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Hanoi University

Faculty of International Studies

RESEARCH REPORT

[PARENTAL EXPECTATIONS ON CHILDRENS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT


&
PREVALENCE OF EXTRA CLASSES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN HANOI]

Prepared by: Group [no]


Nguyen Khanh Linh (1206080042):
Nguyen Thai Thuy Anh (student ID):

Dinh Trong Hiep (student ID):


Le Lam Quynh Phuong (student ID):
Le Thu Huong (student ID):

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the course

Research Methods (RM)


Fall Term 2015

Introduction
Every parent always wishes the best thing for their children and they also try their best to provide
and help their children to receive as much values as possible. One of the top concerns for any
parent is the education of their children, especially in developing countries, where educational
certification and qualification can influence their life significantly. Right from very early stage of
education's, parent are likely to wish that their children be able to attend with the top qualified
schools and classes, particularly in secondary school, when students enter the entrance exam for
high schools. It becomes a common sense when many juvenile take extra classes after the long
and exhausted time spending at school. Does this situation occur due to the high expectation of
parent about their children's educational attainment or due to some other factors? Do parents
really want to improve their childrens school performance so that they take their children to
more extra classes, even after all day long studying in school? Our paper would like to analyze
more detail about the relationship between parental expectation on children's academic
performance and the high prevalence of extra classes among secondary school.

Problem statements
It can hardly be denied that extra class is a popular phenomenon in Vietnam recently. Formal
learning does not end when the last class finishes. Students rush out of the school and then come
to some forms of extra class. In Vietnam nowadays, private tutoring or extra class has increased
its scope to become a huge business. Many thousands of people are employed, significant
amount of money is consumed, and tremendous amounts of time demanded from tutors as well
as students (Bray, 1999). There is an increased concern about the situation of students taking
extra class massively. However, this model of education still has been underestimated. There has
been limited scientific research about extra classes in Vietnam. Researchers only gave a general
picture of the situation in Vietnam and especially there are no research about parental
expectations and students taking extra classes. Besides, parental expectation and childrens
academic achievement or parental expectations and parental involvement have received
considerable concern from researchers. In reality, parents play an important role in deciding their
children taking extra classes. As a result, we think that examine the link between parental
expectations and taking extra classes of students may help reveal some remarkable facts.

Literature review
1. Parent expectation
Parent role in their children's cognitive development has significant influences on their academic
achievement of all ages, regardless of the status and resources of the parent (Cook 2009). It may

be one of the least controversial statements in American education: Parent involvement can make
a difference in a childs education. Two-thirds of teachers surveyed (Public Agenda, 2003)
believed that their students would perform better in school if their parents were more involved in
their childs education, while 72% of parents say children of uninvolved parents sometimes fall
through the cracks in schools (Johnson & Duffett, 2003). There is a steady and growing body of
evidence of how important parental involvement is in improving students academic
achievement. Parental involvement has a positive effect on test scores and grades in core
subjects, such as reading, math and science. However, the effect of parental involvement is not
only on the academic side, but also on the non-academic outcomes, such as school attendance,
student behavior in school, student attitudes towards school, and their social skills. It has been
argued that these benefits hold for students of all ages, across educational, economic and racial
and ethnic background. Thus, generally it is accepted that in order for students to excel in school,
they need the support and encouragement from their parents. From the involvement in childrens
education, parents are likely to set different expectation for their childrens educational
attainment.
It is widely stated that parent expectation is one of the most powerful predictors of childrens
academic performance (Zhang 2012, Yamamoto 2010). Some author even claimed that among all
influences on children persistence and educational attainment, parent expectations stand out most
(Kim 2012). Parent expectation has always been the critical element that matter childrens
school performance (Zhang 2012). Research typically has used parental expectations to refer to
realistic goal judgments that parents hold for their children (Glick & White, 2004; Yamamoto &
Holloway, 2010). However, the concept of parental expectations easily can be mistaken with
parental aspirations (Seginer, 1983) if attention is not paid to making the distinction clear. While
parental expectations refers to parents realistic judgments about the futures of their children,
parental aspirations refers to goals and desires that parents have for their childrens future
(Seginer, 1983). One cannot be sure exactly what parents are answering when they are providing
their ratings. It is possible that some parents are describing their realistic judgments about their
childrens future while other parents are commenting on how far they hope their children will
achieve.

