Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

ARTICLE IN PRESS

Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

Late Mesolithic of the Ukrainian part of the Lower Danube region:


New perspectives of human adaptation and interpretation
of natural environments
Olena V. Smyntyna
I.I. Mechnikov National University, Odessa, Ukraine
Available online 3 March 2007

Abstract
Colonization of Ukrainian part of Lower Danube began in the interval 7.57.0 ka BP, when the regional landscape was mesophilous
meadow steppe. Forest plots with small percentages of deciduous vegetation were present in river valleys, temporary estuaries, and on
ridges. The faunal complex was dominated by aurochs, red deer, and wild boar. High biomass density, combined with the fact that the
region had not been intensively explored previously, allowed relatively stable forms of human adaptation. This is illustrated by the
presence of the base camp Mirnoe, the seasonal settlements Zaliznychne and Vasylivka, which display diverse forms of livelihood
activity, and by the distinctive pattern of site distribution pattern. In this context, the beginning of auroch domestication in this region is
conceptualized not so much as an adaptive response to subsistence source base shortage, but rather as a phenomenon caused, together
with joint exploitation of the same settlement area, by resource spatial distribution.
r 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

1. Introduction
Prehistorically, the territory between the Lower Danube
and Lower Dniester formed a bridge between the Balkan
and Northern Pontic regions, two epicenters of intensive
prehistoric population development. In spite of its apparent key role for understanding of human migrations and
interactions, the Stone Age archeology of this region
remained poorly studied for a long time. The rst
Mesolithic site in the small Sarata River valley was
discovered only in 1957. Paleolithic and Neolithic sites
were known only from isolated surface nds, which hardly
could be interpreted (Kremer, 1960; Dvoryaninov, 1976).
The rst large-scale archeological excavations in this region
were conducted on the Belolesie and Mirnoe sites in the
late 1960s and 1970s by Vladimir Stanko. On this basis, the
chronological scheme of the Mesolithic of this region was
elaborated (Stanko, 1991). Due to the eldwork of Sergey
Dvoryaninov, Sergey Kovalenko, Ivan Chernyakov, Mikhail Agbunov, and others, who conducted archeological
Tel.: +38 67 7863247.

E-mail address: smyntyna_olena@onu.edu.ua.


1040-6182/$ - see front matter r 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2007.02.010

prospecting and small-scale excavations in this region from


1970 through the 1990s, a series of distinctive Mesolithic
sites located in the Lower DanubeDniester interuve have
been detected. However, most investigations gravitated to
the Dniester valley, while the Ukrainian part of the Lower
Danube region seemed to be explored not so intensively.
A fresh approach to studies of the Mesolithic of this
region was brought by INTAS project Scythia before
Scythians (19981999, under the leadership of Pavel
Dolukhanov, Vladimir Stanko, and Michel Seferiades) in
the course of which interdisciplinary re-examination of
Mesolithic sites of DanubeDnister interuve was undertaken. The results of this INTAS project were summarized
by Stanko et al. (1999), and publication of all the data
is in preparation. New data obtained in the course of
the project encouraged interest in the problem of the
colonization of the Ukrainian part of the Lower Danube
region, on the basis of an ecological approach to understanding the prehistory. This approach involves assessment
of spatial diversity and explanations of local variability of
livelihood and subsistence strategies, tool kit composition
and morphology, and other features of the Mesolithic
mode of life.

ARTICLE IN PRESS
O.V. Smyntyna / Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

Analysis of spatial and chronological variability of the


basic components of paleogeography, subsistence, and
livelihood system has outlined several living areas in
the Northern Pontic Steppes in the interval 87 ka BP:
the Lower Danube region; the open steppes between the
Dniester and Dnieper valleys; the Dnieper rapids; the
CrimeaAzov Steppe; and the Siversky Donets watershed.
This interval is characterized by warm and relatively wet
climate and traditionally is correlated with the Boreal
period of the Holocene in the BlyttSernander scheme.
Nevertheless, today there are serious doubts about the
application of this scheme elaborated on the basis of
Northern Europe for climate phases traced in the southern
part of the region. The chronological framework of this
78 ka BP period was established on the basis of the
existing radiocarbon dates from the Mirnoe and Grebeniki
sites (Zaitseva et al., 1997). These areas were differently
explored by particular groups of hunter-gatherers, which in
Soviet and post-Soviet archeology traditionally are correlated with archeological cultures, or technocomplexes in
Western scientic tradition. This paper shares the
interpretation of archeological culture as the reection

115

of ethnic peculiarities of a certain group of population.


