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Chapter one

Goal of human relations- to create a win-win situation by


satisfying employee needs while achieving organizational
objective
Win-win situations- when the organizations and the employe4es
both get what they want
a. When employees and organizational goals align
performance tends to follow
b. Conflicts usually arise because of lack of win-win situation
Total person approach- realizes that an organization employs the
whole person not just his or her job skills
a. Its important to understand the whole person
b. It is more then just an employee- at work he will not
completely discard all his other roles to be a worker only
c. If off the job life will affect his job performance
d. If he had a bad at work it may not be related to his job but
to another of his lifes roles
e. A bad day at work can affect personal life satisfaction
Three levels of behavior- behavior is what people do and say
a. Individual- and group- level behavior
If mike types a letter on the computer or fills out
requisition form this is individual behavior
Group behavior- consists of the things two or more
people do and say as they interact
Individual behavior affects group behavior
Mike and Mary work on a project together there
actions are considered group behaviors
b. Organizational-level behavior
Organization is a group of people working to achieve
one or more objectives
Both profit and nonprofit
Organizations are created to produce goods and
services for the larger society
Ex- store, school, church, post office, or health club
Organizational behavior- is the collective of an
organizations individuals and groups (As individuals
and groups interact their collective behavior
constitutes the organizations behavior)
Ex- IMB collective behavior- mikes behavior, the
behaviors of Marys department, and combination of
all other departments combined
Systems effect and preformance
c. System- is a set of two or more interactive elements
d. System approach

Focuses the whole system with an emphasis on the


relationship between its parts
a. Systems effect - all people in the organization are affected
by at least one other person, and each person affects the
whole group or organization
Organizations performance is based on the combined
performance of each individual and group
To have high levels of performance they must have
high preforming individuals and groups
Groups are the building blocks of the organization
As a result the destructive behavior of one
department affects other departments and the
organizations performance
If either individuals or groups if ineffective the
organization cant stand
10 human relation guidelines
b. Be optimistic- most successful people are happy
c. Be positive
Praise and encourage people
People dont like to hear you complain and avoid
them due to the fact that associating with them will
depress you
a. Be genuinely interested in other people- you like people
who show a genuine interest in you
b. Smile and develop a sense of humor- shows interest and
caring, likeable people do not take themselves to seriously
c. Call people by name- shows interest in them and makes
them feel important
d. Listen to people Very important skill
We learn more by listening then talking
Show respect for other people
When wrong admit it quickly
Encourage other to talk about themselves
a. Help others- if you want to help yourself you can do so by
helping others
b. Think before you act- feel your emotions but control your
behavior as well as think about the consequences
c. Apologize- to truly repair things the best start is an apology
d. Create win-win situations HR is about how we behave and treat others and the
goal of it is to create win-win situations
Best way to get what you want is to help other
people get what they want

Ex- if mike follows 220 human relation guidelines at


IBM he will increase his chances of success
Fredrick Taylor
a. An engineer known as father of scientific management
b. (Late 1800s to early 1900s)
c. Focused on analyzing and redesigning jobs more efficiently
d. Lead to the idea of mass production
e. Scientific managers focused on production not people they
assumed that works acted rationally and were more
motivated by money
f. He failed to recognize the social needs of employees and
placed them in isolated jobs
Robert Owen
a. In 1800 he was considered the first manager entrepreneur
to understand the need to improve work environment and
employees overall situation
b. In 1920 he was called the real father of personal
administration
c. Believed profit would be increased if employees worked
shorter hours as well as pad accordingly as well as
provided with sufficient food and housing
d. Refused to employee children under the age of 11
e. Taught them cleanliness and temperance and improved
working conditions
f. Many entrepreneurs at the time didnt follow his ideas
Elton mayo
a. 1920s-1930s him and his associates from Harvard
conducted research at the western electric Hawthorne
plant near Chicago
b. The research conducted became a land mark in human
relation fields
c. He is called the father of human relations
d. Discovered the Hawthorne effect
Hawthorne effect
e. an increase in performance caused by the special attention
given to employees rather than tangible changes in the
work
f. Changed lighting and ventilation and to his surprise
performance went up regardless of the working conditions
g. Performance increased due to the special attention given
to employees
h. Some used human relations as a mean to manipulate
employees while others took the attitude that a happy
worker is a productive worker

i. Studies show that a happy worker are usually but not


always more productive then unhappy workers
History related to human relations
a. 1930
Great depression
Unions gained strength and literally forced
management to look more closely at the human side
of organization and meet employees needs for better
working conditions higher pay and shorten hours
through labor unions
b. 1940s/1950s
Major research projects were conducted in a number
of organizations based on leadership and motivation
c. 1960s
Douglas McGregor -theory x theory y
Eric Berne- transactional analysis
d. 1970s
Interest in human relations peaked
Quality circles were popular
e. 1980s
William Ouchi- comparison of Japanese and American
working environments
Theory Z (life long job/stable work conditions/ overall
healthy employees)
Thomas peter/Robert waterman-research to identify
characteristics of successful organizations
Total quality management
f. 1990s
Trends toward more participation by employees
Employees empowerment
Use of groups and teams
Current and future challenges of HR
g. Globalization, change, innovation, and speed Chief executive officers rate globalization as a
challenge to business leadership in the 21st century
The trends toward globalization has clearly changed
the speed at which and the way we do business
today
h. Technology
Has enabled innovations and speed we have now in
global economy