Parent expectations are defined in various way as well as they reflect the various things. The
most common sense of the expectations from parents to children is how far their children can
reach among different educational level (Davis-Kean 2005, Englund, Luckner, Whaley, &
Egeland 2004). Some parents wish their children to reach and be able to study in higher level of
education such as college or university, while other only expresses their wish that their children
can get a job after high school graduation (Kean 2001). Moreover, the expectations not only
reflect the attitudes toward childrens schooling but also their investment for their childrens
schooling (Zhang 2012). There is a tendency show that parents with higher and stable social
status tend to have higher expectation on their children, which contributes to create the more
favorable home environment for cognitive development and better planning. The author
emphasizes the role of the financial resource and time of parents in encouraging and planning for
children education (Kim 2012).
Many analysis suggests that expectations are highly correlated with outcomes in both
majority groups and subgroups ( Davis-Kean, 2005; Richard R. Pearce, Vartanian et al,
Yamamoto and Holloway 2010) Yamamoto and Holloway examine the ways in which
parental expectations affect student achievement. High expectations might indicate that parents
value achievement, and this value could put pressure on children to perform well. High
expectations could also create a self-fulfilling prophecy, boosting student's own expectations
about their ability and thus motivating them to do well. Additionally, high expectations could
foster parental involvement in their child's education, and several past studies have found a
correlation between involvement and outcomes. It is likely that parent with higher expectation
may promote children to take the higher course, supply more assistance for homework, spend
more time to know about the collage and ensure their childrens course run smoothly (Canada
2011). Interestingly, children whose parent set higher expectation tend to score higher in their
tests, stronger motivation and aspiration to study to further level of educational. Therefore, it can
be said that the expectations of parent on children's educational achievement and the
performance of children in school mutually influence each other in positive way (Canada 2011,
Yamamoto 2010).
2. Vietnamese context
Many researchers have been making attempts to gain more understanding about the long history
of the education in Vietnam. The report of Child Fund Australia (2010) showed that the
education in Vietnam has a evolutionary history and the impact it has on current Vietnams
education system. The education of Vietnam, both of its system and general goals, has been
highly affected by Confucian traditions. There have been some certain adverse influences of
Confucian traditions which have been imported from china long time ago, on the current stage of

Vietnam education. The article mentioned about the fact that Confucianism put an emphasis on
quotation from the old scholars and consider that as a main instrument of education as well as
ignore students imagination and innovation. Similarly, this article failed to represent the link
between the mindset of Vietnamese people, which has been influenced by Confucian traditions,
and the situation of extra-classes in Vietnam (Trung 2015). However, during the long period of
time of French Colonialism, there were some major changes in the education system. Another
milestone of education changes of Vietnam was the application of Doi Moi policy in 1986.
There is also another academic writing reviewing about the long history of educations evolution
in Vietnam and , with the understanding about historical context, pointing out some remaining
challenges about schooling system of Vietnamese. However, leaving the situation of extraclasses in Vietnam un touched can be considered as the common problem of these two
research (Phelps & Graham 2015) Moreover, in some developing countries including Vietnam,
the diploma disease pose a threat to the development of countries, where many companies or
organizations considered educational qualifications and degree as the pass ticket for their
employees and interviewees no matter how the actual skills of them were displayed in the real
work. He also stated the connection between educational certification and occupation that:
the more widely educational certification are used for occupation selection, the further
rate of qualification inflation, and the more examination-oriented schooling becomes at the
expense of genuine education.
Furthermore, under the influences of Confucianism from over centuries, which only the man
with great academic knowledge and excellent schooling results would be the ideal imagine and
gain respect from other, the values if grade/ rank at school become the most important
achievement to certain group of people. In a side note, the author did demonstrated some factors
affecting the extra classes among students : the operation of education system from top-down,
the difference in residents geographic, the financial stability of families and last but not least the
motivation directly from the students (Dang 2007). One of the most amusing points the author
made that is he thought in Vietnam, the existence of extra classes reflected the weakness and
vulnerability of education system rather than support it and students took the extra classes simply
they were too scared of their teachers than to improve their results (Dang 2008).

