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THAI NGUYEN UNIVERSITY

INTERNATIONAL SCHOO
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REPORT
FISH
Subject: PRACTICAL FIELD ECOLOGY
Lectures: Prof. Hoang Van Phu
Student: Ma Thi Sung
Class: EMS K4
Student code: DTQ
1458501010101

Content :
I : Introduction
II : Several characteristics of fish
III: Observation
IV: Capture techniques
V : Reference source
I .Introduction
With society and science growing more,scientific research were
encouraged more and more especially is research kind of animal live in
the water like fish. To meet the needs of human life because fish are an
importance resource for humans worldwide aspecially as food.
Fish are aquatic vertebrates that have vertateblal eolum called spine.
Nearly 500 million years ago the first fish appeared on the earth. Today
fishes make up the largest group of vertebrates with 24,000 species.
Fishing research is the process of observation, analysis, behavioral,
application, evaluation aims to conserve and preserve and this section
concentrates on the study of freshwater, observing freshwater fish and
how to catch fishes.Althought the techniques employes and observing
may be appicable to fish sampled in many shallow waters,rock
pools,lagoons and around coral reefs.
II. Several characteristics of fish:
Habitat of fishes
Fishes have their habitats in lakes, streams, oceans, and estuaries,rocky.
Some fishes capable of living in both fresh and marine water these
fishes are found in the water bodies such as lakes and rivers in which the
salinity is less than 0.05%. About 41 species of the fishes belong to the
fresh water habitat. Some of them are bala sharks, betta fish, candiru
fish, gold fish, and oscur fish Within the habitat, rocky shores

encompass boulder flats, reef outcrop spool microhabitats, and many


rocky coasts include combinations of all of these along with gravel,
sand, and shell substrata. The boulders and substrata are subject to
movement and remodeling by storms and winter waves, and, on a longer
timescale by erosion and tectonic activity. Intertidal fishes survive these
disturbances by finding refuge in the complex physical structure of the
rocky shore environment. The different habitats are made up of plants,
muddy shores, sandban
and rocky reefs.
The behavioral of fish:
Because the daily progression of the tides is profoundly important and
highly predictable, both resident and transient occupants of the intertidal
zone generally have strongly trained behavioral and physiological
rhythms (Gibson, 1992; Burrows et d., 1994) . Fish have some common
behavour the first is hiding.For instance when fish are introduced to
new aquarium, most fishes show hiding as their natural and most
common behaviour.The second is fighting , many fish are show
agression as their natural behaviour and always defend their territorial
space till death and fish have five reproductive behaviour (Prespawning
behaviour of males includes nest building and territorial defense,
activities that precedes the release of gametes by hours or days,
Prespawning behaviour of females and Spawning behaviour of males
and females , Postspawning behaviour of males and females, Agonistic
behaviour ) Protective Behaviours ,these include freezing, hiding,
seeking the company of other fish, and counterattack. for example a
number of fish such as the flounders are able to bury themselves very
quickly in sand
The characteristic of fishes :
The fish have some general characteristic are ectothermic,litieral
line,two chambered heart,gills use for respiration,no external ears,and no

eye lids.
III. Observers:
Direct observation :
Direct observation techniques are among the most effective means for
obtaining accurate and often unique information on aquatic organisms in
their natural.Fish can be observation from the bankside and under water,
and we have three observation methods : direct under water observation
by divers (snorkel, scuba, and hookah), surface observation (land-based,
aerial, boat-based, and viewing windows), and remote methods (cameras
and ROVs) all the method ,the simplest method is direct observation by
eye from above the surface of the water, but such a method is dependent
on calm sea conditions so that the water surface is not disturbed by wind
or turbulence. On calm days it is possible to observe the movements of
fishes within the intertidal zone (Williams, 1957; Norris, 1963). but are
unlikely to give unbiased estimates. for instance, population size because
of the cryptic nature of many species and the likelihood that many
individuals are inactive,particularly at low tide.
Indirect methods:
It may be useful to survey not only adult fish,but also the eggs,for
assessment of productivity.Eggs can be counted or vidually estimated
using a scoring system,or measured as a volumetric estimate if the
species lays eggs in masses.Depending on where eges are laid we choose
net ,net of mesh between 0.3 and 0.8 mm can be to collect .Use traps to
cover the bed of the water body where fish eggs .
IV. Capture techniques:
Capture allows individuals to be identified, measured, marked, and
returned; preserved for further investigation of their age and diet, or
transported to the laboratory for experimental studies.We have four
main categories: netting and trapping ,collecting fish
larvae,electrofishing . The method employed at any one site depends on

the nature of the site and the purpose of the investigation but, in genera,
manual and chemical meth ods are used at low tide on rocky shores.
Netting techniques can be used on any occasion but have been mainly
used at high tide and on sediment shores.
Nets and traps :
There are many different types of net that are used in trapping fish . Nets
can be used from the banks of water bodies,by reasearches wading
through the water,swimming,snorkwlling or scuba diiving,or by being
towed behind boats.

(a) Seine net

(b) syke net

( c ) gill net

Trapping is a fairly varsatile method of catching most species of


fiish,especially for nocturnal species or those ocurring at low densitities.

Traps have the advantage that they are easy to deploy and can be used in
a wide variety of situations, although they have been mostly used on
rocky shores and salt marshes.

Collecting fish larvae :


Many fish larvae are free swimming and can be captured using
towed net,puush nets,modified lift nets or hand nets.in some
species the larvae attach to vegatation uusig a special organ on
the head .However they are easily distured by sampling attempts
Electrofishing:
Electrofishing is a common scientific survey method used to
sample fish populations to determine abundance, density, and
species composition.Useful in cloudy waters where observation
is not possible or in vegetated river habitats where it is difficult
to operate a net.However this method very specialist and
potentially dangerous.
Marking individuals :
Fish can be used in mark-release- recapture studies . The two
most common techniques of marking fish are fin clipping and
tagging.
In fin clipping, one or two fins removed from the fish . Usually
two fins are clipped because one of them may grow back. Fin
clipping is inexpensive and can be done rapidly, as many as 300
fish per hour. The method is best suited to fish that are
individually handled and ex -amined when they are caught . The

chief disadvantage to fin clipping is that individual fish cannot


be identified when they are caught again.
V: Reference source: