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FIRST TOPIC.

Earth, a planet in the Solar System


And
Representation of the Earth

1.
2.
3.
4.

Earth, a small point in the Universe


Planet Earth
Rotation of the Earth: day and night
Revolution around the Sun: the seasons of the year

Introduction
The Sun is a medium-size star. It is in the Milky Way galaxy.
Our galaxy has millions of stars (like the Sun). These stars create light and there are planets
and satellites moving around them.
http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/universe_level1/milky_way.html
QUESTIONS: (listen and look for the answer in the link)
1.- What is the Earth and where is it situated?
2.- What is the name of our Galaxy?
3.- What is a galaxy?
4.- Who called it the road made of milk?

The Universe is formed by millions of galaxies. It is a collection of all the celestial bodies and
space

QUESTION:

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

5.- How many stars are there in our galaxy?


Planet Earth has four elements: the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the lithosphere, and the
biosphere.
QUESTION:
6.- How many elements are there in the Earth?

1. Planet Earth, a small point in the Universe


1.1. Planet Earth in the Universe
The Earth is a planet in the Solar System.
The Sun is a star in the Solar System.
The Solar System is in the galaxy called The Milky Way.
There are a lot of galaxies in the Universe. The Milky Way is only one.
The solar system consists of:
.- One central star, the Sun.
.- Eight planets (nine if we consider Pluto as planet): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
.- More than 60 moons.
.- Thousands of rocky asteroids.
.- Hundreds of icy comets.
QUESTION:
7.- What are the celestial bodies in the Solar System?

1.2. The Earth in the Solar System


The Solar System is formed by eight planets. There are also three dwarf planets and a lot of
celestial bodies.
Planets are celestial bodies moving around the Sun. They dont have their own light.
Satellites are celestial bodies that move around planets. Both planets and satellites have two
movements: rotation and revolution.
There are two types of planets: inner planets (near the Sun) and outer planets (far from the
Sun).
QUESTIONS:
8.- Which is the nearest planet to the Sun? Which is the furthest planet from the Sun?
9.- Which are the inner planets? Which are the outer planets?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

10.- Which is the smallest planet?


11.- What is the difference between stars and planets?
12.- How many movements do satellites and planets have?
Look at this link, and watch the orbit planets
http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/recursos_informaticos/andared01/sistema_solar/ind
exflash.htm

2. Planet Earth

2.1. Earth: the Blue Planet


The colour of the Earth is blue because there is a lot of oxygen in the
atmosphere.
The Earth is not a perfect sphere.
We can divide our planet into two parts:
The Northern Hemisphere (Continental)
The Southern Hemisphere (Maritime)
The total surface of the Earth is 510. 000. 000 km 2, approximately 1000 times the surface of
Spain.
QUESTIONS:
13.- Why is the Earth blue?
14.- What is a hemisphere?
15.- How many hemispheres are there in the Earth?
16.- Search in this link: What percentage of the Earth 's surface is covered with water?
http://kids.nineplanets.org/earth.htm
17.- Look for the dimensions of the Earth in this link, and then answer....
http://www.kralidis.ca/gis/maproj/earthdims.htm
.- What is a meridian?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.- What is a parallel?
.- What are the dimensions of the Earth?

3. Rotation of the Earth: day and night


3.1. The movement of Rotation
The movement of Earths rotation.
The Earth spins by a movement called
rotation.
Rotation explains why there is day and
night.
It rotates once every 24 hours or 1 day.
The Earth's rotation creates day and
night
Temperature is not extreme because we
have day and night.

QUESTION:
18.- How long does it take for the Earth to rotate?
3.2.- Times zones
Because of Earths rotation, the Sun first rises in the East.
In Spain, the sun first rises in The Balearic Islands before Madrid or Galicia.
The Earth is divided into 24 time zones.
Because of Earths rotation, the Sun first rises in the East.

QUESTIONS:
19.- What are time zones?

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

20.- How many time zones are there on Earth?


21.- Why is there an hour of time difference in the Canary Islands (from Spain)?
22.- In the United Kingdom. What time is it when its one oclock in Madrid?... And in New
York?

4. Revolution of the Earth: the seasons of the year


4.1.The
revolution

movement

The movement of revolution of


the Earth makes an orbit
around the Sun. The Earth
takes 1 year to make the orbit:
365 days, 6 hours and 9
minutes.
The Earth is tilted.
There
are
two
Solstices
(summer and winter) and two
Equinoxes (spring and autumn)
QUESTIONS:
23.- When it is summer in
Spain, what season is it in
Argentina?
24.- What zone in the Earth doesnt have seasons?
25.- What is the consequence (result) of the tilt of the Earth?
26.- How many solstices and equinoxes are there?
27.- What is a solstice and what is an equinox?

Representation of the Earth


5

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

1. Latitude and Longitude


2. Representation of the Earth
3. Maps

Introduction

Before, people made maps by observing the land.


This was difficult.
Now, people use satellite images and aerial
photographs to make maps.
So, we can represent the surface of the Earth
exactly.
We use maps to orient us.

QUESTIONS:
1.- How can we represent the surface of the Earth?
2.- Activity: Look at this link.. its funny!
http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-games/latitude-longitude-map-game.php

1.-Latitude and Longitude


We use latitude and longitude:
.- To situate us on Earth.
.- To represent an exact location of a point on Earth.
1.1.To situate us on Earth
.- To calculate the distance between two places on Earth or to identify an exact place, we
have: the Geographical Coordinate System.
.- Geographical coordinates are imaginary lines (parallels and meridians) that we draw on
globes of the Earth and on maps..
.- Parallels are imaginary lines that are parallel to the Equator. The Equator is the parallel at
0.
.- Meridians are imaginary lines that we draw from the North Pole to the South Pole.
Greenwich is the meridian at 0.

Whats a parallel?
Its a circle on the surface of the Earth, one is the biggest and we name it EQUATOR, and the other ones are
smaller and parallel to Equator.
Whats a meridian?
6

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Its a half of a circle and all of them are the same size, and they go from North Pole to South Pole. But we
consider one as the 0 and its the meridian of Greenwich.
QUESTIONS:
3.- Which are the imaginary lines that we draw on globes of the Earth and on maps?
4.- What do we draw these lines for?
5.- Which is the name of Parallel 0 and Meridian 0?
6.- Do you know other names of parallels and meridians?
7.- What is the difference between a parallel and a meridian?