3. Extra classes in Vietnam


Surprisingly, it is said that the children are likely to feel more contented and more confident
about their future schoolings. The children took the extra classes also tend to have better pressure
responds and have better energy control when they have to take many classes at the same time.
Moreover, the author also claimed that the number of students per formal class in Vietnam is
quite high and the time spending at formal school, on the other hand, rather short (Ko & Xing
2009). Therefore, some children found that it would be much efficient and effective for them to

understand and follow the lesson in extra class rather than formal classes. Some of students even
think that parents are able to allow them take extra classes means parents care for them better.
The positive connection between the students subjective well-being and taking extra classes give
some consideration about the educational systems. It is stated that the majority of students (46%)
took the extra classes regardless of their motivation. The percentage of student participated in
extra classes among races also significantly different where only very small percentage (2.6%) of
ethnic minority students took more classes outside school while 49.7% of Kinh children took.
The percentage also varies among geographical feature where the urban areas have the highest
number of children have extra classes (Thu Ha & Tuan 2015). The urban children also spend
more times and budgets for extra classes compared to rural and mountainous areas. Not much
sparingly, the major subjects children and parents select to follow other supplemented class are
Mathematics and Literature rather than some arts subject. The Math and Literature are not only
favored by students and parents but also are highly suggested by teachers themselves. Strikingly,
the author clearly stated that the government already prohibited the proliferation of extra class
provision and offer the guidance on controlling extra classes, the high prevalence of taking extra
class among students is pretty serious (Thu Ha & Tuan 2015). Therefore, the author suggested
some macro and micro solution to alleviate this situation.

Purpose of the study


It is my intent with this thesis to examine more about the link between parental expectations in
childrens academic achievements and taking extra classes of secondary school students in
Hanoi. The study analyzed the possible mediating role of parental budget spent for children
taking extra classes in the relationship between parent expectations and prevalence of extra
classes.
The purpose of the study is to find out the relationship between parental expectations for
childrens academic achievements and taking extra classes with a theoretical framework from the
previous literature. Furthermore, the study assessed parental income and parental education as
possible moderating variables.

Research question and Hypothesis


The goal of the present study is to investigate whether there is a relationship between taking
extra classes and parents expectations for childrens academic attainment. Specifically, our
question is:

Research question 1: Do high parental expectations on childrens school performance have a


positive relationship to high prevalence of extra classes among secondary school children in
Hanoi?
Hypothesis 1: It is hypothesized that there will be a positive relationship between
high parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and high prevalence of extra
classes.
Research question 2: Does parental education serve as a moderator for the relationship
between parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and prevalence of extra
classes? Does parental education moderate the comprehensive model?
Hypothesis 2: The relationship between parental expectations for childrens
academic achievement and prevalence of extra classes will differ among parents with higher
level of education compared to those with lower level of education. In addition, the
mediational model for parents with higher level of education will be stronger compared to
those with lower level of education.
Research question 3: Does parental income serve as a moderator for the relationship between
parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and prevalence of extra classes?
Does parental income moderate the comprehensive model?
Hypothesis 3: The relationship between parental expectations for childrens
academic achievement and prevalence of extra classes will differ among participants with
higher income compared to those with lower income. In addition, the mediational model for
participants with higher income will be stronger compared to those with lower income.

