
Use one of the control systems from the previous exercises and modify it for this task.
Use, by way of example, only one single-acting cylinder to design the control system.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project assignment
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the clamping tool.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Change the equipment list.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Procedure
A board is manually laid on the saw bench.
After activating a switch, the cylinder advances and clamps the board.
The cylinder remains in the advanced position, even when the switch has been released.
After turning the switch back to its initial position, the cylinder is retracted to the retracted end position,
where it remains until the switch is activated again.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

16

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagrams shown below by entering the required type of actuation.
a)

b)

Circuit diagram

Select the best control system and justify your answer.


The correct solution is a).
Reason:
The cylinder has to be in its retracted end position when the switch is deactivated.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

17

Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
The valves free-flow direction is closed. The cylinders piston rod is retracted.

Step 1-2
When selector switch 1S1 is activated, compressed air flows into the piston chamber and the cylinder is
advanced.

Step 2-3
When the selector switch is reset, the valve is exhausted and the cylinder returns to its initial position
due to force applied by the return spring.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit for this control system to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa).

18

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench

Change the equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Change the equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, single-acting

3/2-way valve with switch, normally closed

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Changed equipment list

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

19

Exercise 3: Clamping boards to a saw bench

20

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 4: Sorting packages


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder.
Be able to calculate the piston force of a double-acting cylinder for both the advance and the return
strokes.
Be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a 5/2-way valve.

Presentation of the problem


Packages are sorted manually from a roller conveyor into large containers at a sorting station. When the
containers are full, theyre removed and new containers are provided. At this point the material flow should be
interrupted, but the roller conveyor continues to run. The material flow is interrupted by mechanical blocking
(slide). The slide has to be operated at the sorting station.

Layout

Sorting station

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

21

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Parameters
A double-acting cylinder will be used, because work is carried out during both the advance and the
return strokes.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Project assignment
Describe the set-up of a double-acting cylinder.
Describe the mode of operation of a 5/2-way valve.
Create a pneumatic circuit diagram for the package blocking slide.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. When the selector switch is activated, the cylinder advances and pushes the slide into the flow of
material.
2. The cylinder remains in this position after releasing the selector switch and the material flow remains
interrupted.
3. After turning the selector switch to its initial position, the cylinder moves to its retracted end position
and the material flow is resumed. The cylinder remains in this position until the selector switch is
activated again.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

22

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Set-up of a double-acting cylinder


1

Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a double-acting cylinder

Compare the circuit symbol shown above with the schematic diagram of the double-acting cylinder.
Determine whether or not the two illustrations are the same.
The two illustrations are the same.

Make a note of the characteristics of a single-acting and a double-acting cylinder designs that are the
same as well as those that are different.
Both cylinder designs include cylinder barrel, piston and piston rod.
The double-acting cylinder doesnt have a return spring.
The double-acting cylinder has 2 supply ports.

Match the numbers from the schematic drawing with the individual components of the double-acting
cylinder.

Component

Designation

Supply port, piston chamber

Piston

Cylinder barrel

Supply port, piston rod chamber

Piston rod

Bearing cap

End cap

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

23

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder

Describe the mode of operation of a double-acting cylinder.


As opposed to a single-acting cylinder, more air is consumed. As the piston surfaces differ in size, the
forces vary with identical pressure.

Forward stroke
Compressed air flows into the cylinder through the piston chamber supply port. Pressure is built up in the
chamber and force is applied to the surface of the piston as a result. If this force exceeds static friction,
the piston is advanced. Air in the piston rod chamber escapes through the port at the piston rod end.
Pressure is not built up to full force until the piston is fully advanced.

Return stroke
After reversing, air flows through the supply port at the piston rod chamber where it builds up pressure
until the piston rod is retracted. Air escapes from the piston chamber through the piston chamber port.

24

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Calculate the piston force for the advance and return strokes
Theoretical piston force is calculated using the following formula:
Fth

Ap

The following applies to double-acting cylinders:


Advance stroke
Feff
=
(A p) FR
Return stroke
Feff
=
(A' p) FR
Feff
A

A'

=
=

effective piston force (N)


effective piston surface (m2)

effective piston ring surface (m2)

=
p
FR
D
d

=
=
=
=

D2
)
4

(D 2 d 2 )

working pressure (Pa)


friction force (approx. 10% of Fth ) (N)
cylinder diameter (m)
piston rod diameter (m)

Calculate the effective piston force for the advance and return strokes of the cylinder with a working
pressure of 6 bar (600 kPa).
Forward stroke
Feff
Feff
Feff

=
=
=

(A p) FR
0.9 A p
0.9 0.000314 600,000

Feff

169.66 N

Return stroke
Feff
Feff
Feff

=
=
=

(A' p) FR
0.9 (0.000314 0.00005024) 600,000
0.9 0.00026376 600,000

Feff

142.4 N

Note
The piston diameter of the cylinder is 20 mm and the piston rod diameter is 8 mm.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

25

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Determine the requirements for the directional control valve

Write down the requirements for the directional control valve.


Compressed air must be available in both switching positions, because the double-acting cylinder cannot
be retracted without compressed air. Venting of the other cylinder chamber must be ensured in each
case.

Indicate why the directional control valve has to be actuated with a switch.
A switch has to be used because a pushbutton cannot be held in the activated position for as long as it
takes to replace the containers.

26

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Mode of operation of a 5/2 way valve

Complete the circuit symbol of a manually actuated, 5/2-way valve with spring return and locking
function, and enter the port designations.

3
5

Circuit symbol and schematic representation of a 5/2-way valve

Describe the mode of operation of a 5/2-way valve when valve port 2 is connected to the piston rod end
of a double-acting cylinder.
Mode of operation of a 5/2 way valve, unactuated
When the 5/2-way valve is not actuated, the return spring holds the valve in its initial position. The piston
rod end of the cylinder is pressurised and the piston rod is retracted.

Mode of operation of a 5/2 way valve, actuated


When the 5/2-way valve is actuated, the force of the valve return spring is overcome and the valve is
reversed. In this state, the supply port is connected to the piston end of the cylinder via the valve while
the piston rod end is exhausted via the valve. Pressure which is built up at the piston end causes the
piston rod to advance. As soon as the piston rod has reached its advanced end position, maximum
operating pressure is built up at the piston end of the cylinder.

Actuation with a switch


If the valve is actuated with a switch, the valve remains in either of its positions until the switch is
reversed again.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

27

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Complete the circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1

1S1

3
0Z2

0Z1

1
2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

28

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

5/2-way valve with selector switch

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

29

Exercise 4: Sorting packages

30

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to explain and set up indirect actuation.
Be familiar with the mode of operation of a 5/2-way valve with pneumatic actuation.
Be familiar with the difference between a signalling element and a control element.

