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. .

- 2003

517 (07)
22.11
-49
:
. . , - ,
- ,
. . , -

-49

. .
:
. 3 .: . 1. .: , 2003. 703 : .
ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0767-1. 1

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, ,
, ,

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, .

ISBN 5-7325-0767-1

517(07)

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22.11

J11 III III





1
. . . . . .
. . . . . .
. . , . . , . .
010292 18.08.98
22.05.03. 13.08.03. 60x90 ^^. .
. Times New Roman. . . . 44.0 \'.-. . 43,2.
3000 . . 2848.
"". 191023, -, ., 6.

. . . . 185005, . , . , 4.

ISBN 5-7325-0766-3 .
ISBN 5-7325-0767-1 . 1

. . , 2003

1
.

1.1.
1.2
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.

.
.

.






( )

.
-

2

2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.

. .




11

22
31
39
41
45
46
50
55

63

72
78
85
89

3


3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.7.
3.8.
3.9.


.
.
.
.





.

95

99
106
116
132
136
153
161
170

4

173
4.1.

4.2.
175
4.3.
182
4.4.
186
4.5.
191
4.6.

203
4.7. ..207
5

5.1.
5.2. .

5.3.
5.4.

209

214
220
223

6

6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.

7


7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.
7.7.
7.8.
7.9.
7.10.
7.11.
7.12.
7.13.
7.14.
7.15.

8.2.
8.3.

227
229
230
239
252

265

, ..279

284

296
... 3 04

315

320

325

329

336

340
.
354

357

365

378

8


8.1.

227

.

.

387

392
394

8.4.



399
8.5.

404
8.6.
411
8.7.

415
8.8. ... 429
8.9.
435
8.10.
443
8.11. .
450

9


9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.6.
9.7.

9.8.






-
.


10

10.1. .
.

10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5. ,

457

460
470
483
488
493

500
508

513

520
524
531
538

10.6.
10.7.
10.8.
10.9.
10.10. ,

11

11.1. . .
-
11.2.
11.3. ^
11.4.
11.5.
11.6.
12

,

12.1.

12.2.
12.3.
12.4.
12.5.
12.6.

12.7.
12.8.

547
560
572
578
581

583

587
591
594
.597
599

611

614
626
638
645
651
669
682
704



,
.

.

.

, ,
, ,
. ,
, .


,

,
. , ,


.


,
. ,
.


-. ,
: ..
, 1975; ..
, 1972;
, .. , 1968;
.. P.O.
, . 1-3, 1959; .
.., .1-2, 1993-1994; ..,
.., ..
, 1980; .., .. .
, 1982; ..
, 1998;
,
, ..,
1970.

.
,
.
:
(2.3),
,
. .
(3.4).
, .
-

10

2. (4.6).
,
.

. ( 1-12)
, 1- .
( 13-20) ,
2- . ( 21-34)
,

.


,
.
. ..
, . . . .
.. 1-9 . ,
.

1
*

1 1 ..

1. 2- ,

,

6,

= ^-,.

2 ,

(1)

2, bj, b2 .
3- ,

Cl\

( +\ ^ -(hh^x "^^i^j --

(2)

12

deL4 =

^1

^2

^1

^22

(3)
.'\

.'2

a.j ,
/ - - .
2. .
1. ,
, , .
2. ()
, .
3. ,
- (
), . . ,
(), .
4. , -
() .
5. (
) .
6.
,

bi+c,

1 b,

. bj+Cj

Oj

^2

^21

(4)

7. ,
,

,

6,

b^+ kcL^

^2

^2 *" ^ ^

(5)

13

3. .
1.
(1).
2. . )
3-

,
, ,
, ,

.

^),

XX
.-"

-a^bjC-^ -^] +^2 -^^ ^^ a-Jbfy

, ;,

) .



,
, ,
,

./

^ ^

,
^

.3
^

+ + +
3. .
, -

14


.
,
,

4. -
.
)
,
, .
., -..
)
, ,
,
,
. .,
)
-

(1 = ..

(6)


.
4- , ,
2-

6,

d,

^2

^2

^2

^2

d,

flf4

^4

6,

rfj

= (-1, &3

^3

^3

^4

^4

^4

+(-1'.,

15

6j

fl?j

b,

d.

b.

^4

+(-1,

+ (-!)"*"<'=

flf,

^3

^4

^4

<^4

6,

^3

^4

^4

^4


, 7- (2),
, - , ,
.

, . . ,
.
5. .

, ,
, .
,
.
4. .
-

14^ J.
^/1^1 4 - 2 ^ , 2 + - ^ ^

^/l^yi+M,2+

^'^ ^'^ [

i^j

16

i = /
'"^^^ 2' ^'
'^""J [ ii^i
5. .

/-
-

^21

^22

^1

^2

6,2

. h^
ni

...

nl

^1

^21

^22

^nl

^nl

nn

^2rt

*=i

6.
1 a, of
A =

1 a^

a]

/l-l

oi

... Oj"

^n-\
1 a at
y,2' .... ,a^
. ,
- . . .

,
, ,

=K-^i)K-i-^i)-.(a2~^i)A.-i-

17

1.1. :
6) 1 sinx cosx

) |3 -

V 5

1 -cosx

siru:

, ) (1) :
3 -4
2

=3-5-(-4)-2=23.

) 1 siiw cosxl
= sin^x+cos^A:=l.
|-cosx sinx]
1.2. :
) | 2 -A 1 6)
3 1 -2
1

1 -a

1 a 1
- a 1 -a )

B)

0 X

2 x 1
0 -1 X

no .
, ) , . .

2 - 4
3
1
2

1|
1 - 2 =2-1 3+3- 5-1+1(-4)(-2)-1 1 1-2- 5(-2)-)3=84.
5
|

-4

1 -2
) , . .

1
-

I -
1
1 -

1 = - 1
-\-

{-)-\-\\{-)+{-)\-{-){-)a-i,-a)\\=-2a{a^+\).

18

)
1 0 \
|2 X 1 =
0 -1 '

1JCJC+0- 1 0 + 2 ( - 1 ) X - 0 X J C - 1 ( - 1 ) 1 - 2 0 X =

=jc2-2x+l=(x-l)2.

1.3.

4
-8

3
5

2 6
1 -2

4 -2

-1

.
.

4 3 2 6
-8 5 1 -2
=:
3 4 2 3
- 4 3 0 -1
(-1)

4
-8
=
-1
-4

3
5
1
3

2 6
1 -2
0 -3
0 -1

(-2)
,

MA .

19

20 - 7 10
20 - 7 10
-8
5 1 -2
-1
1 -3
=
-1
1 0 -3Ul.(-l)(3+2)
^ 3 - 1
|-4
3 -l|
,
13 - 7
= (-1)
-1

10|

-3

-1

3
13 -7
= (-1) 1
-1
3

11
0 = (-1)
8

13 -11
-1

= -93.

Xj

1.4. -
|1 1 1 ... 1
1 1
1 1
II 1 1 ...
. 7
, ,
, , 1- ,
1 1 1 . . . 1

0-1

0 .. .

0 -1 .. .

0 . . . -1

-1
-1) 1+1

-1

=(-1) /1-1
-1

20

1.5.
2

-3

4
0
1 -2
(.

5
3

1 3
4 1
-2 4

2
4

-3

0 5

1 -2

21+(-3)-4+1(-2)
4-0-4+5(-2)
+(2)-4+3(-2)

1 3

3 -2

1 5
4

2-3+(-3)-1 + 1-4
4-3 + 0 1 + 5-4
1-3+(-2)-1 + 3-4

2-4+(-3)-5 + 1-3
4-4+0-5 + 5-3
1-4+(-2)-5+3-3

1-12 7 -41
- 6 32 31 =-363.
-13 13 |
,

2 -3

1 3 4

5 = 33;

1 -2

-2

1 5 = -11; 33 (-11) = -363.


4

1.6. X
I 3 X'^ 2
1 = 0.
-1
X

I 1
. :
= 3 + :^ - 2 x + ax^ =x('3a + x - 2 + axj = 0.
= (2-)/( + \), jc = 0.

21

1.7.
\ }
\ b ^
4 =
\ ^
|1 d cf

?
'
"
rf"

. ,

1+1

(-1)

-
-
d-a

--^-^
d^-a^

'-'\
^-^
d^-a^

b-a

{b-a){b + a)

( 6 - ) ( " + 6 + ^)

( - ) ( + )

( - ) ( ^ + + ^)

d-a

{d-a){d-{-a)

{d-a)(^d^+ad

+ a^^

1 b + a b^+ab-\-a^
{d-a){c-a){b-a) 1 c + a c^+ac + a^
1 d + a d^+ad + a^

1
6+
={d-a)[c-a){b-a) + --
d + a-b-a
{-lf\d-a){c-a){b-a)

c-b
d-b

b^+ab + a^
^ -^-^ -
d^ +ad-b^ -ab

{c-b){c + b)+a{c-b)
{d-b){d+b)-ha{d-b)

22

= {d-a){c-a){b-a){c-b){d-b)].^

ci + b + c
^^^^^

,
|1 + +
^_^

A,={d-a){c-a){b-a){c-b){d-b)\
=

{d-a){c-a){b-a){c-b){d-b){d-c).

1 *

1.

(1)

'

(2)

,
.

6,

, ,

6,

'
'

. =

<h

Cl\

.

:
) ^ ,
;
) = , 9^ ?t ,
^

23

) = ^ = ^ = , . .
(
).
2.

(3)

^ + b^y + c^z =
,
x =k

y = -k
2

(4)

.
(4) ,
.
3.

\2-\-2 + ^ = 0,

(5)

\a^x-\-b^y + c^z = 0.
:
)
,

, ,

=
, , .

.
) = , , , ,
. ,
,

24


.
, (3)
.
) = , .
, . .
,
.
4.

:
) ;^ , ,
(2)

"^

^^

) = , , , ,
.
, ,

, .
,
,

.
) = , .
,
. -

25

,
, .
2.1. 2-
:
+ 2/ = 12;
-2/ = 4;
+ ^/ = 3;
)\
)\
){
[ 4 x - i / = 5;
1-4/ = 9; ^[2 + 2// = 6.
, )
=

|3

2|

|4 - 1 |

= -11.


|12

12

2|

= -33.

-22
-11

-33
= 3.
-11

)
=

3 -2|

6 ^1

= -12 + 12 = 0; =

-2

-4

= 2 ^ 0 ; ^ =

= 39^0.

.
)
1 1|
3 1
1 3
= 0.
= 0; =
=
= 0; =
2 2
2 6
6 2
;
.
2.2.
\2x-y + 5z = 0;
\-4-7
= 0.

26

. (4)
x-k

-1 5
: 21k; y = -k
~4 -7

:29AJ;

z =k

2 -1
= -5k,
3 -4

.

.
2.3. :
)

3x + 2y + 4z^0; ) x + 2y-4z-0;
5x + y-8z = 0;
2x + 3y + z = 0;
4x + 2y + 3z^0,
3x + 5y-3z = 0.

, a)
3 2
A=5 1
4 2

= -13?iO.

= = z =0.
)

1 2 -4
2 3 1 U ~ 9 - 4 0 + 6 + 36-5 + 12-0.
3 5-3

,
, (
).
(4),
x=k

2 -4
3

= 14;fe; = -k

1 -4
2

= -9k;

z=k

1 ?,
2 3

27

2.4. :
) 2 - 3 ^ + = 14;

2x + y-{-z = 2;
X + // + 2z = 2;
+ 2/ + 3 = 4,

[4x + 3y = 2z = l0,
) fx + 2r/ + z = l;

) 2x + y-{-z = 3;
2x + y + z = 2;
2x + y-\-z = 3,

x + 2y + z = l;
x + 2y + z = l,

, )
|2 -3
A=

II

1 ~3 =4+15+36-4+30+18=99.
3 2


14 -3
\ =

7
10

1 -3 = 297;A^ =
3

14 1
7 -3 :-198; =
10 2

-3 14
1 7 = 198.
3 10

297
99

Ay

1 1

198
.-2- = ^
'

99
2

198
= 2;
99

1 2

= 1 1 2 = 0;,= 1 1 2 = 0.
3 2 4
3 2 3


\2x + y + z = 2;
[x + y + 2z = 2,

\2x + y = 2'-z;
[ x + y = 2-2z,

28

2 1

2-2

2-2

= 1 1 = 1; = 2 - 2 2 1 = 2; = 1 2 - 2 2 = 2-32,

:2-32,

Z , . . .
)

2
2
2

.

,
X = l-2y-z,
, Z .
)

|2 1 11
2 1 1 =0
2 1 l|

.

, .
2.5. ,

\ + 4/ - 5 = ,
\9x-\-Sy-lz = 0,
[: + 4 ^ - 3 2 = 0.
. ,
,

29

4 -5
= 9 8 - 7 = 0.
3 4 -|
, - 2 4 -180=84+120+28+108 = , = 9.
= 9 .
= ,
, ,
7W,=

-7|

14

-3

= 4?t0.

9 + 8/-72 = 0,
[: + 4/-32 = 0.
(4)
x-k

-7

4 -3

= 4/,

/ =k

9 -7
3

-3

= 6/, z = k

9 8
= \2k
3 4

X -2,- , 2 = 6/:, .
,
.
2.6. :
2 + = 4,

4y + 3z = n,
< 5z + 2u

= \9.
u + 7v = 9,
6-<-5 = ] 1.

30

.
|2

1 0|

10 4 3 |
10 5 2 01
10 1 71
5 0 0 0 6

+5(-1

3 0 0

5 2 0

0 0 6

1 7

1 0 0 0
|4 3
2-4-51-6 + 51-3-2-7 = 450.
5 2 |
0 0
1 7


^
4

17
= 19
9
11

01

4
3
0
5 2 01 = 4
0
0 17
0
6

3
5
0
0

0 0
2 0
1 7
0 6

.(-,

17
19
9

3
5 2
0 17
6

19 2
= 4-4-51-6-17-51-6 + 3 9
11

1 7 = 450.

= ^ = 1.
= 1
y^l,
z = 3, = 2,
v=\.

.

31

1.3. .

1. ,
-., ,
,

^2

22

= 21

,,
*2

1ml

^
=, ;
-
1

^ml

-1,

= 1,

^21


a-j = .-, .

, ,

1 ...

0^

1 ... I

=
V


'

II

i= j;

,=^

i ^ /.

- J

,
det ^- \.

32

AVLB ,

, . . .. = 6..
2. AVLB
,
.. = .^..
= +.
,
kl
^21
[^1

^2

^13 '

^22

^23

^2

^3 ^

6,2

^13 '

^21

^^22

''

^^31

^32

^33 J

^2+^12

,+6,^

21+^21

^22+^22

23+^23

^031+63,

^32+^32

33+^33 J

4l+6ll
=

:
1.
(+) + = + {B+Q.
2.
+^ --+.
3. , .
. ,

Cy =

a.j-b,j.

4. .

.-= - = .
: 1.
{kj+k^A

-kjA

+^,

2.
(+)=

-.

33

5. .
{)
{nxk) (^),

^-

. . .
,
,
, ,
^ ,
:
A-B = C[^(mxn)(nxk)

(mxk)j.

11

12

13

6,1

21

22

23

31

32

33

6,2

6
.
22 -'23

&, .32

6,3^

^^33

=^ =2 =
=1 Hi=M2 ?='

-=1 I.IM2 -=

:
1.
{+)=+;
2. (+) =-^;
3. (+) (C-^D) = AC+AD+BC+BD;
4. {)={
, , , , Z>
.
6. (), ^ =
^ = , . .
,
.

34

3.1.
(1

(1
= 3 5 ,
1 2
^v

' =

4 -2

3
7

(3 6^
=+= 7 3
3 9
3.2.
=

2 1 4^
2

3 7>

4 1
3 5-2

.
= -:

-2

1 3

-5

-2 9
3 4

3.3. = 2 3
4

= 3.
.
9

12 21
9

15 6

^12

- 6 9^

3.4.
1 - 1 2^
4

3 5

=2

1 -1 2\
f 1 -1 2'\
+3
4 3 5)
3 5

5 2

1 - 2 3

3\

B = kA = 6

7 1

-1 2V (5 - 5 10 ^
1V4 3 5 /' V2 1 15 25 /
2\ -1 2
- 2 4 ^ -3
i

{\
2
\

-1

35

3 5

(\

+ -3

3 5 /"V8

+1

6 10

-5

10"

[20

15

12

6^

9 15

=
/

3.5. :
(\

'\
)
2
\

3 Y4 \ \
;
-2 5 2
j \
/

(
'2 4 3^
\ 2
)
16 5 1
> 5 1
V
\.
/
.
) '\

3Y4

1\

? -'> 2 /
)

) 3 - 1
2 3
V

5 - 1 2 3

2J^-2 4

2^

^"^ "

.'\

2 -4 4
3 -1
5 1 -1
2 3 2 -2

3);

){3

1-4+3-5
2-4+(^-2>5
\

1^6^

(\- + 2(-\) + (-)(-2)


--\-(-\)(-\) + 5(-2)
2- + (-\) + 2(-2)

2 ^ Y 4 3 1^

11 + 3-2 ^
2-l+f-2;-2^

2 5) -1
3
V
^19
-2

7^
-2

3
2 3 =
4 !

\- + 2-2 + (-) \ + 2 + (-)5\


3-3+(^-i;2 + 5-4 3-l + f-i;3 + 5-5
2-3 + 3-2 + 2-4
2-1 + 3-3 + 2-5
^10 - 9 -13^
3 27 25
1 20 21

36

^3
^2-3+4-4+3-2
2 4 3
4 2
1-3 + 6-4+5-2
16 5
2 5
(2\
3 (2

2--4-2 + 3-5'\ (1% \


1--6-2+5-5 \1 38 j

2-2

2-3

3) = 3-2

3-3

7-2

7-3

6^
6 9
14 21

(3 2 5) - 1 = (3-6 + 2(-1)+5-3) = 31.


,V 3J,
3.6.
=

(2

1 3^

5 4 2J ,
V

( 1 4^

= -1

3
5 2

( 2

(+)=

3|

5 4 2J
^

2-3 + 1(-2) + 310


5-3 + 4 ( - 2 ) + 2 1 0
)

^=

1 4
-1 3
5 2

/"2 1 3
5 4 2

/J

2 1 0 + 1-7 + 3-5
5 1 0 + 4-7 + 2-5

5 4 2

(2 + \(-\)+-5
\5 + (-\)-^25

[ ' ')

2 \
-1 4
5 3

6^

. = -1

: ) (+); ) +.
, )
(2

1 4
-1 3
5 2

10

34 42
27 88

2 1

3 10"!

5 4 2

2-4 + 1-3+3-3'|
5-6+4-3 + 2-2J

^2-2 + 1(-1) + 3-5


5-2 + 4(-1) + 2-5
(\

\1\

37

2-6 + 1-4 + 3-3


5-6 + 4-4 + 2-3I

18 25'|_['34

11 36 "^ 16 52

42

27

88

3.7.
=

-1

^4 5
=\
2 6

4^

5 3

: ) (); ) ().
, )
()-.

(3 -1 5
2 4

LV

1^ 6,.

-1 4
5 3

4
10 9 (-\
5 3
16 34

(3-4+(-\)2
2-4+4-2

10(-1) + 9-5
16(-1)+34-5

9^ -1 4 ^ 1" 10('-i;+9-5

16 34
)

'3

() =

3-5+r-U6

-1 4^

2-5+4-6

5 3

10-4 + 9-3
16-4 + 34-3

10-4+9-3 "1 35

[l6f-i;+34-5 16-4+34-]
(3 -
[2 4

-\ 4(-1)+5-5
|2(-1)+6-5
3-21 + (-1)28
2-21 + 4-28

/4

2
LV

4-4 + 5-3
2-4 + 6-3

-1

67 "1

154 166 j

5 3
3

- (2\
28

3-31 + ( - l ) 2 6 ' | _ f 35
154
2-31 + 4-26

3.8. =

31
26

67^1
166

5 4

38

(\

,
J

^- =

,=

^\ 0^
1
1

(\

1^

3 1

^3

2 5 4

2
V

;i

4I

\=;

0 0\
1

12

= .

3.9. ,
^4

2 4 3^
3 3 5 7
=
-1 8 6 8
5 4 1 6
^ = ^.
. ,
^ 4 2
3 3
,=
-1 8
5 4
\

4
5
6
1

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

2 4
0^ (
0
3 3 5
0
-1 8 6
1 V 5 4 1

7
=
8
6

''I OY 4
0 10 0
3
, =
0 0 1 0 -1
0 0 0 1,^ 5

2 4
3

5
8 6
4 1

, ^ = ^^.

^ 4
3
-1
5

2 4
3

3^

5 7
=
8 6 8
4 1 6/

3.10. \ =

(\

39

4^

3 2

.
'=\

' =

(
9

1 4Yl
3

12l
16

4'\ 1 + 12 4 + 8 ' \ (\
3 + 6 12 + 4
9

\1\
16

4^ + 36 52 + 24^

3 2

9 + 48

36+32

57 68

3.11. 2^+4+,
^1 -1 1^
=
.

-10
2'

4:

18

4^

12 14
-12 8

4 ^ 4 ^
( 0 0"!
^7 -14 8"!
8 12 4 ; = 0 3 0 1 2 4 + 3: 24 27 18
4-4 8
-16 19
V0 0 3J
)

1 *4*
/
.. = .^'".
: 1. ( ),
"*, (/ m );
2.{" = ;

40

3. { -^)^ = ^ + ^ { -^) ,
AVLB ;
4. {^ = ^^
, 5'" ^,
5. ^ =
.
^2 4^
4.1. = 3 6 '" ('")"
5 1
V
. ,
'" =

^2

3 5"^

4 6 1

(^=\ 3

6
5 1

. . ,

(2 ^
4.2. = 6 4

{+)"^ '^-^'^,
.

5 2
+= 7 6

(^ + 5)" =

5 7 5^

5 6
V
"' =

'2

6 3

3 4 1

5" =

(3
= 1
2

2 6 6

1 2\

-12

-
2
5

41

'5

"'+"' =

7 5^

2 6 6
4.3. =

5 =

2 4
-12

. -

, {=''.
. , =

(^ =

2 14
-2

11

( ' ^1

"' =

f3 2 -2^
1 14 11

-1 3

(7.

= 4
^

"
2 "4'" =

^\
)

\ \
2 14

1.5.

