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Control System Design by Frequency Response

What we want to do: Design control systems to achieve satisfactory closed-loop system

performance based on the information of the frequency response of the plant.

I. Relation between the Closed-loop System Performance and the Frequency Responses

Remember that the system performance is dened on the step response of an under-damped

(second-order) system(for relative stability) and the type of the open-loop system(for tracking

accuracy). For example, we have the following formulas

= π − tan −1 √ 1−ζ 2 1 1 − ζ 2 ζ t
= π − tan −1 √ 1−ζ 2
1
1 − ζ 2
ζ
t r =
d tan −1 −
, ω d = ω n 1 − ζ 2 ,
ω
ζ
ω d
ζ
√ 1−ζ 2 π
1
M p = e
,
t s = 4
= 4T,
ζω n
We see that ζ and ω n play important roles in determining the system performance.
We shall be interested in the relation between the closed-loop system performance(hence ζ and
ω n ) and the frequency responses of both the open-loop system and the closed-loop system shown
in
Figure 1:
Clearly, the open-loop frequency response is determined by
2
2
ω
ω
n
n
s(s + 2ζω n ) ⇒ j ω (j ω +
2ζω n ) ,
and the closed-loop frequency response is determined by
2
ω
1
n
= M (ω )e j Φ ,
s 2 + 2ζω n s + ω
2
ω
2
ω
n
1 − n + j 2ζ
ω
2
ω n

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where

 

M (ω ) =

n 2 , Φ = tan 1

ω

ω

 

1

1 n 2 + 2ζ

2

ω

ω

2

2ζ

ω

ω n

1

n 2

ω

ω

.

1. Relation between the closed-loop system performance and the closed-loop fre-

quency response

1). Resonant peak magnitude M r and damping ratio ζ :

Recall that for 0 ζ 0.707, we have the resonant peak magnitude M r for M (ω ) at the

resonant frequency ω r

ω r = ω r = ω n 1 2ζ 2 , M r =

1

2ζ 1 ζ 2

.

It will be convenient to express ζ = sin θ for some 0 θ 45 as shown in

where M ( ω ) = n , Φ = − tan  ω ω 

Figure 2:

.

Then we have

ω r = ω n cos 2θ , M r =

1

sin 2θ .

Since M r is related to the damping ratio ζ , clearly, it gives an indication of the relative

stability of the system. For example, a large M r corresponds to a small ζ (See Figure 3). It

is noted that a large M r also corresponds to a large M p .

2).

Bandwidth ω b and ω n , ζ :

where M ( ω ) = n , Φ = − tan  ω ω 

The bandwidth ω b of a system is dened by M (ω b ) = 2

2

M (0)(See Figure 4).

For a second-order system, since M (0) = 1, we have

M (ω b ) =

2

  • 2 20 log M (ω b ) = 20 log 0.707 = 3dB.

It is easy to solve ω b as ω b = ω n [1 2ζ 2 + 2 4ζ 2 (1 ζ 2 )] 1/2 .

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Figure 3: Figure 4: 54

Figure 3:

Figure 3: Figure 4: 54

Figure 4:

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Clearly, for ζ = 2/2=0.707, ω b = ω n . ω b can be used to specify the requirement for the

response time of systems.

2. Relation between the closed-loop system performance and the open-loop fre-

quency response

1). Phase margin/gain margin on the Bode plot of open-loop systems:

According to the denitions of the phase margin and the gain margin in the Nyquist locus,

we can show these two margins on the Bode plot of an open-loop system G(s) as that in

Note 5(Figure 13).

Note that the positive phase and gain margins correspond to a stable open-loop system and

negative margins correspond to an unstable open-loop system.

Since most of physical systems are usually stable, we will focus on stable open-loop systems

amid that similar results could be obtained for unstable open-loop systems.

For the second-order system, we do have simple relation between the phase margin γ and ζ :

Since G(j ω ) =

ω j ω (j ω

  • 2 +2ζω n ) , |G(j ω )| = 1 gives the cross-over frequency ω c as

n

Clearly, for ζ = 2 / 2=0 . 707, ω = ω . ω can be

ω c = ω n 1+4ζ 4 2ζ 2 .

Hence

G(j ω c )

= j ω c j ω c + 2ζω n = 90 tan 1 2ζω ω c n ,

and the phase margin γ is given by

γ = 180 +

G(j ω ) = 90 tan 1 2ζω ω c n

= tan 1

2ζ

1+4ζ 4 2ζ 2

.

For 0 ζ 0.6, a good approximation can be made as

γ = 100ζ .

See Figure 5.

Clearly, for ζ = 2 / 2=0 . 707, ω = ω . ω can be

Figure 5:

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2).