Presentation of the problem


A filling system fills bottles with milk. The bottles are fed to the system on a conveyor belt and are stopped
underneath the filler using a pneumatic cylinder. The positioning accuracy of the stopping operation will be
checked during a test set-up. The stopping operation will be activated at the systems control panel.

Layout

Milk bottle filling system

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

31

Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles

Parameters
Stopping of the material flow will be carried out at a central control panel.
As compressed air is available at the control panel, a pneumatic solution will be used.
The control valve for the cylinder will be pneumatically actuated.

Project assignment
1. Determine the requirements for the control system with regard to actuating components and the control
element.
2. Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for stopping the material flow.
3. Set up the control system.
4. Double-check the control system configuration.
5. Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
6. Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. When the selector switch is activated, the cylinder advances and pushes the slide into the flow of
material, thus stopping the bottles.
2. After setting the selector switch back to its initial position, the cylinder is in its retracted end position
and once again enables material flow.
3. The cylinder remains in this position until the selector switch is activated again.

Additional task
Explain the term indirect control.

32

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below and enter the missing connection and component
designations.
1A1

1V1

14
5
1S1

3
0Z2

0Z1

1
2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Note
The on-off valve with filter regulator and the distributor block are not shown. These components are
required in order to set up the control system.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

33

Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles

Sequence description

Explain the mode of operation of the control system by describing its operating sequence.
Initial position
The signalling element and the control element are in the position generated by the return spring.

Step 1-2
When the selector switch at the 3/2-way valve 1S1 is actuated, pneumatic control port 14 at 5/2-way
valve 1V1 is pressurised with compressed air. The 5/2-way valve is reversed as a result. The left-hand
port (piston end) of the double-acting cylinder is pressurised with compressed air, and the right-hand
port (piston rod end) is exhausted. The cylinder advances.

Step 2-3
When the selector switch is returned to its initial position, the compressed air supply to the 3/2-way
valve is blocked, the 5/2-way valve looses pressure at control port 14 and the valve piston is returned to
its initial position by the return spring. The piston end of the cylinder is thus exhausted and the piston
rod end is pressurised with compressed air. The cylinder travels to its retracted end position.

34

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

Pneumatic 5/2-way valve with spring return

Normally closed 3/2-way valve with selector switch

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

35

Exercise 5: Stopping milk bottles

Additional task

Explain the term indirect control.


Indirect control
Cylinders with large piston diameters have high air consumption rates. Control elements with high
nominal flow rates must be used to actuate them. If the force is too great for manual actuation of the
valve, indirect actuation must be set up. In doing so, a signal is generated by a second, smaller valve,
which then provides the force required in order to switch the control element.

36

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to measure pressure in pneumatic control systems.
Be able to differentiate between the various types of flow control and use them in accordance with
specifications.

Presentation of the problem


The gate in a pipeline needs to be opened and closed. Actuation is via a valve with selector switch. A
double-acting cylinder will be used as an actuator.

Layout

Wastewater treatment

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

37

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

Parameters
The gate must be opened and closed slowly because the pipeline would otherwise be overloaded (the
forming of waves should be avoided).
The speed of the opening and closing strokes should be steady.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Project assignment
Create a pneumatic circuit.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.
Observe pressure conditions upstream and downstream of the flow control and document them.

Procedure
1. When the selector switch is activated, the cylinder is advanced and opens the gate.
2. When the selector switch is returned to its initial position, the cylinder is retracted to its initial position
and the gate is closed.

Additional tasks
At which pressure level do you observe jerking motion?
Explain how jerking motion occurs.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

38

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

Mode of operation of a one-way flow control valve

2
Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a one-way flow control valve

Describe the mode of operation of a one-way flow control valve.


Air is restricted in one direction only with a one-way flow control valve. The non-return valve inhibits the
flow of air in one direction and air can only flow through the selected cross-section. Air flows freely in the
other direction through the open non-return valve. These valves are used primarily for controlling the
speed of the pneumatic cylinders. The speed of the piston rod can be controlled with one-way flow
control valves by adjusting the volumetric flow rate.

Describe two types of flow control used with double-acting cylinders.


Supply air flow control
In the case of supply air flow control, the one-way flow control valves are installed such that air being fed
to the cylinder is restricted. Exhaust air can escape freely on the downstream side via the non-return
valve. Feed speed irregularities occur as the result of even the smallest load fluctuations at the piston
rod, for example in the case of limit switch overtravel. A load in the direction of cylinder motion
accelerates the cylinder beyond the selected value.

Exhaust air flow control


In the case of exhaust air flow control, supply air flows freely to the cylinder and the flow control in the
exhaust line resists the escaping air. The piston is held between two air cushions, which are generated as
a result of supply air pressure and resistance caused by the flow control. This one-way flow control valve
arrangement contributes significantly to improved feed characteristics. Exhaust air flow control should be
used with double-acting cylinders.

Explain how a one-way flow control valve is tested for correct functioning.
A one-way flow control valve is tested for correct functioning by means of two pressure gauges. The
pressure gauges are connected directly upstream and downstream from the valve under test.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

39

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

Create the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below. Complete the symbols for the one-way flow control valves..
Observe the specified basic conditions when doing so.
1A1

1Z2

1V1

1Z1

1S1

1V2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

40

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components and their quantities in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

Pressure gauge

5/2-way valve with selector switch

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

41

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its operating sequence.


Initial position
In the initial position, the piston is in the retracted end position. The piston chamber is exhausted via
5/2-way valve 1S1.

Step 1-2
When the 5/2-way valve is reversed, the piston chamber in the cylinder is pressurised via the one-way
flow control valve. The cylinder travels to its advanced end position.

Step 2-3
After resetting the switch, the cylinders piston rod chamber is pressurised via the one-way flow control
valve and the 5/2-way valve. The cylinder travels to its retracted end position.
The required retraction time is adjusted with the one-way flow control valve. Use a stopwatch to this end.

42

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

Additional tasks

At which pressure level do you observe jerking motion?


Jerking motion occurs in the case of very low operating pressure or excessive restriction.

Explain how jerking motion occurs.


Its caused by pressure building up and working against static friction and sliding friction. Pressure builds
up at the stationary piston and works against static friction. If force due to pressure exceeds the friction
coefficient, the piston is advanced and minimal sliding friction comes into play. But then the air increases
again and pressure drops, because it cant be built back up quickly enough; the piston stops. This
sequence is repeated. The piston stammers.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

43

Exercise 6: Opening and closing a pipeline

44

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to adjust cylinder advancing and retracting speeds.
Be able to differentiate between the various types of flow control and use them appropriately.

