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Lithocaps and high-sulfidation

epithermal deposits

Sociedad Geolgica de Chile: : July 2011

III

II
I

Formation of advanced argillic alteration: hypogene & steam heated


CO2, H2S

Steam-heated blanket
H2S + 2 O2 = H2SO4

pH >2
pH <1

H2SO4, HCl

Lithocap formed by
hypogene condensate
4 SO2 + 4 H2O =>
3 H2SO4 + H2S HCl, SO2, CO2, H2S
hypogene alteration

H2O, NaCl,
SO2, HCl, CO2, H2S, ...

CO2, H2S
steam-heated
alteration

Sl
Ya
RMt

Wa
Vi

To

musc

HS

IS

LS

LS(a)

Hedenquist et al., 1996, 2000

LS, shallow (<300-400 m)


<220-230 C
IS, deeper (~300-800 m)
>220-230 C)

S Lithocaps and high sulfn: Cu-Au-Ag


S Initial leaching: vuggy qtz, qtz-alun

lithocap w/ crs py, <50 ppb Au

Einaudi, Hedenquist and Inan, 2003

Summitville, Colorado

Summitville, Colorado

pH ~ 4-6 2-4 <2

Steven and Ratt, 1960


Steven & Ratt, 1960

pH ~

>6

10 - 100s m

4-6

2 - 4 <2

Residual quartz, vuggy : Tucari

Residual quartz, vuggy: Pierina

Hypogene alunite, El Tambo

Arribas et al., 2000

500 m

>10 g/t

Residual quartz, vuggy: Summitville

Quartz-alunite, Summitville

High-temperature hypogene
vapors, !850 C with HCl, SO2

vadose zone: steam-heated blanket

Arribas et al. (2005)

Arribas et al. (2005)

Arribas et al. (2005)

Arribas et al. (2005)

Arribas et al., 2000

Steam-heated advanced argillic blanket, La Coipa

Supergene alunite,
Rodalquilar

Massive supergene
alunite,
Rodalquilar;
post-mineral
weathering
oxidation

Supergene oxidation critical to economics!

Rodalquilar, Spain: looking ~east


Rodalquilar,
Spain
Arribas et al., 1995

Drilling beneath
supergene alunite
blanket;
a mistake here....

Supergene alunite,
Riaza

Supergene alunite, Rodalquilar

Nansatsu district, S Kyushu, looking east:


Iwato HS deposit, Maruyama pit
Inset: qtz-alun halo, sharp ctc with vuggy qtz, to r.)

Sonomi
volcano

1 km

Iwato,

Arabira rebody:
Structural control
to alteration and
ore (in feeders)

Urashima et al., 1981

30 m

Tuff breccia
Nansatsu Group

NB: 27 drill holes on pseudo-section outside mine

MMAJ, 1986

250 m

Exploration and discovery histories: Use of models


1991

10 holes, 1869 m, av. 185 m


82 holes, 7656 m, av. 93 m (inclined)

IMG-122 (#40); 71 holes, 23,242 m, av. 330 m

http://www.iamgold.com/presentations2006.asp

Diatreme breccia
w/ porphyry Cu
fragments

2 km

Stacked lithocaps!

Strong lithologic
control to
residual quartz
llithocap: tuffs

Stacked lithocaps, upper barren...!

http://www.iamgold.com/presentations2006.asp

Pierina, Peru

Longitudinal section, N-S

Calipuy volcanic units

Volkert et al., 1998

Yanacocha

oblique aerial to NE

Cajamarca District
Paleozoic-Mesozoic
sedimentary rocks

Tantahuatay

Perol-Cocanes
Cerro
Yanacocha

Kupfertal

CretaceousTertiary
intrusive rocks

40 km
Tertiary volcanic
rocks

Yanacocha
cluster

Gustafson et al., 2004

Antonio

Maqui Maqui; 3

Perol, Cocaez: 8 km

Giuliana

Cerro Yanacocha; 25
Norte, Oeste, Sur, Encajon
(Verde - sulfide)

Norte

Oeste

Leach pad

Sur

Kupfertal
Cerro Negro; 1

Encajon
TapadoCorimayo; 4

CarachugoChaquicocha; 6

La Quinua; 9
Kupfertal
porphyry:
KUP-3

5 km

San Jose; 4

Quilish; 4

5 km

Longo and
Teal, 2005

8.2 9.2 Ma (Yanacocha Complex)


10 10.5 Ma (San Jose)
10.7 Ma (Kupfertal
porph)

Late dacite

Bell et al., 2005


Longo and Teal, 2005
Longo et al., 2010

From Longo, 2005, et al. 2010; Perol and


Cocaez dates from Gustafson et al., 2004

Alunites

10.7 11.1 Ma (Corimayo-Carachugo-Tapado)


11.5 13.5 Ma (Cerro Negro, Quilish)
15.8-16.1 Ma (Perol
porph, Cocaez litho)

From Longo, 2005; Perol and Coca

Longo,
2005;
et al.,
2010

Km3

Yanacocha
Complex

San Jose
Tapado
Corimayo
Carachugo
Maqui Maqui

Moz
Cerro Negro
Quilish
(7 Moz)

Longo et al., 2010

(20 Moz)

(25 Moz)

Hydrothermal breccia body

2 km

pH ~

>6

220-ton
haul truck

4-6

2-4

<2

Lithologic horizon (70% of ore in


welded pyroclastics)

Margin of dome intrusion

Dome moat, laminated


siliceous sediments,
paleosurface...

Chaquicocha

Carachugo

Low Au-Ag-Hg-As
Hg
Bi-Ba-As-Sb

CHAQUICOCHA

Au-Ag-As-Sb

oxide
sulfide

~100 m

Zn-Pb

Patchy

Cu-Au-As-Ag

Wormy

KUPFERTAL PORPHYRY

Fault contact between epithermal and porphyry


alteration at Kupfertal
Epithermal

185.3m: pyrophyllite,
minor alunite

210.6m:
205.6m: pyrophyllite,
pyrophyllite,
alunite
kaolinite

2. Cooling

2
1
1. Vapor
condensation

Fault
contact
Breccia: from 181.5m
Pyrophyllite, alunite,
kaolinite

DDH KUP-3

Porphyry

215.3m:
Muscovite

Porphyry-style
quartz veins
with phyllic
alteration

Milagros porphyry prospect,


Alto Chicama, Peru

500 m

Patchy texture outcrop

Garia, 2009

Residual quartz (silicic) and advanged argillic size matters...

El Indio 8 Moz

...much of the time, cf. El Indio

Arribas et al., Gold in 2000

100 m

Qtz-alunite

White mica
Pyrophyllitekandite

Jannas et al., 1990

Jannas et al., 1990

NB: Mixing will not


cause amorphous
silica saturation
and colloform gels

Relation of porphyry, lithocap, HS ore, and marginal IS ore


Co. Cocaez
(barren)

Erosion level?

Lepanto,
Victoria
Perol
FSE

Alto Chicama, Peru


Chimu qtzites

10.5 Moz resource, 2003


Lagunas Norte, 1.24 g/t Au, 14 Moz
Calipuy volcanics