,
'^^
-^^^

-^=,

, ,
~^,
(det 9^ 0),

42

^
/

deL4
^1
^\

' =

^2

deU
1 ^

i^/i>

t\,t%,

, ~^

,
nadet^.
: 1.
.
2.
deU-^=-^.
det^
3.
(^"^ ^
4.

('^-'-\

det^O; detB^^O.

5.
6.
(^4"^)"* = {~^^.
5.1. =
2

, ~
1"

43

. det =

-5

= 14;^0

,, = (-1)^ 1 = 1; ^^ = {-\^ 2 = -2;


, = ( - 1 ( - 5 ) = 5 ; ,, = e i y - 4 = 4.

1 - 2 1
14 5

1 1 5
14 - 2

1 4
5.2. = 5 2
3 1
.

'.

5
2

1 4 -3
deM= 5 2 5 =22.

13 1 2I
deti4 ^t , "'
^

-'=-

(11

/1,,

/ij,

32

/i|,



2 5
1 2

= -1;=(-1)'

.=)
=)

4 -3
1

1 4
3 1

5 5
3 2

= 5;=(-1)'

= -11; ,=(-1)

= 11; 4 , = ( - l )

1 -3
3 2

5 2
3 1
;

4 -3
= 26;
2 5

= -1;

44

1 4
1 -3
:-18.
= -20; =(-1)'
5 5
5 2

-11 1(
5 11 -20
22
-1 11 -18
/

1
2 3
. =
4 -3
-1 1
, : ) (^ = ~^-^; ) (^^^ = (.4-')"'.
5.3. =

, )

fl4
3

-9
-3

-3 9
I,- dety4=5; detB = -3.
-3 14
/
V

-=1 1 - - ' = - ^ 3 Q\
1 2
-4 1
V

-3 OYl - 3 ' | _ _ 1 (-
9\
det(AB) = -l5;

()-'=-

--'=-

15 [-4 { 2f-TI[-3 14 J
,
) ^4;
(2 - \; <1 = 5; (^ =-( 1 \
' =
3

.\

-3

l O -3
L
1 2

45

16*

<


/v

*12

22

-2

, =

, =

fl^,
\

v"..
v^^y
- .

= -^\
dtiA^Q.
6.1.
2~3/- = 17;
[5x + r/-3z = ~2.
.
^4
=:

3
-3
1

2^
1 ,

-^J

. =

Z
\

4 3
detA = 2 - 3
5

2
1 :99?^0.
1 -3

16^
17
-2

46

99

^8

11

-22

17^'
11

-18

11
11 -22
99
17
11

11
9^
8
_1_ 11 -22
0
99 17
11 -18
V

/ 16

17
99
-18 , - 2 ,
7
V
= 3; --2\ z = 5.

297 ^
-198
495

-2

1 .
( )

.

,
.

.

^
21 .
31 . ,
, ^.
.

MA TPHUbL

47

^ ,
,

^2 ^^^2^

~^1>

,
.
7.1.

[2, -

- h=

4,

, + 4^2 - 2 = 11,

[, - 2 ^ 2 + 4 = 11.
: ) ;
) .
.
|2 - 1 ~ 1 |
= 3 4 -2 =60,

| ~2

41

, .
) .
. Xj
, ,
.
2

11
1
2 '

- 1 - S
11
2 '

X , +X, =5.

48

.
.
^ ,
^/\

""

J\fj

'

-1

I^

-s

60
-,
11 '

60
11

: x,=3, ^^2=1, =1.


) .
(2 -1 -
= 3 4 -2
3 -2

/v

= -,

/ 4^
= 11

det
2 -1
det^= 3

-2

-1
- 2 = 609^0.
4


12

-18 -18 \
( 12
_ 1
-18
11
1
~60
-18
1
11 )
\

60
V

6
/

= -'

J_

12
18

60
V

18

6
11
1

\ \
^80^
6
11 1 11 _J_ 60
~60 60
1

: x,=3, ^=1, ^= 1.

6^
1

^
1

49

7.2.

4x + 5z + 2^ =3,
Ix-y + z-^-t =1,
2x^y-\-Az
=1.
. 4
, 2
. ,

4i/-z+2^ = -3,
^-1 = - 1 ,
y-2z-b2t = - 1 .
4 3

y-2z+2t

= -l

lz-6t

=1,

72-5^

=2.

,
--z + /=0,
y-2z-^2t=-\,
lz-6t = l
t = \.
/ = 1, z = 1, ' = - 1 , : = - 1 .

50

1.8.
-
,
, /-
.

,
.

, .
, , .^ -^
.
,
, , , .
:
1. ().
2. - ()
(), .
3. () , .
4. (), .

, , .

0
0
0

^12

13

^22

23

..

,,

33

3*

* *

^= i >j; / = /

51

,
:- .
,
,
.
.
/, /+1,
( ), ,
.
.
, ,
,
. .
,
+1 .
( ,
), ,
.
8.1.
(2

1^

= 1

-1
1,

.
2 1|
.=

-\,

1 0

2 1 4
1 0 3 = 0,
5 2

2 1
1
1 0 -1 = 0,
5 2 1

52

, ,
, Mj.
8.2. :
^ 3 -1 1 5^
) (1 2 - 1
8 l^ )
1 7 5 -1
7 4 -2
1 5
-1 4 2 -3
4 2 - 1 -2 3 ,
J
7
1 7 9
, )
/"2 2 - 1

^2 2 - 1
7 4-2
15
4 7 -2
^4 2 - 1 - 2 3
2 4-1
V

8
1 5

-2

,
1
~
(\

-1

2 7 -2
1 4 -1

1 5
-2

,
(-2) (-1),
^1

2-1

-15

-10

,
(\

2 -1

1
0 2

8
-5

0 -10

53

(-2)

8 1
(\ 2 - 1
1
0

-5 1
0


^\

-1

8
-5

1
, = 2.
)
( -\
1
-1
7

7 5
4 2
1 7

5 ( \
-1
-3
9

15-1^

3 -1 1 5
-1 4 2 -3
7 1 7 9

3 ,
, ,
(-7)
(\
7
5 -
-22 -14
8

11
7 -
^8
-28 16

7

11

11
-12

5
7
7
-7

, -
-4
-4

54


-1

0 -4

11

0 -4

11
-12

(\

[0

4 -7

(
4
,
1

>*

4
1 7
1 7
-1 - 7

11
-22

1 i 5
4
0 1 7 11
0 0 0 0
0

0 -1

1 i 5 7
4
0 1 7 11
0 0 0 -1

7 5

4
1 11 7
0
0 - 1 0

~\

1 i

, = 3.

55

1.9. .
-


,
,.
,.
= ^

<22

^-In

*2


,
= 21

22

^2


'2
-.
, ,
, . . {) = (),
,
.
.
,
, ,
. ,
, .. {)=
, , ..()< .

56

6j= ^ ... = ^ ,

.
, ,
< (/iv m),
^ .
... ,Xj. , , ^^^,... ,^

. (
),
. ,
, .
< ,
- ,
.