Presentation of the problem


A filling system fills bottles with milk. The pipes through which the milk flows are opened and closed using a
gate. The gate should be opened slowly in order to prevent any spillage at the beginning of the filling
process. Closing, on the other hand, should take place as quickly as possible.

Layout

Milk bottle filling

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

45

Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline

Basic condition
Speed control should enable a smooth opening process.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Project assignment
Select the appropriate type of flow control.
Create a pneumatic circuit diagram for the shut-off mechanism.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. A gate valve is opened slowly after activating a selector switch.
2. The gate valve is closed quickly when the selector switch is returned to its initial position.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline

Select the type of flow control


Determine whether supply air or exhaust air flow control is required for the application.

Justify your selection and write your reasons down.


Exhaust air flow control is the right selection for the application. Load-independent, uniform feed speed
is ensured by means of exhaust air flow control.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

47

Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline

Create the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below. Observe the specific constraints when doing so.
1A1

1V1

1S1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

48

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline

Create an equipment list

Create an equipment list by entering the required components and their quantities in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way valve with selector switch

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

49

Exercise 7: Shutting off a pipeline

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its operating sequence.


Initial position
The pistons initial position is the retracted rear end position. The piston chamber is exhausted via 5/2way valve 1S1.

Step 1-2
When the 5/2-way valve is reversed, the piston chamber in the cylinder is pressurised with compressed
air. The piston rod chamber is exhausted via 5/2-way valve 1S1. The cylinder travels slowly to its
advanced end position. The required advancing time is adjusted with the one-way flow control valve.

Step 2-3
After resetting the switch, the cylinders piston rod chamber is pressurised via the one-way flow control
valve and the 5/2-way valve is pressurised without flow control. The piston chamber is exhausted via
5/2-way valve 1S1. The cylinder travels to its retracted end position.

Note
This control system works with exhaust air flow control. Use a stopwatch in order to set the required time
value. The setting can be secured with a lock nut.

50

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
Youll be familiar with one type of signal storage in pneumatic control systems.
Youll be able to adjust cylinder advancing and retracting speeds.

Presentation of the problem


The gate in a filling system for plastic pellets needs to be closed quickly. However, it should be opened slowly.

Layout

Plastic pellet filling system

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

51

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

Parameters
A double-acting cylinder will be used.
The closing operation should be executed by the cylinders forward stroke.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Project assignment
Describe the mode of operation of a quick exhaust valve.
Describe the mode of operation of a 5/2-way double pilot valve.
Draw a pneumatic circuit diagram for the shut-off mechanism.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. A shut-off mechanism (ball valve) is opened slowly after activating a pushbutton.
2. The shut-off mechanism is closed quickly after activating a second pushbutton.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

52

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

Mode of operation of a quick exhaust valve


3

2
1

Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a quick exhaust valve

Describe the mode of operation of a quick exhaust valve.


Increased piston speeds during the return stroke can be achieved with single and double-acting cylinders
using quick exhaust valves, because flow resistance is thus reduced for the exhaust air.
Compressed air flows from the pilot valve to the cylinder via the quick exhaust valve. Exhaust port 3 is
closed at this time.
When pressure at port 1 drops, exhaust flow occurs from 2 to 3. In order to implement optimised quick
exhaust, the valve must be connected directly to the cylinders supply port.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

53

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

Mode of operation of a 5/2-way double pilot valve

14

12

Schematic diagram of a 5/2-way double pilot valve

Explain the mode of operation of the 5/2-way double pilot valve.


A 5/2-way double pilot valve has 5 working ports and 2 switching positions. The valve is equipped with a
latching function; a short signal (pulse) suffices for reversal.
The valve piston is moved to the opposite switching position by means of a compressed air pulse at one
of the two pilot ports (12/14). The valve piston is held in this position by the compressed air at the
working port until a compressed air pulse at the other side of the valve reverses the valve back to its
previous position. If signals are present at both pilot ports, the first signal to arrive is dominant.
A pneumatic signal at pilot port 12 causes flow from port 1 to port 2. A pneumatic signal at pilot port 14
causes flow from port 1 to port 4.

Describe the performance of the valve depicted above when port 14 is briefly pressurised with
compressed air.
When port 14 is pressurised, the valve piston is moved to the right and directs compressed air from port
1 to port 4. Port 2 is exhausted via port 3. When port 14 is once again unpressurised, the valve position
remains in this position by compressed air from port 1.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

Complete the circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1

1Z1
1V3
1V2

1V1

2
12

1S2

14

1S1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

55

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
The pistons initial position should be the retracted end position. The piston chamber is exhausted via
5/2-way double pilot valve 1V1 and the piston rod chamber is pressurised. If the piston is in the
advanced end position, it has to be moved to the retracted end position by actuating 1S2.

Step 1-2
After actuating 3/2-way valve 1S1, the 5/2-way double pilot valve is reversed and the cylinders piston
chamber is pressurised via the one-way flow control valve. The double-acting cylinder travels to its
advanced end position. The piston rod chamber is vented via the quick exhaust valve. The piston remains
in this end position, even when 1S1 is released again.

Step 2-3
The 5/2-way double pilot valve is reversed by actuating 3/2-way valve 1S2. The cylinders piston rod
chamber is pressurised via the quick exhaust valve. The cylinders piston chamber is exhausted via the
one-way flow control valve and the 5/2-way double pilot valve. The cylinder travels to its retracted end
position.

Retracting time
The required retraction time is adjusted using the one-way flow control valve. Use a stopwatch to this
end. This setting can be secured with the lock nut.

56

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components to the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

Quick exhaust valve

Pressure gauge

5/2-way double pilot valve

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

57

Exercise 8: Actuating a shut-off device

58

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to expand existing control systems.
Be able to analyse a proposed solution.
Be able to implement an OR operation.

Presentation of the problem


Presses are used to press cheeses into moulds during a cheese production process. The cheese presses are
operated by using one of two pushbuttons, so that pressing can be done at the loading or unloading end.
There is a possible solution which, however, does not achieve the piston force required to press a cheese.

Layout

Cheese production

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

59

Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses

Parameters
Design pneumatic control of the cylinder using an additional manually actuated valve.
Operation should be possible using either of the valves.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Project assignment
Analyse the proposed solution.
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the pressing device.
Set up the control system.
Update the equipment list.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Procedure
The cheeses are placed into the press manually.
After actuating a pushbutton at the loading or unloading end of the system, the cylinder advances and
presses the lid onto the press.
The pushbutton is pressed and held until the pressing operation has been completed.
When the pushbutton is released, the cylinder is retracted and the press can be accessed.
The cheese can be removed.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit for this exercise to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa).