Such an interpretation was broadly discussed during the
second third of the 20th century and remains widely
followed by Eastern (i.e. Soviet and post-Soviet)
Stone Age archeologists.
There are a series of geographic and cultural peculiarities
which caused the delineation of Lower Danube region as a
specic living area. On the one hand, it is characterized by
the most impressive source base for paleogeographic
reconstruction in Steppe Ukraine. The absolute majority
of faunal remains is concentrated here. This allows
development of a new understanding of the livelihood
system and subsistence strategy of this regions inhabitants.
On the other hand, the two biggest Late Mesolithic
settlements of Steppe Ukraine, investigated during lengthy
excavations, are concentrated here (Fig. 1). It should be
stressed that only one settlement is located strictly in
the Lower Danube basin (Zaliznichnoe, which allows
discussion of the primary colonization of this niche).
The others are situated mainly in the central part of the
DanubeDniester interuve, and are connected with small
rivers, ravine springs and with temporary estuaries.

Fig. 1. Late Mesolithic sites of Steppe Ukraine.

ARTICLE IN PRESS
116

O.V. Smyntyna / Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

2. Paleolandscape and human culture


2.1. Paleolandscape
Mesophilous meadow steppe landscape was characteristic of the Lower Danube living area 78 ka BP. According
to the palynological diagram from Mirnoe, the basic
settlement of this region, Chenopodiaceae still dominated
among grasses. Nevertheless, the percentage of Compositae
and Graminae is considerably higher in comparison with
previous times. The structure of the herbs has become more
diverse and includes Polygonaceae, Fabaceae, and Rosaceae. The proportion of arboreal and shrub vegetation also
was considerably augmented. Compact forest plots were
distributed on riverbanks, temporary ood plains, and
ridges. Traditional xerophilous species for the steppe zone
(e.g. Pinus sylvestris L.), and deciduous species including
oak (Quercus sp.), elm (Carpinus sp.), linden (Tilia sp.),
hazel (Corylus sp.) and others, are also represented
(Pashkevich, 1982).
Forestation of this region contributed to some rearrangement of faunal species composition (Table 1). As well as
in previous times, auroch (Bos primigenius Boj.), which
prefers semi-closed landscapes, played the central role. As
well, in the Boreal period diverse forest-steppe and forest
inhabitants including wild boar (Sus scrofa L.), red deer
(Cervus elaphus L.), beaver (Castor fiber L.), and others
became important components of the Danubian natural
environment (Bibikova, 1982, p. 163). So, the Lower
Danube area seems to have been characterized by

exceptionally high (if not the highest in Steppe Ukraine)


biomass density per square unit, which was created by
relatively intensive faunal and vegetation productivity in
favorable climate conditions of the Boreal period of the
Holocene (Figs. 24).
2.2. Archeological sites and their structure
Only ve archeological sites of this region are dated as
Late Mesolithic (Fig. 1, 52, 53, 58, 62, and 63), and only at

Table 1
Faunal remains in the Late Mesolithic settlements, Ukrainian part of
Lower Danube (Boreal period, Holocene)
Fig. 2. Results of int primary processing (Zaliznychne assemblage).
Species

Mirnoe

Aurochs (Bos primigenius Boj.)