- . <,
.
9.1.
./1

" ^ """ -

~~~ tJ f

2:, +2+ = 4,
2x^ + ^2 - 4 =11,
I ;, + 2^2 + = 4,
2, +2-7 =16.
.
^1 1 -1 5 ^
2 1
3 4
6 = 12 1 - 4 11
12
1 4
2 3 - 7 16^

57

f\

1 -\

2 1 3 4
2 1 - 4 11
3 3 -3 15
4 4 - 4 20

3, 4
f\

-\

5\

1 3

- 1 -4
1 1 - 1 5
1 1 - 1 5

^1

1 -1

5^

1 3

~\

1 1 - 2 6
0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0


(\
B~\l
\

1 -1

5^

1 1 - 2 6


(\

3
-2

58


1 1 -1
1 1 -1
2 1 3 = 2 1 3 = 1;^0.
1 1 -2
0 0 -1
, {)-,
(5)=3,

. , .
, ,
12Xj + ^2 + 3^3 = 4,
Xj + 2^2 + = 4.

, Xj=3,
^ 1, xf^X. ,
.
9.2.
2, + 2^2 + 8 - 3^4 + 9^5 = 2,
2, + 2^2 + 4 - ^4 + 3^5 = 2,
Xj + 2 + 3 - 2X4 + 5 = 1,
, + 3 X 2 + 5 X 3 - 2 X 4 + 3 X 3 = 1 .

.
.

^2 2
2 2

8 - 3 9 2 ^
4 - 1 3 2

1 1 3 - 2 3 1
^ 3 3 5 - 2 3 1

MA TPHUbL

59

^0 2 8 - 3
0 2 4 -1

9 21
3 2

1 3 -2

3 1

3 5 -2

3 1>


(1 8 - 3
2 4 -1
~
1 3 -2

9^
3
3

13 5 - 2 3
3

(1 8 - 3
2 4 -1
1 3 -2
V ' -2

3^
1
1
1


1'2

~\

8 -3
2 4 -1

0^V
0

-1

1 3 -2
' 3 5 -2 -1 1
>

1'2

~\

8 -3
2 4 -1

0^V
0

1 3 -2 -1
2 2 0 0

60


1 4 -3

2 8 -3

1 3 -3

A^33=(-lf 2 4 - 1 = - 4 1 2 -1 1 1 -1 = 0.
2 2 0
1 1 0
1 0 0
, {)-\.
, 3
(1
-

8 -3

3 2^

2 4 -1
1 3 -2
3 5 -2

1 2
1 1
1 1,

,

j'0

8 -3

3 .

0 4-1

~\ 0

1 2 1

3 - 2 1

2 2

1
0 0

0
~
0
2
\

1 0 1 - 1 ^ ("0 1 0 1
4 - 1 1
2
0 1 10
3 - 2 1
1
0 2 - 1 1
0 0
0 0 0 0) 1 0

0

- V ^0 0 0 1
1
0 1 0 0
0
0 0 -1 0
0 / .0 0 0 0

0 1

^4,=(-1/ 1 0 0 =1.
0 - 1 0

0
0
0
0

61

, (5)=3.

5, .
9.3.
:, + 9^2 + 6^3 = 3,
[,+3x2+4^3 = 1.

.
(\

-3 2 -
\
9 6 3
1 3 4 1
3, 2
-1 1 -
\
3 3 3
1 1 2
1
)

2.
,
(\

-1

1 -\\

2
2

^11 -1 1

1
0

1 2
0 0

-
10

,
() = 2.

-3 2^
= 1 9 6
1 3
(\

-1 (\ -1
1 3 3
2 2 4
1
1 1
V

-1 1^
1 2
1 2

62

-1

1
V

1 2
^

() = 2.


, ^

^1+9x2= 3-6x3.

, ^, Xj
3
-1-2
3-,

-3
9

-1-2X3

3-6.

1-,
12
''
^
12
3
,
, .
,=

jx^,

2

2.1. .

1. . ,
,
, .
,
, .
,
,
.
,
( ),

.
,
, .
, , -
. - .

64

, ,
.
, ,
.
, 6 ,
:
,
,
(. 2.1).

) [ + ^- =^{-,
) d + b =b+d.
6 , ^
b , . . b + =.
,
,
(. 2.2).

. 2.2

65

) + (~&) = - 6 ;

) - ( - ) = + 6.

3.
= ,

1|.
> , b ;
< .

) X(iid) = {X/i)d; ) = ;) ( + ) = + .
4.
.
^, ,
, . . = || , ^ =-
\\
1.1. 6 (. 2.3).
.
, ) b .
(. 2.4).

. 2.3

. 2.4

,
b , ,
b, -.
-

66

\\ = a-\-b\ .^Ja'+b\
) .
, -
- , - (. 2.5).
\\
\\ = \d-b\ = yja} ^b'^.

b.
b
-ft, . . .
b
, - , -
, . .
- (. 2.6).

. 2,6
, - (. 2.5
. 2.6) , ,
.
1.2. (. 2.7). : ) ;
) - - .
^ 2
, ) 3 ,
.

67

\0 = (. 2.8)
2_
) = -^,
2.
180. = -^ (. 2.9). ^

- ,
.

. 2.7

. 2.8

. 2.9

1.3. ,
, ,
,
.
.
, . 2.10. ,
~ = -('-)

JF

= -('CD-^'AB).

EF
D

. 2.10

68

EF AF
^ = ^ ^ ; '^];

^ = ~ 1 ( + );


, =-~(+])++-(5+)=-(+^^
.
.
1.4. DO
(. 2.11) , , ,

. ,
DO
.
, DO = DA + = -AD -AM .
1 = ^( + ), =-+-(+) =
3

69

1.5. ABCD M,N,P,Q


(. 2.12).
D

AC,AQ, QD,
= AN = b.
.
= + AD = 2a + 2b , AQ = AS + BQ = 2 +b ,
QD = QC + CD = b'-2a,

CP = CB + W = ^ - a

1.6. -
/^, fj, ^,2,^. - R
.
. (. 2.13).

. 2.13

. -

70

, M^N,
1
1
, M^N ^^^^^ NM ^-NM^.
= R
R = - M^N + NM. OMi = ^ .
M^N NM r^^f^.r^ .
^^ ^^^-,
M^N^(-)

M^M^N

]Vi\l^ = - ( , 7 +/"); ^^
,^ =2-\, : NM^ =-2 - ,- + - - 2 ) ] = - - ( 2 + ) ;
+ NM =- -\ 1 [
3

,/ =/'2+-(-2)+- (+) =-(+2+).
1.7. 3
(. 2.14).
, ,
=60^ j8=135^

75'

. 2.14

71

. fj^.f^viP
. ,
.
.
(. 2.14).
f^ ,
7J.. ^^^
^ = 7J., C,i4j = f^ .
. .
^ 30,
j 45"", , Cj 105.
, sinl05=sin75,
^

^C

sin45

sin30

__

smlS"

,= '"^''^
sin75

29;='-^=^155;

"
sin75
1.8.
ABCOGDEF(. 2.15) ,
0 , ^G, ,
f.

72

. = , ^ = 6,0D = ,
0 = + 6, = + , 0 D = 6 + c.
? = + 0 + ,

. . f^
OF.

2.2.

1.
, ,
Oz
a = aj +aj -a^k,

(1)

J J ,k .

|a| = ^ a , 4 a j + a , ' .

(2)

, j8, ,
,

cosa = T-^; cosp=T-^; cosy = 7-
\\
\d\
\\
^^

.

cos^a + cos^ j8 + cos V = 1


(4)

73

2. .
1.
ab=(a^bjJ

+ (a^b^)]^(a,bJk.

(5)

2.
= XaJ + XaJ + Xa^k.

(6)

3. ) ^(Xpj^pZj) Bix^^y^.z^
,
^=^-,,

^=^-,,

a^=z^-z,.

+(, -y,f+(z,

-zj\

(7)

)
= ^1(^2 -,/

(8)

)
cosa= ^,^1 ^; cosj8= ,^, ^; cosy= ^|_^, ^
/
1
1
1
) /
, /?, 7 ?

= a^cosa + a^cosj3 + a^cos/.

(10)

3. .
1. Mj(Xj,j^pZj) 2(2,;^2'^2)

,
(11)
d = ylx'+y'+z\

(12)

74

2. ^ .
M{x,y,z) ^2

=
^
1+

1+

1+

^ + .
=-1-^.

(14)

^^^ , =1
(13)
X, + X.
V, + .
, + .
= ^ ^ , / = ^ ^ - ^ , = ^ ~ ^ .
(15)
2
2
2
^ ^
3.
^., ,

2.1. ^4(3,2,-1) 1,5,2) .


,
.
. (7)

(^) =1-3=-2; (v45) =5-2=3; (^).=2+1=3.
= -2i + 3/ + 3fe ,
= ^ ( ^ - 2 / + ' = / 2 2 ,

(9)
2

3
cosa = i=^, cos = .,
V22
V22

3
cosy = r=r
>/22

75

2.2.
= 1 - 5 / -Ak .

. | | (2)
\\ = 7 ' + - 5 / + / - 5/2.


-.0

2.3.

|| 5V2

V2
5/2

= 1 + 2] + 5k,

b =4i-J + 3k, =-1 -^-ij + lk .


. (5)
d + b+ = (3-\-4'-1)1+ (2-1 + 2)]+ (5 + 3 + 2)k=6i-h3j-\-\0k.
2.4. (2;4;-\), (4;'-3;5).
. (5)
d-b =(2-4)1 + (4 + 3)] + (-l-5)k =-2l + 1] -6k,
2.5. , ,
j6| = 5 , = yjll- 5/ + 2^
.
. , , z,
. . b ={x,y,z}.
,
b = = yjlXi-5Xj
+ 2Xk ,
X i + yj + zk = / / - 5/ + 2^ :
=/, = -5, =2. |& 1 = 5 , (2)
^^ +(-5)^ +(2Xf = 5, = - ^ _
^
5
, >0, . . ^ = 7
6
, :
5
25
5
= -, =
, = - .
6 ^ 6
3

76

2.6. (3;1;4) b (-2;7;1)


. .
.
ABCD (. 2.16).

.
ABC fiD = b -d = (-2 - ) + (1 - 4)J +
-\-(l-'4)k =-5i +6j -3k.

BD

\BD\ = yj(-'5f' + 6^ + (-3)^ = v70.


(3)
5
^
6
3
cosa = r = , cosp==-, cosy = p = .
/
VTO
VTO
= - 5 = ~ 2 , 5 + 7 - 1 , 5
2
^
ABM AM: AM = + = - + 4/ + 2,5fe.
2
= 2 ' = + 8/ + 5^.
= Vl^+8^+5^ = V90,

cosa, =

1
^
8
5
7==, cosp, =7=^, COST, =
p=r.

/
/

77

2.7. (1,2,-1) (-,2),


,
.
.
cos^a + cos^ j8 + cos V = 1 ,
^
^^
_ 1
_
c o s a - c o s p - c o s / - - ^ .
(, - 5 , 3 / (10) ,
, = ^^+-7=^

=.

/ / 7 3
2.8.
^ F, {14,5,4}, F, {-6,2,7}, ^ {4,2,9} .
.
R=l2i+9j-^20k,

LR = V144 4-81 + 400 = 25 .



12
^ 9
4
cosa=, cosp=, cosr = ~
25
25
5'
2.9. ^(1,2,3) (-1,4,2).
, = - .
. (11),
(13)
_
~

1 + -(-1) ,
3 _ 1
1 ~?'
3

2+-4 .
3_5
1 "?'
3

_
~

3+-2
,,
3_11
1 ~4
3

78

2.10. , 2.
(3,4,-1) (2,-3,1) ,
.
(13), (^, ^, z^
_ ( l + A)x~Xj

_{^)-^

_^(1 + A)z-Zj

""''

' ^'^

' '^"
,
' 2 - ^^
3(-3)-4
^ 2 = - = 15; ^^^^
= -6,5;

31 + 1 .
Z2= = 2.

2.3.
1. b
(),
-6 =|||8.

(2)

2.
1.
d'b=bd.
2.
[d-hb)-c={d-c)+{bc),

(2)
(3)

3.

(^Xdb^ = X(^dby

(4)

4.
dd = a^.
(5)
5.

79

i-i=j-j=k-k=l,

i-j=jk=ki=0.

(6)

3.
.


d'b=a^b^+ayby+a^b^.

(7)

(OS,"--"*"++
^ ' \\\\ ^al+a]^a]^bl+bl+bl'

(8)

^+^+^=0-

(9)




cos( = cos cos2 - cos cos 2 + cos7i cos72


cos J cos 2 + cos cos + cos 7, cos 72 = 0.

(11)

4. A F

A = \F

cos [F,S).

(12)

3.1. 2- + !.
. (25 - 3 ^ ) ( c + 4 J ) = 2 5 c + 8 5 ( i -

---!
3.2. ABCD (. 2.17). ,
.

80

. ,
. 2.17. ~ = '- 5 , = + ~.
~DA = -, DB = -.

D5:
ACDB =
= (1B+JC)(1B-W\
= (1B)^ -{Bcf
=0,
U5 = .
DB ,
-, .

. 2.17
3.3. a = 2i -3] + 5,
b=i-j + 3k.
. (8),

COS'" "

'

aj)^+ab
^^

+ajj.
^^

\\\\

2 1 + (-3)(-1)+5-3
/2(-3)5^^1(-1)^

_ 20
>/418"

3.4. ABC
^(1,1,1); 5(2-1,3); (05).
_
_
. :
^45(1,-2,2), yiC (-1,-1,4).
(8)

81

1(-1) + (-2)(-1) + 2-4


COS . ^=

^^

/2
z=.

2 ' ^=45.

VI'+(-2)42V(-1)4H)44^

(-1,2,-2); 5 (-2,1,2).

cosi>= ,

-'(-)^2..(-2).2

^.

^,,.^

V(-l)' + 2' + (-2)' V("2)' + 1 4 2'


, = 45.
3.5. /^(45;45;90) /2(45;90;45).
( .
. (10)
1
cos<p = cos45cos45H-cos45cos90+cos90cos45 = ~ .
( =60.
3.6. ,
6 {3, -4,12} .
. = + ^7 .
-4=0. b
= /9 + 16 + 144=13,|| = 7 ^ ^ + .2

_2

, jc^+j'^=169. -',
/ + / = 1 6 9 = : > j ; = , x = . a=(4i

+3j) ,

3.7. ,
{5,-4,3} .
. =1 + ] + zk -
, = (0,y,z).
|| = 1 => ;^ + z^ = 1.

82

^-^^
=-4:^^+32=0;
9 2 2 ,
..4
^3
1 -^ -^
Z +Z =1, z = - , > ; = - . , = -(3/-4:).
16
5
5
5
3.8. d = xi-\- yj + zk,
a = i-2j + 3k b = 2i + 6k^^
d c = i-\-j + 2k - 1 .
.
.
x-2y+3z=0 2x+6z=0.
d ^
x+y-h2z=-l.


\x-2y + 3z = ,
2x + 6z = ,
[+ y + 2z = - 1 .

1 -2
D = \2

3|

6 =-4.

1 21

,
.

D^, D wD^

0-2

= 0
-1

83

0 6 = 1 2 ; / ) , = 2 0 6 =0;
1 2
1 -1 2

-2

1 -1

^.

12
,
0 ^ - 4 ,
; = - = -3,>' = - = 0,z = - = 1.
- 4 - 4 - 4
, d d = -31 + k
3.9. d = 1 + ] + zk ,
d = 2i ',
d b=J + ] + 1 d 1
= 3J-4k - .
. d
, 2x-z = 0.
dub

1, x-y+z = 1.

- cd
nPcd=-rzr=

3y-4z

1
=-

V3 +(-4)'

3j;-4z = 1.
,

2x-z

= ,

\x-y + z = 1,
3>^-4z = 1.

84

0-1

D = 1 -1
0

1 :-1.
3 ^

,
. .

2 0 0
2 0-1
= | 1 -1 \\=-\
D.,=ll1 11 11|=-11,
=-11, ==| 11 -1 11|=-8.
= Z)^,=
1 3 -^
0 1 -4
0 3 1
0

0-1

-1

-1

-1

, d d = 4i-^l lj+8k.
. ,
= ^+22 ^ = 3?! - ej ,
\^ 1 = 1, 1^21 = 4 ^ ^2 --.
.

db =(^ +2e2)(35j ^2) =
= {, 2)'-{,

2)+6{, ^2)-2(, 2) = 0.

{,^) = \; {e,e,) = \e,\\e,\cosj = l-4- = 2;


. - 2 +6-2-2-16=0 =20.

85

3.11. , F = {6,1,2}
5 = {2,4,1 }.
. ,

^ = ^ - 5 = 6-2 + 4 + 2(-1) = 14(;7.).

2.4.
1. b
, :
1. ,
6 ,. .
\c\=\a\\b\s\n{a,by

(1)

2. ,
6 .
3. , .

.
c=dxb = [].
2. .
1. dxb =0, ^ ^^
.
2.

=-(

(2)

3.

[Xaxb) = X[axb),
(3)
4.

86

ixJ = jxj =kxk =0; ixj=k;


jxk=J;
5.
(d + b)xc=^axc-{-bxc,

kxj = j . (4)
(5)

3.

J
dxb

\
(6)

.,

<3v

ci

(7)

b.

4. . 1. F,

M^IBXF.

(8)

2. ABC
ABDC (. 2.18)

S.=-\ABXAC

J
,.

(9)
.

. 2.18

87

4.1. (3,4,1) b (-1,2,5).


[ ].
. (6)
i

= ^ S
. h

^^

4 1
zz

1
I +

2 5

5 - 1 7+ -1 2

yt=18r-167 + 10/t,

[ ] = {18,-16,10}.
4.2. (\ ,0,6),
4,5,-2) (7,3,4).
_
_
. :
(3,5, -8), (6,3,-2) (9)

i ]
5=

5-8

3-2

\1-1]-2\

= 1 ^ ( 1 4 ) 4 ( ^ 2 ) ' + ( - 2 1 ) ' =24,5.


4.3. ^{\,2,0),
^2(-l,2,l), (2,0,5), ^{-1,5,). : ) ^ 2 ^ 3 '
) y4j^2^3' ^) ,^2 ^^.
, ) ^-^
^^ = (2 + \)1 + ( - 2)7 + (5 - \) =3i-2j

+ 4k .

AjA.^ - /^^ + (~2)' + 4' = v29 ,


) ^^ : 4 4 =(1 + 1)+(2-2)7 + (0-1)^ =2-.

88

^ 9 -^1 ^

-^1 - ^ 1

i
2

0 - 1U-2r-ll7-4^

3-2

(9)

) ^^=-^^ =-2i+k.

AiA^

4 ^4 = (-2 -1)/ + (5 - 2) + (4 - 0) = - 3 / + + 4
(8)
2.3
COS^:

(-2)(-3) + 0-3 + 1-4

10

7(-2)01^(-3)4'

>/70

= 0,766.

^ = 40.
4.4. , ,
{1,0,3}, 6 {-2,4,-3}
, 39.
. ,

= ) = 1
-2

3 = (-12-37 + 4).
-3

,
|| = 39 = ||^/144+9 + 16,

= 3.

89

COS j8 = -- > , , =-3.


\\
, = 1 -^9]-\2
4.5. ,
--2

^ = 5 + 4, |m |=2, ||=3,

.
6

.
5 = |^ |.
, , mxm = 0, = 0,

fhxn=-nxm

^ = ( - 2 ) ( 5 + 4) = 1 5 +
+ 1 2 ( ) - 1 0 ( ) - 8 ( ) = 22 ( ) .
fhxn
= ||||8 (] = 2-3-3.
2

5' = 22|| = 22-3 = 66/.^

2.5.
1.

{)

'

,
.

{\ =

'^y

.
S

(1)

90

2. .
1.

(ax6)c--ffexaVc=(5xc)-6 =-().

(2)

2.
( ) = ( ^ ) = ()6.

(3)

3. ,
.
3.
,
= (^)=56.

(4)

4. , 5,6,
^=;^()=16.

(5)

5. .
5,6,
: = .
5.1. : (1,1,1),
(2,4,7), (-1,2,-3), D (-3,2,1). ^5CZ)
, [ .
. .

1,

JC

~AD

(. 2.19):

5 = {1,3,6},

= {-2,1,-4}, AD = {-4,1,0}.
(5)

I 1 3 |
6

-2

1 -^
1

32
3

91

. 2.19

' 1 \
S=

ACxAD\

-2 1 -4
- 1 0

[i

~*

Ai+\ej + 2k\ 769.

, 3F
,3-32
32/9
= , = = =
.
S
/9
69
5.2. ,
{1,-3,2}, fc {3,1,-2}, {2,-1,2},
, 6, .
.
1 -3

{\ = 3

1 - 2 = 20.
2 - 1 2


, .

92

5.3.

{4,3,5}, {2,2,2}, {~3,-2,-4}


.

(^)=

I4

5|

2 =0,

= 0.

|-3 -2 -41
, .
5.4. = (-1,-1,2) 6 = (1,-2,2).
x = (x,y,z),
5 = -7 5 =

= 2.
. - = 1 >
- x - j ^ + 2z= - 7 x + ; ; - 2 z = 7.

^
-1

J
-1

'{z + 2y)I + (2x + z)] +

{x-y)k,

,
^ , ^= - {2y+z) = 0.
= 2
X

1-1 -1 2
1 -2 2

:2, ..

2x + 4>; + 3z = 2 .

93


x-\-y 2z = l,
ly + z = 0,
[2++2 = 2.
.

1 1 -2
D = 2 1 = 12^0.
2 4 3
,

= ^ , = ^, z = ^.
7 1 -2
D = 0 2 1 = 24: .
2 4 3
24

jc = = 2,

1 7 -2'
0 0 1
2 2 3
12

1 1 7
12; D = 0 2 0 = -24;
2 4 2

v = = 1,

-24
z=

^
= -2.

12
12
12
, = {2,1, -2} .
5.5.
d = 2i-\-j-k,
b=3J-2j + 4k
= -4k . ,
,
due.
. (4)
2
1-1
= |6|= 3 - 2
41 = 116 + 1 2 - 6 + 121 = 34.

II3 0 - 4 1
, V = S- h, S -

94

,
5 = || = 2 1 -1
3 0 ^

-4 + 57 - 3it| = J(-4)'+ 5'+ (-3)'= 572.

s = F _ 34 _llsl2
5~5V2~

3


3.1.
.
1.
, , ,
.

- ;
(. 3.1).

^^

. 3.1

96


- (,>^).
,
Mj(Xj) ^^. ^^.^
.
2. ^^\^^,
;

MyJ\df^-\M^M^,

^^^-^^

(1)


t/=MiM2=|jC2-JCi|.

(2)

(. 3.1),
Mj(xj,jj) ^^.^ ,

^ = 7(-,)(>;,-;,)^

(3)

,
(3)

d=4777.

(4)

3. ( / ,
, ,

cosy = -7=
^ ^
; cosii/=j= ^ ^
V(x, -x,f -
V(^2 - ^ i ) ' '

(^\
^^

1.1. ^4(-4), {5), (1),


, , ,
-^-,

97

.
, ( .3.2).
(1)

-4

0 1

. 3.2
= -^=5-(-4)

= 9,

= -^=1-(-4)

-=1-5=-4,
= 5.

(2)
d=

\BC\=\x^-x,\=\-4\=4.


, 9+(-4)=5, 5=5.
1.2. {-1,-3) {4,2),
.
. ,
(3)
^ = | ^ 5 | = 7 ( 4 + 1)'+(2 + 3)'=/50=5/2.
(5)
4+1

/2

2+3

V2


( = 45, / = 45"".
1.3. , ^4(1,2)
5 .
.

98

5 (. 3.3), . . = 5.
M(5,j^) , (3)

5=7(5^4)40^'
25=16+(-2)2 (-2)2=9.
\

.
{1.2)

h-

.
. 3.3

, ^=5, ^2""^-
, Mj(5,5), 2(5,-1).
1.4. ,
^(2,1), -3,2), (-1,1).
.
X, , i?, (3)
R'={x-2f+(y-l)\
'={ + +{-2)\
R'={x +

lf+(y-^\)\

1
, , ^ ~
1
^ = ^
13
, , ~'^- ,
, , R =

1.5. ,
4(1,5), 5(-2,1), (1,-2), Z)(10,2) .

99

. , ,
, .
CD (
DA).

, = CD.
: d^^ = V(7 + 2 ) ' + ( - 2 ~ 1 ) ' = / ,
dj,^=yl{l-lOf+i5-2f
=3VlO,ToecTb BC = DA.
,
ABCD ,
.

3.2. .
.

l"". (,), ^^
^ = , (. 3.1)
JC, + ^
, + v^
=-\ =

(1)
1+
-^
1+
^^
^^ , = 1

X 4- ^

V, + -

^ = ^ ^ ; =^^^-

(2)

,
^^ .

100

2. Mj(jCj ^y^^M^Xj,y>^
^^.^

, Mj ^ ^,
, S
, .
,
(3) .
, (3)

, ^ , ^ ^ ^
.
3. ^{^,^,
M^Xj,y^, ... ,MJ^x^y^)

fh'

11^^