60

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses

Analyse the pneumatic circuit diagram


The required functional expansion has been achieved with the help of the control system shown below.
However, it has been noticed that the piston force required to press the cheese is not reached. Piston force
is only adequate when both pushbuttons are activated simultaneously.
1A1

Circuit diagram for proposed solution

Analyse the control system depicted above and explain why the required piston force is not achieved.
The required piston force is not reached because part of the operating pressure escapes via the exhaust
port of the unactuated valve.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

61

Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses

Mode of operation of a shuttle valve


2

2
1

Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a shuttle valve

Describe the mode of operation of the required components.


The shuttle valve is used for the OR operation. Pneumatic signals at one or both of the inputs 1 cause a
signal at the signal output 2.
If theres no input signal, theres no output signal.
If a signal is present at both inputs, the earlier signal arrives at the output.

62

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses

Complete the circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram below.


1A1

1V1
1

1S1

1S2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

63

Exercise 9: Expanding the control system for pressing cheeses

Update the equipment list


The equipment list for the original control system must be changed in order to document the current control
system.
Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, single-acting

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Existing equipment list

Fill in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, single-acting

Shuttle valve

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Updated equipment list

64

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to implement an AND operation.
Be familiar with one option for end-position sensing in cylinders.

Presentation of the problem


A rotary indexing machine is used for feeding workpieces in production process. The workpieces have to be
clamped in the individual workpiece holders for machining. A clamping tool is to be developed and tested by
means of a test set-up.

Layout

Rotary indexing machine

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

65

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

Parameters
The clamping process can only be started when the cylinder is in the retracted end position.
After activating a second pushbutton, the cylinder returns to the retracted end position and releases the
workpiece.
Pressure gauges will be installed between the one-way flow control valve and each of the cylinders two
working ports in order to indicate pressure.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Project assignment
Describe the mode of operation of a dual-pressure valve.
Describe the mode of operation of a 3/2-way roller lever valve.
Complete the pneumatic circuit.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. A double-acting cylinder can only be advanced when a pushbutton is activated and the cylinder is in the
retracted end position; otherwise its not possible to insert a workpiece for machining.
2. The clamping cylinder should be held in the advanced end position until the workpiece has been
machined. Machining time may vary.
3. The workpiece is released by pressing a second pushbutton.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3.5 bar (350 kPa) for this exercise.

Additional task
What happens if the 3/2-way roller lever valve is readjusted?

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

Mode of operation of a dual-pressure valve


2

2
1

1
1

Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a dual-pressure valve

Describe the mode of operation of a dual-pressure valve.


The dual-pressure valve is used for the AND operation. Pneumatic signals at both inputs 1 cause a signal
at output 2. If theres only one input signal or none at all, theres no output signal.
If the input signals are generated at different times, the later signal arrives at the output. If the input
signals have different pressure values, the signal with the lower pressure value arrives at the output.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

67

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

Mode of operation of a 3/2-way roller lever valve


2

Circuit symbol for a 3/2-way roller lever valve

Describe the mode of operation of a 3/2-way roller lever valve.


A 3/2-way roller lever valve has 3 working ports and 2 switching positions. The roller lever is actuated by,
for example, a trip cam on a cylinder. Reduced actuation force is achieved by means of pilot control.

Explain how the roller lever valve has to be mounted in order to ensure correct functioning of the control
system.
The roller lever valve must be mounted so that its actuated when the cylinder piston is in the retracted
end position. If the valve is mounted in front of or underneath the cylinder cam, the roller lever is not
actuated and the AND operation cannot be fulfilled. The control system is not started.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1

1B1

1Z1

1Z2

1V3

1V2

14
1V1
1

1S1

12
5

1B1

1V4

1S2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

69

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
Pressure is present. The piston chamber of the double-acting cylinder is exhausted and the piston rod
chamber is pressurised. 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B1 is actuated. The cylinder is in its retracted end
position.

Step 1-2
When 3/2-way valve 1S1 is actuated, compressed air is applied to both inputs at dual-pressure valve
1V1. Compressed air is now also present at the output of the dual-pressure valve. 5/2-way double pilot
valve 1V2 is reversed by the signal at pilot port 14. The cylinder is thus also reversed and the piston
advances. 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B1 is switched to its normal position and the output signal at the
dual-pressure valve is deactivated. The cylinder is held in the advanced end position by the self-locking
loop.

Step 2-3
After activating the pushbutton at 3/2-way valve 1S2, 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V3 is reversed again
(signal at pilot port 12). The cylinders piston rod chamber is pressurised. The cylinder travels to its
retracted end position. 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B1 is actuated again.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

Pressure gauge

5/2-way valve, double piloted

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

71

Exercise 10: Clamping a workpiece

72

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to implement a latching circuit with OR operation.

Presentation of the problem


Wire baskets are loaded with packages at a loading station. They are positioned at two supply points along
the conveyor belt so that the continuous flow of packages doesnt have to be interrupted. When one wire
basket is full, the flow of packages is diverted to the other supply point by means of a deflector, so that the
full wire basket can be removed and an empty one moved into place.

Layout

Loading cage boxes

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

73

Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets

Parameters
Material flow will be controlled by two valves with pushbutton, one for disabling and one for enabling. Due to
the fact that the pushbutton signals are of short duration, a control system must be set up which stores the
signal.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

1.
2.
3.
4.

74

Project assignment
Describe the mode of operation of a shuttle valve.
Complete the pneumatic circuit.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
When the pushbutton is activated, the cylinder advances and pushes the deflector into the flow of
material.
The cylinder remains in this position after the pushbutton has been released and the material flow is
diverted.
After activating the second pushbutton, the cylinder is retracted to the retracted end position and the
material flow reverts to the original supply point.
The cylinder remains in this position until the pushbutton is activated again.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Develop the required latching circuit and complete the circuit diagram shown below.
1A1

1V4

1V3

1V5

14
5
1V2

12
1
1S2

1
1V1
1
1S1

2
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

75

Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets

Mode of operation of a latching circuit

Describe the mode of operation of a latching circuit.


A latching circuit is used to convert a brief signal into a continuous signal. The valve group consisting of
1S1, 1S2, 1V1 and 1V2 is such a latching circuit. Activating pushbutton 1S1 causes a continuous signal at
the output of valve 1V2.