ω c and ω b :

Approximately, we have

ω c =

2). ω and ω : Approximately, we have ω c = 1+4 ζ − 2 ζ

1+4ζ 4 2ζ 2

1 2ζ 2 + 2 4ζ 2 (1 ζ 2 )

ω b 0.635ω b .

Hence, ω c (note that this is on the Bode plot of open-loop systems) can serve as an good

indication for ω b (bandwidth of closed-loop systems).

Also, if ζ is small, we see that ω r is very close to ω d , i.e., ω r is a good indication of the speed

of the transient response of the closed-loop system.

  • 3. Steady-state accuracy requirement in the Bode plot of open-loop systems Recall that good tracking accuracy can be achieved by using large error constants K p , K v and K a . These large constants will contribute a large positive o-set in the low frequency part of the Bode plot of the open-loop systems.

  • 4. General performance measures Assumption: A general high-order system possesses a pair of dominating closed-loop com- plex poles. If using the closed-loop frequency response:

1).

1.0 < M r < 1.4(0dB < M r < 3dB ) 0.4 < ζ < 0.7.

2). For small ζ , ω r ω d indicating response speed.

If using the Bode plot of the open-loop system G(s)

1). |G(j ω )| must have adequate length of no more than a 20dB/dec slope at or near ω c to

provide adequate phase margin.

2). The low-frequency asymptote must be raised or its slope changed to satisfy the steady-state

accuracy requirement. If we require good accuracy in the operating range of frequency(this

corresponds to the tracking accuracy for sinusoidal signals), then |G(j ω )| must also be su-

ciently large over that frequency range.

3).

ω c can be used to indicate ω b on the Bode plot.

4). |G(j ω )| should provide enough roll-ofor the frequency above ω b to reject noise. The desired

Bode plot of open-loop systems is shown in Figure 6.

II. Examples of Control System Design

  • 1. Phase-lag compensation in a position servo system(See Figure 7)

T m = 0.5, K m = 1,

Performance requirement

1). the steady-state error of following a unit ramp signal does not exceed 10%.

2). The phase margin should be at least 55 .

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Figure 6: Figure 7: 57

Figure 6:

Figure 6: Figure 7: 57

Figure 7:

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Solution: We will design G c (s)K a together because the distribution of the gain between G c

and K a can be easily materialized. For simplicity, we shall use G c (s) to represent G c (s)K a .

We examine rst the servo motor(without control):

Note that this motor is a type-1 system for position servo. The steady-state tracking error

for a ramp(velocity) signal is

e ss = 1/K m = 1,

and the gain and the phase margins K g , γ can be determined from the Bode plot: K g =

49.7dB , γ = 65 with a cross-over frequency ω c = 1rad/sec(See Figure 8).

Solution: We will design G ( s ) K together because the distribution of the gain

Figure 8:

We conclude that the plant itself has good stability margin. The problem then is in the

aspect of tracking accuracy. If we use a constant gain control G c = K (see Figure 9),

Solution: We will design G ( s ) K together because the distribution of the gain

Figure 9:

then it is easy to see that K serves as the new (compensated) velocity error constant and as

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long as K 10, we have:

e ss =

1

K 0.1.

The Bode plots of 10G(s) are given in Figure 10.

long as K ≥ 10, we have: e ss = 1 ≤ 0 . 1 .

Figure 10:

However, the phase margin γ after applying G c = 10 is merely 25 as seen from the Bode

plots. This suggests that we need to further compensate the system without aecting the

accuracy achieved. Hence G c (s) = 10G p (s), G p (0) = 1. From the Bode plots, it is expected

that G p (s) must not change the magnitude plot in low frequency range (hence guarantee the

accuracy requirement) and must be able to pull down the magnitude plot in high frequency

range so that the cross-over could happen in 20dB part to provide the required phase

margin. For these accounts, G p (s) should exhibit the Bode plot as shown in the plots of

10G(see Figure 10).

The expected compensation can be achieved by the so-called ‘phase-lag compensator’ in the

form of

G c (s) = KG p (s) = K T 2 s + 1

T 1

s + 1 , T 1 > T 2 ,

The Bode plots of G c (s) are shown in Figure 11.

Clearly, G c (s) provides the required gain K in the low frequency range for accuracy perfor-

mance and a magnitude pull-down a = 20 log T 1 /T 2 in the high frequency range. However,

the bad thing is that G c (s) provides a net phase lag in the whole range of frequency and the

phase-lag is signicant between two corner frequencies 1/T 1 and 1/T 2 (hence may aect sta-

bility of the closed-loop system if the cross-over frequency lies in this range). If we carefully

design the cross-over frequency such that it is above the corner frequency 1/T 2 , normally no

less than one decade, i.e., ω c 10/T 2 , then the eect of phase lag provided by this compen-

sation could be reduced greatly which means that the stability of the original plant will not

be distorted signicantly. The pull-down a = 20 log T 1 /T 2 dB can be used to move the Bode

magnitude plot down so that the new cross-over frequency for the required stability margin

lies at least one decade above 1/T 2 . It is noted that a phase-lag compensation cannot improve

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Figure 11: the potential stability margins of systems(actually the potential phase margin always gets worse here)

Figure 11:

the potential stability margins of systems(actually the potential phase margin always gets

worse here) so if the plant itself does not have enough stability margin or potential stability

margins, then the phase-lag compensation may not be applied solely for compensation.