4. ^{^,^, 2{2,^, -^,^
1

X.
+ ^2 + ....+

X,

(5)

)\

^,2,^ ,

^1'^2 + ^

_ mjXj + 1712X2 + ^3X3

(6)
Wj + W2 + ^
m, + m2 + W3

X,+,+x,
^ -

_\^'^
(7)
3
,
^{^,^,2{2,2), ... 5^(^'^)'
^,2, ,^,
=-

m,x,+m,x,+... + mx
^

101

^+2+- + ^^
^

' (8)

2.1. , -1,8)
<.(3,3) ^ - ~ .
^
2
. , , 3
^ ~ ;>^, (1)
3
3
-1---3 .
8+ -.3
2
5
2

- = 7' ^ = V = ^-

1+'
1+ 2
2
2.2. , {-2)
5(4) ==-2.
. , AVLB ,

(1)
- 1 - 2 - 4 ^^
=
= 10.
1-2
2.3. >4(-2,0), {,6\ (1 ,-4)
AD, ,
,
.
. AD 5 (.
3.4), = 1 D (2)
""

6+1
2

7
2

""

6-4
2

AD = ^(7 / 2 + 2) + (1 - 0) = v5 .
BHCCKTpHca^^" BE
, . . = .

102

. 3.4

\AB\=yl(6 + 2f+6^ =10; 1=7(1 + 2)'+ (-4)' = 5 =2
6+2_8
1+2~3'

Xg

_6-2-4_ 2
^^~ 1 + 2 ~ 3 '

\\=.

t 2V

+2 +
)

=f^-

(3),
,^,^, ^2, 2-, ^,^
5 = -|[-2(6 + 4) + 6 ( - 4 - 0 ) + 1(0-6)]| = 25..
(7)
_ - 2 + 6 + 1_5^
_0 + 6-4_2
3
~ 3 ' ^~
3
~3'
2.4.
^(1), {2,2), (3,-1). .
.
jE" (. 3.5).

103

. 3.5
, (2)

1+3 .
1-1 ^
2
^ 3
D
2+
2=^-,

^ 2+
0=^ ,

= 2, = -2.

2.5. ^(2,1), 5(-1,3), (-2,5)


50, 20 30.
.
.
(6)
2.50-20-2-30

^,
= 0,2,

50 + 3-20 + 5-30

^^
= 2,6.

=
=
"^
50 + 20 + 30
^
50 + 20 + 30
2.5. 50
20 80.
.
. ,
20.

(6)

104

,,+^.

2 0 0 + 80-50

= LJ
LJ. =
^ +2

^^
= 40.

20 + 80

25 . ,
Xj=25 ^=100 ,
^2=40 ,

100-25+ 100-40

= 32,5.
100 + 100
2.7. , Mj(2,l), 2(0,5), M^(-IJ)
.
. (4)
^

2 ( 5 - 7 ) + 0 ( 7 - 1 ) - 1 ( 1 - 5 ) = - 4 + 4 = 0.
,
.
2.8.
,(2,3), ^{-2,2), (-4-1), ,(-1-5),
,{4-2).
. (5)

fh' ^'+
\[\2 h

^2

S=

+ ^4

\ 1^5

^4

^5

$\ Fl


\(\1

-2

iv

3
2

-2

-1

-4

-1

-1 -5

-1 -5| |4 -2h
4

'/1

= - | ( 4 + 6 ) + (2 + 8) + (20-1) + (2 + 20) + (12 + 4)| = 38,5..


2.9. (. 3.6),
.

105

1.5

\D

1.5
\

X^

. 3.6
. , .
/., . = 1.,
.
. 3.6,
.
)

,=3

,(1,5;0)

2=5

M^iUS;!)

=4

(0;2)

CD

^=\,5

//0,75;2)

EF

^=\,5

^5(1,5;!)

0D

/6=2,5

,(0,75;1)


..., ^ (8)
_ (3-1,5 + 51,5 + 40+1,5-0,75 + 1,51,5 + 2,5-0,75
^^~

(3 + 5+4+1,5 + 1,5+2,5)

_ ( 3 - 0 + 5 - 2 + 4 - 2 + 1,5-2 + 1,5-1+2,5-1^
^^~

(3+5+4+1,5 + 1,5+2,5)

~ '

106

.. .



.
1.
^x + 5 j + C = 0,
,, .
V,

(1)

^^-,
(2)
= tg(p , (
, b
,
(. 3.7).

. 3J
(2) ,
, L
(. 3.8), .


. . 3.8. 1.

107


X. . 3.8 2.

. . 3.8 3.

. 3.8
3"".
(3)
b
, ,
(. 3.7).
4. ,
-
-
5.
xcosa + j ; s i n a - / ? = 0,

(4)

(5)

/? ,
, ,
, ,
/? (. 3.7). (1)

108

^=

1-

(6)

, ,
= , .
6.
. -^+^
, :^
. = = 0
, ,
;
,
. = ,
.
3.1.
(3,4) 45.

(2). k=ig(p= tg45''=l.
(2) /,
: 4 = 3+, =1 j ; = :+1
-+1 = 0.
3.2. j^ =-2JC+3
, .
.
.
}^ = 2-3;
= 2+3;
=-2x-3.
. 3.9 , ,
1,2,3.

109

. 3.9
3.3. 0(0,0) ^(4,0).
, (0,3).
.
. ,
, ,
,
Z) (. 3.10).

. 3.10
,
OD , y=Q,
=0. CD -

110

6 , ;; = 6.
. AC^^ AD
-, -, =4,6=6 ,
(3),
^ ^
4 3
4 6
-^- = 3x+2j-12 = 0.
-^
/= t g 9 =
t g ( | + Z C O D ) = -ctg(ZCOD) = - ^ = - | . , =

-\

3x+2j;=0.
3.4. ,
^(4;2)
, 2 . .
. , ^,
a\ib (. 3.11), ^

=11.
-

. 3.11
, = 2 = 4-
4,

1[

4 2 ,
' = .


b^-b-2

= 0, b,=2,

b,=-\

^1=2,

^=-4.

^, ^ ,
X

+ - ^ = 1 j c - y - 2 = 0.
2 - 2
X

^, ^, + ~ = 1 jc-4y + 4 = 0.
^ ^
~4 1
, , .
3.5. 4(-2;0), 5 ; 3 ) , ( 1 ; - 1 )
AD.
. ,
(4),
-5
-
,
D

^~

" '

^^""

"

"

(4),
4)
-^^

=1 ^

-5^1

= ^.

3.6. ,
{\, V3 )
2 .
. /? = 2
(5), cos + / sin -2 =

112

1
/ .
-cosa:
+
2
2^ s i n a = l. sin30''cosa+ cos30sina
= sin(30+a) = l H a = 6 0 ^
1
/1
+ 2 = 0 + ^ j - 4 = 0.
2
2
3.7. ,
^(3;4) 3;8).
. ,
-4
-
(4),
.
8-4
3-3
, -3 = 0. , = 3.
, .
3.8. , :
) -+2<0; ) 2x+j;+5>0; ) 4x-3j;>0.
, )
X = ;; = ,
.
-3>'+2 =
(. 3.12).

--2<0
2-^5^0
4-3 = 0

. 3.12
) X = , j^ =
,
2+>'+5 = .

113

) . 3.12.
(0;1),
-3>;0. ,
,
,
. ,
.
3.9. , :
[jc-2>^-f3> ,

^ ^ [ j c - 2 j ; - 3 < 0;

\-1-^< ,
\-1^> ,
^^ | ; c - 2 j ; - 3 > 0; ^^ [-2:^-3> 0;

. x-2j;+3 = -1- = ,
(. 3.13).
. = , j ; = ,
.
: )
,
-2+3 = ; )

, ,
-2-3>0
(. 3.14); )
, (. 3.15).

..^^f

/^

..////^
^

^'

. 3.13

. :114

'
'

114

. 3.15
. , X
> 2JC+4, : > - 5 , +- S 1 .
.
= 2+4. = 0, = 0,
= 4, = -2
(. 3.16). > 2:+ 4
,
,
. > -5
= -5.
.
\

115

, [ = 5 6 =
, ,
.
, ABC,
.
3.11. ,
:
\- + > ,
\2- + > ,
x + y-l
> ,
)
)
X < 0;
[-2-6
> 0.
, ) =0, j^^O
4>0, (. 3.17).

<0
.
, 2x-j^+4=0, =0
.
) X = , j^ = ,
(. 3.18);
, ;
, . ,
, ,
, , j8, / --^ = ,
+-2 = 0 x - 2 j ; - 6 = 0.

116

3.4.
1. .

^^.^, = 0 ; ^^^^^ =0.


(1)

,,

,,

(2)

^-,,

:
) ^-

9^0

.
A

) 4^2-4^=0 ^^-^^^ =-^'^7^


^2

^2

^2

, .
) ,^-^,=02,-,^=01

A B C
- l = - ^ = ~i-

,
, .

117

2. (. 3.19)
(Lj) y^k^x+b^\

{L^

y-k^x-^b^,

(3)

(, Lj,
, L^
tg<P =

(4)

1 + ^^

. 3.19
(1),
(4)
5 , - "

tgP=- ^\"l
(5)

5,

^1""^2

^,=-

J_
,

4^+5,52=0.

(6)

(V)

3. . ,
M(XQ,JVQ),
,

118

M(XQ,JQ) .
.
,
(1),
4x+5i>; + C,+A(4^4-52>^+C2) = 0.

(9)

.
4. .
Mj(jCpjj) ,

^

d =1 ^ zosa + y^ sina-/71.

(10)

, (10)

d=

\^

+^ + |
()

>2

5. (1)

6.
^{^,^), 2{2,2)^
^(-^'-) ^^
^=!"

-,

(13)

^2-^1

4.1.
v4(-3,4) 2x->'-3=0.
. (8)

-4

= { + 3).

119


j ; = 2x - 3,
/:=2. ,
(6).
-1
2->^ + 10 = 0.
(7), 1
= -,
,

jc + 2:^~5 = 0.

4.2. , 2+^'-2 =
2-^-5 = ,
1:5.
. ^ ,
, , .
2.
(. 2.20).

,2.20
= -2, ,
^^= ~
2

120

(8), 1
J-2 = (-0) -2-^4 = 0.

6 13
, (- ? ~ ) .
= ,

j^i

5
5
,
=-2.
,
j;-2,I=-2(x-0,2) 2x+j-2,5=0.
4.3. ,
-3-3=0,1-+19=0, ++1 =0.
. , ,


\--

= ,

[7JC~>; + 1 9 =

0;

\--

= ,

7:-:^ + 19= ,

[+ +1 = 0;

[+:^ +1 =0;


^(-3;-2), {0;\) (-2;5).
ABC (. 3.21) ,
, .
4 (5),
4 JSj
, 2, ^ ^

121

. 3.22

. 3.21
1(-1)-7(-3)
1-7 + ( - 3 ) )

^2? ^2 ^ (5)

-(-)

ZB = 'L
1-3 + ( - 3 ) 1
2'
,

1
ZC =
arctg2 = arctg.
4.4.
, (1;4), 5(-9;-8), (-2; 16).
.
. ,
1:2 ,
. (. 3.22)
. D
tgB =

'

^^"

"

Z) =

_\

~2'

122

1+

j^i
" 3 ' ^ ^ ~ 1+
1^1
2
2
,
,
-4
-1
3
5

=
-8-4 -9-7
4
4
- ^ ^-^
J +8
+9
24
160
- ^
-^
^
=
, = +
.
- ^ ^^
16 + 8 - 2 + 9
7
7

(7)
-

-^

^ 1

''~
3 ' ' ^ " 24
(8),

4
3;-16 = - ~ ( + 2) 4x + 3j;-40 = 0,
-^

7
= -{-1)

7x+24j;-145 = 0.

,
(7;4), 4, . .

- .
:
3 J C - 4 J ; ~ 5 = 0, 24-1 + 160 = 0.
BFyrna (12)
-4-5

^=

24-1 + \60

V576.49

'--'3>'+>85=0.

123

4.5. ,
+-1-Q ^4(3;-!) .
.
3
7 , 3
3^ = --^ + ,
* (8),

+ \=--[-),

3JC+4J;-5 = 0 .

X, ,
,
,
d=

+ ^

^'+' >2

(1= ,, , 3 =

|3X+4J;-5|

5 I

, , \5 = -\--5

15 = -4; + 5.
+ 4>'-20 = 0 3JC + 4J; + 10 = 0.
4.6. 2--^ = -^-1 -
, 3JC - 4 - 7 = .
. (9),
,

2->; + 3 + ( + >;~2) = 0 (2 + ); + (-1):^ + 3-2 = 0.


7_ 2+
^ - --,
1
, 3
^j - . 1

2+

3
, ,r^^
: =
,
= , - . ,
-1 4

124

,
\2 + 9-\1 = 0.
4.7. v4(-4;2) 5(2;-5) 8
{ ; -2).
.
. ,
v4 5,
-2

_jc + 4

___!_

_^

- 5 ~ 2 ~ 2 + 4 ' ^~ 6^ 3'
(7),
(8) (
8^
, (. 3.23) >' + 2 = -- -
6-7>;-30 = 0.

. 3.23


+ 5 __ -2
= -14.
-2 + 5 8
2
, (7)..
, ,

-2

=(+4),

125

2 + 9;;-10 = 0.

v4 ,
(5;0). wACb
(12),
1 + 6 + \() _

/49 + 36

2JC + 9 > ' - 1 0

74+81

+ 5 + 2 = .

(11)
d=

3-5 + 5-0 + 2

17
-/9 + 25 I /34

4.8. (3;3), --2 =


1--% = 0 .
.
.
(. 3.24)

. 3.24
--2

= ,

\lx-y-S

= ,

^ " 1 ' = -^-

2:1,
AM'.MD = 2:1, = 2

126

_(1 + - , _ 3-3-1
{\-)^-,_-
+\

~ 2 "^'^^'

~ 2 "
5
AC^^
7--^

= 0, ^-^-2

= 0.

D
+^ =Xj, =8,

-\-^=2^,=\0.

^^, (^,^, ^,
: ^=2,^= 6, ^ = 3, j^^ = 4.
, ,

-
_-6
jc + 2j;-14 = 0.
6-4
2-6
5
4.9. (-3; *) ,
2-^ -3 = 2+>^ -5 =
2- -1= 0.
.
(. 3.25) , .

j2x + j ; - 3 = ,
| 2 J C - ; ; - 1 = ,
^^^' -^^^^'
\2 + -5
[2JC-J;-1

= 0,
= ,

^3

- ^ ^ " 2 ' ^^~'^'


,
^/^ BDN , ^
.

127

"'"^i?

4'
J

-^^^

"2

~\
^^^^^"

^. 5.25
NB ,
,
-^_
4
8x + 3 4 j - 6 1 = 0
5 3
4
2 2
4.10.
7 7
2x+j;H-9 = -^'- = (--, )
.
.
.
, (. 3.26)

128

2-+ + 9 = ,

I --

= ,

^^~^^ ""-^'


.
7

CD
. AD,
k = 2,
>'-12 = 2(jc + 5), 2 + ; ; - 2 = 0.
CD ,
:=1
j;-12=x+5,

-+17=0.

4.11. (5;1), i5(l;3)


(3;4) .
.
. (. 3.27).

D. , D
JC.+
""
2

5+1 ^
2

VJ-^VR

""

1+3 ^
2

/
^

.
X

. 3.27

. 3.28

129

, ,
2:1.
2 ,
, - -- - . ,
,
%-

^ -

=(1+)^-/=3-3-2'3=3,

J^c=(l+%A/-^J^z)=3.4-2.2=8.
, (3;8). ,
,
-1_-5
: :~-";~, -\-2-1=0,
3-1 1-5
; ^ - 8 ._ j c - 3
: -~-~,
7x+2j^-37=0,
1-8
5-3
>;-8_ _ - 3
: T ^ T ' T Z T ' 5x-2j;+l=0.
4.12. :+>'-8=0, --2=0
^(4;6).
.
. (4;6)
, , .
,
Xj^ = 5, ^ = 3.
,
^ (. 3.28).
, , 5 fx^j^^j
, . .
,
. ^+^- 8=0, ^-^- 2=0.
.
. , -

130

^ _1 _.
D. D\
~ -- .
MD 1
2 x^. . - 2 x^. _ 3 - 5 - 4
^ - LXjy
+
'

^ ~~
1+2
1+2
^-
^3-3-6^3

2
2
2"
, D

Z)

3^

2'2

^
>^D=^

, ^+^-11=0, J^+3^(^-3=0.

+ = 3,
^-

= 2

|1 1
0 0
1 1
= -2
=
10
1 0
| 1 - 1

^
111 1

3
8
2

0
0

1 1
= -14.
1 0
1 0 - 1

131^

_ ^ -14 ^
^ - " " " - ~ ' ^ ' - ^
, ^-.
, ^-1, (^^2.
5(7; 1) (4;2),

:

-6_-
"~7^'

Y ^ ~ ' A ^ '

-\
_-1
^37~'4^'

5+3;;-38 = ,

-_-4
= 4,
^^ +-10 = 0.

4.13. {-'-2), {'-\) (1;3)


ABCD { II ). ,
. D.
. \\ AD, ,
. ,
.
+ \ -4
=
3V+4Y=13
3 + 1 1-4 ' ^
'

4
13
+,
3 3

4
3

= .

AD
,
5 II AD
- = {-\
;; + 2 = ( + 3), 4 + 3;; + 18 = 0.
. ,
, ^4

+2 +3
5
7 , 5
=
, - + , =.
3+2 1+3
^ 4 4
4

132

BD\ ^i ~ ""' ^i = """7


/

, ,
BD
4
y+l=k^(x-4l
y+l = --(x^l
4x+5j;-ll=0.
5
BD AD ,
D
4 + 5>'-11 = ,
[4x + 3>' + 18 = 0.
29
2;;-29=0, =,
J
: \

^ 5-29
4+^^

,, ^
123
11 = 0, ^ = -

123 29
; .

3.5.


. ,
, ,
.

.
,


" +2 + ^ +2Dx + 2Ey + F --Q.

(1)

133

: -^ > ,
, -^ <
, -^ = 0 .
(1)
-,
=
D^-^E^ > AF, .
> ,
Ax^-^Ay^+lDx+lEy-^F < ,
, ,
Ax4Ay42Dx-^2Ey-\-F > 0.
, . .
,
-
, - .

,
.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) , (,)
,
;
4) ,
- (),
;
5) ,
, , .
3x^-4
5.1. (0;4), ( 1 ;-2) = ?

134

. ,
.
,
. 4 =
= 4 .
, , ^ .
, 3-4
-2 ^ - - - - 1 . ,
.
1 .
5.2. ^=, = ^.
.
,
. ,

[/=4,
1

, ^- , Xrf^ 4 j^j= , ^ 4.
, (0;0) ^(4;4).
5.3. : ( - 3)^ + >^^ = 1
X + j ; = .
.
.
.
--, x^-3x+4= 0.
3/^ ^
Xj 2 =
. /-5 ,
, ,
.

135

5.4. ,
^(3;5) 5(1;-4).
. AviB (. 3.29).

, ,
, ,
. {,), ,
, =,
AM = ^J(x--\-{y-5f

BM = ^{x-lf+(y

+ 4f ,

/(-3)^+(^-5)^ = yjix-lf-^(-^


4+18j^ - 17= 0. .
5.5. ,
^(1;1),
JB(7;-2).
. 2 = . ,
, AM = ^/(x-1)^ + (^ ~ 1)^
4 ( ( x - l ) 4 ( j ; ~ l ) ^ ) = ( x - 7 ) 4 ( ; ; + 2)^
, {+\-+{-2 = 20,
. .
0\-\ ;2) , 2 /

136

3.6.
1. ,
,
.
{x-^af^{y-bf=R\
(1)
, ; R
.
:
1. 6 = 0; = 7?, x^-^y'^-lRx.
R (. 3.30).

, 3.30

\^(

. 3.31

2. = 0; Z? = 7?, x^+jn^ = IRy.


R (. 3.31).
3. = 6 = , ^+ = /^
. R .
2. ,
,
, r^-^r^-la,
const (. 3.32).

, .

(2)

Fl-c,0)

137

\-
F^icO)

. 3.32
_
^ - .
<,
. = , =
^ + '^ =^ ,^ .
,
^ =^ - ^ ; , ^ =^ -^^.
Jp (^2'
,
= .



,
IL-IL ^ 2 /

(3)
Tj =, 2= + ,
X .
\
,

138

, (. 3.33)
-

(4)

2 =tg^2 .
\

. 3.33
^, ,

'

\ ',
, ,
. ,

.
/^ A:j (5)
, ,
/ /2.
. 1. ,
- ,
, (a')^'+(b'p=a^'^b^.
2. ,
- ,
,
= 'sin (.

139

3. ,

, ,
Vj- rj= 2, const (. 3.34).

. 3.34

2

(6)
; b .
, , ,
,
,
. = ,

= ,

<,
> 1.
,
^ =^ -^, , ^ = ^ -^.

140

d^^d^^
. ^ - - .


Y

, ^ = - j - = .
d^

r^r^ (,)

Tj = { - \

^ = ( + ).

(7)

,

'-^'=\
(8)

= .
,
, ,

=-

(9)

^ = "" (9)

= 42
,
,
-
cjc + a

<2, , , d .

141

(10)
(9).
4. ,
,
, (. 3.35).

, 3.35

/=2,
()
/7 ,
.
(,)
=+ . ,
^'=^~Z

. ,
^ = = 1.
,
,
j ; = ax^+6x + c,
, , .

(12)

142

6.1.
.
, x^-2x+l+j;2+8j+16 = 4 (x-l)^+(j;+4)^ = 4.
\,b--4,R-l.
6.2. ,
v4(l;l), 0;2) (2;-2).
.
,, .
,
(1),

{2-af+{2-bf=R\
,
, : 2-6 = 6, 4a-Sb = 4,
= - 3 , b = -2. , R^ = 25.
,
(x+3)2+(j+2)2=25.
6.3. ,
{1;9) (4;0).
. (. 3.36).

143

, = = 4, = Z? = R,

(,).
{x-Ay-^iy-Ry- - R^.
4(7;9), (7-4)^+(9-7?)^ = 7?^,
7? = 5. ,
(-4)2+0;-5)2=25.
6.4. , ,
x^+>'^+8x-4j^-29 = : {4;3),
5(-1;2), ;9).
.
, 16+9+32-12-29 = 16, ,
.
, 1+4-8-8-29 = -40, , J5 .
, 16+81-32-36-29 = , , .
6.5. , ,


. ,
,
.
. (2). N
,
. ,
^ ^

(S.t^^l

t ^ . ^ = .. . - , 5 , * - 5 .

, + = 1.
^ = ^-^ = 15-5 =10.

144

, a = v l 5 , 6=5 c~-s[)Ss.
/lO / ^,
. 2/10 ^
= = = . : -
. Vl5
3
*^
^ "^
2
(. 3.37): ^{^ fS) ^2(-Vl5 ,0), B^(0,^l

^(0-^),

: F^( VlO, 0), F^i-/ ,0).


(3): , = Vl5 - v 2 ,

2 = + V2 .

6.6.
, , 8 2.
.
.
- = 2 + = 8. 2 = 10,2 = 6 = 5, = 3.
^ = ^-^, ^= 25-9=16. ,
2

+ = 11.
25 16
^

^'

6.7. ~'^~'^^
9 16
j;=-2x. .
. ^ = 9, Z?^ = 16, /:^ = - 1 . (5) 16
8
, f<^2 "^9(-2)
~Q. 9 = ~. 8
= ^ .

145

6.8. :
= 10,6 = 1. '
Z?'H 2\ , 2*
2 20.
.

= 1.
- ^ .
,
,^=-7=
1,2

10

^+1'

V, 2==

'''

10:,
^+1

, :, =tg(p^= tg 20 - 0,364,

^ '

^'

^ja^kf+b^

V 100(0,364)41


(')^=^-(')^, fe' = 7lOO + l-(2,82)' - 9 , 5 9 .

(5)
,= =
= -0,0275, tg(p = k,, ( = 178^25'
'
',
1000,364
'
'
2.
6.9. , ,

(5;-2) N(3 /2 ; 2 )
.
. 7V
(6).

146

25

18

1
1
1
1
--j ?

1 7
,
, 22
^':^- ^-11, ^= -. :
22
7

2_
22 __ 99
^-^+^, - 1 1 + - .

[W

= = J

^/7

= 3 -.

. /77
= =
.

6.10. (12;3 v3 )
^^1
--'z^ . .
.
= , = - . = = 2,

2
.
,
(6), 144 27

- = 1. ^ = 9, , = 6, -.
"''

''

.^

:7^"" "^ ~ ^
6.11. ,
-6,
-^+ = , x-^y-l- 0.
. (. 3.38)
. - 6, -^-^ =

147

4(-3;-2), 5 ( - 2 ; - 3 ) . - 6,
-^-1- (6; 1) D{\\6),

(-2)
(-2

. 3.38

CD = /(6-1)" + (1 - = 5/2 ;
= ]{-2 + 3)^ + (-3 + 2)^ = 72 .
/^ ,
.
= -^+5 =
5
5
7 7
( - ; - - ) N( - ; - ) .
MN = J ( - + -Y + (- + - = 6/2 . ,
S

^tUlAe^^

36 ..

4-3
6.12. = ~

, .
.
='-^, ='+.

148

5
4
-^- 4 = -3 +

--\.

5
4
{ '+)( '+Z?)+ ( '-) ( '+)= - 1 , 4