Defining key terms


Despite the previous literature has defined the concept parental expectations in many different
ways, parental expectations has been characterized by most researchers as parental realistic
beliefs or judgments of their childrens future attainment which is represented by several things
including course grades, highest level of education achieved or college attendance. To measure
parental expectations, the majority of researchers asked parents a question that how far they
think their child will go in school or parents forecast of the marks attained by a child that year
(Yamamoto & Holloway, 2010).
The term academic achievement is conceptualized as academic competence and is defined as
an individuals complete performance in schooling (Dweck & Elliott, 1983). It also refers to

belief in ones abilities and is mediated by self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997). Many scholars studied
the correlation between parental expectations and the student achievements, and parental
expectations have been suggested to have effects on their childrens achievements. This common
sense notion has been proved by prior research and has been confirmed in numerous studies
over multiple decades(Carpenter, 2008, p.165)
Dweck & Elliott (1983) defined the term academic achievement a complete performance in
schooling of an individual. The link between parents expectations and childrens academic
achievements has been studied by many scholars in various studies and they found out that
parental expectations exert an influence on their childs attainments (Wang, 2013).
In terms of extra classes, our research is only concerned with classes taking place after official
school hours which supplied by teachers at their own houses. In addition, we mainly focus on
academic subjects which are already covered in mainstream schools, specifically mathematics,
literature, languages and other examinable subjects. Musical, artistic or sporting skills are not
included because they have not been examined subjects so far and they are also not used as a
condition in transition assessment from one level of education to the other (Bray, 1999).
Prevalence of extra classes refers to the proportion of secondary school students taking extra
classes

CHAP III: METHODS


The following chapter describes the method and procedures applied in the study to determine the
convergent validity of parental expectations and children taking extra class. Following sections
are included in this chapter: research design, sample and sampling procedures, instrument and
data analysis
Research design
This is a quantitative survey research study using a structured questionnaire to collect data from
the participants. The questionnaires will consist of 15 questions related to parental expectations
and taking extra class of secondary school students with the purpose of exploring the relationship
between those two variables.
Research sample
Respondents were 100 parents who had children between 6th grade and 9th grade from three
districts (Long Bien, Thanh Xuan and Hai Ba Trung) in Hanoi. These three districts are chosen
because our team members reside in the above areas, so it is easier for us to conduct a survey. We
proposed to choose a sample size of 100 parents (N=100) because it reflects our limited budget
and time we have to distribute our questionnaires to parents. However, during the data collection

procedures, we attempted to gather a larger sample size and it was successful. As a result, we had
a sample size of 120 parents (N=120). With the purpose of avoiding bias and obtaining the most
objective results of fathers academic expectation and mothers academic expectation, we choose
gender (male/female) as our strata. According to demographics profile of Vietnam published by
IndexMundi, the sex ratio of total population in Vietnam is 1 male/female. As a result, we
selected 60 mothers and 60 fathers from some secondary schools for our sample of 120 parents.
Instruments
The independent variable of this study is parental expectations. Typically, former researchers
measure parental expectations using one single question about expectations of parents on
childrens future education attainment (Stern, 2006). However, in this study, parental expectation
is measured by a set of three questions. The first question is a baseline survey question derived
from the previous research study asking How much schooling do you expect that your child will
complete?" (David, 2005). Possible responses included: 1=finish senior high school, 2= go to
vocational, 3= College or University graduation, 4= PhD, MD or other advanced degree, 5=
other. The second question asked: How good do you expect your childs academic report?
Responses were: 1= Poor, 2= Ordinary, 3= Average good, 4= Good, 5= Very good, 6= Excellent,
7= Does not matter. Parents were also asked the third question: What rank do you expect your
child to achieve in class? Four possible answers were given: 1= Rank 5 upwards, 2= Rank 10
upwards, 3= Rank 15 upwards, 4= Does not matter.
The dependent variable is extra classes. A set of questions that was derived from a questionnaire
of a previous study about extra classes in Vietnam assessed a number of indicators including:
child attendance at extra class after school (yes/no); subjects of extra classes; total number of
hours spent attending extra classes per week; and parents budget spent for children attending at
extra classes measured by total cost (VND) spent for extra classes each month. (Ha et al., 2005)
The moderating variables are parental income and parental education. To measure parental
income, we ask parents to answer a question about the total income of them every month.
However, this is a sensitive question; as a result, to avoid peoples reluctance answering question
related to their income, we do not ask them to give specific number. Instead, we gave them some
options to choose: 1= below 5 million VND, 2= above 5 million to 10 million VND, 3= above 10
million to 15 million VND, 4= above 15 million to 20 million VND, 5= above 20 million VND.
In terms of parental education, respondents were asked what the highest level of education they
attained. The responses consist of: 1= finish secondary school, 2= finish high school, 3= college
or university graduation, 4= advanced degree.
Procedures
Prior to study implementation, the questionnaires were given to 6 parents with secondary school
children to complete as a trial survey of the length of time to complete as well as identifying
unclear questions, spelling mistakes or sensitive questions order. Additionally, changes were