Back to the example: Clearly, we just need to design a phase-lag compensator G c (s) =

10G p (s) = 10 T 2 s+1 s+1 , T 1 > T 2 to achieve the phase margin requirement. By examining the

T 1

Bode plots of 10G(j ω ) and by calculation, we nd that the phase angle Φ(ω ) of G(j ω ) at

ω = 1 is Φ(1) = 117 which gives a phase margin γ = 180 115 = 65 .

This suggests

that if we can make the cross-over frequency ω c = 1rad/sec using G p (j ω ) to pull down the

Bode magnitude plot, then we could have 63 55 = 8 allowance to o-set the phase lag

contributed by G p (j ω ) at ω = 1. To gure out the required magnitude pull-down a to get

ω c = 1, we calculate (or measure) the magnitude |10G(j )| 10. Hence a = 20 log 10 = 20dB

and

20 log T 1 /T 2 = 20dB T 1 /T 2 = 10.

Now choosing 1/T 2 = ω c /10 = 0.1rad/sec T 2 = 10, and T 1 = 100. Therefore

G c (s) = 10

10s + 1

100s + 1

.

Note that since we get signicant phase-lag between 0.01rad/sec and 0.1rad/sec, we have

to check the gain margin of G c (s)G(s) to see if it is satised for stability. This can be done

from the Bode plots of G c (j ω )G(j ω ). Also, from the Bode magnitude plot, we nd that

|G c (j ω )G(j ω )| 10, ω 0.1rad/sec.

This implies that the system will be able to follow a sinusoidal signal upto ω = 0.1rad/sec

with an error less than 10%. The Bode plots of G c (s) is shown in Figure 12 while the Bode

plots of G c (s)G(s) is shown in Figure 13.

The general procedures for designing a phase-lag compensator

1). Check the Bode plots of the plant(that is, no control applied) to see if there are enough

(potential) stability margins.

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Figure 12: Figure 13: 61

Figure 12:

Figure 12: Figure 13: 61

Figure 13:

61

2). Determine the controller gain K to meet the specication on steady-state accuracy and obtain

the Bode plot of KG.

3).

Determine the frequency ω c at which the phase angle of G is 180 + γ + 5 , where γ is

the required phase margin and 5 is the allowance for the angle contributed at ω c by the

compensator. ω c is the desired cross-over frequency.

4). Measure(or calculate) the magnitude adB in the Bode plot of KG at ω c . Then determine

T 1 /T 2 from

a = 20 log

T 1

.

T 2

5). Choose 1/T 2 = ω c /10 and calculate T 1 and T 2 .

6). The compensator is

G c (s) = K T T 2 1 s s + + 1 1 .

7). Obtain the Bode plots of G c G and verify the gain margin and all other specications are

met.

2. Phase-lead compensation

1). Bode plots of a phase-lead compensator

The phase-lead compensator is in the form of

G c (s) = KG p (s) = K

T 1

s + 1

T 2 s + 1 , T 1 > T 2 ,

The Bode plots of G c (s) are shown in Figure 14.

2). Determine the controller gain K to meet the speci fi cation on steady-state accuracy and

Figure 14:

The maximum phase lead φ m and the frequency ω m at which it occurs can be shown to be

ω m =

1

T 1 T 2

, φ m = sin 1 (T 1 /T 2 ) 1

(T 1 /T 2 )+1 .

Note that, for a phase-lag compensation we use the characteristics below 1/T 1 and above

1/T 2 to do the compensation, while for a phase-lead compensation we mainly use the phase

lead between 1/T 1 and 1/T 2 to do the compensation.

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Clearly, G c (s) provides the required gain K in the low frequency range for accuracy perfor-

mance and a magnitude pull-up a = 20 log T 1 /T 2 in the high frequency range. The good

thing is that G c (s) can be used to provide net phase lead in a specied frequency range(the

maximum phase lead is supplied at ω m ) so that it is possible to change the cross-over fre-

quency to a desired one(hence we could achieve the desired bandwidth). The bad thing is

that it may raise the magnitude plot in the high frequency range(as a result of enlarging the

bandwidth) which may not be good for noise rejection in that range. For this account, the

ratio of two corner frequencies is rarely larger than 15 and usually does not exceed about 10.

