Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 37

5G mmWave MIMO Channel

Sounding

Technical Challenges and Test Approaches

Sept 2015

Sheri DeTomasi
5G Solutions
Program Manager

Topics
Channel sounding fundamental
Channel sounding approaches
5G Channel sounding technical challenges
5G channel sounding measurements
Summary

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 2

5G Goals and Key Performance Indicators


10 GHz

100 GHz

Frequency
WavelengthMicrowave

mm-Wave

1 GHz

10 cm

New
Market Demands

Amazingly fast
Great service in a crowd

Super real-time &


reliable communications
Ubiquitous things
communicating

1 cm

1 THz

10 THz

THz

Far IR

1 mm

100X Data
Rates
1000X
Capacity

100X
Densification
1mS Latency
Reliability
99.999%
100X Energy
Efficiency

2015 Keysight Technologies

100 mm

100 THz
Infrared

10 mm

1PHz
UV

1 mm

5G air interface technology investigations


mmWave channels
Waveform design
Massive MIMO
Full duplex
Channel behavior is not well understood
for mobile multiple-access
communications at mmWave. Channel
sounding is needed to characterize new
potential 5G air interfaces
Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 3

What is Channel Sounding?


The RF channel is the heart of any radio-communication system and must be
characterized with parameters such as path loss, delay, absorption, reflection,
multipath, fading, Doppler, all which can affect the performance of the overall system
Channel sounding is required to understand the characteristics of RF channel

Channel

Received Signal convolution

= () ()

Tx

CIR
Channel Impulse Response

Rx

h(t) CIR extraction requires post or real-time signal processing


like using cross correlation processing technique here in this formula

=
= ( )
=
* RF: Radio Frequency
2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 4

Channel Sounding Contribution in Wireless


System Design
Wireless
Communication system
RAN

Channel Related Research


CIR Measurement
(using channel sounding)

Channel
Parameters

RF
Channel

Driving, impacting the overall R&D


Antenna design SISO, MIMO, ARAY
Power Amplifier & Receiver
BB Signal Processing & Algo.
Form factor
Material

Channel Modeling
Channel Models

Channel Emulation &


Simulation

2015 Keysight Technologies

UEs

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 5

The Role of Channel Modeling


The many inputs to developing a channel model

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 6

Channel Sounding Contribution in Wireless


System Design

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 7

Topics
Channel sounding fundamental
Channel sounding approaches
5G Channel sounding technical challenges
5G channel sounding measurements
Summary

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 8

How can Channel Sounding be Implemented?


Sounding Approach & Architecture
Sounding Techniques
Sliding Correlator

Frequency Swept

Wideband
Correlation

Low measurement
speed

Low measurement
speed

Fast measurement
speed

Some only have


amplitude information

Amplitude/phase
information

Amplitude/phase
information

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 9

How can Channel Sounding be Implemented?

Most research has been SISO


5G requires MIMO characterization to include spatial information

Switching @ Tx & Rx
Slowest measurement
speed
Serial measurement
requires stable
measurement environment
No need for phase
coherence
No cross-interference

Switching @ Tx &
parallel receive
Fast measurement speed
Multi-channel phase
coherence needed in Rx
No cross-interference

2015 Keysight Technologies

Parallel transmit &


receive
Fastest measurement
speed
Multi-channel phase
coherence needed in
Tx&Rx
Suffering cross-interference

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 10

Topics
Channel sounding fundamental
Channel sounding approaches
5G Channel sounding technical challenges
5G channel sounding measurements
Summary

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 11

Key Requirements for 5G Channel Sounding

mmWave
Frequency
Band
Ultrabroad
Bandwidth

5G Key
Requirements

New 5G
Channel Models

Massive
MIMO

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 12

Technical Challenges
Goal: Understand characteristics of new RF
Channels in mmWave
Technical Challenges
RF Channel

1.

Sounding approach & architecture

2.

Signal generation and capture

28 GHz, 38 GHz, 72 GHz


BW 500 MHz, 1 GHz, 2 GHz

- mmWave frequency band


- Ultra-broad bandwidth

Tx

- Multi-channel

Rx

3.

Data capture & storage

4.

Channel parameter estimation


processing

5.