Bull (Bos sp.)
Horse (Equus sp.)
Horse (Equus gmelini L.)
Ass (Asinus hidruntinus L.)
Wild boar (Sus scrofa L.)
Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.)
Saiga (Saiga tatarica L.)
Capra-ovis
Wolf (Canis lupus L.)
Fox (Vulpes vulpes L.)
Badger (Meles meles L.)
Hare (Lepus europaeus L.)
Mammalia
Aves
Bustard (Otis tarda L.)
Rook (Corvus frugilegus L.)
Wild duck (Anas platyrrhyhcha L.)
Cormorant (Phalaorocorax carbo L.)
Turtle (Emys orbicularis)
Pisces
Rhutilis frisii Nordm.
!epea vindobonensis

8101/67

Zaliznichne

21/?
2/?
1369/31
112/8
69/6
29/4
61/6
2/?
36/4
4/2
6/3
13/5
286333
13/?
1/1
7/2
1/1
1/1
10/2
2/?
2/1
+

+ Indicates presence of bones; numerator, MNB; denominator, MNI.

Fig. 3. Retouched blades and points (Zaliznychne).

ARTICLE IN PRESS
O.V. Smyntyna / Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

two of them (Mirnoe and Zaliznychne) has a cultural layer


been detected and excavated (Stanko, 1982; Smyntyna,
2004a). At the same time, the structure of these sites and
the character of ndings are highly representative for
studies of the settlement and occupation system.
The central base camp of this regions settlers was
Mirnoe, where 18 household complexes connected with
broad spectrum of economic functions have been discovered (Stanko, 1982). Most probably, the settlement was
inhabited during the whole year. In this context, calculations of number of site inhabitants and durability of site
occupation are based on the system of paleoeconomic
modeling proposed by Bibikov (1969, 1971). According to
standards of paleoeconomic modeling, no less than 150
persons could live here permanently during at least 9
months. The actual period of this settlement occupation
could be more durable, as there are at about 30,000 nondiagnostic bones, which were not taken into account in the
modeling. It seems also highly probable that not all
inhabitants of Mirnoe lived there permanently. A series
of synchronous short-term sites arranged near the base
camp (Mirnoe 2 and Mirnoe 3) most likely reect traces of

Fig. 4. Geometric insets and piece ecaille (Zaliznychne).

117

numerous target expeditions organized in order to provide


food and raw materials.
Apart from the central base camp, there are also at least
two seasonal settlements (Zaliznichne and Vasylivka) in the
Lower Danube area. Their permanent connection with
Mirnoe seems improbable, especially taking into account
the rather signicant distance between these settlements.
They should be regarded as independent centers, around
which life of small collectives was concentrated. In the
group, short-term occupation sites of the region predominate. Several have numerous int assemblages, with several
hundred artifacts; in some cases, int accumulations could
be traced without the presence of a distinct cultural layer.
Such characteristics of short-term sites are not typical of
the neighboring Late Mesolithic Steppe living areas.
2.3. Flint assemblages
Assemblage of int artifacts discovered in the region in
the course of excavations and surface collecting reects all
phases of int tool processing, starting with raw material
selection. Most have been processed directly at the sites
(Table 2).
Technology of int primary processing at all these sites
was based on utilization of pencil-like and attened
prismatic nuclei. Among results, core knapping blades
(pieces of 0.61.2 cm in width) are dominant.
Most knapped int artifacts were used without secondary processing, traced only in 1317% of the assemblage.
At Zalizniche, their proportion is about 5%, explained by
the high amount of wastes detected in the course of cultural
layer soil otation used in the course of this site excavation.
Flakes and blades are equally represented in the category
of artifacts with secondary processing (Table 3).
Scrapers (mostly round-shaped forms on small akes)
are absolutely dominant among artifacts with secondary
processing. Burins (including so-called Kukrek forms on
massive wreckage and small angle burins on blades) are
represented unevenly in different site assemblages. One of
the most illustrative peculiarities of the Lower Danube
region int industry is the presence and practically equal

Table 2
Results of int primary processing
Mirnoe
Items
Raw material
Nuclei
Flakes
Blades
Nuclei revivals
Debris
Total
a

386
462
7589
9640
b
2516
20593

Mirnoe 2
%
1.9
2.2
36.9
46.8
12.2
100

Items
3
8
44
71
2
11
139

Mirnoe 3
%
2.2
5.8
31.7
51.1
1.4
7.9
100

Items
43
22
290
284
37
134
810

Vasylivka
%
5.3
2.7
35.8
35.1
4.6
16.6
100

Small debris akes are included here.


