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ACIDACIDBASEBASE TITRATIONTITRATION

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TITRATION:TITRATION:

UsingUsing SolutionSolution StoichiometryStoichiometry

A standard titrant

/solution is used in a controlled, measured reaction with an analyte.

The equivalence point

is a theoretical point

reached when the amount of added titrant is chemically equivalent to the amount of analyte in the sample.

The end point is the experimental estimate of the equivalence point.

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estimate of the equivalence point. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UiuE7 Xx5l8

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UiuE7

Xx5l8

TheThe ConcentrationConcentration ofof OneOne ofof thethe TwoTwo SolutionsSolutions MustMust BeBe WellWell KnownKnown (Standardization)(Standardization)

• Prepare a primary standard: It must be a stable, non-hydroscopic substance with a known stoichiometry. It must be pure with high molecular weight, soluble in water and undergo a fast reaction with no side effects.

• Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) is often used to standardize base solutions.

• Potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP) is often used to standardize base solutions. © 2011 Pearson Education,
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Conditions for a Volumetric Analysis

• The reaction must be rapid and can be represented by a simple balanced equation

• The reaction must be complete and no side reaction occurs

• An appropriate indicator must be available in order to detect the end point of the reaction

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ThreeThree

Acid-BaseAcid-Base

ApplicationsApplications

Determine M and equivalence point

(2) Determine purity of sample

(3) Determine molar mass of unknown analyte

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• What is the M of a H 2 SO 4 solution if 10.00mL required 40.00 mL of 0.500 M NaOH to neutralize?

1.000 M

• The molar mass of the analyte is known, but not grams in the sample. If 0.4370 grams of sample containing benzoic acid (122.12g/mol) required 25.57 mL of 0.08653 M NaOH, what is the purity?

61.85%

• If 0.4200 grams of an unknown base required 35.86 mL of 0.08755 M HCl, what is the mm of the base?

133.8

Example:

A 50.00 ml portion of an HCl soln required 29.71 ml of 0.01963 M Ba(OH) 2 to reach an endpoint with bromocresol gren indicator. Calc. the molarity of the HCl.

A 0.4671 g sample containing sodium bicarbonate was dissolved and titrated with standard 0.1067 M HCl sol’n , requiring 40.72 mL. The rxn is HCO 3 - + H + H 2 O + CO 2. Calculate the % NaHCO 3 in the sample.

A 0.2638 g soda-ash sample is analyzed by titrating the sodium carbonate with the standard 0.1288 M HCl soln, requring 38.27 mL. The reaction is CO 3 -2 + 2H + H 2 O+CO 2. Calculate the % sodium carbonate in the sample.

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Types of Titration

Direct Titration – type of titration where the analyte reacts with the standard solution directly

Back Titration – type of titration where an excess standard solution is added and the excess is determined by the addition of another standard solution

Replacement Titration – type of titration where the analyte is converted to a product chemically related to it and the product of such reaction is titrated with a standard solution

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Example:

Back Titration. A 0.1200 g sample of calcite (CaCO 3 ) is treated with 36. 82 mL of 0.08312 M HCl and the excess is found to require 6.30 mL of 0.09667 M of NaOH for back titration. Calculate the % purity of calcite.

6.30 mL of 0.09667 M of NaOH for back titration. Calculate the % purity of calcite.

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