2). An example: For a system shown in Figure 15,

Clearly, G ( s ) provides the required gain K in the low frequency range for

Figure 15:

the Performance requirements are as follows

1). the steady-state error of following a unit ramp signal does not exceed 2.5%.

2). The phase margin should be at least 50 and the gain margin is at least 10dB .

3). The bandwidth ω b is as high as possible.

Solution:First, let us examine the Bode plots of the plant(see Figure 16).

Note that this system is a type-1 system. The steady-state tracking error for a ramp(velocity)

signal is

e ss = 1/2 = 50%,

and the gain margin is K g = dB and the phase margins γ = 52 , with a phase cross-over

frequency ω c = 1.6rad/sec.

To get a 2.5% tracking error, we need to apply a gain K to the open-loop system G and by

e ss = 1/(2K ) 2.5% K = 20.

The Bode plot of KG(s) =

40

s(0.5s+1) is in Figure 17.

We nd that the gain margin is still dB but the phase margin drops to γ = 13 with

a cross-over frequency ω c = 8.8rad/sec. If we don’t have the bandwidth requirement, a

phase-lag compensation can be used to drag the cross-over frequency back to 1.6 and get the

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Figure 16: Figure 17: 64

Figure 16:

Figure 16: Figure 17: 64

Figure 17:

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required phase margin. However, here we wish to obtain a bandwidth which is as high as

possible so we have to compensate the phase margin around the new cross-over frequency

ω c = 8.8 which suggests the use of a phase-lead compensator. For the 50 phase margin, the

required phase-lead can be calculated to be

φ m = 50 13 = 37 .

Since we use the phase-lead part between two corner frequencies, clearly, the +20dB/dec

magnitude will raise the magnitude of 20G further which means that the cross-over frequency

ω c will be pushed further to the right(above 8.8). This, in turn, suggests that the phase

margin would have a small dip. To o-set this small dip in the phase margin, we usually

have to add a 7 allowance to the required phase-lead which gives

φ m = 37 + 7 = 44 .

Therefore, we have

φ m = sin 1 (T 1

(T 1 /T 2 )+1 = 44 T 1

T 2

/T 2 ) 1

5.6.

On the other hand, we want that the new cross-over frequency ω c to be at

ω c = ω m =

1

T 1 T 2

=

1

T 2 5.6 ,

and clearly at this frequency we have

jT 1 ω c + 1

jT 2 ω c + 1

=

j √ 5.6+1 1 j √ 5.6 + 1
j √ 5.6+1
1
j
√ 5.6 + 1

= 5.6=7.5dB.

This means that the factor jT jT 2 1 ω +1 provides a 7.5dB lift to the magnitude plot of KG(j ω ),

ω +1

hence if we can nd the frequency at which |KG(j ω )| = 7.5dB and set it to be equal to

ω c = ω m , then we can determine the desired parameters of phase-lead compensator. This is

done as follows

20 log |KG(j ω )| = 20log

40

j ω (j 0.5ω + 1)

= 7.5dB ω = 13.7rad/sec.

So

ω c =

1

T 2 5.6 = 13.7 T 2 = 0.03, T 1 = 5.6T 2 = 0.17.

The compensator is then given by

G c (s) = 20

0.17s + 1

0.03s + 1

.

The Bode plots of both the compensator G c (s) and the compensated system G c G are given

in Figure 18.

Finally, don’t forget to verify the performance requirement:

e ss = 2.5%, K g = dB, γ

= 53 ,

ω b =ω c /0.635 = 13.7/0.635 = 21.6rad/sec.

General procedures to design a phase-lead compensation

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Figure 18: 1). Check the information (from the Bode plot) about the plant(uncontrolled system) G .

Figure 18:

1). Check the information (from the Bode plot) about the plant(uncontrolled system)G.

2). Determine the controller gain K to meet the specication on steady-state accuracy and obtain

the phase margin from the Bode plot of KG.

3). Determine the amount of phase-lead φ m required by comparing the desired phase margin

and the phase margin of KG obtained in 2) and calculate the ratio T 1 /T 2 from

φ m = sin 1 (T 1 /T 2 ) 1

(T 1 /T 2 )+1 ,

and the magnitude M of T T 2 1 s+1 at the frequency ω m = 1/ T 1 T 2 .

s+1

4). From the Bode plot of KG or by calculation, nd the frequency ω a at which that 20log |KG(j ω )| =

20 log M and set

ω a = ω m = ω c (cross over frequency ).

4). Determine T 1 and T 2 from ω m . Then the phase-lead compensator is synthesized to be

G c (s) = K T 1 s + 1 .

T 2 s + 1

5). Obtain the Bode plot of G c G and verify that all specications are met.

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