1.2.-An exact location of a point on Earth


To find a point on Earth we need to find the parallel and the meridian.
Latitude is the distance between a point on Earth and the Equator (or Parallel 0). It can be
North or South.
With parallels we measure the LATITUDE: the angle between the Equator (0) and another
parallel. If this parallel is above (up) the Equator its latitude is North, if its below (down) the
Equators latitude is South.
Longitude is the distance between a point on Earth and the Prime Meridian (or Meridian 0
at Greenwich ). It can be East or West.
With meridians we measure the LONGITUDE: the angle between the Greenwich meridian
and another one. If this meridian is at west (left) from the Greenwich one, its longitude is
WEST, and if the meridian is at east (right) from the Greenwich one, its longitude is EAST.
*If you want to know more use this Link

http://www.geovista.psu.edu/grants/MapStatsKids/New_MSK/concepts_latlg.html

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

ACTIVITY
.- Search in a map what cities have got these geographical coordinates
.- Latitude 60 North and Longitude 11 East

.- Latitude 34 South and Longitude 18 East

.- Latitude 23 South and Longitude 43 West

.- Latitude 26 North and Longitude 81 West

.- The geographical coordinates of Spain

.- The geographical coordinates of United Kingdom

2.Representation of the Earth


2.1. Maps and projections
There are different ways to represent spherical surfaces on a flat surface
Cylindrical projection
Conical projection
Azimuthal projection
http://www-atlas.usgs.gov/articles/mapping/a_projections.html
All types of projections distort the Earths surface. Lets see next page

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

QUESTIONS:
8.- What is a projection?

9.- How many projections are there?

10.- Which is the main problem of projections?

2.2. Maps' scales


Maps and projections
The globe of the Earth is the best way to represent the surface of the Earth.
However, maps are more effective to represent specific places or countries.
But all maps must be representations of reality. Then it is necessary to make a scale.
A scale is a way to represent a big surface on a small surface. The scale is the proportion
between the real size of the represented territory and the corresponding size on the map.
A numeric scale is a fraction which indicates the proportion between the distance between
two points on the map and the corresponding distance on the ground. For example,
1/200,000 (also written 1:200,000 or 1 to 200,000) means that 1 cm on the map is equivalent
to 200,000 cm on the ground (that is, 2,000 m or 2 km).
We write the scale on maps. The scale can be numerical or graphical.
Maps can be large-scale or small-scale.
http://www.es.mq.edu.au/courses/GEOS264/maps/mapch2/scale.htm

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

QUESTIONS:
11.- What is a scale?
12.- How many types of scales are there?
13.- In a map the scale is 1:10.000.
.- Is it a large-scale or small-scale?
.- Is it s a numerical o graphical scale?
.- Which is the true distance between two points if in the map
the distance is 5 cm ?
14.- This map of United Kingdom is made with large o smallscale?

3. Maps
3.1. Types of maps
3.2. Symbols and how to read a map
3.1. Types of maps
.- Maps can be: Topographic or Thematic.
.- Topographic maps give information about physical aspects of
the land and people.
.- Thematic maps give information about specific things:
weather, vegetation, population, economic resources...
A/
B/

QUESTIONS:
15.- Which is a thematic map; A or B?
16.- What would you use a topographic map for?

10

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

17.- Make your own maps..


http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/en/kids/srtm_makemap.shtml
3.2. Symbols and how to read a map
.- We represent different elements that appear on a map by a specific symbol or colour.
.- We write the symbols of a map in the maps key.
.- We use maps to locate places and to have information about an area
ACTIVITY
.- Can you read a map?
*The easiest
http://www.mrsbogucki.com/cgi-bin/quiz.pl?FILE=mapping
*A little complicated
http://www.geocities.com/EnchantedForest/8112/map3.html
*GLOSSARY
You should know these words. Could you say their meanings?
.- Universe
.- Galaxy
.- Planet
.- Satellite
.- Asteroid
.- Hemisphere
.- Meridian
.- Parallel
.- Time zones
.- Movement of rotation
.- Revolution
.- Solstice
.- Equinox
.-Latitude
.-Longitude

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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.-Map
.-Geographical Coordinates
.-Projection
.-Scale
.-Numerical Scale
.-Graphical Scale
.-Topographic map
.-Thematic map
.-Maps key
*EXTRA ACTIVITY
If you want to learn more .. Click here!
http://interactive2.er.usgs.gov/learningweb/teachers/mapsshow.htm
AND THIS IS A FANTASTIC SITE:
http://www.kidsastronomy.com/
http://earth.google.es/

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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

SECOND TOPIC
The Forms of the Earth

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The Outer Layer of the Earth


Relief of the Earth: Internal Forces
Relief of the Earth: External Forces
The Continents
Mountains and Plains
Islands, Peninsulas and Gulfs

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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

7. The Relief of Europe


8. The Relief of Spain

Introduction
Planet Earth is divided into continents.
There are six continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Australia and Antarctica.
Continents have plains, plateaus, mountain ranges, valleys and depressions.
Oceans surround the continents.
There are also archipelagos and islands.

QUESTIONS:
1.- How many continents are there on Earth?
2.- Which is the biggest continent?
3.- How many oceans are there?
4.- Which ocean touches the Spanish coast?

1. The Outer Layer of the Earth


1.1.

The Structure of the


Earth

The internal part is the core.


The outer part is the crust.
The Earth is a huge sphere
that has three parts: the core,
the mantle, and the crust.
The outer layer is the crust.
The crust makes up 1% of
Planet Earth. The crust plus
the hot magma below are
called the lithosphere.
*Crust + Hot
Lithosphere

Magma

14

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

The Core is made of mostly iron, and a bit of other heavy metals.
The Mantle is made of lighter minerals, it has a putty like substance.
The Crust is made of lighter minerals, on which the Tectonic Plates float
QUESTIONS:
1.- What are the different layers of the Earth?

2.- What is the external layer?


3.- In which layer is the magma?

4.- What is the biggest layer?

5.- Where do the Tectonic Plates float?

1.2.

The Earths Crust

The Earths crust has an irregular shape.