Calibration and synchronization of


the measurement system

Measurements:

Path loss, absolute path delay,


power delay profile (PDP)

AoA / AoD

Doppler Shift

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 13

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


1. Sounding Approach & Architecture
Sounding Techniques

Sliding Correlator
Low meas. speed
Amplitude
information only

Frequency Swept
Low meas. speed
Amplitude/phase
information

Wideband
Correlation
Fast meas. speed
Amplitude/phase
information

MIMO Sounding Approaches


Switching @ Tx &
Rx
Slowest
No crossinterference

Switching @ Tx,
Parallel Receive
Fast
No crossinterference

2015 Keysight Technologies

Parallel Transmit &


Receive
Fastest
Adds crossinterference

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 14

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


1. Sounding Architecture
Keysight recommended sounding
architecture
Use wideband
signal generation
and analysis

Advantages
Fast measurement speed
MIMO sounding capability
High measurement performance
Arbitrary sounding waveform support

2015 Keysight Technologies

Use switched Tx and


parallel Rx

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 15

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


2. mmWave, Ultra-broad Bandwidth, MIMO
mmWave
Antenna

mmWave
Antenna

Channel
mmWave
Sounding
Signal
mmWave Switch
mmWave
Signal

mmWave Multichannel
Downconverter

mmWave Vector
Signal Generator
Wideband I/Q
Signal

IF Signal

Wideband Multichannel Digitizer

Wideband AWG1

Wideband Signal Generator


1AWG:

Wideband Multi-channel Receiver

Arbitrary Waveform Generator

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 16

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


3. Data Capture & Storage
Transmitting period

32GB/s 2

Raw Sounding Data


Sounding
signal
Transmitting signal
length

Effective Raw Data

Effective Raw Data

8GB/s 2

Max. delay
spread
CIR1

1.6GB/s 2

Effective
CIR Data
1

Real-time data analysis reduces memory and


disk space requirements

2015 Keysight Technologies

CIR: Channel Impulse


Response
2 1GSa/s sampling rate,
= 100, = 20, = 5
Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 17

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


4. Channel Parameter Estimating Algorithms
SystemVue

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 18

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


4. Channel Parameter Estimating Algorithms
The various channel parameter estimation algorithms can be categorized
with 3 types
Beamforming Based: simple, but poor performance
Subspace Based: good performance, but limit on the detected
number of paths

Maximum likelihood based: widely used due to high performance and


strong capability
ML Based SAGE: Space-Alternating Generalized Expectation
maximization
High accuracy
No limit on the maximal estimating path number
Joint channel parameter estimation: Path, Delay, Doppler, AoA/AoD

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 19

Consideration on 5G Channel Sounding


5. Synchronization and Calibration
Synchronization

Precise timing thorough GPS


clocks and triggering

System-Wide Calibration
mmWave

mmWave Multichannel DC3

VSG2

I/Q Mismatch
Calibration

Wideband AWG1

Acquisition
Trigger

Rubidium
Clock

System impulse response

IQ imbalance

Multi-channel amplitude,
phase, delay

System delay

Power

Antenna

Wideband Multichannel Digitizer

AWG

Wideband Signal Generator

Wideband
Multi-channel
Receiver

Rubidium
Clock

2015 Keysight Technologies

Channel Parameter
Estimation Algorithm

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 20

Synchronization and Calibration Requirements for


Wideband Sounding System
Measurement
Matrices

SISO

Synchronization & Calibration


LO
sync

PDP(relative
delay)
PDP (absolute
delay)
Doppler freq.

MIMO

Signal
Multi-ch
System
Gen&Acq. phase&amp IR cal
sync
cal

Yes
Yes

PDP(relative
delay)
PDP(absolute
delay)

Yes

Doppler freq.

Yes

AoA/AoD
using antenna
array

Yes

Yes

2015 Keysight Technologies

Antenna
cal

System
power
cal

System
delay cal

AWG
I/Q cal

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes
Yes

Yes

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Yes

Yes

Page 21

Topics
Channel sounding fundamental
Channel sounding approaches
5G Channel sounding technical challenges
5G channel sounding measurements
Summary

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 22

Channel Sounding Measurements


CIR (Channel Impulse Response)

RF Channel

Instant parameters
PDP (Power Delay Profile): path
delay, path loss
AoA/AoD (Angle of Arrival/Departure)
Doppler shift

28 GHz, 38 GHz, 72 GHz

Statistics parameters & modeling

Tx

Rx

2015 Keysight Technologies

AS (Angular Spread) of AoA/AoD


PAS (Power Angular Spectrum)
Doppler spectrum
Correlation matrix
Rician K factor

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 23

Measurement System
Keysight 5G Channel Sounding Reference Solution
1x4 or 1x8 MIMO

1x4 or 1x8 Switch

E8267D PSG with


IQ inputs

Channel

M9362A-D01 40 or 50 GHz
Down Convertors

Signal generation
and capture
Up to 44 GHz

M9703A, 1 GHz BW,


interleaving

Up to 1 GHz BW
Up to 8x8 MIMO

M8190 2GHz BW
N5173B 40 GHz LO

33511A AWG for


Sync Trigger
10MHz GPS
Ref Clk

Software
System

Channel
Measurement
Results

10MHz GPS
Ref Clk

Transmitter
Config&Control

Receiver
Config&Control

IO control software
for calibration and synchronization

2015 Keysight Technologies

RT autocorrelation of CIR
in FPGA

Parameter Estimation
Algorithm

Data capture and


storage
Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 24

Channel Sounding Signal Processing


0.07
0.06
0.05

1.5

0.04

1
0.03

0.5
0.02

0.01

-0.5

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

Effective data
length is much
shorter than
receive signal

-1

-1.5

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

Sounding
Signal@RX

Sounding
Signal@TX

Transmitter

Cross-correlator &
data truncation
(Real-time preprocessing in
M9703A FPGA)

Channel

CIR
(greatly reduced
amount of data)

Processing
Algorithms
(SAGE, ESPRIT,
etc.)

