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TASK 1: CRITICAL REVIEW

Every organization needs strong leadership to function. According to Kamus Dewan (2002),
leadership is the ability to lead. Accordingly, Robbins (2003) explains the concept of leadership
as the ability to influence the members of the group to achieve a goal. Leadership is an
important element in a formal or non-formal organization. Within the outline of an organization,
leadership involves all forms of activities aimed at influencing the knowledge, practice and
motivation members in it. Leaders are individuals in a group that was given the responsibility to
direct, guide, and coordinate activities to accomplish group goals.
In the article that I found, the writer focused on development of teacher-leaders through REACH
model. REACH model is the ideal performance of teacher-leaders establish in the classrooms,
schools and their professional learning communities. There are five behaviours that had been
highlighted in the article.

Risk Taking

: Teachers who seek challenges and create new processes

Effectiveness

: Teachers who model best practice, professional growth, and heart

Autonomy

: Teachers who display initiative, independent thought, and responsibility

Collegiality

: Teachers who promote community and interactive communication skills

Honor

: Teachers who demonstrate integrity, honesty and professional ethics

Figure 1 REACH Model: Behaviors That Together Define a Teacher-Leader

In my opinion teacher should take a risk and brave enough to make changes in school. Teacherleaders who are willing to try new things, risk-takers who relish challenges and pursue
professional growth for their own satisfaction and to increase student achievement help
strengthen the mission statement of a school. Risk-takers often been called movers and
shakers because of their responsiveness to problems and their willingness to contribute in
decision making. Internal locus is that the teachers belief that one has the capability to perform
the behaviors upon which the result depends. Teachers who are daring and confidence of their
own abilities that they can make changes and accept that as challenges. These teachers
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believe that the outcomes are associated with their actions. There are possibilities to make
mistakes but mistakes can be learning experiences. The teachers who take it positively will try
again and improve. Thus, movers or shakers are vital in the development of a school.
To achieve effective teacher-leaders the teacher must build rapport relationship with the
students. The connections between teacher and students are really important in order to
establish credibility. Teachers disciplines and behaviours also influence their authority with
students and colleagues. Teaching must be consistent and continuously improve so both parties
will gain benefits. Effective teacher-leaders are always be updated in teaching education and
enhancing them with technology as example the usage of ICT in the classroom. An effective
teacher not just a function of the mind, it also applies the element of heart by taking care of the
students welfare. This sincerity enables to form positive relationship, strong, and to model the
values the students or colleagues. Therefore, effective teacher leaders engage in functioning
not just the students brain but with their heart too.
Autonomous teacher-leaders are not self-centered but they are independent and responsible
teachers. They are encouraged to reflect on their own classroom practice. Too many teachers
are taking orders from the administrators that sometimes can be burden to the school or the
teachers. They are generally not encouraged to voice individual opinions about curricular policy
matters. As the article had stated the statics of principals evaluation the parents and teachers
opinions are ignored by principals who feels that they are doing fine. Autonomy is not anarchy,
teacher is still part of the system. Teachers have the responsibility to help the school to improve
in administration of the school and classroom teaching. However, that does not mean accepting
more work indiscriminately or doing others work. It means establishing and performing ones
work as a self-manager and leader.
Communication skills are needed to protect the foundation of a school culture. A successful
school is related to the community and the quality of the members. Teachers need to have a
community that respects them as contributing professional in order to achieve quality practice in
schools. Teachers have to accept their responsibility within the community as they can call the
members as family. Thus, hierarchy system is formed and principle as the head of the family.
To maintain collegial relationship the entire organization need to encourage the members and
even participate in it. They should respect each other and trust the intention of other members.
As the writer said in the article, collegiality produces social capital as well besides achieve
organization goals. Three forms of capital are financial, human and social. Financial based on

the money. Meanwhile, human is the knowledge and skill. Social capital is significant in
community as the members had to break through the barriers and build up trust. In order to
establish collegiality the community members have to share values and trust each other.
Teacher-leaders are not just good teacher, there are good people. The last point of REACHs
model is more about the professional ethics. A leader with strong personality and treat others
with respect and dignity is highly demanded by the employees. They must provide moral
purpose by having a system where all the students learn and improve their school performance.
The ethics of teaching professionals practice healthy competition among the members in the
community. Nel Noddings (2003) finds that moral life is completely rational; from this
perspective, even the self is relational a relational view weakens and blurs the distinction
between egoism and altruism, because much of what we do for others strengthens the relations
of which we are part and, thus, our selves. The teachers can establish relationship with the
students by applying the ethical values in the classroom. Thus, the teachers develop their own
ethical character at the same time.
There are challenges are not only delivered to school leaders to act. Management changes in
the education should involve various stakeholders, namely teachers, students, parents and the
community. There are still more needs to be implemented and strengthened so that the systems
and institutions to develop human capital that can capture knowledge and skills, to uphold the
nations culture, has a strong sense of patriotism, a highly competitive and competent.

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