The rate of technology change will not slow down


due to the fact that it is created by people and they
have to use it effectively to compete
People are using more social media to communicate
i. Diversity
Due to globalization diversity becomes more
important
You need to understand how to work with people
around the world
j. Learning and knowledge
Key to success today is using it effectively and
continually innovate in order to compete in the new
global economy
k. Ethics
Media coverage has heightened awareness of the
need for ethical business practices and decisions
l. Crisis
Organizations have developed plans to prevent and
or deal with crises
Safety and security issues have led to new HR
behaviors
Relationship between good HR and good customer servicePersonalitym. Is a relatively stable set of traits that aids in explaining and
predicting individual behavior
n. Individuals are different but similar in many ways
Type A/B
a. Type A- is characterized as fast moving hard working hard
driving time conscious competitive impatient an
preoccupied with work
Associated with high levels of stress
b. Type B- complete opposite laidback and easy going
Locus of control- simple two dimensional personality
classification method
c. A continuum representing ones belief as to weather
external or internal forces control ones destiny
External control- believe that they have little control
over performance and are closed to new experiences
Internal control- believe they are in control and are
open to new experiences to improve performance
Big 5 model
d. Reliably categorizes most if not all of the traits hat you
would use to describe someone

e. Organized in 5 dimensions and each includes multiple


traits
f. Surgency
Includes leadership and extroversion traits
People in leadership want to be in change
They are energetic assertive active ambitious with an
interest in getting ahead and leading through
competing and influencing
Extroversion is on a continuum between being an
extrovert and being an introvert
Extroverts are outgoing sociable and gregarious like
to meet new people and willing to confront others
Introverts are shy
a. Agreeableness
Getting along with other people
Warm easy going courteous good natured
cooperative tolerant compassionate friendly and
sociable
Sociable spend most there time with other people
and have a lot of friends
b. Adjustment
Emotional stability- continuum of being emotionally
stable and emotionally unstable
Bill gates in control of emotions
Steve jobs more emotional
c. Conscientiousness
Traits related to achievements its continuum of being
responsible and dependable and being irresponsible
and undependable
Persistence credibility and organization
d. Openness to experience
Traits related to willingness to change and try new
things
Open-minded and creative
Myers-Briggs type indicator
e. Identifies your personality preference of certain ways of
thinking and behaving
Stress
f. An emotional and or physical reaction to environmental
activates and events
g. Stressors- situations in which people feel anxiety tension
and pressure
h. Some stress helps improve performance by challenging
and motivating us

i. To much stress affects your behavior human relations and


performance it depletes our energy and weakens your
brain
j. Stress can cause weight gain and aging weakens your
immune system can ruin your sleep make you ill and cause
death
k. The degree in which stress affects us is based on our
personality types
Organizational climate- the more positive the
organizational climate and work culture the less
stress there is
Management behavior- calm participative
management styles produce less stress
Degree of job satisfaction-if you enjoy your job then
you typically handle the stress better
Eustress/distress
a. Eustress- can be pleasant or curative
Can challenge motive
Can help us perform at our best
b. Distress- can be harmful
Medical problems
Low morale
Less profits
Fight-or-flight response- our physical and emotional response to
stressors
Sweeting breathing blood pressure all affected
Controlling stress plan
a. Identify stressors
b. Identify the causes and consequences
c. Plan to eliminate or decrease the stress
Exercise releases tension and reduces weight
Nutrition- good health is essential for everyone high
protein and high fiber
Relaxation- get rest and sleep
Positive thinking be optimistic stay positive
Support system-having someone to talk to is very
helpful
Perception
a. A person interpretation of reality
b. Select organize and interpret stimuli through your senses
c. Influenced by heredity environment
d. People will behave to there perception not yours people
see things differently then you do
Bias in perception

a. Bias affecting perception are stereotypes, frames of


reference, expectations
Stereotypes- generalizing the behavior of all
members of a group
Frame of reference- tendency to see things from a
narrow focus that directly affects us
Expectations-what we expect often influences our
perceptions of what we see and experience
Selective exposure- we stand to see and hear what
we want to
Interests- affects how we perceive and approach
things
Emotional intelligence
b. The ability to manage our emotions
c. Related to the adjustment in the big 5
d. 5 components
Self awareness
Managing emotions
Motivating yourself
Empathy
Social skills
Attitudes
a. A strong belief or feeling toward people things and
situation
b. They are quick judgments that we can change easily but
we can change them
c. People interpret your attitude by your behavior
d. Attitudes are developed through experiences
e. Douglas McGregor classified attitudes (61)
f. Managers attitudes and they way they treat employees
affect employees job behavior
Values
Why is it important to be aware of attitudes and values
a. Attitudes are important because employers place great
emphasis on attitude due to the fact that it has an impact
on there success
Theory X and Y
b. Douglas McGregor
c. Classified attitudes
d. Theory x- attitudes hold that employees dislike work and
must be closely supervised to get them to do their work
e. Theory y- attitudes hold that employees like to work and do
not need to be closely supervised to get them to do their
work

f. Manager with dominant personalities do not trust


employees so they have theory X attitudes
g. Managers with theory Y attitudes tend to have employees
with higher levels of job satisfaction
Pygmalion effecta. Supervisors attitudes and expectations of employees and
how they treat them largely determine their performance
b. Hawthorn effect and this are related due to the fact you bc
that affect performance
c. Managers expectations become a self fulfilling prophecy
d. Ex- elementary age students, welding students, marine
training
How does the Pygmalion effect play out through climate input
response opportunity and feedback
a.