Nuclei revivals found in Mirnoe are calculated as akes or blades according to their proportions.

Items
1
2
102a
84
7
18
214

Zaliznychne
%
0.5
0.93
47.7
29.3
3.3
8.4
100

Items

59
46
1802
2675
43
3086

0.8
0.6
23.4
34.7
0.6
40

7711

100

ARTICLE IN PRESS
O.V. Smyntyna / Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

118
Table 3
Results of int secondary processing
Mirnoe
Items
Scraper
Burin
Retouched blades
Geometric microliths
Points
Retouched blades
Pieces ecaille
Bits
Combined forms
Varia

1191
263
816
147
78
161
40
40
23

Total

2759

Mirnoe 2
%
43.2
9.5
29.6
5.3
2.8
5.84
1.45
1.45
0.8
100

Items

Mirnoe 3
%

12
1
5
2
1
1

22

54.6
4.6
22.7
9.1
4.6
4.6

100

proportion of geometric (mostly trapeze-like) and nongeometric (retouched blades, piece ecaille, points of
different types) forms of int inserts used in composite
tools (Smyntyna, 2004a).
3. Discussion: cultural responses of Lower Danube Late
Mesolithic populations to local environmental challenges
The available paleogeographic and archeological data
allow modeling of the system of cultural adaptation of Late
Mesolithic populations of the Lower Danube to the
peculiarities of the Boreal paleoenvironment. Several
elements of hunter-gatherers adaptive strategy can be
delineated. The most important among them are occupation system, subsistence strategy, and ethnic attribution.
3.1. Occupation system
The peculiarities of the occupation system formed in the
Lower Danube region during the favorable, humid and
warm climate phase 78 ka BP in great measure were
caused by the curious fact that this region practically was
not exploited earlier. The only previous inhabitants were
representatives of the Bilolissya technocomplex, which
penetrated here from Dobrudja at the very beginning of the
previous cold and arid climate stage.
During the period under study, the population was not
numerous, as the number of sites indicates. Nevertheless, they
tried to use their living space intensively. Their mode of life in
newly exploited territory was characterized by the much
greater stability in comparison with adjacent areas, implying
exploration of a series of small short-term sites around a basic
settlement. The territorial remoteness of the main basic
settlements of the region suggests that their inhabitants did
not contact each other, trying to survive by their own means.
3.2. Subsistence strategy
The food procurement system could be reconstructed on
the basis of faunal and oral remains found at the basic