If the pushbutton at valve 1S1 is activated, shuttle valve 1V1 allows compressed air to flow. As valve 1S2
is normally open, the compressed air actuates input 12 at 3/2-way valve 1V2. As a result, input 14 at 5/2way valve 1V3 is also actuated. Directional control valve 1V3 is reversed, and the cylinders piston
advances. However, valve 1V2 is held in the actuated state at the same time by the return line to shuttle
valve 1V1.

When 3/2-way valve 1S2 is actuated, the self-latching loop is interrupted. Theres no longer a signal at
input 12 at valve 1V2, and the valve is switched to its normal position. Input 14 at 5/2-way valve 1V3 and
the return line to the shuttle valve are exhausted. Valve 1V3 is switched to its normal position and the
cylinder piston returns to its initial position.
In the event that pushbuttons 1S1 and 1S2 are both activated at the same time, theres no signal at the
output either. This type of control system is called an RS flip-flop.

76

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets

Create an equipment list

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below. Take all components
into consideration that are required for the set-up.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way valve, pneumatic, with spring return

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally open

3-2 way valve, pneumatic, normally closed

Shuttle valve (OR)

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter -regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 11: Loading wire baskets

78

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
Youll be able to combine logic operations.
Youll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a pneumatic proximity switch.
Youll be able to differentiate between 5/2-way valves and select and use them in accordance with
specifications.

Presentation of the problem


A sliding door between two rooms needs to be opened and closed using a pushbutton. Only one pushbutton
should be located at each side of the door in order to prevent operator error in case of an emergency.

Layout

Sliding door

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

79

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

Parameters
Either process can only be started when the door is in one of its end positions.
Pressure must be limited to 3 bar (300 kPa) for safety reasons (danger of pinching).

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project assignment
Create a pneumatic circuit diagram for the sliding doors control system.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
When the sliding door is in one of its defined end positions, it can be moved to the other end position by
pressing the pushbutton. The door can thus be opened and closed.
The opening and closing processes cannot be started as long as the door is not in one of its end positions.

Safety note
Limit pressure at the service unit to a maximum of 3 bar (300 kPa) for this exercise.

80

Additional tasks
What happens if compressed air supply fails during advance or return motion?
How can the control system be put back into operation, what must be done?

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

Mode of operation of a pneumatic proximity switch

S
N

N
S

Circuit symbol and schematic diagram of a pneumatic proximity switch

Describe the mode of operation of the pneumatic proximity switch.


A pneumatic proximity switch is a 3/2-way valve which is actuated by a permanent magnet mounted on
the piston of a cylinder. If the permanent magnet is in close proximity to the proximity switch, the 3/2way valve is actuated and generates a pneumatic signal. Proximity switches are mounted directly on the
cylinder barrel.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

81

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1
1B1

1V5

1V4

1B2

14

12
5

1V2

1V3
1

1V1

1S1

1B2

1S2

1B1

1V6

Pneumatic circuit diagram

82

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

Create a sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
The cylinder is in the retracted end position. Pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is actuated. A pneumatic
signal is applied to one input of dual-pressure valve 1V2.

Step 1-2
If one of the two pushbuttons is activated, shuttle valve 1V1 generates an output signal. A signal is now
applied to pilot port 14 at the 5/2-way double pilot valve and the valve is switched. The cylinder
advances.
When the cylinder reaches the advanced end position, pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is attenuated.

Step 2-3
If one of the two pushbuttons is activated, shuttle valve 1V1 generates an output signal. A signal is now
applied to pilot port 12 at the 5/2-way double pilot valve and the valve is switched. The cylinder is
retracted. When the cylinder reaches the retracted end position, pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is
attenuated.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

83

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

84

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Shuttle valve (OR)

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

Additional task: malfunction due to pressure failure


Compressed air supply to the control system fails during forward or reverse motion of the sliding door. What
happens, and how can the control system be placed back into service?

Describe the consequences of a pressure failure and explain how the control system can be placed back
into service.
The door remains in its current position. It must be manually pushed into one of its end-positions in order
to restart the control system, because otherwise the start condition is not fulfilled (door is in one of its
two end-positions).

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

85

Exercise 12: Actuating a sliding door

86

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be familiar with the NOT operation.
Be able to combine logic operations.
Be able to further develop existing control systems.

Presentation of the problem


Wooden boards need to be fed from a magazine to a machining process. Workpieces should not be pushed
out of the magazine if the picking area is occupied.

Layout

Stacking magazine

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

87

Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Parameters
A roller lever valve is used to mechanically determine whether or not a board is located in the picking
area. The cylinder is throttled while advancing and retracting.

Project assignment
Complete the pneumatic circuit.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. The ejecting process is started by means of a pushbutton when the cylinder is in its retracted end
position. The ejecting cylinder only pushes a workpiece out of the magazine when the roller lever valve
in the picking area indicates that the picking area is NOT occupied.
2. If the picking area is empty, the cylinder advances to the advanced end position with restricted exhaust
air, pushes the workpiece out and immediately returns to its retracted end position with restricted
exhaust air.

Additional task
How would you have to change the control system if the ejecting process could only start when a workpiece
is in the magazine AND the picking area is empty?

88

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards

Complete the circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1
1B1

1V4

1V3

1B2

14

12
5

1V2

1V1

1B1

1S1

1V5

1S2

1B2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Note
You can use a 3/2-way valve with selector switch in the control system instead of a 3/2-way roller lever
valve, if you want to simulate whether the picking area is empty or occupied.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

89

Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
Compressed air is present. The cylinder is in the retracted end position. Pneumatic proximity switch 1B1
is attenuated and switched to the free-flow direction. The piston rod chamber is pressurised.

Step 1-2
If the picking area is occupied, 3/2-way roller lever valve 1S2 is not actuated. Dual-pressure valve 1V1
does not generate an output signal and the 5/2-way double pilot valve cannot be reversed.
If the picking area is empty, 3/2-way roller lever valve 1S2 is actuated. Dual-pressure valve 1V1
generates an output signal. If the pushbutton at 3/2-way valve 1S1 is activated, dual-pressure valve 1V2
generates an output signal. A signal is applied to pilot port 14 at 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V3. The
5/2-way double pilot valve is reversed and the cylinder advances.

Step 2-3
Pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is attenuated and switches to the free-flow direction. A signal is applied
to pilot port 12 at the 5/2-way double pilot valve. 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V3 is switched and the
cylinder travels to its retracted end position. Pneumatic limit switch 1B1 is attenuated and switches to
the free-flow direction.

Step 3-1
Same as step 1

90

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

91

Exercise 13: Feeding wooden boards

Adapt the control system


The control system must be changed so that the ejecting process can only be started when a workpiece is in
the magazine AND the picking area is empty.