The Earths crust is not smooth.
There are mountains, valleys,
depressions and prairies that form
the relief of the Earth.
The relief of the Earth is not stable.
It changes by internal forces and
external forces.
Water, wind, and human activity
slowly transform the relief of the
Earth.

QUESTIONS
6.- Is the Earths crust always the same.... Why yes or why no?

7.- What activities modify the Earths relief?

15

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

1.3.

The drift of the continents

http://www.visionlearning.com/library/modulo_espanol.php?c3=1&mid=65&ut=&l=e
The Theory of Continental Drift says that Earth was originally one continent that floated
above the mantle. It was called Pangea.
The rotation of the Earth broke Pangea into parts. As a result, plate tectonics were formed.
When two plates collide, one of the plates can lift (elevate) to form big mountain ranges,
while the other plate sinks and creates profound abysses.
The points of contact between two plates produce earthquakes and volcanoes.
http://www.visionlearning.com/library/flash_viewer.php?oid=1683
QUESTIONS:
8.- What is the origin of mountains?
9.- Where are earthquakes and volcanoes produced?
10.- Which parts of the Earth are more stable and less stable?
11.- Explain the theory of Continental Drift

2.

Relief of the Earth: Internal Forces

2.1. Internal Forces


Causes and effects of an earthquake
http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/hottopics/naturaldisasters/earthquakes.shtml
Structure of a volcano
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/earth_volcano.html
Internal forces of the Earth cause earthquakes and volcanoes.
Earthquakes occur when land begins to shake in the interior of the Earth. Then, this shaking
movement spreads in the form of seismic waves.
Volcanoes are profound cracks in the Earths crust. Magma rises through these cracks.

16

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

QUESTIONS:
12.- Write the parts of a volcano?

13.- Which are the internal forces that change the relief?

14.- What is the origin of volcanoes and earthquakes?

15.- Which plate is the Iberian Pennsula located on?

3.

3.1.

Relief of the Earth: External Forces

External Forces

Water, wind, and vegetation...change the relief of the Earth.


Water is the principal agent that changes the countryside.
Wind causes the erosion of rocks.

The roots of plants and trees can:


1) Break rocks apart;
2) Help fix the land of mountain slopes

ACTIVITY:
16.- Look for each word with its definition.
1.-Are extensive flat areas, located at a
certain altitude above sea level
2.-Are vast submerged plateaux that
stretch, in general, from the edge of the
continents to about 200 metres depth
3.-Are low, flat areas. They are located on
coats and big rivers basins
4.-Are high terrains with steep slopes.

A.- Continental shelves

5.-Are vast troughs


slopes and ridges.

E.- Depressions

located

between

B.- Plateaux
C.- Oceanic basins
D.- Plains

17

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

6.-Represent the limit of the selves, they


have steep and lead to great depths
7.-Are submerged mountain belts that
can exceed 3,000 metres
8.-Are areas located below sea level

F.- Oceanic ridges


G.- Mountains
H.- Continental slopes

QUESTIONS:
17.- In what part of the river is erosion stronger?
18.- Where is wind erosion most significant? Why?

19.- What is the most important external agent?

4.
4.1.

The Continents

The division of the world into


continents

Continents and oceans


The continents are grand extensions of
the Earth that separate the oceans.
.-Africa
.-America
.-Asia
.-Europe
.-Australia
.-Antarctica

ACTIVITY:
20.- Search in this link and choose a continent. You must prepare a topic about it

http://continents.pppst.com/index.html
QUESTION:
21.- Which is the biggest continent?

18

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

5. Mountains and Plains


5.1. Continental relief
Mountains and plains
The surface of the continents is not uniform.
There are:
Mountains
Plains
Plateaus
Valleys
Principal Mountains and Plains

ACTIVITY:

19

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

22.- Search and locate the main mountains of the Earth.


.....-

Rocky Mountains
Scandinavian Mount.
Ural Mountains
Himalayas
Atlas Mountains

.....-

Andes Mountains
Alps
Caucasus
Zagros Mountains
Drakensberg Mts.

.- Appalachian Mountains
.- Balkans
.- Great European Plain
.- Altai Mountains
.- Rift Valley

QUESTION:
23.- Which are the highest peaks of each continent and which mountain systems are they
located in?
6. Lands and Oceans
Water occupies the biggest part of the Earths surface, and there are three large oceans: the
Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Indian Ocean.
Some areas of these oceans are called seas (like the Caribbean Sea and the Adriatic Sea).
There are islands in oceans and seas. Many islands together form archipelagos.
QUESTION:
24.- Search five gulfs; ten peninsulas; five caps and ten islands.

7.1. The European Continent


Europe is a small continent.
There are mountain ranges in Europe.
In the relief of Europe we find: the Large European Plain, various plateaus, old mountain
ranges and young chains of mountains.

20

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

ACTIVITIES:
25.- Search and locate these places of Europeans relief:
.- Alps
.- Pirineos
.- Apeninos
.- Balkans
.- Carpathian
.- Ural
.- Scandinavian Mts. .- European Plain .- Iberian Peninsula
26.- Search the names of five Europeans islands and five peninsulas

QUESTIONS:
27.- Which are the Europeans limits?
28.- Which are the highest mountains in Europe?
8. The Iberian Peninsula and Archipelagos
The
The
The
The

Iberian Peninsula is located in the extreme southwest of Europe.


relief of the peninsula has an average elevated altitude.
Balearic Islands have a very similar relief.
relief of the Canary Islands is volcanic.

21

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

QUESTIONS:
29.- Which are the main units of Iberians relief?
ACTIVITY
30.- Locate the main units of relief on the map
*GLOSSARY
You should know these words. Could you say their meanings?

.- Mountain
.- Plain
.- Relief
.- Plateau
.- Range
.- Valley
.- Depression
.- Continent
22

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.- Crust
.- Core
.- Mantle
.- Continental Drift
.- Pangea
.- Earthquake
.- Volcano
.- Oceanic ridge
.- Continental slope
.- Ocean
*EXTRA ACTIVITY
If you want to learn more .. Click here!
About United Kingdom

http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/customs/questions/maps.html
About the world

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10o.html

THIRD TOPIC
Weather and Climate

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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

1.
2.
3.
4.

The Atmosphere
Temperature
Air Humidity and Precipitation
Atmospheric Pressure and Wind

QUESTIONS:
Look at this weather map and answer...
1.- What's the weather like in Spain?

2.- What's the weather like in England?

3.- What is the meaning of L and H in this map?

Introduction
The troposphere produces atmospheric phenomena that influence weather and climate.
Weather refers to the atmospheric conditions in a specific place and moment. Climate refers

24

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

to the atmospheric conditions that exist in a region during a long period of time (a minimum
of 30 or 40 years)
http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0052-weather-and-climate.php
Look at the previous link and answer:
4.- What is weather?

5.- Which combined conditions can be found in the lower atmosphere?

1.- The Atmosphere


1.1. The atmosphere

The atmosphere is a gaseous cap that is more than 1000 km thick that covers the Earth.

The atmosphere prevents solar rays from directly penetrating the surface of the Earth. This
makes life possible for our planet.

The atmosphere also acts as a protective shield against meteors.


http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0042-composition-of-the-atmosphere.php

QUESTIONS :
5.- How tall does the troposphere reach?

6.- In which layer do meteorological phenomena happen?

7.- What does the atmosphere do for life on Earth?

8.- What gases make up the atmosphere?

25

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

5. 2.- A filter of solar radiation

The ozone is gas that is found in the outer layers of the atmosphere that prevent harmful
ultraviolet rays from reaching Earths surface.

When the ozone layer comes into contact with certain gases (for example, gases from
industries), the ozone layer is reduced and holes can form.

Ultraviolet rays can enter these holes, and the ultraviolet rays can produce certain illnesses,
like skin cancer and eye problems.
http://www.alligatorboogaloo.com/kids/features/globey/globey001.html
http://www.alligatorboogaloo.com/kids/features/globey/index.html

Look at the previous links and answer:


9.-What is the global warming?
10.-How can we avoid the global warming?
http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/Org/caer/ce/eek/earth/air/ozonlayr.htm

Look at the previous link and answer?


11.- What is ozone? How many types of ozone exist?

26

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

12.- In which layer of the atmosphere is the ozone placed?

13.- Why is the ozone important?

14.- What can you do to take care of the ozone?

2. Temperature
2.1.- Atmospheric Temperature
Atmospheric Temperature is produced by
the suns heat.

The atmosphere is heated from below.


Solar rays hit the Earths crust but dont
retain the heat. Instead, the solar rays
are transmitted into the air.
Solar Rays Angles of Incidence
QUESTIONS:
15.- What is the atmospheric temperature?

16.- Why does the latitude influence the temperature of a place?

2.2. Factors that

Modify Temperature

Latitude, altitude and distance from the sea determine changes in temperature.

The most influential factor on temperature is insolation, which depends on the latitude of a
specific place.

Air layers at higher altitudes are less dense and cant retain heat. As a result, the higher the
altitude, the lower the temperature.

27

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

The sea smoothes the temperature of lands situated near the coasts.
Influence of the Sea on Temperatures : Daytime and Nighttime Breezes

QUESTIONS:
17- What factors influence the temperature of a place?

18.- How does it influence the sea in the temperature of a place?

3. Air Humidity and Precipitation

28

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

3.1. Air Humidity

Humidity is the quantity of water vapor that is found in the air.

The quantity of water vapor is able to produce air depending on its temperature. At higher
temperatures, it can produce more water vapor.

The degree of air humidity is measured with a hydrometer.

QUESTIONS:

19.- Why does water evaporate? Why does water cool down and what consequences does it
have?

20.-How do clouds form?

21.- What instrument is used to measure


themselves?

precipitations? In what units do they express

http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/education/primary/students/watercycle.html
22.- Look at the previous link and write a summary about the cycle of water
3. 2.- Clouds and Precipitation

When air humidity heats, it rises.


When it rises, it gets cold, which
causes small drops of condensation.
These drops form clouds.

29

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

If the air continues to rise or cool, the drops unite, and they get bigger until they form rain.

When the temperature is very low, snowflakes form.


Hail forms when ice crystals from clouds move upward by an ascending air current.

Meteorology Vocabulary:
http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/galleries/Science/meteorology.htm
http://etc.usf.edu/clipart/galleries/science/meteorology.php

QUESTIONS:
23.- Search in the previous Link and answer:
.- What is a barometer?
.- What is it used for?
.- What is a pluviometer?
.- What is a thermometer Box?

4. Atmospheric Pressure and Wind

4. 1.-Atmospheric Pressure

30

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Atmospheric Pressure is the weight or force that the air makes over the surface of the Earth

Atmospheric pressure depends on the altitude, on the air temperature and on the air
currents that circulate around the Earth (jet streams).

Hot air creates zones of low pressure (depression)

Cold air creates zones of high pressure


QUESTIONS:
24.- What is an atmospheric pressure? How does the pressure of the air measure ?

25.- What is an area of high pressure and an area of low pressure?

4. 2.- Wind

Wind is a moving air mass that forms when two zones of different atmospheric pressure
come together.

31

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Air always blows from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure.
Wind intensity is greater when the difference between atmospheric pressures is greater.
There are constant winds in certain zones of the Earth (the trade winds at the Equator),
seasonal winds (in the mountains), and local winds (cierzo, levante ....)

Distribution of pressures and winds

QUESTIONS:
26.- How do winds originate?

32

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

27.- What type of pressure is there in the Equator? And in the Pole?

The monsoon:

http://www.gymnasium-spaichingen.de/bili/india/monsoon.html

QUESTIONS:
Look at the link and answer:
28.-What are the monsoons, how do they originate?

29.- COMMENT OF A WEATHER MAP:


*Look here at the different symbols of maps

http://www.usatoday.com/weather/wmapread.htm
*Make this quiz

http://www.teacher.scholastic.com/activities/wwatch/observe_step3.htm

*Make these games:

http://www.britishcouncil.org/kids-games-matching-weather.htm
33

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

http://www.learnenglish.org.uk/kids/games/Weather_Maze/
*Find a weather map and make a comment

*GLOSSARY
You should know these words. Could you say their meanings?