Items

Vasylivka
%

86
3
21
14
1
11

60.1
2.1
14.7
9.8
0.7
7.7

2.8

2.1

143

100

Items

Zaliznychne
%

12

42.9

7
3

25
10.7

2
1

7.14
3.57

1
2

3.57
7.14

28

100

Items

139
65
96
24
7
7
16
1

38.2
17.9
26.4
6.6
1.9
1.9
4.4
0.3

1.9

364

100

sites of the region, veried with the help of the results of


use-wear analysis of the Mirnoe collection. On this basis, it
is possible to conrm the hypothesis of the maximum
intensity of the exploitation of the area, traced in the
occupation strategy of the inhabitants. They tried to use
fully all available sorts of food sources next to their
settlement places, and probably in the case of resource
shortage even invented new forms of resource use.
Faunal remains found at the Lower Danube region sites
indicate that the most striking features of subsistence
system of local inhabitants are not connected with game
structure or with the peculiarities of hunting processes. As
in other areas of the northwestern Black Sea Steppe region,
the basic game species here in Boreal times were aurochs
(from the total amount of meat that could be obtained
from killed animals) and horse (total number of killed
animals). Considerable increases in the proportion of small
animals hunted are conrmed not only by faunal assemblages, but also by the dimensions of tools. This is also
typical for the whole Black Sea Steppe zone. The only
hunting peculiarity documented in this region is the
exploitation of migratory birds as game species.
The most important feature of the Lower Danube basin
population subsistence system is connected with the rather
specic attitude to the main hunting species. A signicant
amount of young auroch bones, together with presence of
peculiar knives for grass cutting, has created serious
grounds to discuss the possibility of the beginnings of
species domestication. Late Mesolithic hunters may have
made the rst steps towards preservation of their main
game. Young aurochs caught during successful hunting
were not consumed at once: they were held in special
fences, fed up and killed when their meat required (Stanko,
2000). Two circumstances contributed greatly to this
process. One of them is the long-lasting utilization of
different bull species by Steppe inhabitants, causing
the accumulation of deep knowledge about the ecology,
habits, and food base of such game. On the other side,
bulls (bison) were the subject of a special cult of the
Steppe population, in the center of their culture system.

ARTICLE IN PRESS
O.V. Smyntyna / Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

As a result, a new mode of living space food source


management was formed. Nevertheless, some researchers
do not share the idea that the rst steps of bull
domestication occurred in Mirnoe (see, for example,
Benecke, 1997).
The Lower Danube basin is the unique region of Steppe
Ukraine, where utilization of gathering products could be
proved archeologically and palynologically. Mirnoe inhabitants used Chenopodium album, Vicia hirsuta, Polygonum
convolvulus, a dock, and other species for food (Pashkevich,
1982, p. 1360). Special instruments for vegetative products
processing, pestles and graters, were distinguished in
Mirnoe by int assemblage trace-wear analysis. Such
nutrition balanced carbohydrates and starches, making
the subsistence system of the Steppe population well
balanced. Nevertheless, it should be stressed that seed and
plant gathering had not become the most important food
source in the Late Mesolithic Steppe livelihood. Most
researchers believe that the subsidiary role of this branch of
economy was connected with the specicity of climate and
soil, and with the local populations traditional orientation
to the prevailing development of animal breeding techniques (Korobkova, 1992, p. 30).
3.3. Ethnic peculiarities of local population
Delineation of ethnic peculiarities in this context is based
on analysis of int assemblage compositions and detection
of peculiarities of morphology of different categories of
int artifacts, which could not be explained by specic
parameters of raw material, by tool function or by
obligatory technological features of the food production
process. For discussion about the perspectives of detection
of ethnic (versus gender, social, etc.) features in such tool
kits peculiarities, and arguments in favor of such hypothesis, see Smyntyna (1997). The results of the analysis show
that no one assemblage could be regarded as the pure
complex: all contain artifacts which are traditionally
attributed as basic indicators of two different traditions
of int processingGrebeniki and Kukrek (Anetovka
variant). In some assemblages (e.g. Mirnoe), the living
complexes of Anetivka and Grebeniki populations could be
rather clearly distinguished in space. However, planigraphic analysis of other sites gives no grounds for such
spatial differentiation. Nevertheless, it is practically certain
that Anetovka and Grebeniki culture transmitters jointly
exploited the Lower Danubian region. This explanation
seems to be the crucial one in understanding the essence of
the ethnic component of local population cultural adaptation to the Boreal environment.
As shown previously by V. Stanko, formation and
primary phases of both cultures ethnic history took place
in the central part of the northwestern Black Sea Steppe
region. The Lower Dniester region is recognized as the
Grebeniky birthplace, while Anetovka is usually connected
with the Pivdenny Bug basin (Stanko, 1991). Recently,
another version of the invasion of the Lower Danubian