made to clarify questions and correct typing mistakes according to trial responses. Our team
member revised the questionnaires before conducting the survey.
We used face to face instrument as well as online survey. In terms of face to face instrument, we
went to three secondary schools at 4.30 pm when school hours finish. In there, we met a lot of
people waiting for their children at the school gate so we came to talk to each person at once. As
a matter of fact, they were reluctant to do the survey, so we asked them all the questionnaires and
fill out the survey for them. We foresaw that face to face survey is hard to do so we also
conducted an online survey. We created a survey online and then we sent it via Facebook to our
friends that have secondary school brothers or sisters. They would ask their parents to do the
survey.
The data collection period occurred from October 4th to October 29th 2015. By extending the data
collection timelines 1 more week, we succeeded in collecting a larger sample size. We gave out
150 questionnaires in advance.
Data analysis
The study analysis was proceeded using Microsoft Excel 2010. The technique used to analyze
data was cross tabulation.

CHAP IV: ANALYSIS


Hypothesis 1
It is hypothesized that there will be a positive relationship between high parental expectations
for childrens academic achievement and high prevalence of extra classes
We found out that educational level expected & academic result expected that parents have on
their children influence child attendance at extra class while rank expected in class doesnt. We
can see that if parents just want their child finish high school, only half of them take their child to
extra class. However, this percentage of parents taking their child to extra class increased to more
than ninety percent when they expect their child to finish college/university or get bachelor
degree or more. The same trend happened when we considered the relationship between
academic result expectation of parents on children and child attendance extra class. The
percentage of parents taking their child to extra class increased from 86% to 100% from those
who expect their child achieve good result in class to excellent result. However, we didnt see
any relationship between parental expectations of their childrens rank achievement and child
attendance. Regardless of parents rank expectation, more than 90% of them sent their child to
extra class. As a result, parental expectations affect child attendance at extra class.

Next, considering the link between parental expectations and budget spent for extra class each
month, we figured out that despite of parental expectations, the majority of parents budget for
their children attending extra class was 600,000 to 1,200,000 VND. It led to the conclusion that
parental expectation has no effect on budget spent for children taking extra class.
No influence of rank expectation, educational level expectation and academic result expectation
of parents on childs total number of hours spent attending extra classes per week was found.
In conclusion, parental expectations have a positive relationship with the decisions of parents
about child attendance at extra class. However, in terms of total number of hours spent attending
extra classes per week and parents budget spent for children attending extra classes, parental
expectations do not have influence on them.
Hypothesis 2
The relationship between parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and
prevalence of extra classes will differ among parents with higher level of education compared to
those with lower level of education. In addition, the mediational model for parents with higher
level of education will be stronger compared to those with lower level of education
In this part, our main aim is to examine how the moderating variables namely parents income
and parental educational level affect the relationship between parental expectation about their
childrens schooling and taking extra classes of their children
The method to analyze the data is that we observed how the relationship between two indicators
of our independent variable and dependent variable changes with the presence of parents income
or parent educational level

Our second hypothesis is that the relationship between parental expectations for childrens
academic achievement and prevalence of extra classes will differ among participants with higher
income compared to those with lower income. In addition, the meditational model for
participants with higher income will be stronger compared to those with lower income. As a
measurement , we have divided the participants into 5 groups of income/month : below 5
million, 5 10 million, 10 15 million, 15 20 million and above 20 million. Each category will
be compared with the selected indicators to clarify the role of the moderating variable in this
relationship. Specifically, we will examine the effect parents income has on rank expected
attitude about extra class , rank expected hours spent and rank expected budget spent.