.-Weather
.-Atmosphere
.-Clouds
.-Temperature
.-Average Temperature
.-Maximum Temperature
.-Minimal Temperature
.-Low pressure
.-High pressure
.-Tropopause
.-Stratopause
.-Global warming
.-Ozone hole
.-Humidity
.-Wind
.-Rain
.-Snow
.-Hydrometer
.-Snowflakes
.-Barometer
34

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.-Pluviometer
.-Jet streams
.-Monsson
.-Weather map

*EXTRA ACTIVITY

If you want to learn more .. Click here!

http://www.weatherquestions.com/

FOURTH TOPIC
Weather and the Earths Landscape
35

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Climates and landscapes of Europe and Spain

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

The Earths Weather


Warm Zones: Equatorial landscapes
Warm Zones: Tropical landscapes
Warm Zones: Desert landscapes
Temperate Zones: Oceanic landscapes
Temperate Zones: Mediterranean landscapes
Temperate Zones: Continental landscapes
Cold Zones: Polar landscapes and high altitude landscapes

Introduction

Environment is formed by the relief, the ground, weather, vegetation and fauna
(plant life).

Landscape refers to the environment combined with humans actions.


http://www.boscobel.k12.wi.us/~schnrich/climate_zones.htm

ACTIVITY: Read the previous link and answer:

1. How many climatic areas are there in the Earth?


2. Why do these climatic areas exist?
3. How many climatic areas are there in the Earth?
4. In what areas of the Earth is there darkness six months a year?

1. The Earths Weather


http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/Atmosphere/weather.html&edu=mid
http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/earth/climate/cli_define.html

36

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

1.1.

The Earths Climatic Zones

Climatic Zones
Different types of climates
because weathers elements
(temperature,
humidity,
atmospheric pressure, winds
precipitation) and climatic
(latitude,
altitude
and
distance from the ocean) join
together.

exist

and
factors

Earth is divided into three


temperature zones:

warm zones

temperate zones

cold zones.

Each zone is divided into sub-zones of different kinds of weather.


http://www.classzone.com/books/earth_science/terc/content/visualizations/es2103/es21
03page01.cfm?chapter_no=visualization

QUESTIONS

5. Which are the elements and the factors of the climate?


6. What are three big climatic areas of the Earth?
7. Between what latitudes can we find every climatic area?

8. In which climatic area is there no winter?

2. Warm
Zones:
landscapes

Equatorial

Equatorial landscape is found in:

the Amazon

the Congo

Guineas coast
37

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Southeast Asia

Temperatures are always very high and precipitation is abundant.

Rivers in the Equatorial zone are the largest and the most consistent.

The vegetation is either forest or jungle.

Natives (people) of the forests in South America and Africa collect fruit or use
very basic agriculture. These regions have smaller populations.

The equatorial zones in Asia are very populated.


destroyed, and now they grow rice, sugar cane, tea...

The forest has been

QUESTIONS:
9.- Where is the equatorial climate located?
10.- What are the characteristic of the equatorial climate?
11.- How are the equatorial rivers?

12.- How is the vegetation of the equatorial climate?

3. Warm Zones: Tropical landscapes


Warm Zones
Tropical climate zones are located to the North and to the South of the equator.

In tropical zones, temperatures are high the entire


year.
However, there are two seasons with
significant differences, the wet season and the dry
season.

The characteristic vegetation is the savannah, formed by


grass and bushes, and there are many herbivores and
carnivores

38

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Natives of Warm Zones. In some tribes (like the Masai tribe and the Mara
tribe) in the savannah, shepherds have their own domestic animals.

Other tribes in the savannah use agriculture and rotate their crops.

In tropical zones, there are also big plantations run by foreign companies.
They cultivate cocoa, coffee, tobacco and tea.

QUESTIONS:
13.- Where is the tropical climate located and what characteristic does it have?
14.- How are the rivers of the tropical area?
15.- What is the name of the vegetable formation typical of the tropical area?

16.- How do droughts affect life in this area?

4.- Warm Zone: Desert landscapes


We find warm deserts in the tropics.

Rainfall is scarce and temperatures are very high


the entire year. During the day it is extremely hot
and during the night it is very cold. In warm
deserts there are no permanent rivers, but there
can be wadis and oases.

Natives of Warm Deserts

Deserts have few people. There are nomadic shepherds that live in the
outskirts of the desert with their goats and camels.

Sedentary populations of the desert live next to oases, or next to areas where
they can find water coming from subterranean currents.

QUESTIONS:
17.- Where are the desert landscapes?

18.- What are the characteristics of the desert climate?

39

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

19.- How many types of deserts are there in the Earth?

5.- Temperate Zones: Oceanic landscapes


5.1.

Oceanic landscapes

Oceanic
landscapes
located in two places:

are

between the 40 North


parallel and 60 North
parallel.

between the 40 South


parallel and 60 South
parallel.

Zones with oceanic climates


have soft and persistent rains
throughout
the
year.
Temperatures are not very
extreme and there is little
difference
between
the
seasons.

Rivers are abundant and regular throughout the year.

Deciduous forests develop because of the mild temperatures and constant


rainfall (oaks, chestnut trees).

The most characteristic vegetation of this landscape is the grassland. This


develops when trees are cut down.

5.2. Humans and the environment

Zones with oceanic climates have diverse forms of landscape, depending upon
how many people live there.

Western Europe is a very populated area. There were forests in the past, but
now there are grasslands for livestock and crops.

The West Coast of North America, Southern Chile and Argentina have relatively
small populations and abundant forests that have not been exploited.

40

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand are areas where grass is abundant.
There are many animals (especially cows and sheep) because there is so much
grass.

QUESTIONS:
20.- What areas of the Earth is the oceanic climate in?

21.- Why is the oceanic climate also called Atlantic climate?

22.- What characteristic does the oceanic climate have?

6. Temperate Zones: Mediterranean landscapes

6.1. Mediterranean landscapes


Mediterranean
landscapes
are
located
in
the
Mediterranean river basin,
the
coast
of
California
(United States), Chile, South
Africa and Australia.

The Mediterranean climate is


hot and dry during the
summer.

Rivers dont have a lot of water during the summer and are irregular.

Perennial trees (pines, Holm oaks, ...) form Mediterranean forests.

The cutting of trees, forest fires, and the clearing of land for animals cause the
disappearance of forests. There are only dense bushes that grow.

6.2. Humans and the environment

Typical crops are: grains, vines, and olive trees.