119

region was proposed (Kovalenko and Tsoy, 1999). These


authors supposed that integration of Grebeniki and
Anetivka culture transmitters had started already in the
DnisterPibdenny Bug interuve, and the Lower Danubian
region was inhabited by an already integrated population.
Both versions of Anetivka and Grebeniki population
penetration to the Lower Danubian region imply that their
movement to the west was caused by the necessity to
enlarge foraging territory, in response to a boreal
ecological crisis: their traditional living area could not
satisfy their subsistence needs. Their joint occupation
without apparent traces of conict is perceived as an
indicator that they adapted in the region successfully, and
had no need to ght for territory and its resource base.
4. Conclusion
Analysis of main components of cultural adaptation of
Late Mesolithic inhabitants of Lower Danube living area
indicates that this regions resource base allowed one of the
most complicated, stable and versatile system of natural
resources exploitation in the entire Steppe zone of Ukraine
(Smyntyna, 2004b). The possibility of its realization was
guaranteed by the relatively high density of vegetation and
faunal biomass per unit area. In turn, such a favorable
situation was caused by the natural course of paleogeographic processes (climate warming and humidifying
stimulated green biomass active growth) as well as by an
anthropogenic factor (non-exploitation of this region in
previous times).
Nevertheless, the peculiarities of the occupation system
should be stressed (cluster settlement system with absence of
connection among different clusters), as well as the maximum
intensication of solely local resource base exploitation,
including the beginning of auroch domestication and
(atypical for the steppe zone) utilization of gathering. The
available and, more important, accessible resource base for
Late Mesolithic hunter-gatherers was distributed in the region
unequally, and the landscape features of the region let human
beings explore only limited areas.
In this context, it becomes clear why the beginning of
cattle domestication started in the region, where faunal
resources were absolutely fresh (in contrast to the
exhausted ones of the central part of the northwestern
Black Sea Steppe region). Limitation of suitable territory
for exploitation also could explain joint occupation of the
same site by different ethnic groups, not typical for early
prehistoric time. Limitation of niches suitable for occupation caused, most probably, the absence of apparent
contacts with synchronous population of the western bank
of the Lower Danube region.
At the same time, reasons for such limitations of
population group dissemination over the Lower Danube
living space remain unclear at present. Regarding the
general tendency of climate processes at the beginning of
the Holocene, and taking into account the Black Sea
shoreline and sea-level dynamics, it is possible to suppose

ARTICLE IN PRESS
120

O.V. Smyntyna / Quaternary International 167168 (2007) 114120

that the orography of the Ukrainian part of the Danube


delta and adjacent territories was different from those
usually suggested. Probably, a lot of temporary and semipermanent estuaries, rivers and streams could be activated
at that time, and their presence and the absence of wellestablished drainage complicated population remote movements. Nevertheless, this hypothesis should be veried in
the course of small-scale chronological, geomorphological,
and paleorelief studies of this region.
Acknowledgments
The article was prepared with the nancial support of
Grant GP/F13/0170, of the President of Ukraine for
scientic research of young scientists in 2007, Ecological
crises in North-Western Black Sea Region at 96 ka BC
and their impact on paleohistorical processes.
References
Benecke, N., 1997. Archaeozoological studies on the transition from the
Mesolithic to the Neolithic in the North Pontic region. Anthropozoologica 2526, 631641.
Bibikov, S.N., 1969. Nekotorye aspecty paleoeconomicheskogo modelirovaniya paleolits (Some aspects of palaeoeconomic modeling of
Paleolithic). Sovetskaya Arheologia 4, 522.
Bibikov, S.N., 1971. Plotnost naselenia i velichina okhotnichiikh ugodiy v
paleolite Kryma (Population density and data on hunting territory in
Palaeolithic of Crymea). Sovetskaya Arheologia 4, 1122.
Bibikova, V.I., 1982. Teriofauna poseleniya Mirnoe (Teriofauna of
settlement Mirnoe). In: Stanko, V.N. (Ed.), Mirnoe. Problemy
Mesolita Stepey Severnogo Prichernomoriya (Mirnoe: Problems of
Mesolithic of North Black Sea Steppe). Nauka, Kiev, pp. 139164.
Dvoryaninov, S.A., 1976. Predvaritelnie itogi razvedok pamyatnikov
kimennogo veka v Tatarbunarskom rainone Odesskoi oblasti (Preliminary results of archaeological sites observations in Tatarbunar
region of Odessa oblast). Materialy po arheologii Severnogo Prichernomiria 8, 154156.
Korobkova, G.F., 1992. Istoki neolitizatsii: k probleme khozyaistvennokulturnogo razvitiya Severo-Zapadnogo Prichernomoria v epohu
mesolita (Sources of neolithization: to the problem of economic and
cultural development of North-Western Black Sea region in the
Mesolithic). Studia Praehistorica 1112, 2834.