Table... : Attitude toward extra class with diferent expected rank and income ( Yes awnser only) (%)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

below 5 mil

5 to 10

10 to 15

15 to 20

above 20

Rank 5 Rank 10 Rank 15

It can be seen from the above table that the participants whose income is below 5 million VND/
month did not expect their children to be on the top 5 of the class leading to 0% of them send
their kids to extra class. However, this percentage of parents sending their child to extra class
while expecting them in the Top 5 sharply increase to 100% when their income falls into the
second category of income ( 5-10 million/month) and the situation remains the same in the
criteria of 10 to 15 million/month. There is a small decrease ( by 20%) in the percentage of
parent taking their child to extra class whose income lies in the category of 15 20 million per
month and when the income increase to above 20 million, this percentage stay the same. After
the above analysis, what can be clearly seen is that the parents income moderates the decision of
parents about taking their children to extra class, but the changes it makes are only significant in
the area between below 5 million and from 5 to 10 million per month. The changes after that in
the following categories were insignificant. The same statement can be made the other rank in
class expected namely rank 10 and rank 15 (as well as in the relationship between rank expected

and hours spend, rank expected and budget spent) leading to the overall conclusion : Parents
income serves as a moderator for the relationship between parental expectations and parents
decision on child attendance extra class after school (this influence is most clearly seen for group
having income below 5 mil VND).
Interestingly, the same statement cannot be made when we move the consideration to the
relationship between other indicators of two variables because the collected data does not show
the consistent and observable trend. Therefore, we conclude that Parents income does not serve
as a moderator for the relationship between parental expectations and total number of hours spent
attending extra class and budget spent for extra class.
Hypothesis 3
The relationship between parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and
prevalence of extra classes will differ among participants with higher income compared to those
with lower income. In addition, the mediational model for participants with higher income will
be stronger compared to those with lower income
Moving on to the educational level of parent as the moderating variable, our hypothesis is that
The relationship between parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and
prevalence of extra classes will differ among parents with higher level of education compared to
those with lower level of education. In addition, the meditational model for parents with higher
level of education will be stronger compared to those with lower level of education and the same
method of comparing is applied. However after analyzing the data, we have concluded that the
findings did not support the hypothesis that parents education level moderates the relationship
between parental expectations and prevalence of extra class. The reason is the same with the
previous discussion of parents income. The data was not consistent in its trend leading to no
conclusion can be made.

CHAP V: CONCLUSION
Summary of findings
Hypothesis 1:
It is hypothesized that there will be a positive relationship between high parental expectations
for childrens academic achievement and high prevalence of extra classes.
Findings support the hypothesis that parental expectations have a positive relationship with the
decisions of parents about child attendance at extra class. However, findings did not support the
hypothesis that parental expectations have relationship with total number of hours spent
attending extra classes per week and parents budget spent for children attending at extra classes.
Hypothesis 2:
The relationship between parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and
prevalence of extra classes will differ among parents with higher level of education compared to
those with lower level of education. In addition, the mediational model for parents with higher
level of education will be stronger compared to those with lower level of education
Findings support the hypothesis that parents income moderated the relationship between
relationship between parental expectations and parents decision on child attendance extra class
after school. However, findings did not support the hypothesis that parents income moderated
the relationship between parental expectations and total number of hours spent attending extra
classes per week as well as parents budget spent for children attending at extra classes.
Hypothesis 3:
The relationship between parental expectations for childrens academic achievement and
prevalence of extra classes will differ among participants with higher income compared to those
with lower income. In addition, the mediational model for participants with higher income will
be stronger compared to those with lower income.
Findings did not support the hypothesis that parents educational level moderated the relationship
between parental expectations and prevalence of extra class.