The principle livestock is the ovine.

Irrigated land has favoured the development of intensive livestock and crops of
the irrigated region.

41

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Currently, greenhouses have developed a very productive agriculture that


require a lot of manual labor.

QUESTIONS:
23.- What are the characteristics of Mediterranean climate?
24.- What places is the Mediterranean climate located in?
25.- What crops are typical of the Mediterranean climate?

7. Temperate Zones: continental landscapes


Continental landscape
Continental landscapes
are located in places far
from the sea.

Internal regions of the


continents have extreme
temperatures and scarce
precipitation.
This
precipitation
occurs
mostly in the summer.

There are two types of


natural landscapes in these climates:

coniferous forests or taiga (in the North)


and the prairies (in the South)

Humans use the cellulose from taiga trees to make paper.

Continental landscapes are very good for the development of livestock and
grain crops.

QUESTIONS
26.- In what places is the continental climate located i?

27.- What are the characteristics of the continental climate?

42

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

28.- How is the vegetation in the continental landscape?

8.

Cold Zones: Polar landscapes and high altitude landscapes


8.1.

Polar landscapes

Polar zones, the Arctic


Circle and the Antarctic
Circle, are the coldest
zones
on
the
planet
because the solar rays
dont touch them directly.
Rain is practically nonexistent and the scarce
precipitation falls in the
form
of
snow
(cold
deserts).
There is only vegetation in
the summer, and it only
grows in the tundra. Two
animals can live here:
bears and reindeer.
Traditionally,
Eskimos
(America) and Laplanders
(Scandinavian peninsula)
have lived in these zones.

8.2. Highland landscapes


Highlands zones have altitudes higher than 2500m and they have their own
cold climate characteristics.

Temperatures are low throughout the year and there is not much precipitation.
If there is precipitation, it is in the form of snow.

Inhabitants of the highlands usually work in:

raising livestock

forests

tourism

QUESTIONS:
29.- Where is located the polar climate and of high mountain?

43

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

30.- How is the vegetation of these areas?

ACTIVITY:
31.- Click the following link and make a climate graphic.
http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/7v.html

Climates and landscapes of Europe and Spain


Introduction
There is a big variety of climates and landscapes in Europe.

The Iberian Peninsula has certain particular characteristics because of its location in
Europe.
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/germans/environment/index.htm
http://www.dorlingkindersley-uk.co.uk/static/cs/uk/11/worldfactfile/europe.html
QUESTIONS: Look at the map and answer..
1.- Why is so different the climate of Denmark from the climate of Italy?
2.- In what countries does the oceanic climate exist?
3.- What climate can we find in Spain?
44

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

1.- Climates and landscapes of Europe


1.1. Europe: a small continent
Europe: Europe is a big peninsula located to the west of the European continent.
(Eurasian continent)
In comparison to other
continents, Europe is a small
continent.

http://www.packback.com/books/continent.asp?id=1
1.2. Europe: diversity of climates and landscapes
Europe has many types of climates and landscapes because of:
.- its latitude
.- the influence of the sea
.- its relief
Most of the continent has temperate climates.
The Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea influence Europe with:
.- moderate temperatures
.-abundant precipitation

QUESTIONS:
4.- what climate is the most important in Europe?
5.- What are the causes of the climatic variety in Europe?

1.3. Europes Vegetation and Fauna

45

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

The normal vegetation of


Northern Europe is the
tundra. In the South there
are coniferous forests.
In the rest of Europe, the
normal
vegetation
has
disappeared in many places
because of human action.
Fauna has also changed
because of human action.
There are also fewer large
mammals (bears, wolves,
elks).
QUESTIONS:
6.- In what areas of Europe
are there more forests?

7.- What type of forest is the


most abundant?

8.- Why has the forest and big part of the fauna disappeared in Europe?

2.- Climates and landscapes of Spain:


2.1. A big diversity of climates
The climates in Spain are a little different
from the temperate climates in Europe.
The oceanic (or atlantic) climate
occupies a narrow part in the north of
Spain.
The Mediterranean climate occupies the:
Eastern Coast
Southern Coast
Balearic Islands
The Continental Mediterranean climate occupies the central zone of the peninsula.
The Canary Islands have a subtropical climate.
Climates and landscapes of Spain
QUESTIONS:
9. What climates can we find in Spain?
10.- Where are the most rainy areas in Spain and where the most arid?
46

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

Search in the following link and answer these questions:


http://www.travour.com/tours-to-spain/geography-of-spain.html
11.- How big is the surface of Spain?
12.- How many kilometers of coast are there?

13.- What is the highest peak of the Pyrenees, of the Peninsula and of Spain?
14.-Where are the forests?
15.- What type of trees can we find in Spain?

Read the following link and answer


http://original.britannica.com/eb/article-258815/Spain
16.- When was the Spanish scenery modified?
17.- What ancient civilizations occupied the Spanish territory?
18.- Make some quizzes on this page:
http://www.iberianature.com/nature_quizzes/spain_quizzes.htm

19.- Search in Internet for three images of different sceneries of Europe and of Spain
and comment on them

DOSSIER : The relief, rivers and climate of Andalusia


ACTIVITIES: Read the book and the link below and answer:
20.- What are the principal units of the relief in Andalusia?
21.- Where are the highest altitudes?
47

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

22.- Where do the principal rivers arise and how are they called?
23.- How is the Andalusian coast?
24.- How many types of climates are there in Andalusia?
25.- What type of vegetation is the most important in Andalusia?
26.- What type of climate exists in Ronda?
27.- What are the principal natural spaces in Andalusia?
http://www.terra.es/personal2/pfigares/geogr.htm#espacio
http://www.maps.data-spain.com/autonomous_communities/andalucia/

*GLOSSARY
You should know these words.
meanings?
.- Weather:

Could you say their

.- Landscape:
.- Warm zone:
.- Cold zone:
.- Environment:
.- Climatic Zones:
.- Vegetation:
.- Jungle:
.- Dry season:
.- Bushes:
48

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.- Savannah:
.- Forest:
.- Grains:
.- Livestock:
.- Taiga:
.- Tundra:
*EXTRA ACTIVITY
If you want to learn more .. Click here!
http://www.ace.mmu.ac.uk/eae/Climate/Older/Climate_zones.html
http://www.iberianature.com/spainblog/category/on-spain/

FIFTH TOPIC
Rivers and Seas
Society and the Environment

49

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Water in nature
Problems with water
Oceans, seas, rivers and lakes
The dynamic ocean
Europes rivers and the Iberian Peninsula

Introduction
4. The hydrosphere is the collection of: seas, oceans, rivers, lakes, ice caps,
glaciers, internal water sources and water vapour (all kinds of water).
5. Water is the most abundant substance of the Earth. It can be in a solid, a
liquid, or a gaseous form.
6. Salt water represents 97% and fresh water is only 3%.
7. Water is part of the circulatory process (the water cycle) and is essential for
life.
QUESTION:
1.- What's the hydrosphere?
2.- In which forms can water be found on Earth?