Kovalenko, S.I., Tsoy, V.B., 1999. K voprosu o razvitii pozdnemesoliticheskih industriy v Karpato-Dunaiskom regione (To the question of
development of Late Mesolithic industry in Carpathian-Danubian
region). Stratum Plus 1, 257262.
Kremer, A.M., 1960. Materialy razvedok pamyatnikov kamennogo veka
na r. Sarate (Materials of observations of Stone Age sites on the Sarata
river). Zapiski Odesskogo Arheologicheskogo Obschestva 1 (34),
224225.
Pashkevich, G.A., 1982. Paleobotanicheskaya characteristika poseleniya
Mirnoye (Paleobotanic characteristic of Mirnoe settlement). In:
Stanko, V.N. (Ed.), Mirnoe. Problemy Mesolita Stepey Severnogo
Prichernomoriya (Mirnoe: Problems of Mesolithic of North Black Sea
Steppe). Nauka, Kiev, pp. 132138.
Smyntyna, O.V., 1997. O sootnoshenii lokalnoi kulturnoi traditsii i
sposoba kulturno-istoricheskoi adaptatsii v epohu mezolita (On
correlation of local cultural tradition and mode of economic and
cultural adaptation in Mesolithic epoch). Zapiski istorychnogo
facultetu 5, 1017.
Smyntyna, O.V., 2004a. Late Mesolithic of Southern Ukraine: the
settlement of Zaliznychne and new sources for interpretation of the
Kukrek phenomenon. British Archaeological Reports International
Series 1302, 173186.
Smyntyna, O.V., 2004b. Late Mesolithic living spaces in the framework of
the Black and Azov Sea. British Archaeological Reports International
Series vol. 1271 (Paleoecology: General Sessions and Posters. Acts of
the XIVth UISPP Congress, University of Liege, Belgium, 28
September 2001), pp. 2632.
Stanko, V.N., 1982. Mirnoye. Problemy Mesolita Stepey Severnogo
Prichernomoriya (Mirnoe: Problems of Mesolithic of North Black Sea
Steppe). Nauka, Kiev.
Stanko, V.N., 1991. Kulturno-istoricheskiy process v mesolite SeveroZapadnogo Prichernomoriya (Cultural and historical process in
Mesolithic of North-Western Black Sea region). In: Vanchugov, V.
(Ed.), Severo-Zapadnoye Prichernomoriye: kontaktnaya zona drevnikh kultur. Naukova dumka, Kiev, pp. 517.
Stanko, V.N., 2000. Pervye skotovody azovo-prichernomorskih stepey
(First cattle breeders of Azov-Black Sea steppes). In: Smyntyna, O.
(Ed.), Archeologia ta ethnologia Skhidnoyi Evropy: materialy i
doslidzhennya. Astroprint, Odessa, pp. 720.
Stanko, V.N., Dolukhanov, P.M., Seferiades, M., Smyntyna, E.V.,
Pilipenko, G.P., Goloborodova, E., 1999. Mezolit Yuzhnoi Bessarabii
(Mesolithic of Southern Besarabia). Zapiski istorychnogo facultetu 8,
687.
Zaitseva, G.I., Timofeev, V.I., Zagorska, I., Kovalukh, N., 1997.
Raidouglerodnye daty pamyatnikov mezolita Vostochnoi Evropy
(Radiocarbon dates of Mesolithic sites of Eastern Europe). Radiouglerod i khronologiya 2, 117127.