Explain how the control system has to be changed in order to meet this requirement.
An additional sensor will have to be connected for workpiece sensing. A suitable sensor is therefore
required (roller lever valve) as well as a dual-pressure valve (AND). An AND operation will be added for
the two sensors instead of using 3/2-way valve 1S2.

92

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
Youll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a pressure sequence valve.
Youll be able to set up pressure-dependent control systems.

Presentation of the problem


Beverage cans are pressed into bales so that they take up minimal storage space at a recycling plant. The
compacting process is started using a pushbutton. The return stroke can be triggered with another
pushbutton. The compacting process should only be started when enough pressure is available.

Layout

Can press

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

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Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans

Parameters
The initial position of the compacting cylinder is the retracted end position.
The compacting process should only be started when system pressure is greater than 6 bar (600 kPa).
The return stroke can be triggered manually if the compacting cylinder does not fully reach the
advanced end position due to the quantity of cans to be compacted.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project assignment
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the can press.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. A pressure sequence valve is switched when the specified pressure value is reached and supplies
compressed air to the control system. The control system should not be operable at a pressure of less
than 4.5 bar (450 kPa).
2. It should only be possible to start the compacting process using a start button when the compacting
cylinder is in the retracted end position. The compacting cylinder moves to the advanced end position or
as far as it can depending on the amount of material to be compacted.
3. The return stroke is triggered either by a limit switch or a pushbutton.

Note
The required protective guard is not shown.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans

Mode of operation of a pressure sequence valve

12

Circuit symbol for a pressure sequence valve

3 2 1

12

Schematic diagram of a pressure sequence valve

Describe the mode of operation of a pressure sequence valve.


If pressure at pilot port 12 exceeds a certain adjustable value, the actuated 3/2-way valve is switched
and compressed air is applied to working port 2.
The 3/2-way valve switches back to its initial position when pressure at the pilot port drops back below
the selected value.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1
1B1

1V6

1B2

2
1V5

14

12
5

1V3

3
1V4

2
1

1B1

1V7

1S1

1S2

1V2

1B2

12

1V1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

96

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Shuttle valve (OR)

Pressure sequence valve

Pressure regulator valve with gauge

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 14: Compacting beverage cans

Sequence description
Set up the control system and put it into operation.

Describe the control systems working sequence.


Initial position
The double-acting cylinder is in its retracted end position. Pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is actuated
and switched to the free-flow direction. Compressed air is present. The required pressure level has been
pre-selected at the pressure regulator in the service unit. The desired pressure value has been set at the
pressure sequence valve.

Step 1-2
The pushbutton at valve 1S1 is activated. The condition at dual-pressure valve 1V3 (AND) is changed to
TRUE as a result. 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V5 is switched to the operating position. The double-acting
cylinder advances.

Step 2-3
Pneumatic limit switch 1B2 is actuated and switches to the operating position. 5/2-way double pilot
valve 1V5 is reset by shuttle valve 1V4 (OR).
Alternatively, this process can be started using the pushbutton at valve 1S2. The 5/2-way double pilot
valve is reset by shuttle valve 1V4 (OR).
The double-acting cylinder returns to its initial position. The process is finished when pneumatic limit
switch 1B1 is actuated.

98

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise:
Youll be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a pressure regulator.
Youll be able to set up pressure-dependent control systems.

Presentation of the problem


Sets of 10 brochures each are to be wrapped in plastic film. The brochures have to be clamped in order for
the film to seal properly. An operating pressure of at least 4 bar (400 kPa) is required in order to be able to
clamp the brochures securely. However, the maximum operating pressure of 6 bar (600 kPa) should not be
exceeded as otherwise the brochures risk being damaged.
The advance and reverse strokes are triggered using a pushbutton. The retracted end position of the
clamping cylinder is sensed via a pneumatic proximity switch.

Layout

Brochure production

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

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Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures

Parameters
The process can only be started when the clamping cylinder is in the retracted end position.
The operating pressure has to be greater than 6 bar (600 kPa) before the control system can be started up.
The return stroke is triggered manually, because the duration of the packaging process varies.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project assignment
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the packaging unit.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. A pressure sequence valve is switched when the specified pressure value is reached and supplies
compressed air to the control system.
2. The tensioning process starts when the clamping cylinder is in the retracted end position and a
pushbutton is activated. The cylinder is advanced and remains in the advanced position.
3. The process ends when a second pushbutton is activated and the cylinder returns to the retracted end
position.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures

Mode of operation of a pressure regulator

p1

p2

1 3

Circuit symbol for a pressure regulator

Schematic diagram of a pressure regulator

Describe the mode of operation of a pressure regulator.


Input pressure (primary pressure) at the pressure regulator must always be higher than output pressure
(secondary pressure). Pressure regulation itself takes place via a diaphragm. Output pressure acts on
one side of the diaphragm and the force of a spring on the other. Spring force can be adjusted with an
adjusting screw.

If pressure at the secondary side is increased, for example due to a load change at the cylinder, the
diaphragm is pressed against the spring and the outlet cross-section of the valve seat is reduced or
closed. The valve seat of the diaphragm is opened and compressed air is able to escape into the
atmosphere through the relief ports in the housing.

If pressure drops at the secondary side, the valve is opened by the force of the spring. Thus regulating air
pressure to the pre-selected operating pressure means that the valve seat is continuously opened and
closed, which is triggered by the volume of air that flows through. Operating pressure is indicated by a
measuring instrument.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1
1B1

1V7

1V6
1V5

1
2

1V4

14

12
5

1V3

1
1B1

1
1S1

1S2

1V2

1V1

12

Pneumatic circuit diagram

102

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Pressure sequence valve

Pressure regulator (on-off valve with filter regulator).

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

103

Exercise 15: Packaging of brochures

Mode of operation of the one-way flow control valve

Describe the function of the one-way flow control valve which is connected in parallel to the pressure
regulator.
One-way flow control valve 1V5 functions as a bypass for the pressure regulator. The flow control is fully
closed. Compressed air can escape via the non-return valve when the cylinder is retracted, because its
unable to escape via the pressure regulator.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to set up pressure-dependent control systems.
Be able to analyse and optimise existing control systems.

Presentation of the problem


Locking pins are to be mounted on plug connector housings at an automated assembly machine. So far,
pressure has been set using a pressure regulator at the assembly machine. This has led to repeated
malfunctions in the assembly process.
The assembly process will now be examined using a test set-up. Each assembly step is triggered manually.
The control system will be changed so that it only functions when pressure does not exceed a certain value.