5
4
5
X + '(Z? ) +7 '(^+ ~ ) = "" -. 4
5
, =0 + =0,
5
4
- ' ^ ~ ^ ^ 4
5
54
:= ( )
^
^ 33

5 4
29
()- -1=

3 3
9
29
[ -
11 IV (. 3.39).
11 IV , = 0\

. 3.39
6.13. ,
0'(2;-3) .4(4;-!).

149

.
0'(2;-3) -

'~~~,.

' = -2, ' = j^+3. -

+ 3 =
. -2

2

^=(4-2)^+(-1+3)^= 8, ^ = ~

/ = 4. ,
^^_
y + jt

-3JC + 10
V =

-2

-2

6.14. , ,
,
5.
.

^ = 2. " =5, /7=10.


^=20,
6.15. ,
^
, 0;3).
.
, ^ = 2 . = 3,
-.
2
^ = \2,
6.16. ^ = 2 ,
.

. F{0\ -).

150

(;)
(. 3.40), - ^-.
/7, , MN
2.

, 3.40
6.17. ,
,
}P--^x-Ay-^\2-Q.
.

/ - 4 j + 4 ^ 8 x + 1 2 - 4 = 0 {y-2f = 2- 4(-1).
, ^- 1,
^- 2. /? = 4,
J = 2.
6.18. ,
, ,
(-3;6) 7V(2;-4).
.
-^-^. , 6= 9+, 4 = +. , , =2, =-12.
, j =2x^-12.
6.19. , -

151

, ,
(1;2), (2;4) (3;8).
.
,
-\- + = 2,
\4 + 2 + = 4,
\9 + -\- = 8.
, a=l,b=-l,c
-2.
, ^ =^-+2.
6.20. ,
,
= 5+4-^.
. ,
= 5-(^-4+4)+4=9-(-2)^.
, ,
. . =2, = 9. = 3.

='-^2 = '+9 ' ^^( )^.
, .
:'';;'
0'(2;9), j ^ ' = -()^ (. 3.41).

'

=-2\
X

. 3.41

152

6.21.
2_ ^ _ + 4= 0.
. ,
-8;;+16=6-4+16
(y-4)^=6(x+2). ,
(-2;4) ;= 0.
- '+4, = -2
''j^' 0'(-2;4), , (')^=6'.
, (. 3.42).
i

0\-2;4)

. 3.42
6.22. ,
=^-4-\2, ,

.
. = ,
, ^4(0;-!2) (. 3.43).
= 12.
- = -\2.
DC
^--12= , Xj =-2, ^2= 6,
^-4= , ^= , ^2= 4. ,
DC= 8, = 4.
5* =

12 = 72 ..

153

J"

"^--^
, 3.43

6.23. , ;; = ^-1,
X = 2, .
.
= ^-1 X = 2 (. 3.44).
j;=x^-l, =2 (2;3).
j ; = .

. 3.44

1. .
(. 3.45).

= -\-,

= '+,

' =

' = ,

(1)

154

, \ \'
' ''; ,
' 'x'j^' ,

'

{,)
ix'.y')

'(.)

'
X

. 3.45
2. .
.
' '
(X (. 3.46),

. 3.46
x = xco^a-ysma^

y^xsina-^rycosa,

(2)
X = cos + j^ sin ,
= sin+ cos ,
. . O'x'j;'
(. 3.47),

X = X cosa-/^\-\-^
= 'sma-'cosa-.
(3)

155

{.)

ix'.y') / ^

\/(
0'(,)

. 3.47

'-(-) ^-^(-) sin ,
'=- (-) sin + (-) cos .
(4)
7.1. -, --1.
, 0'(-2;5).
. =3, --1, --2, -5.
jiyi: *---+2-5, '----1-5^=^12.

7.2.

, -

= 45.
. .
(2)
Vi
,/2 , V 2
^ , / 2 ^ ,V2
=

- 2 v 2 =jc

Vy

, '-- ,'--

~.

7.3. (1;2),
0\-\,\)
^"".
. - \ , =2, =-1, Z? = 1, = 30.
(3)
,

\ =

,73
2

,1

"^ 2

,1

1, 2 = j c + V
2

.4.

+ 1.

156

, =

1 + 2/

V3-2
=

1 ' -^
2
7.4.
= 2JC^-4X+9
Y - ^.
. (1).
,
'--2('+)2-('-)-^9
' =^2'^^(-\)'^2^ - + -,
.

\
2^ - + 9- = 0 (2-1 = 0. = 1 ,
6 = 7. 0 \
* = 2'^ ^ . 3.48.

0\,)

. 3.48
7.5. ,
.
.
^ -^ =2. ;; =. t g a = 1,
= 45.
=45 (. 3.49). (2)
=' 00845-;^' sin45, ^ =

-Jz-,

157

X -

j;=x'sin45+;;'cos45,

^"""/^

. 3.49
, ,
{-)

2
{+)

^",

2
2
2?
7.6. ,

: ) x^-4x+j;+1 =0; ) J;^-3JC-2J^+10=0.
, ) x^-4x+4+j^+l-4=(x2)^+>^-3=0. \\
X = -2, = J^'+3,
.
X', >^' : ^+ - ^=-'.
,
(. 3.50).
) >'^-2j;H-l-3x+10-l=(y-l)^+9=0 9(-1)^=3(-3).
, j;=j;'+l, ='+3,
3
1 (. 3.51). >^'^=3'
.

158

. 3.50

. 3.51

7.7.
x^+y^-^lOx-lSy-^10=0,
.
. (1)
, (' + )^ + 0 ' + bf + 10('-^ a)-lS(y'+ b) + 70=
='^2-^10)'+(2-'+10-18+10=
0.
2+10=0 2Z?-18=
= -5, b = 9.
x'^+j'2+25+81-50-162+70 =
^+'^^,
7.8.
Sx4\2xy+3y^-40x-24y+l=
0.
.
(1).
0'(,),
8x'^-M2x'j'+3j'^+ {I6a-^\2b40)x'+il2a+6b~24)y'-\-Sa4l2ab+3b^-40a-24b+l=0.
, b , 16+12/40=0,
12^+66-24=0,
. , : =\,=2.

01;2).
8;^+12>'+;=0.

159

,
\\
, (3), (8 cos^ +
+3 sin^Q: + i2 cos sin ) "^+(-16 s i n a c o s a + 6 s i n a c o s a +
+12cos2a42sin2a)x>''+(8sin2a:+3cos^a-12sinacosa)j;'M3 = 0.
, x"j^"
-1 Osin cos +12cos^ -12sin^ = ,
6 t g 2 a + 5 tga-6=0.

2
3
tg , : igC)C-~ t g a = - .
, 3 ' sina =
. t g , c o s a = 1, i
R^
tga
2
~ Vl + tg'a ~ / . '\ "^^2

156 .2
- j;^^ = 13 -^ = 1.
JC
13

12
-/ 1 (. 3.52).

. 3.52

160

7.9. 3x^-6^^+3;^^23

-2JC-8J;+-=0.

. (1),
0\;) 3'^+6'-\3^- Gix'y'-^x'b+y'a-^ab)-^
23
-^-'-^^- 2'- 2 Sy'-Sb-^~j= 0.
,
\ ': --\=0, -+-4= 0.
, ,
.
(3) , 23
3x^-6y+3y^-2x-Sy+ =3 ^cos^ -6';; 'cos sin ^
+3y'hin^-6{x'^cossina
+xy'cos^-''
sin^a-y'^ cos^a
'Sina)-^3x'^ sin^a+e^'j;' cosa:sina+3j;'^cos^a-2x' c o s a +
23
^2y 'sin a -Sx' sin a -Sy 'cos + " ^ = 0 , x'j;' : cos^a- sin^a = , = .
4
: '\ sin^a +2 sin coso: + cos^a) 23
-2:' cos + 2 v ' s i n a - S x ' s i n a - S v ' c o s a + = 0
6y<'-6y'^-5^x'+~
= 0.
^
1
4

''.
6

'

ilY =5V^ x.J,S^


8
2

X = '

V2

161

, = J^'+ , 2
8
^
^
1

2

\ '\ ^"

2 5v2
^

=
X . 6
"
(. 3.53).

. 3.53

5/2
X ", "; =

3.8. .

1. (. 3. 54)
,
[0,>[ ( [0,2[

([-,[.

162


,
,

x = pcos^, 3; = psin(jO.
(1)


p = ^x^-hy\

(p = arctg^.

(2)

(2)

sm(p = -j=I=====- cos(p = -jJ=^,

.3)


:
X2-x^=dcos(p,

y2-y^=dsm(p.

(4)

2^.
(. 3.55),

=\
'
(5)
1-08

^^

163

. - , d ( , ()
d
, ,
,
.

. 3.55
= , (5) ,
<\ , >\ , = 1 .

,

=\

(6)

3. ,
.
1. (jO = { ) ,
, ,
(. 3.56).

. 3.56

164

2. - ,
.
3. -1 cos < ,
(<,0) (. 3.57).

. 3.57
4. = ( { const) (. 3.58).

. 3.58

5. = (a=const)

(^

(. 3.59).
, . . ,
, .

. 3.59

165

6. = ^ (<^0) (. 3.60).

. 3.60
,
. <
-^ ,
(. 3.60).
7. = 2 (1 + coscp) (. 3.61).
, ,
, .

. 3.61
8. ^ = 2^ cos2(p (. 3.62).
\F^M\ |/^2^| ~ ^^ const,
F^(-a;Ol F^(a;0),

. 3.62

166

8.1.

2;

iK

'

1
. (1), . = 2cos = -1
-1 sin = v3 . {\ /)

: ^ =3cos
j^5=3sin

= 0,

=-3,5(0;-3).

8.2. (-2;0), {\'-).


. (2), (3),

^ ( - 2 )^ + 0^ = 2, sin ^ = - = , cos (
-1.
2
' ^ 2
,
(^=. , A(2;7i).

pB=\l0fH-^=
_

/2, sin(p^=-^= ,

cos(p5=-y-=^ .

( - ~ " ,
8.3.
, , . 3.63.
. = = CD = DA = 1.

->

V2
n t -^'

5
: (= , / ) = " " ' ^-'^
4
4
4

In
>-~4

2 ' 4
/

^72 7 ^ '
V

2 ' 4
/

167

^V2 ^

2 '4
V

^
J

2 ' 4
V

'

/?

Pwc. i.6J
8.4. ,
d= 6 = 120 ^.
. (4)
X = 6cosl20 = 6 | - - | = - 3 ,

r = 6sinl20 = 6 = 3/.

8.5. ,
,(3;2/) ,(4;/3).
.

^^

^ = 7(4-3)'+(/3-2/)'=2.

1 .
^--iS
/ ^
= , sin =
=
. ,
2
2
2
2
( = 300.
8.6. Mj(l ;0) 2(3;5).
^^ , (-1;2) (3;5)
.
. / (. 3.64),
( (^ ^2.
, .^^2=
cos =

4-3

(4),

168

= MjM2 COS ((pj~ <) = MjM2 ( cos^i COS ^+sin(Pj sin <p).
, (4)
X,Y ,
X^Y^ ^^, : .^^2 =
X,

^
) =
,^ d
, d = yJx^ + Y^ =

= 7(3 + 1 ) ' + ( 5 - 2 ) ' = 5

, ,^^2 =-

^^

=MiM2(

^, -

= .

. 3.64
8.7. = -

-. :

2 + 28

) , = = 2:,
( --; )
,
,
; )
, .
, )
(. 3.65)

169

, 3.65

<

coscp

'

1
0,25
2 + 2cos<p

0,707

-0,707

0,29

0,5

1,7

0,707

-1 -0,707

1,7

0,5

2
1

0,29 0,25

.=v^

j ; = sm , : = cos (, = >/:^-,
COS^:

4^77

,
2// =

^^

, 2 ( / : / + ) = 1,

^Jx'+/=-

1+

77^7

4 x 4 4 / = l - 4 x + 4x',

4: = 1 - 4 / ,

= - - / .

) =
.

170

3.9.

x = ^ ( / ) , y-\^{t^^ t ,
.
,
.
1. : jc = (2C0S^,
^, [0,2:].
2. : x = (2C0sr,
^, t^ [0,2:].
t
, (. 3.66).

. 3.66
3. , ,
,
(. 3.67).

. 3.67

171

: x-a^t ^xnt),
(1 -cos ^), / [0,2:]. / 2
.
9.1.
^ + j ; ^ = IRx, ,
.
.
= cos (, j ; = sin (.
= / ,
= 27?cos^ = 2i?cos^.
( /,

X = (^)cos^ = 2/?cos^ t, = {t)smt = IRcostsint

= Rsm2t,

x = R(\ + cos2t),
y^Rsinlt,
9.2.
: 3i) x = -2 + t, y = l + 2t; ) x = t^+2t + 4, y = t + l;
) x = l-f2cos^5 ;; = ~3 + 2sin/; ) x = flfCos^ j^ = Z>sin /;
) x = 2R c o s ' t , y = R sin 2t.

, a) / = + 2
.
= \ + 2( + 2) 2 - >^ + 5 = . .
) x = (t + \y +3,
= >^^ + 3 . ,
.
)
2cos/ = - 1 , 2sin/ = jH + 3.
4 = ( -1)^ + (j^ + 3)^.
(1; -3) 2.
) , 6,

172

(
ybj

:cos r + sin + 7 ^ ^ "


)
y^=^R^sm^2t=>y^=4R^{l-cos^t)cos^t,

2

cos t = ,
2/?

/ = 2Rx-x^ => {x-Rf +y^=R''


1 - ^
27? 2R
,
R.
y^=4R'

4


4 . 1 .
1.
- :
, Oz.
,
, yz, zx


, ,
.

- (. 4.1) .
2.
z
(. 4.1).

(3)
= 8;

y = ps\nq)\

z-z.

(1)

174

(1)

P = V ^ ' + / ; tg<p = ^ ; z^z.

(2)

>
, , .
2^

{,,)
(,,^)

, 4.1
3. (. 4.2)
:
(-) ( < < ); (,
-
{0<(<2)\ Q, -
Oz{Q<Q <).

. 4.2

175



x = psin0cos(p; j^ = psin0sin(p;

z = pcos0.

(3)

(3) , ^ , 0,

p = ^ x ' + / + z ' ; ig(p = ^\

cosO =

Z
I

9 '

(4)

-sJX^ + -h Z"
(
, , ;;.

4.2.
1. .
1. .

Ax-^By+Cz+D = 0.
(1)
2.
- / ? = 0 jccosa + j;cos/3 + z c o s 7 - / ? = 0,

(2)

/7 ,
; a,f5,y ,
;
(. 4.3).
N(A,B,C)

^M(x,y,z)

. 4.3

176

(1)
=

= ,

D
(1). ( D = , ).
,
cosa = ^ - M ;
cos = ;
cosy = ,

P=\D-M\,
3.

- + f + - = l,

(3)


,, ,
(. 4.3).
4. ,
,(xpj^pZj)
A{x-x,)

+ B{y-y,)

+ C{z--z,) = 0.

(4)

5.
y = y^+uay+vb/,

^^^

z = ZQ+ua^+vb^,
u,v- ; a^,b^,ay,by,a^,b^,
^ =N.
2. .
1.
.

177

2. ,
^l(^l.J^p-^l)' ^2{2^2^2^),

^^^^^^)
Z-Z,

-,

-,

^ - ^

Z2-Z,

^-^1

^3-2,

=0.

(6)

3. ,
,

(7)
4.
/i/, (, , Q) ^2 ( . . Q )
A^A^ + B^B^+QC^
cos<p = . ^ ,. J-, -

^A^ +
Bf+Cf^A^+B',+C,

(8)

5. -,


44+^^2+QQ=0.

(9)

6. ,

(10)
2

7. M^ (, ,;>;,, z,)
\Ax^+By^+Cz^+D
d = \x^cosa+^ COS P + z^ cosy\ =
SIA^+B^+C^

()

178

2.1. 9x - 2 j + 6z - 1 1 = 0.
: ) ; )
.
, )

7 / ^2 77

11 ,

6 , ^

jc

11

11

Z 1 = 0,

11

9_
cosB=
, cosr = - l .
11
11
11
)
,

cos

^ + - ^ = 1.

11

11
11
_1_1_
= 9
2'
~ 6'
2.2.
, 4(1,1,0); (3,2,-1)
(2,-1,4).
. (6)

-\
2
1

-\
1
-2

= 0.

2x-9y-5z+l = 0.

(7)

179

jc = l + 2wH-t;,

y = \-\-u-2v,
= -u + 4v.
2.3. (2,1,3) ,
x+3y-z+2=0
(3,-1,5).
. (4),

N{A,B,C)
{-2)+{-\)+{2-)

= 0.

(*)

(9)
-^- - = 0.

(3,-1,5), (*),
-2+2 = 0.

,, .
, ,

\2 -\
1

-2

^-3|
- 1 =0.

21

4x-3y-5z+l0 = 0.
2.4. ,
MQ (2,1,-2)
jc+3j;+2z+l = 3x+2j;-z+8 = 0.
.

180

N = N,xN^ = 1

l\

-1

-li+lj-lk.

,
^,

-7(:-2) + 7(-1)-7(2 + 2) = 0 x-y + z + l = 0.
2.5. (2,-1,3) ,
x - 2 j / + 4 z - 5 = 0.
. ,
, A[x-2) + B[y + \) + C[z-3) = 0.
, ,
(10), , J5,
(
, 1)
- 2 - 2 ( ^ + 1) + 4 ( 2 - 3 ) = 0
x-2y + 4z-\6

= 0.

2.6. (2;-1;3)
11-2^ + 10 + 6 = 0.
. (10)
d=

11-2-2(-1) + 10-3 + 6

V(ii)4(-2)4(io)^

15

2.7. ,
Mj (1;-1;2) ^(4;3;-1).
. (5)
4 ( - 1 ) + 3(^/ + 1 ) - ( ~ 2 ) = , 4x + 3y-z + \ = 0.

181

2.8.

x + 2y-3z-4
= 0; 2x-y + z + l = 0.
. (7),
1-2 + 2 ( - 1 ) + ( - 3 ) 1

cos^

= arccos,

. 2721^

, .
-(.
2.9.
5 + 2--1 = 0 5x + 2i/-3e + 4 = 0.
.
, , .
,
/

= 0; = 0. z=. 0 ; 0 ; - -

(11)
|5-0 + 2 - 0 - ( - ^ ) + 4 |
d=

JJ

/25 + 4 + 9
/38'
2.10. ,
x + 2y-2z + 4 = 0 d = 3.
. , - .
M(^x,y,z) -
.
,
\x + 2y-2z + 4\^^

Vl + 2 4 2 '

182

,
-2/-2 + 4

^ -2^-22: + 4
= 3;
= -3.
3
3
,
x + 2 i / - 2 z ~ 5 = 0; - 2 / - 2 + 13 = 0.

4.3.
1. .
1.
J^jc + ^jj^ + CiZ + D, = 0 ;

[A^x + B^y-^C^z + D^ =0.

(1)

2. ()
_

Z 2

_-

[_
3

(2)

, ,
/ =

; = -

; =
1

,
.

- (/, ,) ,
^ (^, Jo' ^)
3. ,
M(XQ,JHO,ZQ) {/,,}

= +//; y = yQ-\-mt; z = ZQ-\-nt,
(3)
t .
, t , (3)
M(x,y,z)
v = yjl^ +^ +^ [1,,}.

1[83

MQ (XQ, JO' ^)
M{x,y,z), / = 0.
2. ,
1. ,

JC-JC,

_ -1

_ ^-^i

- ^2-z,
2.
Xj "~~Xj

(4)

3. -,


1^2 + ^^1^2 + ,2 = 0.

(6)

4. ,

/, .
7"

3.1.
[5JC + >^-3Z + 5 = 0.

. XQ = ,
M ; ; - z + 6 = 0;
| j ; - 3 z + 5 = 0,
^ =1; z^ = 2.
(2)

(7)

184

-4
1=
1

-1
-3

= 13; X

8 -1
8 -4|
= 28.
= 19; =
5 -!
5 1

-\

Z-1

19
28
3.2.
jc-2_>' + l _

.
t
-2

V+1 Z

X = 2 + 3^ y = -'l-\-4t, z = t.
3.3. ,
, (2,1,-1) ^ (4,-3,2).
. ,
, Mj ^2 (2,-4,3),
(4)

- 2 ^y-l

__ z + l

3.4. ,
x + 2y-3z-2
= 0

-5 ^-3

"5

^z

-1 _-\

__z + l

2 "" """"4~""~'

.
= 5 5t, = 3+/, z = 2/.

t
5 - 5 / + 6 + 2 / - 6 / - 2 = 0,

- 9 / = - 9 , / = 1.

185

^ = 0 , ^=4,
Zj = 2 .
X = 7+5,
= 1+4^ Z =-1+.
74-5/+2+8/+3-3/-2 = , , = -1
JC2 = 2, >^2 ~ ""-^' 2:2 = 2 .
, ,
-4

Z-2

-4

_z-2

2 - 3 - 4 - 2 - 2 -
2 - 7 - 4
3.5. ,
MQ (1,0,-3) -^2- 2 + 3 = 0 3 x - j ; - 4 z + 2 = 0.
.
,

J j
N = N,xN^ = 1 2
3 -1

-11=
-4

-9i+j-lk.

, ^
N,
JC 1 _ _ 2 + 3

3.6. , :
j c - l _ j/ + 3__7^

x + l _ j / - 5 __z-2

. (5)
cos^ =

2-3 + 6-2 + 9-6

/2'+9'+2'

72
= = 0,936,

77

186

( = 20'30'.
3.7. , ,
^ (1; 2; 1),
={4;4; 2}
V =

\SM/C.

. ,
|| = v4^ + 4^ + 2^ = 6 v = 18/ , ,
s
, . . 5 ={12; 12; 6}. (3)

x = l + l2t;

y = 2 + l2t;

= 1 + 6/.

4.4.
1.
8 = -

1 + +
(1)

2.
1 + + = 0.
3.

(2)

A B C
4.

5.

^ = -=^ =
I

Ax-^By^Cz-^D -
= -^^^'-> z = ZQ+tn, t

187

x-x^^rtl\

AXQ - ^ -^CZQ + D

Al + Bm + Cn

4.1. -=

2
1
3
Ix-^y- Z-1 =^0.
.
: x = 2t; = /+2; z = 3t-l.
x,y,z ,
t: 4t+t+2-3t+l-l = 0.
/ = 2 = 4;
=4; Z = 5.
4.2. ,
x-^2y-3z - 1 = 2x+y-3z- 4 =
(2,-1,3).
. (4),

JC + 2 J ; - 3 Z - 1 + A(2JC + J ; - 3 Z - 4 ) = 0.

,
:
2 + 2(-1)-"3-3~1 + (2.2 + ( - 1 ) - 3 - 3 - 4 ) = 0.
= - 1 .
, -+3 = 0.
4.3. ,
Mj (2,-1,4) 2 (5,2,-3).
.
Mj 74( - 2)+5(+1)+( - 4)=0.
,
, . . ^ = 0.
^,
+-1 = 0.

188

,

|jc-2 ^- z - 4 |
1

7j; + 3z-5 = 0.

4.4. ,
+1 _
_z-\
M Q ( 3 , 2 , ~ 1 )
=^=

JC-1 _ -\-2 ___ Z + 3

1
3~*
. , ^,
^(jc - 3) + { - 2) + C{z +1) = .
, (2) 2-\--2 = 0
44 + JB + = . ,

\-3
2
4

-2 Z + 1
3
- 2 = 0.
1
3


1 1 J C - 1 4 ; ; - 1 0 Z - 1 5 = 0.

4.5. ,
Mj(0,2,6) 2(3,6,-6), 2 J C - 3 ; - 2 Z - 1 = 0.
. , ^
1

>''"2

Z-6

Mj, ^^
=
.
'
3
4
-12
(1)
2 - 3 - 4 + 2>12
^ 26 ^ 2
sm(p =
/4 + 1 + 4/9 + 16 + 144 " 3 1 3 ~ 3 *

189

4.6. (1,2,3)
. ,
MQ ,
\ __ 2 __ 2-
I


, (3)

-1 _ -2 _ Z-3
=
1
-2
1

/.

jc = l + /, j ; = 2--2/, z = 3+ /.
,
.
t: 1-f/-4 + 4/ + 3 + / - 6 = 0, t = l.
X = 2, ;; = , Z = 4.

4.7. ,

j8x + 2>; + 3z + 6 = 0,

V-4

^ +1

Z-1

2
3 - 2
. (4),

8JC + 2>^ + 3Z + 6 + A(3JC + 4;;H-Z + 1) = 0.


, .

(8 + 3A)jc + (2 + 4A)j; + (3 + A)z + 6 + A = 0.

190

(2),
2(8 + ) + 3(2 + 4)~2(3 + ) = 0, = - 1 .
,
5 - 2 j^ + 2z + 5 = .
4.8.

Jjc~33^-z + 4 = 0,
l 2 r - 4 +3 - 2 = 0 3JC + 2;; + z - 7 = 0.