Limitations

There were some limitations to this study which should be indicated. In the first place, there is an
ambiguity in the definition of parental expectations. The term parental expectations is usually
used interchangeably with parental aspirations. As early mentioned, the concept parental
expectations is understood as realistic beliefs or judgments that parents have about their
childrens future achievement as reflected in course grades, highest level of schooling attained,
or college attendance (Yamamoto & Holloway, 2010). In contrast, parental aspirations term is
characterized by parents wishes, desires or goals formed with regard to the future attainment of
their children (Seginer 1983). If the assessment of the childs academic capabilities along with
the available resources is the ground of parental expectations then parental aspirations are based
on personal desires of parents and social norms about schooling and its role as well (Yamamoto
& Holloway, 2010). As a result, we do not know exactly what parents intentions are when they
are doing the survey. There is a possibility that some parents are talking about their realistic
beliefs in the future attainment of their children while others are commenting about how far they
wish their children will achieve in the future (Grossman, McKearin & Strein, 2001)
Additionally, parents could decide whether or not they would like to take part in these
questionnaires. Even when a lot of people did not refuse, they were reluctant to do this survey.
This may lead to the possibility that they did not give the honest answers. They may just want to
finish the survey as soon as possible. Furthermore, the nature of the questions might lead parents
to answer in a way that would make them look positive or in the way they thought they should
answer (Jacob, 2010).
Moreover, our sample size is too small (120 people) so the number and the percentage may
misrepresent the whole population.
Implications for future research
In our study research, we considered parents income and parents educational level as
intervening variables. However, we think that future research may analyze the direct impact of
parents income and parents educational level on the prevalence of extra class in Vietnam.

Questionnaires
Thank you for agreeing to take part in this important survey measuring the relevant of parents
expectation and their childs extra classes, which serves as a project of Faculty of International
Studies Students of Hanoi University in Research Methodology subject. Your given
information in the following sections will be anonymous and utilized only for scientific
purposes.
Section A: Personal information (Please choose only one answer for each question)
1. What is your gender?
A. Male
B. Female
C. Other
2. What is your age?
A. 30-40
B. 41-50
C. 51-60
D. More the 60
3. What is your average income per month for both parents?
A. 5 million VND or below
B. More than 5 million to 10 million VND
C. More than 10 million to 15 million VND
D. More than 15 million to 20 million VND
E. More than 20 million VND
4. How high is your educational background?
A. Secondary school graduate
B. High school graduate
C. Bachelors degree or College graduate
D. Master Degree or more

Section B: Parents expectation on childs education


5. What educational level do you expect your child to finish?
A. High school
B. College/University
C. Master degree or upper level
D. Vocational school
E. Does not matter
F. Other (Please be specific..)
6. How good do you expect your childs academic report?
A. Poor
B. Ordinary
C. Average good
D. Good
E. Very good
F. Excellent
G. Does not matter
7. What rank do you expect your child to achieve in class?
A. Rank 5 upwards
B. Rank 10 upwards
C. Rank 15 upwards
D. Does not matter
Section C: Childs extra classes in school year (counting only main subjects at
school, subjects such as art and physical education, etc. are not counted)
8. Does your child go to extra classes? (If yes, continue with question 11, otherwise
continue with question 10)
A. Yes
B. No
9. Why do your child not go to extra classes?
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
10. Why do you child go to extra classes?
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................................
11. Which subjects do your child have extra classes?
A. Math
B. Literature
C. Foreign language

D. Other Social Science subjects (History, Geography, etc.)


E. Other Natural Science subjects (Physics, Chemistry, Biology, etc.)
12. How much time do your child spend on extra classes per week?
..................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................................................
13. How much is the fee for your childs extra classes every month?
A. Below 600,000 VND
B. 600,000 1,200,000 VND
C. More than 1,200,000 to 1,800,000 VND
D. More than 1,800,000 VND
Thank you!

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