Received Signal
(huge amount of
data)

Receiver

Postprocessing
by user

0.045
0.04
0.035

Extracted
Channel
Parameters

0.03
0.025
0.02
0.015
0.01
0.005
0

2015 Keysight Technologies

1000

2000

3000

4000

5000

6000

7000

8000

9000

10000

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 25

5G Channel Sounding Measurements


1

Channel Parameter Estimations in Keysight SystemVue


2

Block diagram of the actual


measurement setup

4
Measurement
Parameters

3
2015 Keysight Technologies

Setting options before the post processing of measurement parameter


CIR/AoA/AoD/Dopppler frequency/Pathdelay/Pathloss
Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 26

MIMO 8x8 Dual Polarization: 5.8GHz


Waveform

Multiple Path Parameter

PDP

2015 Keysight Technologies

Mirror Spectrum = NO

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 27

MIMO 8x8 Dual Polarization: 5.8GHz


PDP V

Multiple Path Parameter

Mirror Spectrum = NO

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 28

5G Channel Sounding Measurements


5

Result Display of Measurement Parameters

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 29

5G Channel Sounding Measurements


4x4 mmWave MIMO Channel Sounding
Transmitter

Receiver

4x4
CF: 28GHz
BW: 1GHz
Size: 2 mobile carts,
838mm(L)*585mm(W)*92
0mm(H) for each
Power consumption: Tx
~1KW; Rx~800W

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 30

5G Channel Sounding Measurements


90 GHz SISO System
Rx

Tx
N9029AVxx-UDC
PA

LNA

BPF

N9029AV10 SA
frequency extension
module

15GHz Input

1~5GHz IF Output

E8267D

M8190 5GHz
BW AWG

Rubidium
Clock
N5173B
LO

2015 Keysight Technologies

AWG
Rubidium
Clock
Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 31

Topics
Channel sounding fundamental
Channel sounding approaches
5G Channel sounding technical challenges
5G channel sounding measurements
Summary

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 32

5G Channel Sounding Summary


- Channel sounding and modeling is critical in 5G research
- Key technical challenges need to be resolved to produce accurate
and repeatable results
Addressing Technical Challenges
1.

Sounding approach & architecture

2.

Signal generation and capture


- mmWave frequency band
- Ultra-broad bandwidth
- Multi-channel

3.

Data capture & storage

4.

Channel parameter estimation


processing

5.

Calibration and synchronization of


the measurement system

2015 Keysight Technologies

1.

Wide-band correlation with MIMO capability to


extract spatial parameters

2.

Use metrology grade test equipment that has


sufficient frequency, sample rate, resolution,
and has support for multi-channel

3.

Decimate data or use real-time processing for


better data management

4.

Choose algorithm that provides good channel


parameter estimations w/ MIMO

5.

Ensure precise timing and synchronization


and calibration to ensure accurate, repeatable
results
Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 33

Keysight Test Solutions for 5G Research


Wideband
RF/W/mmWave
Signal Generation & Analysis

Sub-6 GHz MIMO

Massive MIMO
Receiver

Phase Coherent Signal


Generation & Analysis

Up to 104
channels

Channel Sounding
mmWave, BW, MIMO
Transmitter

Receiver

Up to 40 channels

Up to 16 channels

SystemVue Simulation
Software with 5G Library

Signal Studio Software


with Custom 5G

2015 Keysight Technologies

89600 VSA Software with


Custom OFDM/Demod

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 34

Thank You

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 35

www.keysight.com/find/5G
www.keysight.com/find/solution-5GSounding
www.keysight.com/find/solution-5Gtestbed

Find more recourse like application notes, videos,


brochure, configurations

Keysight Solutions
Unrivaled performance. Half the
time to insight.

5G Channel Sounding Measurements


3

Setting options before the post processing of measurement


parameter CIR/AoA/AoD/Doppler frequency/Pathdelay/Pathloss

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 36

Completing the Solution


Keysight Professional Services
Software development services based
on the SystemVue platform to create
custom sounding signals and channel
parameter extractions
Productivity services to complete the
project delivered by Keysight application
experts. Can provide addition
configuration, integration, consulting.
Find out more:
http://literature.cdn.keysight.com/litweb/pdf
/5989-0099EN.pdf?id=393341
Extended support and training

2015 Keysight Technologies

Keysight 5G
Channel Sounding

Page 37

Оценить