. ,
,
. ,

x~J^-z4-4 + (2JC-4J;^-z-2) = 0

(l + 2)x-(3 + 4)J^-(l-)z + 4 - 2 = 0.

.
,
3(-2)-2(3 + 4)-(1-) = 0, = 4-
,
,
9 -19j^ +1 Iz - 4 = .


r9jc-19j;-Mlz-4 = 0,
[+ 1 + z - 7 = 0.
4.9. (1,2,~1)
jc-3_j;-2_z-4

"~~ 1 ""*
. ,
. -

191^


.
, ,
{ -1) + { - 2) + C{z +1) = .
A B C
" ~ ~ "'
, ^4 = 1, 5 = 1, = 2.
,
x + j H - 2 z - l = 0.

.
: jc = / + 3, j ; = ^ + 2,
z = 2/ + 4
/ + 3 + / + 2 + 2(2/ + 4) - 1 = , ,
/ = 2. ,
^0 = 1, >' = , ZQ = .

J = ^ ( 1 - 1 ) 4 ( 2 - 0 ) 4 ( - 1 - 0 ) ' =/5.

4.5.
,
, .
1. ,

,, (. 4.4).
, ,
-^

192

(2)

-+- = 1 Oz.

. 4.4
2. .

2

' '
, (. 4.5).

. 4.5

(3)

193

. z=0
^ ' ' ,
- + - = 1

, .
yOz xOz
2

- z
^
h = 0;
= 0. ,
b e
b e
,
.

.
= 6, (3)

, ,
.
.
3. .

(5)

' '

X = ^,0,0) ^{^,^^^^
(. 4.6). || >
. xOz
2

- ^ - " ^ ' "~~^-

b

(5) ^'Oz.

194

, 4,6
- (5) -^-^ = 1

b
, ,
.
,
4. .

-+j^ = z; >0;
>0,
(6)
2 2
z = h (6)
(. 4.7).

. 4.7

195

xOzuyOz
^ = Ipz vi ^ =. Iqz. /? = q (6)
^ +^ = 2pz ,
, .
z.
5. .

2

= z; >0;
q>0.
(7)
2 2q
(7)
J^--^ I "~^i -

J~^

(. 4.8).

Z = (/| > 0),


. z = ( < 0)
,
. xOz yOz
^ = 2pz ^ = -2qz.

. 4.8
/7 = q, (7) ^ -k-y^ = 2pz,
, -

196

.
Oz
135 (7) = pz.
Z = .
.
6. . ,
- ,
,
.

.
1. (. 4.9)
2

(8)
, , .
=, ,
.

. 4,9
2. (. 4.10)
2

(9)
.

197

, 4.10
3. (. 4.11)
^ = 2,

(10)

. 4.11
.

,
OxwOy,
7. , ,

,
.

198

,
.
,
Oz (. 4.12),
2

' b'

(11)

. 4.12
= ; = = ,
^ +^ -z^ =0 ,
45.
5.1. f(x,y,z) =
:
) x^ + y^+z^-2x + 4y-6z + 5 = 0; ) 4 x 4 4 / + 5 z ' - 2 0 = 0;
) 5 x ' + 5 / - 4 z ' - 2 0 = 0; ) 4 x ' + / - 2 z = 0; ) x^+z^-y = 0;
) / - 4 z - 5 = 0; ) / - 8 x + 3 = 0.
, )
^-2 + 1 + ^ +4y + 4+z^-6z + 9-9 = 0
(x-lf+(y
+
2fHz-3y-=3\
jc' = jc~l; j ; ' = j ; + l; z' = z - 3 , ,
:', \ z\ ,
, Z
JCQ = 1; jVo = - 1 ; ZQ = 3 ,

199

jc'^H->'*^+z'^ = 3 ^ . ,
0*(1,-2,3)
i? = 3.
)
,
2

5
5
4

Z = = yfS; = 2.
)
2

= 1.

^
4
4 5

(4) z.
) z,
2

2

(5).
) ,
y = x^+z^' ,
(. 4.13).

. 4.13

200

) ,
z^y'^ 4
4
(. 4.14).
Oyz ,
5
z = - - - .

. 4.14
) z ,
_1 2 3
^ - J^ + - ,

z (. 4.15).
,
3
= .

^ I
. 4.15

201[

5.2. , :
) 4 J C ' + V + 1 6 Z ' - 1 6 J C + 36J; + 3 2 Z + 5 9 = 0 ;

) j c ' - 4 / + 4 z 4 2 x + 8 ; ; - 7 = 0 ;
) J C ' - 1 6 / - 4 Z ' - 1 0 J C - 6 4 ; ; + 2 4 Z - 4 8 = 0 ;

) 5 x 4 2 ; ; + 3 z ' - 9 = 0.
, )
,
.

" + 9 / +16z' -16x + 36;; + 32z + 59 =


= 4(x'~4x-f4) + 9(/+4>^ + 4) + 1 6 ( z 4 2 z + l)"-9 =
= 4(jc-2)'+9(>^ + 2)'+16(z + l ) ' - 9 .
x* = x - 2 , '--2,
z* = z + l, ,
\ \ z\
x,y,z
fl = 2, Z> = - 2 , = -1

(jc')

4 ( j c f + 9 ( > ^ ' ) 4 l 6 ( z y = 9 / / \ ' " ^

()

(zjc)

1' " ^ f V f " ^ '

,
(1)

0'(2,~2,-1)

= 3 / 2 , Z? = l, = 3 / 4 .
) .

X 4 2 J C + 1 - 4 ( / - 2 > ; + 1 ) H - 4 Z ' - 4 = (X + 1 ) ' - 4 ( : H - 1 ) ' - H 4 Z ' - 4 .

JC* = JC + 1, y ' = jv-l,z* = z ,


x'j^'z'

202

x,y,z
O'(-l,l,0)
( ' ) ^ - 4 ( ; ; ' ) 4 ( 2 ' ) ^ = : 4 ^ ^ - ( 3 ^ ^ + ( z f =1.
{x'f (z')^
, { ')^ ,
(3),
j^'.
) ,
(^ - 5)^ ~ 1 { + Tf - 4(z - 3)^ = ,
jc* = x - 5 , '--1,
z'-z-

\ \z\
x,y,z
(5,-2,3)
(jcf-16(>^')'-4(zf=0.

,
(11)
X' (5, -2,3).
)
, ,
(5).
5^ +3z^ = - 2 ( j ; - 9 / 2 ) , ,
'(0,9/2,0)
;;.
JC' = X, '=^ -912, Z * = Z,
(. 4.16)

203

, 4.16

4.6.

1.
F{x,y^z) = 0.
,
Z, Z = / (:, ).

.
, . .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.
2.
F{x,y, z) = (, JH, ^) = .
,
,
.
6.1. ,
(2,1,-1) ^(~3,0,3).

204

. P(x,y,z)
. , (11, .2.2)

V(x-2)(;;-l)(z + l)^=V(^-^3)(J-0)(z-3)^
,
5x + y-4z + 6 = 0,
, MN
.
6.2. ,
5 (1, -2,1).
. M{x,y,z)
. , (11,.2.2),
( -1)^ + (j^ + 2)^ + (^"" 1)^ = 25.

R = 5.
6.3.

. ,
. z = 3
, x^+j;^ =16.
, ,
(0,0,3) 4.
6.4.
x^+y^-3z^ =0 (z > 0) ( -if -^+z^ =\
.
. .
z.
3 ,
4JC^ - 6 + 4^ = . , -

205

: ^ -^ = 0;
2 = 0. ,

3Y

9
+>'^ = ,


, ( 4^ ;01 , - j .
6.5. .
, .

: ) x ^ + y < ( z ~ 2 ) S x " + y < z ) x^+3;^+z" < 2 5 ,
/<9;) x'+/-9>z',
/ < 1 6 .
, ) ^ +^ ={2- if
, Oz 2.
^ +^ <{z- Tf ,
.
^ -'^ -z ,
^ -'^ <z ,
. ,
, , ,
(. 4.17).

. 4,17

^ +^ =z
^ -{-^ ={z- if, , z = 1, -

206

^ + j ; ^ = 1 z = 1.
) ^ + j ; ^ + z^ = 25
5. ^ + >?^ + z^ < 25
, .
^+>'^=9
Oz 3. ^ -^ <9
, .
, , ,
(. 4.18).
,
, .
, .
x\iy.
jt^ -^ , z^ = 16, z = 4.
,
z = 4.

, 4,18
) j ^ - \ - ^ - ^ >9 Oz
3. ^ + j ; ^ - 9 > z^
, .
^ +^= 16
4 Oz. ^ + j ; ^ < 16 ,
. ,
(. 4.19).

207

,
. , ^+;^--9 = 2^,
^ + j ; ^ = 16, , z^ =1 >
Z = yjl .

. 4.19

4 .

1^.
x = x{t\
y = y{t\
z = zitl
(1)
t ,
.
(1) t,

.
2^. ,
,
R,
,
(. 4.20).

jc = 7?cos /,

y = Rsin t,

z = kt,

(k = Rtga>0).

(2)

208

/ > , (2)
, / <
.
, z
/ ,
, / = InR tg .

. 4.20,
7.1. , jc = (/ -1)^,
>^ = 3(^4-1) z = - ( / + 2).
.
t, j ; + 3zH-3 = 0 .
t ,
9JC = {y-iy . ,

.
7.2. , : = 3 cos t ?
>^ = 4cos/, z = 5sinr.
. ,
4 - 3j; = .

, ^ + j^^ +z^ = 25 .
, .

5

5.1.

= ^^+^^\
(1)
= ^,+^^
' '.
(1)
( ) .
(1)
=
V^21

'^22 J


y = a^^x+a22y'+a2jz',

(2)

x,y,z
','

210

(2)
() .
(2)
.
^

*12

21 22
*1

1
33

(^

^'^

R - ' = ,
, Z .

/
, Z

(2)
R=AR\

(3)

. . = '

.

.

, z
,

, z .
= .
1.1.
x = x - +Z,
= +>; - Z ,
Z = JC + Z

x ' , j ' z ' : (1,-1,2) (2,-3,0).


x,y,z.

211

.
, : * = 1, '--\^
z' = 2, jc = 4,
--2,
2 = 3; :' = 2, '--,
z' = 0, jc = 5, --\,
z = 2.
1.2.
X = 2JC '+ ',
?
. j , = \ = '- :
X = 2 + , = 4 + .
, = ' = 0, = ' = 0.
1.3.
\^ =Xj +2X2+3X3,

z,=3y,+2y^'-2y^,

12 =-^1 -4x2 +2,


1_ =2xj +2 +2X3.

^2 =3^,+4^2-4^3,

^3= J^i+ 3^2-2j;3.


,
Zp ^2, z^ 2, .
. 1,

^1

.4 = 1

3"!

/"3 2 - 2 ^
5 = 3
1

-4
1

4-4
1 -2

,

(3
= = 3

2 -2Yl
4-4

2
-4

-4
-1

-14

1 1 -2 2 1
-2 - 4 1
V
V
,

212

1.4.
j;, = X, - 3^2 + ,
>'2 = -^1 - 4 ^ 2 + 2 ^ 3 ,
^ = 2JCI 4x2 "*" 2-^

.
.
Y=AX,
3^

7 = 1V, I, = \\

-4

-4 2

-3

det^ = 1

)
-"'

^ =

^
V 'J

2 -4
det 4 9^ , ^

1
det^

,
^12

-^21

-^31

^22

-^32

:
,,

.-.

-4

,= - 4
^21 " " "

2
= 0,
2

-3
-4

-3

3
2

,=,

22

,= -4 2

= 6,

1 2|
2 2|

^2 = -

213

|1 ^1
^13 -

- 2'

1 31
= -4,
2 21

|1 -3
= -2,
4=''
|2 -4
1 -3

1 3|

= 4 =1 -4 = - 1 .
1 21 ~

>

/^

/"0 - 6
2-4

6 "j
1 =
'

-1

1
6
3
3
^4 -2 - i j 2 1 6
1
1
3
6.
^^,
^-'=:^-'^4- '^ = ,
, A'^Y = X = ' Y,
"^,
/

/^

-1

1 _1 1
3

2_

__]_ _ J _

,=

-2+'
2
]_

2=^-^2+^
6

1
,=

-1 ^.~

214

1.5.
JCi T'-Xi "" 3 ^ 2 " ^^ 9

I /* "~~ .Jy\/t

"|

^/'

/-3 ,

.
'^','^\'^' ^,2,^.
.
,
3 -1
5^
= 1 2 4
3 2 -1
V

(4

, =

1 2
3
1 -2 1 ,

= =

3 iV3 -1
1 2
-2 1

1
3

s^i (IS 4

2 4
2-1

16 3 17
4

3-4

,
,"=18, +4x2+31^3;
^2'= 16, + 3^2 + 17;

5.2. .

1.
X = x(xpA:2,...,x),
:Cj,X2,...,x^ -

215

{^...,^}
, Aj,...,A^,
, , \^ +... + ^^ = ,
.
(,,...,?^) /^
Q ,
x^Q
Ai,...,A^ ,

^ = ^^^^'

(1)

Ai,...,A^ .
(1)
(?...,5,).
2. 5(ei,...,e) '{^,...,[)
,
' \[= t^j^e^ + t^f^e^ +... + t^j^e^
'

ft

... /

=
\ \

^
5 .
X , X'
^',


= -',

(2)

216

2.1. ,
Xj = (3,1,1), ^2 =(1,-1,11), =(1,1,-5)
. - .
. X, -
,, ^2, ^
(
= \\
V1

1
-1

-5 ,

, |3
^ 2 =1

11

= - 4 ^ 0 ,

2
.
, ^, ^
.
2.2. , 5(2,1,-4), 6(1,-4,-3), (3,6,-2)

J(l,-4,3) .
. 5, 6, ,

^ 2

1 -4
-4

-3

3^1
6
-2

1 -4
-4

-3

3
6 = - 2 7 7^0.
-2

217

, = 3.
, ,

.
d 5, , ,
Aj, ^, '


1= 21+^4-,
[-4=

,-4^+6,

3 = -4,-^-2
AjjA^?^
= -27.

=-

1 1
1 - -

3 -3

-2

-27 1

^=3

2 1
- 1 -4

27

1 -4
-4 -3

3
6 = 3,
-2

1|

-4 = 2.
3

d 5,6, : yli=-4,
^=3, =2, .. J = - 4 5 + 3^ + 2c.
2.3. , ^1 (2,4,1), ?2(,6), ? (5,3,1)
(24,20,6)
.
. 5 ^2, ej,

218

1 5

=\

3 3
1 6 1

|2
detr=4
|l

1 5|
3 3=749^0.
6

l|

, = 3.
, ,

.
, (2).

^,=(-1

3 3
6 1

4 3\\
= -1,
1 1

= -15, = ( - ! ) '12

4 3
= 21,
6

={-^\1
-^

|1 5
| 1

= 29, ,,=(-1
2 1|

<-^\1
1 5

.={-^ 3

2 5|
l|

= -3,

=-,

= -12, ,=(-1
|2 1

={-^

= 2.

] npi1

|2 5

V 3

= 14,

-15
'=-' = -1
14 21

219

29 - 1 2 2 4 ' \ (2^

14 20
-3
2 , 6 ,
-11

^^^^' ,
jc = 2^ + 4.
2.4. ,
?, =(1,1,1,1,1)
,={\\\
? =(0,0,1,1,1), 5, =(0,0,0,1,1),
?5 =(0,0,0,0,1)
X = (1,0,1,0,1) .
.
?!,..., ?5 J
1 0 0 0 0\
1 1 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1 1 0
1 1 1 1 1
1
, = 5.
, .
5...,?5
/Ij, / 5 >^ 4
X = \^ + ^^ + ^ + ^ + ^5^5'

0 = ,+^,
0 = ,+2 + + 4,
1 = ,+2++4+5.

220

, ^ =1, ^ =~1, =
^ = - 1 , = 1 . ,
" ^ t i

^^

I t^"!

' *^

5.3.

1.
2
, Aix^-y^^Ax-^Ay

^ = (). ^ 5 = (^5...,^)
, J4e^ (/: = 1,..., w)

^^^=^1+- + .

: = 1,...,.

1 =

^11

^12

,.

^21

^22

*'1

.

= ,
, jc
, .

{A-?iE)X

= 0, ^,

(1)

X ,
.

221

,
^
det(^-A') = 0.
2.

,12

,13

21

.22

'*23

V^3i

32

33

^

,1-

*12

^21

11 -

23

*31
^

^^32

33-

= 0.

(2)

.
^,^, xa/?a/cm^/7wc .
, (2)
.

( 1 1 - ^ ) ^ 1 +12^2 +13^3= '
21^1 +(22 - ) ^ 2 +23^3 = 0 ,

(3)

31^1 + 3 2 ^ 2 + ( 3 3 - ^ ) ^ 3 = 0 '

^,2,^
, ^j, ^2' ^'
.
^^2 5^ =^j/ +^27+^3^'
.
3.1.

222

( - 5
^=5

-7

2^
3

1^6 -9 4
.

|4-1
-5
5
-7-
6

-9

2 I
3 =0
4-|

-(4-)'(7 + ) + 12(7 + ) + 52(4-)-180 = 0, '(-1) = 0.


: , = ^ = , 3 = 1.

, (3)
[4^,-5<^,+2^=0,
5<^,-7^,+3^=0,
[<^,-9^+4^=0.
,
, ^ =
[4^,-5^3+2^3=0,
2<^,-^,=0,

^,=2<^

^3=3^,.

2^,-^2=0,
(^j = , ^2 = 2 ^^=3.
, ^ = 2 = ^/ + 2 + 3^ j ,
.
, = 1.

223

5^,-8<^,+3^=0,
[6^,-9^,+3^3=0 ,

[3^,-5.^,+2^3= ,

^j =<^2 =<- L=a,


E,2^t,^=a

= (/ + + ^ j , ,
.

5.4.

^^^

( ^2 ) =fljjXf + 2aj2XjJC2 + ^22^2 '

(1)

<2i 1, ^12 5 ^22 .


^12 =ci2\ ^ (1)

(jCp ^2 ) = 1 jXf + ^12X1X2 + ^i2-^l-^2 "^ ^22-^2

(2) = ,>;,+272

(2)

+12^2=>^
2+22^2=>^2-

(3)

224

^12

V^21

*22

(3),

, (2)
.
, ,
. . ,^ =^21 = 0 .
. ^,2
:', ^2, ^.^
.
(2)
{[,[) = [[ + ^[,

(4)

(5)

12
' = , ,
^ ^22

,

^'=

"!

,'

^,2 .
(5) '^ - 2 = ^\,
(4)
{\,',) = \{\)'^,{\)\

(6)

225



.
4.1. ,

5^-8 + 5 / = 9 .
.

=

5/


5-
4

4
= 0, 5 - = 4, Ai=9, ^2=1.
5-

, = 9,

-4^,+4^3=0,

1 4^,-4^,=0.
(^j=^2^ ^ = ^ + 7- /^:

^ =

4]1+4772=0,
[477,+47]2=0.
r]j = -772 ^ ^2 = ^ ~ 7 ,

226

^2

^ ?2 : ^ ^ = .

Z),=-l.

1_

: = -j= j=r\

= = ^ .

7
1

,^ 1 ,

V2

V2 J

1 ,

-8

1 , 1 ,

+5

V42

+
2
2

1 , 1 ,

42

= 9,
J

V /^

1 /

-^ 2

'2

^-9^ =9 ~'^
.

=1

6

6.1.
1.
.
A,B,N, ... ,,
,,,....
,
. ai ,
.
,
0. ,


N.
,
{(3,6,}.
^ = {1,2,3,...}
, Z = {...,-2,-1,0,1,2,...} .

228

^~\ , , Z, ,
. .

JR.
,
= .
4,
BZD AczB .
,
,
>
,
,
.
.
,
,
, = ,
=
: = , = ^
2. .
,
,
< .

sup . ,
,
infA. ,
.

MA

229

1.1.
yi = {jcGA^|jc'-3jc-4<0}.
. ,

j c ^ - 3 x - 4 < 0 .
^ - - 4 = ( + 1)(:-4)<0, j c e [ - l , 4 ] .
, ^ = {1,2,3,4}.

6.2.
1.
.
.

yi, . .
.

,
() Av (+).

, (
) () v4 ,
=^ .
, ,
, <=> ^
v ,
. \/ : .
3 .
: .
2^. :
1. ()
= ;

AVB = BVA.

230

2. ()
{)

= {)\

AV{BVC)

{AVB)VC.

3. ()
AA{BVC)

= {AAB)V{AAC);

AW{B AC) = {AV

B)A{AVC).

2.1. , : X.
. ,
X, = sup X [<),

\/>03 X

(>-').

63.
.

;;, ,
>^ =/(^)
, , .
, .
,
;;, , ,
f{x,y) = Q.
xviy
( /),
, , ,

'^ = /(0'
y = (p{t).

MA

2^

\ (^) -1?

^'^ X ,

\ (^) = 0^ X
X
|sgnjc = l,
sgn X = - 1 ,

:>0;
X < 0;

[sgnO = 0.
2^.
,
->{)^
= / ( ) . :=^'
= log^ .
. = ^
= ^ .
:

?>(/W)=^' f{(p{y))=y
= ((),

y = f{u),
j ; y = f{(p{x))
X, . . .
3. > = / ( ) ,

, . ./() = / ( - ).
.

232

,

, , . .
f (-x) = -f ().
.
,
/, ,

, . .
/(jc) = / ( x + /) = / ( x + 2/) = ... = /(jc + A:/),
.
.
4.
,
.
5^.
;; =/():
) ;; -f{x-d)

,
, , ;
) ;; -f{x)-^b
b ,
, , ;
) ;; = Af{x) { > 0)
, > 1,3,
1
<1 , 4 < ,
;
) ;; =f(kx) { > 0)
>1 , <\ 1
" , : < ,

MA

233


,
f{x) = Af[k{x -a)] + b.
xl
3.1. f(x) = 2^ - ^ +

3 . +4

= 1,
. = 1,
.

1+4
3.2. f(x) = ^ + log^ -f sin .
=.
.
f(a) = ^ + log^ + sin = ^ +\

3.3.

jc = acos/,

y-bsint.

.
. ,
/.

\ = cos t,

[y^=b^sm4
, j+ "^ ^

b
3.4. :

234

[ >0\
\^

<0;

) / ( x ) = Jo

0<jc<2;

-2 + 4 > 2 .
, ) jc < : >
(. 6.1.).
) :
< 0 ; 0 < < 2 ; >2 (. 6.2.).

. 6.1

. 6.2

3.5. :
) y = yll-ylu^;
___!

) 3; = l g ( 2 - V b ^ ) ; ) >; = a r c s i n ^ ; )
1_

_-

. )
, . . l + jc>0 1-VTHTJC > :> 1
Vr+jc < 1; 1 + JC< 1; X < 0. , [-1,0].

235

)
, . . 2 - / 1 - > 0 ; > / l - x < 2 ; 1 - < 4 ; > 3
1 - > 0; < 1.
, XG 0.
) , - 1 <

< 1 ^ 3. -3

- + 3<1;
X > 2; X > 4 . G [4, ^).
) - 1 > 0 5 - > 0 .
, >1 < 5. XG (1,5).
)
: s i n x > 0 lgsinx>0.
2
: < X < :,
2 <<{\ + 2), z , |sin | < 1,
sin = 1,

X = + 2:. ,
= (1 + 4:), z.
3.6.
: ) j = 2sin(3x-2);
.
1 2
3
6-1
, ) j ; = sin , 9
>; = 2 sin 3 X .
3
2
= 2; = 3; = .

236

1. (. 6.3.).
i

r/=2sinA:

1

\ \

/
/

,yf2n
\*-*
\ *'' /
"^ * .^ _^ X /

y-2sm3x
. 6.3
2. ^ = 2 sin jc.
3.
j ; = 2 sin 3JC.
2
4. ;; = 2 sin
, .
) = [ .
4 = - 2 ; = - 3 ; b = 1.
1. = [ - (. 6.4.).

=-24+3
. 6.4

237

2. ,
= 24.
3. = -2/
= 2[ .
4. = -2/ 3

7 = -2/7 .
5. ; = -2/ 1
.
)

1
>; = -(jc'-2jc + l ) - 2 = - ( j c - i r - 2 .

j ; = jc^.
^ = 2 , ^ = 1 , 6 = -2.

1. ^^

(. 6.5).

. 6.5
2.
j ; = ^.

238

3. 1 1

=:^ JV' = (^ - 1 ) .
2
^
4. 2
.
) j = 3 -

10
2JC + 3

= 3+ 2

j = : , ,
X

_^1
'

XX

5_
5_
'^
3JC + +2
2

(. 6.6): ;
; ,
\ ;
3

3 .

. 6.6

MA

4-9

239

9+2v

3.7. , =
=

.
. 4-9
, ( ( / (^)) =

= ,

,
/ (( (j;)) =

= .

6.4. .

1. b f{x) > ,
> 5 > , | / ( ) - | <
| | < 5 .