50

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

3.- Look at these links and.....Can you explain the water cycle?
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/kids/flash/flash_watercycle.html
4.- Answer these questions......
http://www.epa.gov/safewater/kids/flash/flash_qagame.html

3. Water in Nature
1.1.Salt Water: oceans

The large majority of


water on Planet Earth is
salt water and it is found
in oceans and seas.

An ocean is a large body


of salt water that
separates continents.

The large oceans are:


the Pacific Ocean, the Atlantic, and the Indian Ocean.

Seas are the extension of oceans in the areas closest to continents, like the Cantabric
Sea or the Caribbean Sea.
QUESTIONS:
5.- How many oceans are there? Write their names.... Look at this Link.
http://www.britannica.com/eb/art-27643/Boundaries-of-the-worlds-oceans-and-seas

3.2.

Fresh Water: Lakes and Rivers

.- We can find fresh water in: lakes, rivers, groundwater table, icebergs, glaciers
and the atmosphere
.- Lakes are permanent bodies of water deposited in depressions.
.- Rivers are continuous currents of water. The quantity of water (volume) is called
flow (caudal)..
The regulation (rgimen) of a river is the variation it experiences during a
year in its water flow.
The river could have:
.- rain water variation (rgimen pluvial), if the water comes from rain water.
.- snow variation (rgimen nival), if the water comes from melted snow or ice
QUESTIONS:
6.- In which forms can fresh water be found on Earth?
51

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

7.- What is a river?


8.- How many parts are there in a rivers course? How are they called?
9.- What differences are there between a river with snow variation and a river with
rain water variation?

2. Problems with Water


2.1. Water, a Scarce Resource
6. Of the 3% of fresh water on the Earths surface, only 1% is ground water and
surface water, which we can consume.
7. Water is a scarce resource and we always need more.
8. Currently, about 40% of the worlds population suffers grave water problems
QUESTIONS:
10.- Where is fresh water obtained for human consumption?
11.- How do people consume water in different parts of the world?
12.- How do children suffer the problem of water in some parts of the world?... Look at
this Link.
http://www.wateraid.org/uk/what_we_do/the_need/207.asp

2.2. The Unequal Consumption of Water

52

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

5. Of consumable fresh water, 65% goes to agriculture, 25% goes to industry and
only 10% goes to domestic use..
6. Rich, developed countries use more potable water, while countries in Africa
and Western Asia suffer from lack of water.
7. Due to environmental contamination, an important part of available fresh water
suffers from some type of contamination.
8. Water needs to be potable so that we can consume it. Otherwise, it could be
dangerous for our health.
ACTIVITY:
13.- How we can help not to increase the contamination of water?.... Look at this
Link.
http://www.oceansidecleanwaterprogram.org/kids.asp

3. Oceans, Seas, Rivers and Lakes


3.1. Waters of the Earth
4. Oceans and seas cover the biggest
part (or the majority) of Earths
surface.
5. The
continents
and
large
archipelagos separate the principal
areas of water on Earth into five
oceans: the Pacific Ocean, the
Atlantic Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the
Arctic Ocean and the Antarctic
Ocean.
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/ocean/
Look at the previous Link and answer...

QUESTIONS:
53

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

14.- Which is the biggest ocean?


15.- Which is the smallest ocean?
16.- Do these exercises:
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/geography/continents/quiz.shtml
17.- World Lakes Map Quiz:
http://www.ilike2learn.com/ilike2learn/lakemaps/lakes.html
18.- World Oceans and Seas Map Quiz:
http://www.ilike2learn.com/ilike2learn/seamaps/oceansandseas.html
19,. Write ten rivers, ten lakes and ten seas in a map.

4. The Dynamic Ocean


Look at this vocabulary:

http://www.epa.gov/region07/kids/wtrcycle.htm
4.1. The Movements of Seas and Oceans
5. Seas and oceans are always moving because of waves, tides and water streams.
6. Waves form because wind shakes the surface of seas and oceans.
7. Tides form because of the attraction of the

Moon. Tides refer to the difference in water


level during different times of the day.

QUESTIONS: Look at these Links and answer


http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0146ocean-tides.php
54

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/question.php?number=143

20.- Why do tides happen?


21.- What is high tide and what is low tide?

8. Water streams are big rivers that flow through oceans.

http://www.kidsgeo.com/geography-for-kids/0145-ocean-currents.php
QUESTIONS:
22.- What are streams?
23.- How do streams affect the climate?

24.- What is the name of the sea stream


that affects Europe?

The Action of Seas in Forming the Coasts


5. The water action from waves and tides shape coasts, building cliffs.
6. Sediments from rivers are deposited in the sea and they form beaches and
albuferas (lagoon).
5. Europes Rivers and the Iberian Peninsula
5.1.- Europes Rivers

.-Continental rivers like the Dniper and the Don.


.-Oceanic rivers like the Garona, the Loira and the Elba.

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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.-Mediterranean rivers like the Ebro, the Rdano, the Po and the Turia.

QUESTIONS:
25.- How are the European rivers classified?
26.- Where do the rivers Loira, Danube and Rhin end?

5.2.-The Iberian Peninsulas rivers

.-In the Iberian Peninsula, there


are three versants (vertientes).
.-Rivers of the Cantabric Versant
are short and have a very strong
current:
.-Bidasoa, Nervin, Naln.
.-Rivers of the Atlantic Versant
are large, with many tributaries
and a lot of water.
.-Rivers of the Mediterranean
Versant are short rivers with
little water and are very
irregular. The Ebro River is an
exception because it is long and
has a lot of water.
QUESTIONS:
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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

27.-How many versants are there in Spain?