Layout

Automated assembly machine for plug connector housings

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

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Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins

Parameters
Pressure at the working port of the assembly cylinder must have a value of at least 3.5 bar (350 kPa), in
order to ensure that the locking pins are securely mounted.
It should not be possible to start the process if pressure is greater than 3.8 bar (380 kPa).
The return stroke of the assembly cylinder is started automatically when it reaches the advanced end
position.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Project assignment
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the automated assembly machine.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
The process will be started with a pushbutton when the assembly cylinder is in the retracted end
position.
The cylinder should move to the advanced end position with minimal force.
It actuates a limit switch in this position.
It should then quickly return to the retracted end position.

Analyse the pneumatic circuit diagram

Analyse the circuit diagram shown below and determine whether or not its suitable for the required task.
The circuit diagram is suitable.

What are the advantages or disadvantages of the characteristics of the required control system?
There is a danger that pressure can be incorrectly set at the pressure regulator in the supply line to the
cylinder which would result in the pins being damaged.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins

1A1
1B1

1V7

1V6
1V5

1
2

1V4

14

12
5

1V3

1
1B1

1
1S1

1S2

1V2

1V1

12

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram shown below, taking all required conditions into consideration.
1A1
1B1

1V7

1B2

2
1V6

14

12
5

1V5

1V4

1V3

1V8

12
1
1V2

12

1V1

2
1B1

1S1

1B2

2
1

3
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

108

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3-2 way valve, pneumatic, normally open

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Pressure sequence valve

Pressure regulator

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Equipment list

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 16: Mounting locking pins

Sequence description

Describe the control systems working sequence.


Initial position
The double-acting cylinder is in its retracted end position. Pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is attenuated.
Compressed air is present. The desired pressure value has been set at the regulator and at the pressure
sequence valve.

Step 1-2
Pushbutton 1S1 is activated and pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is attenuated; the condition at the first
dual-pressure valve, 1V3 (AND), thus becomes TRUE. After the pressure sequence valve has been
switched with sufficient pressure, the 3/2-way valve is switched to the operating position. The condition
at the second 2-way valve, 1V5 (AND), thus becomes TRUE and the 5/2-way double pilot valve is
switched to the operating position. The double-acting cylinder advances.

Step 2-3
Pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is attenuated and switches to the operating position. The 5/2-way
double pilot valve is switched. The double-acting cylinder returns to its initial position. The process is
finished when pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is attenuated.

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Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to set up time-dependent control systems.
Be familiar with the set-up and mode of operation of a time delay valve.

Presentation of the problem


Paint pots are labelled at a gluing machine. The gluing process is triggered using a pushbutton at the machine.
A drying time of approximately 10 seconds is required for the adhesive to become effective. The system is
not ready to start until the piston of the pressing cylinder is in the retracted end position.

Layout

Farbe rau
lichtg 35
0
RAL 7

Farbe au
lichtgr 35
RAL 70

Labelling fixture

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

111

Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots

Parameters
As the label has to be glued to the paint pot with minimal pressure, working pressure must be
adjustable.
The cylinder should be retracted as quickly as possible.
Working pressure must be adjustable within a range of 3 to 7 bar (300 and 700 kPa).
Pressure should be indicated by a pressure gauge upstream of the cylinder.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project assignment
Complete the pneumatic circuit.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

1.
2.
3.
4.

112

Procedure
The process will be started using a pushbutton when the cylinder is in the retracted end position.
The cylinder should advance to the advanced end position with minimal force and speed and remain in
this position for an adjustable period of time.
It should then quickly return to the retracted end position.
Pressure during the forward stroke should be indicated at a pressure gauge.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots

Mode of operation of a time delay valve


2
t
1

Circuit symbol for a time delay valve

Describe the mode of operation of a time delay valve and enter the most important technical data in the
table.
The time delay valves switches input pressure applied to port 1 to port 2 after the preset delay time has
expired. If the supply of compressed air is interrupted at port 1, working port 2 is once again switched to
the unpressurised state. The time delay valve is automatically reset within 200 ms. Delay time is infinitely
adjustable via an adjusting knob.

Technical data
Pressure range

2 to 6 bar (200 to 600 kPa)

Switch-on pressure

> 1.6 bar (160 kPa)

Standard nominal flow rate

50 l/min.

Delay time

2 to 30 sec. (adjustable)

Setting accuracy

0.6 sec.

Pause period for reset

> 200 ms

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1A1
1B1

1B2

1Z1

1V6

3
1V5

1
1V4

14

12
5

1V2

3
1V3

1
t
1V1

2
1B1

1S1

1B2

2
1

3
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram

114

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

Quick exhaust valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Time delay valve

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Pressure regulator with pressure gauge

Pressure gauge

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Equipment list

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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Exercise 17: Labelling paint pots

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
The double-acting cylinder is in its retracted end position. Pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is attenuated.
Compressed air is present. The required pressure value has been set at the pressure regulator.

Step 1-2
Pushbutton 1S1 is activated and pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is attenuated; the condition at the first
dual-pressure valve, 1V2 (AND), thus becomes TRUE and 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V4 is switched to
the operating position. The double-acting cylinder is advanced with minimal pressure and with flow
control.

Step 2-3
Pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is attenuated and switches to the operating position. Compressed air is
fed to time delay valve 1V3 as a result, which then switches through after a preset period of time. The
5/2-way double pilot valve is reset. The double-acting cylinder returns to its initial position with minimal
pressure. The piston chamber is vented via the quick exhaust valve. The process is finished when
pneumatic proximity switch 1B1 is attenuated.

116

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to set up control systems with oscillating motion.
Be able to use time delay valves in accordance with specific constraints.

Presentation of the problem


A wire basket with workpieces needs to be moved up and down in a cleaning bath. The process is started
using a pushbutton.

Layout

Automatic cleaning system

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

117

Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces

Parameters
A roller lever valve will be used in order to detect the retracted end position.
The cleaning process should be limited to a period of 20 seconds.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Project assignment
Convert a 5/2-way double pilot valve to a 3/2-way double pilot valve.
Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram for the automatic cleaning system.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

Procedure
1. The process is started using a pushbutton when the lifting cylinder is in its retracted end position.
2. The cylinder for the lifting device moves to the advanced end position. It then goes back to the midposition and returns to the advanced end position. This motion sequence is repeated until the process
is stopped by the time delay valve.
3. The cylinder then returns to its retracted end position.

118

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces

Convert a 5/2-way double pilot valve


4

14

12
5

Circuit symbol for a 5/2-way double pilot valve

Convert a 5/2-way double pilot valve to a 3/2-way double pilot valve.