l i m / ( x ) = Z>.
->

/(), ,
X lim

f{x).

^^^^/{^).
2. .
1. .
2. ( + v) = lim + lim v.
3. lim(w v) = lim lim v,
,, limu
4. lim=
, limi; 9^0.
V limu

240

. ,
1
,. sin :
1. lim
= 1.
2.
lim(l + V = l i m ( l + a ) = e = 2,718....
4. :
lim

lim fi-^

log,(l + a )
"-1 .
^
= log _ \ lim
= In ;

= //; lim^i^%^
= limjcMog,Jc = 0, ( > 1 > 0 ) .
k

5. , ,
,
, .

6.

.
7. (-) (-)
.

8. ( )
.
9. [) j8(x)
, lim- = 1. .
,
. -

MA

241^


() - j8 () X > 5
sina(x)~a(x),
tga(x)~(),

arctga(x)~a(x),
1-COSQ:(X)

arcsina(x)~a(x),

^(),

,,.

^ 4

x^-xV2x^~5x + 3

'^''^-1 ~ ( ) ,

ln(l+a(x))~a(x),

4.1. : )

) lini

"^''^-1~()1,

:;

\^{)-\

^ .

. ^ + 5 + 4
; ) -
-;

..^sinx-cosx
;

f v

'

^ --i 4 ' - 7 + 2
^--7
tgx-1
, )

^-^2 j c 4 6 x ~ 1 6

^-^2 ( j c - 2 ) ( x + 8 )

x+2 4
x - 2, lim
= = 0,4.
^-^2jc + 8 10
)
^->-1 (2-1)( + 1) ^-^-1 2 - 1

) X = 1
, ,
( - 1). ,
( - 1)
^. ( - - 1 ) ( 2 - 3 ) ^
lim
;
~ = = 0.
-^1(-1)(5-2) 4

242

) ,
,. sinx-cosx ,. (sin :-cos ) cos X ^.
V2
lim
=
Iim
^
^
=
lim
cos
x
=
,
jc^l
tgX-1
x-^sin X-COS X
x-^
4

A^ ^v V 4 - x - V 4 + x
4.2. : a) lim
^^0

Vx + 1 - 1
6) lim ^
-;

3X

V^-1
Jl + tgx~Jl-tgx
) bm-y=; r) lim^^^
^
^
^-.

, a)
,
(/4--/4 + )(/4- + /4 + )
_2
lim^^
, ,
.
^ = limjc-^O
( / 4 ^ +/4+)
"^^ ( / 4 ^ + V 4 + ^ )
= lim-7=

7==

= .

3 ^->^4- + /4 +
6
)

( A / X 4 1 - I ) ( V X 4 1 + I ) ( V X 4 2 + V2)
jc->0

(/' +2 -/2)(/:1 + I ) ( V J C ' +2 + V2)

^(/?2+72)
7 ? 2 + /2
/;
= lim ^
-^ = lim.
= /2.
^-^^ x ^ ( V 7 7 l + l )
^-^^ /1+1
) t^ =, > 1 ^ > 1
hm-7= = lim-; = lim;Vr
"^ = lim
^-^'Vx-l ^ - ^ ' r - 1 ^^' (?-l)(? + l)
^^'

^+1

= .
2

MA

243

)

(^l + t g x - V l - t g x ) ( V l + tgx + Vl-tgjc)
lim^^

T~F==

'-^^
x->0

sin 2 + tg X + 71-tgjc j

sin2x(^/l + tgx + ^/l-tgx)

^^cos^Jc(^lH-tgjcH->/l-tgx)
sin/I

4.3. : a) lim
x-^O
.
)

,. 1-COS2JC
hm
;
->o xtgjc

2tg

;
6)' """^^
lim-;
X
'
X^

.
r)

..
X'
.
sin^(x-2)
hm
; ) ^^^i;;
r.
"^"gsin^-^^ X -4x-\-\
4
,. sin3x + sin4x
,. cosx-cos3x
^ xsinSx
e) hm
; ) bm
^
; 3) ^^^ , 2 . *.

, a) 4

sm .
sm .
lim
^ = lim
= ,
-^ X 4 ^-> X
4
4
4
)

2sin
sm
1 1
9

hm
x^o

^1-

9 1-

^^ = 21im
^lim
= .
2
2X
x-^o / Y Y ^-^0
2X 2
X cos
4
COS
2
^ 9
2

244

)
..

2sin^jc

lim

,.

2sinjccosjc

= lim

^,.

= 21im

sinx,.

limcosx = 2.

r) 4
X

= 8.
sin

8 sin
4
4
) x-l = t, ^ 2 -^
lim

jc->0

= 8 lim
:-0

)
-. sin3x ,. sin4x . sin3jc 2.. sin4jc 7
lim
+lim
= lim
+ lim
= .
^-^0

^-^0

6JC

2^-^O

3JC

^^

4X

)

cos X - cos 3JC = 2 sin 2x sin x = 4 sin^ x cos x,

-.

lim
:->0

COSJC-COS3JC
;"^

^,.

sin^x

= 41imrcosx = 41imcosx = 4.
x-^0

;'^

jc^O

) ,
,. x^sin3x ,. (5xfcos^5x,. 3sin3x
3
lim;
= lim-^^-;
lim
= .
^-^ng^Sx-x ^^0 25sin^5x ^-^o ;
25
3x'-4x4l
lim
4.4.

a)
:
2 + 5x - 2x'4

'

MA

) lim
^-^^
) ^^^

6JC

- +1

245

; ) lim
;
^-^^ 4 +

1 + 2 + 3 + ... + /2
/ .
i ) lim

1_-2"
-\ ) lim

10"-!
--

, ) ^

.. ^-^.
JC

JC

>

.
) "
1 5 1
2 + 1 + . , 1
1X X
1- 2 x + l
lim
-^
-^
=
lim
= .
X->oo
1
1
^
g
6
+
) ^,
v^ ^ v^ "^ V

... 4- ^
'
)
. ,

1+
1 ,

+ 1

l i m - - 7 = ^ = = lim.
= lim:
= .
''-^^ V4A2' + 3 '^^^ 2/4' +3 "^^ 2 /4 + ^

246

) 2"*'

lim-^
>>

1 + 1

) -^- 10" 10"^^



,. 10"-1
0-1
lim
7 =
= -1
" ^ - 1 + 10"^^ 1 + 0
^ 1
2 ^
4.5. : ) lim
"^ibc - 1 ^ - 1
2
6) ( / ^ + - / ^ ^ + - 1 1 ; ) Km tg X

smx

cos X

2V

,
. l-2(jc + l)
lim
-^1

a)

^. - 22 - 1 X -^ 1
.

J C ^ - 1

, ,
.
)
lim

^ + X - ^ - X + 1
1
-= lim
= 0.
/^+ + /^+-1 "-""^Vx^+x + Vx^-fx-l

)
. sin^x-sinx ,. sinx(sinx-l)
,.
sinx
im
= hni
^^
'- - lim
lim
lim
' -- Xn->^l + sinx
cos X
n^--^ 1-sin
TTX

4.6. : a) H m ( l - x ) t g ; 6) J|^3"tg3 ".

MA

247

, ) : = 1 - , ~> 1 -^

acosa
limatg(1 - ) = limactg = lim

sm:
2

,~2^

= lim^^
limcos =.
^ .
^
2
:
sm
2
1
) 3" - ,

-^ + 4
4.7. : ) lini

) lim

-1
; ) lim
2

jc42

5:

; )

(^1^'''
^\

-2:

, )
20

41

^)

lim 1 + -

= lim

1+-
V

^)

= 4, -^ ^ >
20

lim

1+-

20

= lim

20

6)

248

lim

1+x+1
/
x-^X-t. x > ^ _>

= lim

JC + 1

lim 1 + -

/ I

=lim

i-^ I

1+ -

lim

/I

Lv

/->oo

i4

= e\

V.

..
.
)
lim

/
^2+3^'^'^
= lim 1 + 2 /
'+2
\
V

^ + 2 = 3/. -^ ^ >

9/-4

lim

= lim
V '
)
\-1

lim

lim

-'

-2:

= lim

/ - -2:

lim
X

1
= ^.
X

JC > ^ -^
lim

(1+0 -+

lim - = ^ lim
->~

2'

=<

,. ,
2
1(1 + )
4.8. : ) lim(l
+ 5x)^ ; ) lim^^

jc->0
jc->0

MA

) lim

; ) lim

249

; )(1 + 21

sin2j:

^sinx

) lim(sin2xy^ ""; )

; ) linix(lnx-ln(x + 2)).

, ) 5 = / : > -^

10
10
lim(l + / ) ' =lim (1+0'
/-0 ^

'

/^0

)
\2

lim

^ ^^^ =21im-J-ln(l + x) = 21imln(l + jcV =


=:21nlim(l + xV =21ne = 2.

B) """ - 1 = , -~> / -> .


"" =
, = In
^+1
/+1
,
lim

= -\\

-1(? + 1)-

= -1.

j- =

'-1(/ + 1)7

lnlim(r + l)7

) ^"" - 1 = , , ^ / -> .

^"" =t + \\ 1 = 1( + 1); = ^^^

lim;
- = 31
= 31.
-'Ht^^)
limln(^ + lV
/^0

-.

250

lim

''-\

3JC

_ I

= lim3

= 31(3.

) tg^ jc = ^. : -> ^ -^

lim(l + 2/V=Iim (1 + 2^)2/
/->0

/->0

= \

) sin 2 = 1 + ^. : > ^ -^ . 4

(1 + 0'
(1 + 0 '
tg^ 2 = sin' 2

l-sin'2x

t{2 + t)

\-{\ + tf

lim (1+0'
/->0

)
in2jc _

lim-

sinjc

^sinx /

sin2jc-sinx _

j \

= lim
^sin. J^sin2.x-sin. ^ 1 j ( s i n 2 X - s i n X)

= lim

jc(sin2x-sinjc)

;->0

,. sin2x--sinx ,. sin2x
= lim
= lim
jc->0

^~^^

,. sinx ,
lim
= 1.

^^^

) ,
lim x(]nx-ln(x

+ 2)) = lim In

= lim In
yx + 2) *^

x+2

MA

251

= In lim 1 + -

= In lim 1 + -

= lne-'=~2.

4.9. : a) lim :"'"''; 6) lim (In x)


x-^O

, a) 0^.
j^ ,
sinx ,
In >/ = sm In JC =
X In X.
X

, 4,
lim In j^ = lim

lim x In x = 0,

, limx"'""" = 1 .
6) oo^.
j^ , In j ; = In In .
X

4
,. ,
,. In In X In X ^
Iim In ;; = lim
= 0,
, lim (Inx)^ =1.

4.10.

(Vl + sinx ~ 1 j arctg 3x


6) lim

a)

(^'"'-l)sin3x
lim;
-r-:
r;
--^4n(l-3x')(l-cos2x)

252

, ) --> , 2^ > , > ,

- -> , 2 ~> , -.
,
ie^"" -ljsin3x
2^ -
lim7
7^"
== l i ^
'
= "~1
- o i n ( l - 3 x ^ ) ( l - c o s 2 x ) ^-'__^^ li^2x)'

) > --.

(VH-sinx~l)arctg3x
-sinx-3x
3
3
lim-^--^

= lim^^
= limcosx =.
x^o (e^sx-ljarcsin2x
^-^^ tgx-2x
^^M
4

6.5.

1.
= 2 -Xj,
/ ( + ) = 7 + .
= / ( + ) - / ( ) , . .
(
) .

, .
2. :
1. = / ( ) = ,

, . .
lim f(x)=

lim f(x) = f ().

MA

253

2. y-f{x) = ,


, . . lim Ay = .
->0

,
.
3. [,\

, < f{x) < jce {a,b].
, [,]
,
= , .

.
4^. ,
, .
.
^> ^,
X >flf ^2 :, =?^ :2,
, X - .
\^ - ^ | = .
X =
^.
= ^, ,
; ^, ,
.
A:i = /^2 ^ ^3' ^^ ,
.
'-^ ,
, liJTi/(x) = ^,
, X = .

254

5.1. = 2^ -3JC + 1,
: ^ = 1 ^2 = 2.
.

Ax = X2-Xj = 2 - 1 = 1.
j;(x,) = 2-1^-3-1 + 1 = 0.
XJCJ+AX) = X 1 + 1) = 2 - 2 ' - 3 - 2 + 1 = 11.
= {^ + ) - {^) = 11.
5.2. = ^ - 2 + 4
X = 2 = -0,1.
. +
j;(x + Ax) = 3(x + ) - 2 ( + ) + 4 .
= j^(x + Ax)->'(x) =
= 3( + )^-2( + ) + 4 - ^ - 2 - 4 = ( + 6 - 2 ) .
=2 = -0,1 ; = (-0,3+12-2)(-) = 0,97.
5.3. ,
= ^ - 2 .
.
= (+)^-2(+)-(^-2) = ( + ^ - 2 ) .
> ,
^ _^ 5
.
5.4. =

= 3.
-1
.

= 3 = 3 +
1
1 ^ 1
1^2-2-_
-
^"' + -1 3 - 1 ^ 2 + 2 " 2 ( 2 + ) " 2 ( 2 + )'
>

MA

255

lim Ay = - lim

= 0.

->
, - .
5.5. ^ + 2^ - - 1 = 0.
.
-'-\ 2^ - X - 1 = , , = 0.
,
. = , = - 1 , < 0. = 1,
= 3 + 2 - 1 - 1 = 3, > 0 . : =
= 1 ( ).
[0,1], . .
=0,5.
; = 3 0 , 5 2 0 , 5 ^ - 0 , 5 - 1 = -0,625; ; ; < 0 .
= 0,5 = 1.
, .
. X = . j ; = 3
,

11

. , .

2'4
.^--,

;^ = 3

1^

2'8
9
, ^ - - 16
,
.

256

5.6. : ) =

^^
-1

X
= 1; ) = 1\ = 0 ; )
\\

\2 ^2
^\
[1 = 2\

) ^""

( > 1); ) = arctg ~

, ) = 1 :
lim

lim

+^. , = 1 -

(. 6.7)

, 6.7
) : < lim = - 1 = /:^.. > -^1-0 \\

lim - = 1 = ^2- , =


- ^ 2 | = - 1 | = 2(.6.8).

MA

257

' ,

-1

. 6.8
) ,
, : = 2
.
= 2:
lim 2 = 4,

lim 2 = 4, (2) = 1,

t=L:AL.

, = 2
(. 6.9).

. 6.9
) :
;(+0)= lima^ =-, >'(-0)= lima^ =0.
JC-4+0

jr->-0

258

X = ,
(. 6.10).

"^~~--^^

/
X

. 6.10
) :
> ' H ) = J i ^ ^ ^ t g - = f'

>^(-0) = ]imarctg-- = - | .

JC = (. 6.11).

"2
. 6,11
5.7. =

jCj = - 5 , ^2 = , = 1. ,
?
.

MA

259

.
X = -5:

= - 1 , lim
lim
x-^-s-dx^ --
' ^-^-^^^^ --5
, = - 5
(. 6.12).

'1

. 6.12
X = :
1
1
= - 1 , lim
1 , >;(0)=:-1,
lim
^-^-^+4--5
' ^-*-^^+4-5
, .
= 1
.. 1
lim - ^ 1
lim
^1+0;^+4~5
^-*- + 4 - 5
, = 1
(. 6.12). = 1 = -5
.
5.8. , ,
:

260

jc^,

) = 1,

jc<l;

) >^=]jcH -i<jc<a,

l<jc<3;

Icosjc, jc>0.

-+5, x>3;
3,

) y = 9 - x \
9,

jc = 0 w jc = 3;

0<|x|<3;

T)

y^

IJCI > 3,

2x-l,

x<0;

^
-

x>0.

, a) ,

,
.
= 1 = 3
j;(l)= l i m x ' = l ;

v(3) = l;

lim (~ + 5) = 2 = :.

, = 1 ,
= 3 (. 6.13.) ,
|j^(3)-A:| = |l~2| = l.

)
. = -1 = 0:
v(-l) = - ,

lim ( + 1) = 0: v(0) = l;

limcosx = l.

MA

261

, jc = -1
, = (. 6.14).

Fuc. 6.14
) ,
. - - 3 ,
: = , X = 3:
3;(-3) = 3,

lim (9-^) = 0; j ( - 3 - 0 ) = 9;

>'(0) = 3,

lim(9-xM = 9; \{<)-^\ = %

>;(3) = 3,

lim(9-jc') = 0; ;;(3 + 0) = 9.

, = -3 = 3
, = (. 6.15).

-5

. 6.15

262

)
X = 1. = = 1:
lim(2x-l) = - l , >'(0) = -1,

lim

..
1
lim

, = ,
= 1 (. 6.16).

. 6,16.
5.9.
2 + 1
; ) / ( ) = ^
: ) / () =
'--2

, ) ,

.
2|x-fl|
2U+1I
2|x + l|
/ ^ - - 2 ( + 1)(-2)
= -1 = 2 ,
, .
= - 1 :
1. - ^ - 1 - 0 + 1<0 ,,|+1| = ~(+1).

MA

263

/ ( - 1 - 0 ) = lim f e i ^ = ~2 lim - ^ = - .
^ V
/ ^-^-i-o(jc + l)(jc~2)
x->-i-ojc~2 3
2. - > - 1 + 0 jc + l>,|+1| = +1
/ ( - l + 0 ) = l i m - i i ^ l ^ = 2 lim 1
^-^-i+o(jc-f-l)(jc-2)
^->-1+:-2
3
, = -1
. (.
6.17) 5 = / ( - 1 + 0 ) - / ( - 1 - 0 ) = - | - | = - ^
-2 :+1>0, ,
|+1| = +1
/ ( 2 - 0 ) = lim
V

^(^ + 0

-^2-(: + 1 ) ( : _ 2 )

2 lim J - = -oo,
^2-:_2

/ ( 2 + 0)= lim I f c l l l = 2 lim - i - = oo.


*-*2+0(x + l ) ( x - 2 )

x-*2+0x-2

, -2 .

. 6.17

264

)
X = -1 : = 1 , , .
, , > 1,
! ^ - t ->=- ' > / -^ ^.
1. = -1 j c ^ - l - O , ^ - 1 > 0 ,
X

^-\

<0

^ ^ - / ~ 0 ) = lim 3^-^=0.
->~1 + 0, ' - 1 < 0 , - > 0
^
^-1
^-1

^ = 0 0 .

, / ( - 1 + 0)= lim 3^'"^ =+.


jc-)-l+0

, = -1 .
2. = 1.
/ ( 1 - 0 ) = lim 3^'-^ =0, / ( 1 + 0)= lim 3^ "^ =+.
= 1 .
-^ ^
/ ( - ) = lim 3^'-^ =1, /(>)= lim 3^'-^ =1.
. 6.18.

. 6,18.

7


7*1*
1. = f(x) XQ

^->

^-^^

,
XQ .
'^, f\x),

dy
-7~.
.
X = f\ci)
\ .
(^) j = / ( )
k = X,ga = y \XQ)
^ (. 7.1).

266

, 7,1

/ . U o ) = 1^^ ^ /+(^)= l i ^
= f[x) JCQ .
/ ( ) XQ ,

: /_' {^) = / / (^).
( ) lim / ( ) = /,
JCQ ().
^ ,
lim

(^)

1-

(^)

lim


^.^, , (, 7.2.),
.
lim
-^

, .

267

(
).
^2
,
(
(. 7.2)).

XS

/>

x^l

, 7,2
2. :

3. {uv) =u'v + v'u; 4.

uv-uv

u,v x, a .
3. :
1. ("") =^"-'1

2. = ,' = 0;

3. (sinjc)* = cosx;

4.

^ /"tirrV5. \) -

6. vcigxj -

/1

(cosjc)* = ~sinjc;
{nicr V 1

. 2 '
Sin JC

cos JC

7. (')'=; a>0;

8. (e')'=e^;

9. (log,x)'=; a ^ l ; a > 0 ; 10. (1)'=-;


jclna

268

. (arcsinjc) = .

13. (arctgx) = -\
1 + x^'
15. (shjc)' = chjc;

12. (arccosjc) = 14. (arcctgx) = ^- ^


^ ^
l + jc^'
16. (chA:)* = shx;

17. ( t h x / = - ^ ;
18. ( c t h x / = - - ^
ch jc
'
sh X
4^. , ,

.
e''-'''
,
e''+'''
,
shx
,
chx
shjc =
; : =
; thjc =
; cthjc =
2
2
chx
shx
:
1. ch^x-sh^jc = l;

2. ch^x + sh^x = ch2x;

3. sh2jc = 2shjcchx;
4. shO = 0; chO = l.
5^. j;=/(w), = w (),


, . .
1. ,
:
) =:^- + 5; 6) = 4\ ) >^ = tg2x.
, )
Ay = ^(x + Ax)-;; = (jcH-Ax)^-3(x + Ax) + 5-jc^+3x-5 =
= X^+2XAX + A X ^ - 3 J C ~ 3 A A : 4 - 5 - X ^ + 3 J C - 5 = 2JCAX + AX^-3AX.


= lim = lim

>

= lim(2x--34-Ax) = 2 x - 3 .

269

) : = VJC + AX - /.
:
= lim - ^ = lim
=
^-> ->

(/:+-/)(/+ + /)
= lim
j-===L-=
=
^-^^
Ax(Vx+Ax + Vx)
__

+-

^-^(/ + + >/^)

1
^-^^(/ + + /]^)

1
2/^'

A>; = tg(2x + 2Ax)-tg2x =


sin (2+2) cos 2 - sin 2 cos (2+2)
cos (2+2) cos 2

sin (2)
cos (2+2) cos 2


, ,.
sin (2 )
= lim
^
-* Axcos (2 + 2 ) cos 2
2
= lim
^-^ cos (2 + 2Ax)cos2

2
cos^ 2

1.2. : ) >^= ||, (^^);


) >;=|2-3|; ) j^ = e'W ) ; = + 1| + - 1 | .
, )

X,

X > 0;

-X, < 0 ,

,^1,

>0;

1-1, <0.

270

, - \\
, /^)"^ ^^^ ~. ='""^' a / / ( 0 ) = li^^ ^ = 1)
2-3,

>;
2

-2: + 3,

jc<,
2

2,

^>-;

-2,

<|.

=
)
\^\
>0;
["^%
x<0.

\le^\
>0;
[-2"'% <0.
)
\2,
>\\
3^ =

= 2,
-2,

-l<x<l;
X < -1,

2,
:>1;
= , - 1 < < 1 ;
-2,
<-1.

13. _ {^),
f X,
)

= \

271

^ {^) :

X < 1;
2^0

^1

''"^'

, )
,^|1,
[-2 + 2,

<1;
>1.

^=\:
'_{1)=\

= \, X ( l ) = U m ( - 2 x + 2 ) = 0.
jc->l+0

)
X

N.

" V I - "
^ = :
/(0)=lim-

= -1, (0)=.

= 1.

JCQ = . 7.3.
J

. 7.3

272

)
-2,
^\ 4,
2,

]-,-2];
]-2,2];
]2,[

[-2,
= |,
2'

]-,-2];
]-2,2];
]2,[.

X 3 ^
1.4. : ) = '-1
j-+4Vx - 5;
)

>' = A:^COSJC; ) = -

'+\

)' f{x)
-^ '= 3

jt^ + 1,

/'(),/0)'/(-!)
, ) ,
.
,
1
1

2
2
'
^
) ,

= (^) cosx + x^(cosx) =3x^cosx-Jc^sinx


) ,
^Jx'^j(x'+l)-(x')(x'+l'j

(x'+\f

^2'+2-2'

(x'+lf

2
2*

(' + \)

273

) f'{x) = x^ 2
jc = , = 1, = - 1 , . .
:
/(0) = 0,/'(1) = - 1 , / ' ( - 1 ) = 3.
x^-4x+4
1.5. : ) = \^++'
+\
) >' = In ,
; ) = logj Vtg" 2; v) = In^ cos J
Vx^-jc + l
3
, a)
y = \r\

(-2^

_. -2
= 21nyX + lj
+2

2
= 2\, , =
, +2

+ 2{-2)'{ + 2)-{-2){