28.- Which are the Spanish rivers of the Cantabric Versant? And the Mediterranean
Versant?
29.- Search two tributaries of each main river in Spain

Society and the Environment


1. The Earth is an ecosystem
2. Natural Risks
3. Risks caused by Humans
4. Urban Environment
5. The exploitation of natural resources
http://it.geocities.com/allfonsit/
QUESTIONS:
Look at the previous link and answer:
1.- What is the idea of sustainability?

2.- What is the ozone and why is it important?

3.- Why does the greenhouse effect exist ?


Introduction
Humans have changed the environment greatly

the increase of consumption

the growth of cities and of industry

the development of transportation

by:

As a result, nature and the environment are in

danger.

These are big ecological problems and there


many people who are worried about the
environment.

are

http://visual.merriam-webster.com/earth/environment/acid-rain.php
QUESTIONS:
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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

4.-How does the acid rain affect to the forests?


5.-Why are there some animal species and plants in danger of extinction?
6.-Why does the greenhouse effect exist?

1. The Earth is an ecosystem


1.1.

What is an Ecosystem?

All of the elements of the Earth are related:


.-the ground
.-climate
.-water
.-vegetation
.-fauna
.-human beings
*Because of this, we call the Earth an
ecosystem.
When one element of the system is
modified, the other elements are affected
http://original.britannica.com/eb/art15/Transfer-of-energy-through-anecosystem

too.

QUESTIONS:
7.-What is an ecosystem?

8.-What are the elements of the terrestrial ecosystem?

1.2.

The Elements of the Earths Ecosystem

Planet Earth is formed by four


Interrelated elements called:
.-the lithosphere
.-the hydrosphere
.-the atmosphere
.-the biosphere
Vegetation is an important part in the Earths
ecosystem.
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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

The Earths ecosystem is a chain and everything is in equilibrium.


change can create big environmental disequilibrium.
1.3.

A small

The Sun, the Source of Life

The Sun is the principal source of energy of our planet. Without the Sun, the
ecosystem of the Earth would not exist.
The Sun heats the Earths surface. It allows plants to grow and produces
oxygen and organic material.
The Sun heats the oceans salt water. Only the water vapour (without the salt)
evaporates into the sky. There, the water vapour forms clouds. When it rains,
humans can use the fresh water.
QUESTIONS:
9.-What is the principal element of an ecosystem?

10.-How do men alter the ecosystems?


http://www.imlivinggreen.com/info/globalwarming/

2. Natural Risks
2.1.

Types of Natural Risks

The term risk means the existence of a possible danger for people or things.
Depending on their origin, they can be:
.-natural
.-caused by human action
One third of the worlds population lives in zones where they can suffer from
four big natural risks:
.-hurricanes
.-floods
.-earthquakes
.-volcanic eruptions
http://www.weatherwizkids.com/hurricane1.htm
QUESTIONS:
11.-What is a risk?
12.-Write four natural risks?
13.-Why do hurricanes and earthquakes happen?
14.-How can we try to avoid the natural risks?
59

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

3. Risks caused by Humans


3.1.

Technological Risks

Occasionally, the technique that humans use causes


problems in the environment.
For example, although nuclear power stations are
very safe, it is possible that some radioactive
material can escape: Chernobyl (Ukraine).
Air contamination (or pollution) created by
chemical products can also harm many people:
Bhopal (India).
QUESTIONS:
15.-What are the principal technological risks?

16.-What human activities produce contamination in the air?

3.2.

Pollution of the Environment

Industrial activities are good because they provide:


.-many products that we can use
.-jobs for many people
However, industrial activities are bad because they have some negative
consequences.
Some factories dump ( put) their waste into rivers or the ground, so they
become contaminated.
Other factories emit gases that pollute the atmosphere and increase the
temperature.
.-Global warming
.-Acid rain
.-Waste water
http://www.gradebook.org/Pollution.html
QUESTIONS:
17.-How do men contaminate the environment?

18.-What effects does contamination produce in the water and in the air?

60

_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

4. Urban Environment
4.1.

The city, an open ecosystem

Cities are like open ecosystems.


Cities need to get many products from the outside: energy,
food, water, etc.
Cities produce a lot of waste, so they have to recycle.
http://www.ac-nancymetz.fr/enseign/anglais/Henry/recycling.htm
QUESTIONS:
19.-Why do we say that the city is an open ecosystem?

20.-What produces the contamination in the cities?

21.-How can we help to reduce the contamination in the cities?

5. The exploitation of natural resources

It is important to care and maintain the Earths resources.

There are three basic problems:

the exhaustion of resources that are not renewable

the abuse of renewable resources,

the unequal distribution of the Earths resources


http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/geography/development/developmen
tqualityrev3.shtml

Sustainable development
Our society is beginning to understand that you cant exploit the Earths
resources in an unlimited manner.

Some species of animals and plants are in danger of extinction

There are rivers and oceans that are contaminated

The air of some cities is sometimes contaminated

Sustainable development or sustainability.


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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

THERE ARE THREE PRINCIPLES


REDUCE; REUSE, RECYCLE (RRR)

OF

SUSTAINABLE

DEVELOPMENT:

QUESTIONS:
22.-What is the sustainable development?
23.-What are the renewable and not renewable resources?
24.-Make a project about a renewable energy (mural)
*GLOSSARY
You should know these words. Could you say their meanings?
.- River
.- Water Cycle
.- Sea
.- Lake
.- Wave
.- Tide
.- Water Streams
.- Versant
.- Fresh water
.- River's course
.- Continental river
.- Mediterranean river
.-Tributary
.- Environment
.- Ecosystem
.- Natural Riks
.- Natural Resources
.- Global Warming
.- Acid Rain
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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008

.- Recycle
*EXTRA ACTIVITY
If you want to learn more .. Click here!
http://www.geography4kids.com/files/water_intro.html
http://www.recycling-guide.org.uk/rrr.html

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_______________________________________________________________________________________
I.E.S. RODRGUEZ DELGADO. Dept. Geography and History. 1ESO.

Jen Novell & Antonio Zamora.

Bilingual Project . 2008