Describe what has to be done.
Output 4 is closed using a blanking plug.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

119

Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces

Complete the circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


1B1 1B3

1B2

1A1

1V6

2
1V5

2
1V4 4

14

12
5

1V3

2
1

1
1B1 2

1B3

1B2 2

1V2 2
10

12
1

1V1

3
1S1

t
1

Pneumatic circuit diagram (solution)

120

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Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
In the initial position, the cylinder is in its retracted end position and it actuates 3/2-way roller lever valve
1B1. Final control element 1V4 (5/2-way double pilot valve) is advanced to the right switching position.
Signal latch 1V2 (3/2-way double pilot valve) is also in the right switching position. The required pressure
value has been set at the pressure regulator.

Step 1-2
After activating start button 1S1, signal latch 1V2 is switched. Compressed air is fed to the input at time
delay valve 1V1. The 5/2-way double pilot valve 1V4 is switched by 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B1 and
shuttle valve 1V3 (OR) and the cylinder is advanced. Travel beyond pneumatic proximity switch 1B3 at
the mid-position has no effect, because the same control port of the final control element is actuated.

Step 2-3
Pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is actuated in the advanced end position. The final control element (5/2way double pilot valve) is switched. The cylinder is retracted and actuates pneumatic proximity switch
1B3 at the mid-position.

Step 3-4
The cylinder is once again reversed when pneumatic proximity switch 1B3 at the mid-position is actuated.
Reversing only takes a few milliseconds, and thus the trip cam does not travel beyond pneumatic
proximity switch 1B3.

Step 4-5

See step 2-3.

Oscillating motion
The cylinder moves back and forth between pneumatic proximity switches 1B3 and 1B2 until time
specified at time delay valve 1V1 has elapsed.

Steps n-2 through n


After the time delay valve has switched through, signal latch 1V2 (3/2-way double pilot valve) is
reversed. Pneumatic proximity switch 1B3 and 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B1 are no longer supplied with
compressed air. The cylinder travels to its initial position (retracted end position). The process is finished
when 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B1 is actuated.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

121

Exercise 18: Cleaning workpieces

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

3/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Time delay valve

Shuttle valve (OR)

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Note
A pneumatic 5/2-way double pilot valve is converted to a pneumatic 3/2-way double pilot valve.

122

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place


Learning objectives
After completing this exercise youll:
Be able to analyse and set up control systems with two cylinders.

Presentation of the problem


Rating plates are pressed into valve housings at a workstation. First of all, the labels are inserted into
recesses in the valve housings. Then theyre pressed into place with a pressing cylinder.
The valve housings are clamped by pressing a pushbutton. The pressing process is started once the valve
housing has been clamped. Both cylinders should be retracted after the pressing cylinder has reached its
advanced end-position.

Layout

Labelling fixture

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG

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Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place

Parameters
A single-acting cylinder will be used to clamp the valve housings.
A roller lever valve will be used to detect whether or not the clamping cylinder has reached its advanced
end position.
A double-acting cylinder will be used as a pressing cylinder.
The feed speeds of both the clamping and the pressing cylinders should be adjustable.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Project assignment
Analyse the pneumatic circuit diagram for the pressing fixture.
Set up the control system.
Double-check the control system configuration.
Describe the mode of operation of the control system.
Create an equipment list.

1.
2.
3.
4.

Procedure
The pressing process is started using a pushbutton.
A limit switch will be used to detect whether or not the clamping cylinder has reached its position.
The pressing cylinder should not advance until the clamping cylinder has reached its advanced end
position.
After the plastic cap has been pressed into place, both cylinders are retracted.

Note
Necessary protective guards are not taken into consideration.

124

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place

Complete the pneumatic circuit diagram

Complete the circuit diagram shown below.


2A1
2B1

1A1

1V3

2V2

1
1V2

2
2V1

12

10
1

1V1
1

1S1

14

12
5

2
1

1B2

2B1 2

2B2

1B2

2B2

Pneumatic circuit diagram

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

125

Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place

Create an equipment list


In addition to the circuit diagram, complete project documentation also includes an equipment list.

Create an equipment list by entering the required components in the table below.

Quantity

Designation

Cylinder, double-acting

Cylinder, single-acting

One-way flow control valve

5/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

3/2-way double pilot valve, pneumatic

Proximity sensor, pneumatic

3/2-way roller lever valve, normally closed

3/2-way valve with pushbutton, normally closed

Dual-pressure valve (AND)

Distributor block

On-off valve with filter regulator

Compressed air source

Equipment list

Note
A pneumatic 5/2-way double pilot valve is converted to a pneumatic 3/2-way double pilot valve.

126

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place

Sequence description

Set up the control system and describe its working sequence.


Initial position
Pressure is present. In the initial position, both cylinders are in the retracted end position. The piston in
the double-acting cylinder attenuates pneumatic proximity switch 2B1, which is switched to the free-flow
direction. Final control elements 1V2 and 2V1 (5/2-way double pilot valve and 3/2-way double pilot
valve) travel to the right switching position.

Step 1-2
When pushbutton 1S1 is activated, the condition at dual-pressure valve 1V1 (AND) becomes TRUE. The
3/2-way double pilot valve 1V2 is reversed. The single-acting cylinder advances with restricted supply air.

Step 2-3
When the single-acting cylinder reaches its advanced end position, roller lever valve 1B2 is actuated and
reverses 5/2-way double pilot valve 2V1. The double-acting cylinder moves to its advanced end position
where it attenuates pneumatic proximity switch 2B2, which is switched to the free-flow direction.

Step 3-4
5/2-way double pilot valve 2V1 and 3/2-way double pilot valve 1V2 are reversed. Both cylinders are
retracted. The process is finished when the piston in the double-acting cylinder attenuates pneumatic
proximity switch 2B1, which then switches to the free-flow direction.

Note
Single-acting cylinder 1A1 is retracted slightly earlier than double-acting cylinder 2A1. This is due to
overlapping of the control signals at pilot ports 14 and 12 at 5/2-way double pilot valve 2V1. The 5/2-way
double pilot valve 2V1 can only reverse when single-acting cylinder 1A1 has left its advanced end
position and 3/2-way roller lever valve 1B2 is no longer actuated.

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

127

Exercise 19: Pressing labels into place

Proximity switch failure


What happens if the position of pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is shifted along the cylinder?

Make a note of the resulting consequences.


Pneumatic proximity switch 1B2 is not attenuated and the 5/2-way double pilot valve and the 3/2-way
double pilot valve are thus no longer reset. The cylinder no longer returns to the retracted end position.
As a result, proximity switch 1B1 is not attenuated and the control system can no longer be started.

128

Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG 541088

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