+ 2)' _ 8
/ = 2(1 "=2

-2

(x+2f

) = \, =

/,

'

V =(1)

.
,
yJx^-x+1

/^- + 1-(+1) ,
Vx - x + l
2Vx^-x + l _

, =

1-
2 ( x + l ) ( x ' - x + l)
)

'-4

^^

3 1-
2 ( + 1)'"

2
' = log2
logj
tg^ 2 =log2 tg2x.

274

8
1
1
1
-2 =
3 tg2jcln2cos^2jc
3sin4xln2
)
1 (

y = 31n^cos

3 cosV
^

\\

- = - t g In COS.

-sin-

1.6. : ) z = jce" + ";

\\-Y

6)>' = e-''(sin3x+cos3x); ) z = l n J - - ; ) j ; = e^'"'^ + 5 4


, a)

\\

^7

. . - - - .

)
/ = e'^"" (-3) (sin 3JC + cos 3JC) + e'^"" (cos 3 + ( - sin 3x) ) =
= -ee"^"" sin 3JC.

1
) = In

1-2'^
J.


, 1 1 + 22(1 + 2^)+(1-2^)2'12
="
2 1-2^
(1 + 2^)^

22
2^'-1

)
1 -i
4i
/ = e""'^-3sin'xcosx+5^4n5--x
' =
= ''"'* sin' Xcos: + 5^"'x'^ In5.

275

1-

1.7.

>' = arctgj-

) w=arcsinVl-4r; ) r = arccos "" ^ ; ) y = ztge \


4
, )
1

I
lfl-x\2-{l
+ x)-{\-x)_
1
=
1-: 2 1+:
2/^
(1 + ^)
1+
1 + :
)
1
1 (-4) _
=
^1-(1-4) 2 V T ^
7^(1-4)'
)
1

=
1-

f 1 \ ^I
3
4) \ 4 + 4(-3<'
r2-3<pY

)
'' = 3

-0)
2

_2

1 + '

1+ /^
1 2 -^

1-2 "^

1.8. : ) >^ = sn ^+ --;


) >' = thx + cthx.
, )
y = 2shch
H-2chsh
= shx.
2 2 2
2 2 2
6)
,
,_ 1
1 _sh^x-ch"jc_
4
ch^x sh^jc sh^xch^jc
sh^2:^

276

1.9. :
^,
<0;
) = <
ln(l + x^), :>0,
2-;,

",
) =^< 1

|jc|<0;
|jc| > 0,

-l<jc<2;

>' = ^ jc^ - 5JC + 6,


2 < jc < 3;
jc~3,
3<jc<4,
.
, )
,
)

JC

[2JC,

=\

< 0;

jc>0.

1 + 2 '
)

["^(1-),

|jc|<0;

[,

|jc| > 0.

)
-1,

-l<jc<2;

= <2-5,

2<:<3;

[1,

3 < X < 4.

(. 7.4).

, 7.4

277

1.10. : ) >^ = |sinjc|; ) >^ = |arctgx|.


, ) = |sinjc| . 7.5.
: (,{ + \)),
y = sm{^x-Kk). = cos(-/).

= ,

y_{7tk)= lim cos{x'-7ik)=-l,


x-^k+\)-0
^[)= \im cos{x-7tk)=l.
--^

/ /)

. 7.5
) ' = |1:| . 7.6

[arctgx,
arctgAT,

=-

;>0;
jc<0.

2
. 7.6

278

'

^^0'

1 + ^'

jc<0.

>^'(0)=lim

j^ = - 1 ;

1.11. , :
) >; = sh jc; ) j ; = ch ; ) = th ; ) ;; = cth .
, )

(Arsh;;) = - 7 =
= .
=^= .
:^^ chx Vl + sh'jc V / + 1
, ,

(Arshx/=-p==.
Vl + x
)

(Archj;/= = - = :
(Archjc) = .

(^*

(Arthj^/=-V = ch'^ = L _ = _ L - ,
^
-^^ J :
1-tg^x 1 - /
(Arthx) =-

2", ( '

279

)
1
(Arcthj;) =-7 = -sh^jc = " (Arcthx) =^, (|A:|>1).
1.12. ,
2
: ) j ; = Arch In ; ) = Arctn ^--.
, )

. ^ 1
1_
1
) ,
1

2(X'+1)-2X-2JC

2(JC'+1)

(17.2. ,

1. j ; /(,) = ,
, .
j^
X ,
X,
j^', , , oTxiAy

=({,
2.
X '

280

TO j^ : j;^ = ^ , >^: -^^ - ~7


^

3^. . ^,
/

V-\

'

=vu + V ,
. . -
: ,
,
.
4. log^
:,

j ; = log,w=-;, M = w(x), v = v{x).
2.1. '^'-^) = cos (: + jv);
) ^ +4xy-j^ =1; [:)
-1=^\;
) ^^-4\ = 21.
, ) , '
,
/ = -sm(x+)(1-\-

/) = -sin{x+)-

/sm(x+).

y ( l + sin(x + 7)) = -sin(x+j^)


sin(x + >;)
=":
l + sin^x + y)
) ,

+4(>; + /)-2 = 0.

281

>^',
,
-

2{^2)

'+4
) ,
, ;;
X ' 1my-h

Injc + j;jc'

=0.

',
X

1-X

\-
)
2^ - 2^
2

2
X

f_y

= 2'.

-.{-)

^
X

2.2. '^:
_cos2/.

= cos'^^
3/ /;

\ =
| j ; = lnsinr;

^:
jc = arctgv/;
)

)
=

l+t

y = ln COS

282

= cos^fsin/
dt
2

dy 3 . .
- = -sm/2 f cos ?.
at 2
3 . ,

y>^

= ->/etg^-

cos^^/sin/
2
6) = -2e''^' sin 2/ ~=^ = ^ ^ = ctg /.
dt
dt sin^
/ =

'

1
dy _2t{\ + t)-t' _e+2t
^ dx^24t ^
1
dt~
{\+tf
~(l+0'
^* 1 + ^ 2^t{\ + t)

d!x:^
(1 + 0^
^
1+f
2Vf(l+r)f(f + 2) 2f^(r + 2)

dy
1 ^'" 9
1 fi) ; 1 1
) =
=tg =
.
d9
2^os^
2 b
d<p 2^^^
2
2
2
2
'^"P
^y = - 2cos^^tg^
2 ^2
2.3. : a) jy = :* ; ) y = sin2x.
x:

{x-lf'4I+2
) y = -

3
(x-3)

: . . ^

; ) y = x e

smixmx.

283

, )
In j ; = jc^ In JC.
X, j ; ,

/ = (21njc-bl)x^'^V
) ,
In ' = sin 2x In JC.
^ ,
sin2jc
^
^1
sin2x
, sin2x ^ ^
= 2cos2xlnjc +
, / = '*"^^ 2cos2xlnjc +

) ,
1>; = 21(:-1)+-1(; + 2)-31(:-3).

/
2
1
^^
=
1;
-\
3(+2)

{x-Xi4xVi
{-)'

1
3(x+2)

)
ln>^ = 21nx + jc^ +lnsin3x+lnthx.

-^^^3COS3JC
sin3x

thxch X

f2
= "" sinSxthjc -4-3x^3ctg3jc+
X

2
sh2jc

284

2.4. : ) >Hcg^^ ) j;=log^sinA;


) >' = log^3x\
, ) = Injc
/ =
-.
jcln X
)
,
In cos X
cosxsinx, .
IncosxHsin
X , 1
1 1 1 \j\JZi .
1In
11 O
l l l ,
. X
1

/ ^ sinx
cosx
^ctgxlncosx + tgxlnsmx
In^cosx
In^cosx
xlnx X
) ~~^~? , 1
V = .
3

7.3.
1. ;^ = / W >^',
.

d-y
v"/" (),


/() j;'"/"' (),
dx^ *
,
, j;^"^ - .
d'y
2.
j ; ' = ^ (, j;) ,
, .

285

3. ,
,

= ( ) ; ^= ^ = X^ .

.

{'
^^ = ^ ^t"^f^ . .
4^. -

^ ^

1!

2!

*=
^ , =u, u' =v.
" k\{n-k)\
5".

1. ^"; ^"^ ={-1)...{-

+ \)"~". = - 1 ,

n
t > (-1)"! ^
1
1 1"
^ (-1)"(2-1)!!
I 1 _v ''
= , '
' -^ ^

"*'

2. y = (^a+bx)

(^a,b-const);

v^

/'^=a{a-l)...{a-n

t^ _(-!)"
(r 1 fj-lfjiW"
a)

\n+l '

bx)"

A/^J

(2JC)"VI

+ l)b''{a+bx)'"\

286

\(''

Y - (-l)''(2n-l)!!6''

) ^la+bx j

2"{a+bx)"y/a+bx'

5. >' = sinx; j;^ ^ =sin x +


2
6. >' = cosx; ^ =cos x + n
2
1

in)

(-1)"'^!

2a

X -a

+1

jc-a)

[x + a)

8. >; = e"^sinZ>x; y''^=(a4fe')2e"^sin(6x + <p),


sin<i[>=: ,

; cosip= . -

-.
1

1^

7C

arctg~- =
X

/^

y,
2

3.1.
: ) =

, / ? , 6) = arctg, / " ' ? ; ) s = sin^, s^"^^?;


X

) = Injc, ^"; ) = ""sinx, j;^^^?


, )

287

47^\

'
^-l'
j ' ' :
1'-1-'

)
1
1_
1+
' jc,

-lax

,
(^+''\ -Ixia'+x^^lx
2(:'-
/ " = -2^

= -^
^.
['+')"
{'+')'
)
(
/ = 2 sin ( cos ( = sin 2(\

s'' = 2 cos 2;

s'' = -4 sin 2;
5^^^ = -8 cos 2^.
) -
,

/ = 1 = -^ / ' = -1.~^ / " = 2-^ ')=-2.3-^ ..

288

") =(-1)""' {-\)\-\

(. 3. 5).

)
W = ^""^; V- sin :,
/ ) =(wt;f^ =w(% + 4u"V + 6uV44uV"+//t;('^ (4),

j;^"^^ = """ sin X - 4^"'' cos jc - """ sin + "'' cos JC + """ sin .
3.2. : ) ^ -=^ ' ?;
) >^=x+arctg|; / ? ; ) y=jc^-f.3jcv; / ' ? ; ) cos(x);) = x'; '?;
) ; / = 1 ; / " ? ; e ) x = tg(jc4-;;); / " ?
, )
^'+ + ' = 0,

;; .
- +

\^^)-{'^\)

',
=

^'
['+)

(^+)

) :

/=1+

289

'

-^

,_JA7
V4+7-1'

_2^l4 + y ^

2^4 + / ^

(74^-l)'

(^/4^-l)

)
^ ^^-\-{-\)^

X ^^
^-^


_(2j.-x-)(;c'+>.)-(/-j:)(2x4l)

',

_2(' +

)'-2{/-){-+)-2{/-)'
('^)'

)
sm[xy)[xy

+ x) = 2xx, =

.
2x + ysin[xy)

290


" ( - ( ( x ' s i n (^>^)+ Jccos {y^y^ip^'y + :))(2+ >^sin (-^^))

-x'^m{xy^{lx -%{^^

|.

)
3 x ^ + 3 / / = , / = -

^
'
/
;^^
j;'"

,_ , ( / ++4^) - 5 ( +^'^)// _

)
jc4l

^ =

J7
^'
cos (x-fj;)
1
cos^(x + 3;) _
JC =
cos^ ^ + ^) cos^ (x + j ; ) - !

1
sin^ (^ + >^)


.^^cos(x + >^)(x4l)__ ^cos'(x + j;)
sin {-)

sin^(x + >^)'

>^,
x"' = -2(-3cos'(x + j;)sin^(x + > ; ) ( x 4 l ) - c o s ' ( x + j;)-

291

5sin^(x4-j;)cos(jc + ;;)(x4l))/(sin'^(jc + ;;)) =


(sin^ [-) + 5cos^ (jc + j^))cos"^ {^^)

= -2((3 + 2cos^(jc + >^))cos'^(x + >^))/sin^(x + >^).


3.3. :

x=cos
)

rx = 2cos/-cos2/,

^ 7

>'=sin

dx"-

= 2f - i

(fx.

dy''

2<

d/
[x = arcsin/,

.?)
dx

),._

d/-

, )
dx

In / +1

21^
dx^

1/ + 1

(ln/ + l)

)
dy _\ _
dx

x\

2 cos 2t

cos 2/

- 2 s i n r + 2sin2/

sin 2 / - s i n ^

292

d^y _ -' _
_^ -4 sin It (-2 sin / + 2 sin It)- (-2 cos ^ + 4 cos 2/) 2 cos It _
(-2sin/ + 2sin2/)^
_ 2sin/sin2/ + cos^cos2/-2
2 (sin 2^-sin/)
)
1
,
' -2cossm-^^
d^ ^ \ ^
2
2 2 ^ ^
dy

-^ ^^
2sin cos 12
2 2

_(^^)^ _
dy^
^

^^


i
2sincos 2
2 2

= 0.

)
d:x^2^-^ln2^2^in2

^~ 1.2/ "" ^

4

,

2^-22

d'yJy'X ^
dx'
:

t'

^
t_

2
)
dy
dx

yl
X

acoscp
-a sm cp

2-12(/12-1)

293


1
d^y ^{ ^ s i n > ^


-3sin^^cos^
d
tp _
asin^q)
dx^
x(p
-asin^
e)
1
dx ^ y/l^t^

dy

3cos^
a^ ^" (p

t_

VlT

4^-

d'xiK)!
d/
y.

' -2'

24)^

\-e
1

{x.t'f

d/

(1_,

3.4. :
) = cosx; / - ) ?

) = {'-'+\)\

) =^2_\^_^^

r ) ; ; = e^^sin4x, / " ^ ?

/"^?

/"^

294

2+3

)>; = 1(2 + 1), -)?

)=^^^,

, ) -^,

^.

; = cosx. w' = 2x,


:.

, ,
,
/
^ l+x^cos j c + 5 0.:
~ 1=
/ ) =i50-49cos( j c + 4 8 - | + 5 0 ' 2 8 + 4 9.:
= ( l 225 - jc^) cos jc - 1 OOJC sin X.

6) M = e'', t; = x ^ ~ x ^ + l . i;' = 3x^-2x5


t;" = 6 x - 2 , u*" = 6, t;^'^=u(^>=... = 0, w^''^ =e".
, , .
,
/ ^ ) = ^ - ( ^ - 1 ) + 30^(^-2) + ^ ^ ^ ^ ( 6 - 2 ) +
^30-29-28^,^^^,^^3^gg^2^2550x + 2348l).
3!
)
1
1
\( 1
- (-3)(+1) 4
- 3 x+l

)

(-3)

-)

( 1 _ (-!)"!

(-!)"!
+1

U + lJ ^-'

//
(20)

.20

20 ^ ,

( - I f 20! (-1^20!

[ (x-3f " (x+lf J

20!
4 \{-

(x+lf

295

) (8) -, = 4,
10

^(lu; = (3^ + 4 ^ 2 ^^ sin(4x +10(),

sin =

/
. 4^
/^>=5^V^^sin 4jc + 10arcsin
V
) ' =

/4^'

+1
, {~1)
(2,; 5)

( 2

f-'^_{-iy~\n-l)\r

1 + 2

{\ + 2

,
\39^^,^39

(1 + 2)

\39

1 + 2

) {){^- + 6) = 2 + 3 ,
, .
>2
/"\'--

+ 6) + /"-'\2-1)

+ ^^^^^^

= 0
6/"^ (0) - /''-'^ (0) + ( - \)/"-^^ (0) =
i")rn\

(-/

'^(^"^)

(n-2)/^4

6
,
' = 0 (>2). (0) ;;' (0)

296

0)=|

/(0) =

~2X^-6JC + 15

36*

(jc^-x + )
ijc=0

- 2,3,4,..., .
_1_

/'(0) = /(0)-i-i>;(0) = - ' ' ' '

36'

36

/"()=|/'()-^()=^''

J_
36

215
36

.11
11

.
1. ^_^ ^
y\i

, - - >; = >; + ,

-> -> , . .
.
j;'Ax
. , ..

. j;'Ax
dy.
, .. dx^tSx,
, = f(x) / \)
X,
fXx) , . .

dy =

f\x)dx.

297

(1)

2. :
1. d{Cu) = Cdu\ 2, d{uv) = dudv;
3. d(uv) = udv + vdu; 4. d

( \_

vdu-udv

3. .

^
XQ + (. 1.1).

XQ

^+

. 7.7
4. .
,
.
^; = /(:), x = (p{t),TO
dy=f:dx=f:(p:dt.

(2)

5. = f{x)


d^y = d(dy) = y''dx\
(3)

298

d'y = d(d'y) =

/V;

dy = d{d'-'y) = /''^dx\

(4)

6. ;; = f(x), = (0 ,
d^y = d(f^dx)

d'y = f:dx'+f:dx,

(5)

dx = x'dt.

d'y = r\dx)\3fUxd'x

+ fci'x,

(6)

. . .
7^ j;=:/(x)
- dy
f{x + Ax)=^f{x)+f{x)Ax.

(7)

.
8.
- ^

= \^-\.


= -..

5 = -. 100%.

,
Ay-dy .

299

A = |Ay-t/v|,
5 = '

'

4.1. : ) = ^--\-[,

^-\
, )
1
' = ^-\ +
2\}
(

dy = y'dx = -1 +
)
tgx COS X

dy

2/

sin2x

,
sin2jc

(.41)'

(.41)
6'

(ir.
(.41)'
) t ' = sin^ / cos t.

dy

dx = sin^ ^ cos tdt.


4.2.
sin2^
)
>; = 3^"^^^ dy?;
)
=
, ^V?
:
) ; = (^~ + 1 ) \ rfV? ) ^^^^='^\

d'yl

300

, ) 1-
1

'ibtgj:

-<ir = 21n3
dx.
sin2x
tgjc cos X
,
dy^T'^'\^Z-

21n372,._oi^'i
rfV
= 21n3

-2-3^"^"COS2JC

sin2jc

-t&' =

sin 2JC

^4j^3 3,.,,ln3-cos2x^,
sin 2x
) ,
cos 2( (l - <+ sin 2^

dp^l

^7

^^

J V = 2((-sin 2^ 2 (l -<p-)-cos 2^ 2(p + sin 2^ + 2(j9cos2^ Vl -<p^) +


+2(cos 2^(1 - ^^) + ^ sin 2(jf))(l - <p^)" =
= 2(sin 2^(5^^ -\-2(p*) + 2(p cos 2^(1 - q)^))d(p^.
) ,
; = 3(;^-x+l)^ (2x-l)d!x:,
rfV = (2(' -x + \){2x-lf+{x^
= 6(jc' -x+l)(5x^
d'y = 6[{2x-l)(5x^

-x + lf 2]dx^ =

-5x + 2)dx\

-5x+2)+(x^

-x+\){lOx-5))dx^

= 6{2x-l)(lQx^ -\Ox + l)dx\


r) .
/;

=-

(ic.

, dy = V'

V^y

{]

"

''

y-\\jax

4.3.
: ) y = yjx^ -,
x = t^+l;6) z = \ny, y = tgx, x = 2t^+t;B) = \ x = tg^
d^y : l)xudx,2)tH
dt.
, a)
, _ 2-3
,_
dy = y[x[dt. / ^
? ^t - ^^- lyjx -
[,
(2,'-1)

)
dz = z\y\x\dt.
Zy =, ^

, jc' = 4r + l COS X

,

dz =
(4/ + 1) =
)^^.

j;cos'x'

sin (2(2/4/))

dy - y\dx = e^dx. xndx


d^y - y^dx^ = e'^dx^.
t dt.
dy = y'^x'^dt = "" dt = ^^^ .
cos /
cos /

302

,
^^^
d'y^^^ll

cos^^ + e*^'2sin/cosr

i . ^
dt'=e^^-^-^^dt\

COS t

COS t

(5), / / = "", /^' = "",


(ix

cos ^t,
2

cos t

M
dt

cos t

COS^ t J

4.4. : a) arctg 1,05; 6) lg9; ) 5^0,98.


, a) / ( x ) = arctgx, / ' ( x ) =
no (7) arctg (x -f ) = arctg x +

^.
^ Ax.

X = 1, = 0,05.
arctg(l + 0,05) = arctgl + ^-0,05 = - + 0,025.
) / ( x ) = lgx, / ' ( ) =

(7) Ig (+) = Ig +

xlnlO
X =10, = - 1 Ig(l0~l) = lgl0+ "" .
^^
^ ^
lOlnlO
Ig9 = 1 - - ^ = 0,956.
InlO
1 -

) / ( ) = /, f'(x) = x ^ ==^.

/ + =/+-

^ 5

5^7

303

: = 1, = 0,02 ^1-0,02 = V l + - - ; -

5 Vi^
V W =1-0,004 = 0,996.
4.5. j ; = ^ + +1

X -2
-2,\.
.
,
dy = (2JC + )(.
= 2 tu:=Ax:=2,l-2=0,l ^=(2-2+3)0,1 = 0,7.

= / ( + ) ~ / ( ) =

= (2,1'+3-2,1 + 1 ) - ( 2 ' + 3 - 2 + 1) = 11,71-11=0,71.


,
0,7, 0,71. = ' + ,
= 0,71-0,7 = 0,01.
4.6. = ^ -Ix
= 2 = 0,1.
.
. : dy = {^ -2^dx,
Aj;=((x+A^f -2(x+At))-(jc^ ~2) =(3JC^ +3xAr+At' -2) Ar.
x = 2 Ax = 0,l : = (3-2^-2)0,1 = 1;
Aj; = ( 3 - 2 4 3 ' 2 0 , 1 + 0,1'-2)0,1 = 1,061.
= |-'| = 0,061,
5 = -, 100% =

100% = 6% .

1,061

4.7. 4,
-

304

0,01.
.
. = ^ = 64 ^.
| |= 0,01.
I FIIJF1= = 3 4^ 0,01 = 0,48.

dV
V

^ ^ 1 0 0 % = 0,75%.
64

7.5.

1. .
f\x) = ^

= / ( ) X = XQ .
,
= / ( ) (. 7.8 )
M(Xo,jVo)
, . . : = t g a = /XXQ) . ,
, ,
,

MixQ.y^) ,

.

'~

-'^'-

(X-XQ),

305

{),

= ^^, BN^y^iga
,
, , AM
.

. 7.8
2^. y = f^{x) y-fii^)
^
^{^,)
^.

tg9 = /2^)^^)
3. , ,
.
= {() (. 7.9), ,
= ,

tga = - ^ .

306

. 7,9
MN

, ,
:

= TIVP^+(P)

W
'

'

; MN = Jp^+ {p'f

; = ~-
\\
; ON =\ '\ .
4.
At AS
. At,
.
t ,
-> , . .
,. AS dS
v= lim = .
^^^0 /

dt

(
t ,
At
^ , . .

,.

dcp
lim -^ = ^ .
^-^ At
dt

307

,
( .
w, , dv
w = d'S
*
S w = ^ .
at

)
=

,dt
d^cp
=j-.
dt
Aq
5.
/ > , ,
At, . .
^^ ^

cit

,

.
6. . Q(t) ,
/. C'[tQ)= lim

t^.
5.1.
1
1
-~
(1,).
^

XX

. =
^
j
= 1: \) = .

308

(1,)
--

= 1{-\)

4:-2;-3 = 0.

5.2.
2

+ ^ ^ = 1 ( - , 4 ) .
9 25
5
.

2'

25

9
25
9
/9
2591
5
^
=
=

1^5 j

9 54

-4 = --(--)
4
5

^^

5jc + 4 y - 2 5 = 0.

'-4 =

9^

5j
X

20JC-25>; + 6 4 = 0 .

5.3. = ^ - 4 +1 ,
= 1.
. M(JCO, j^^).

= \^) = 6^-4.
,
6JCQ - 4 = 2, Jc^ = 1.

, > ^ Q = 3 1 ^ - 4 1 4 - 1 = 0 .
, (1,0).

309

5.4. = ^ -2-^5,
+ 6j^ - 1 = ,
. .
. {^,^).

^) = 2^ - 2 .
^: = .
/^ =

, ^

,
1
1
, JCQ = 2.
= 2jCn~2
^=1- 2^ + 5 = 5.
j ; ~ 5 = 2(jc--2) 2- + 1 = 0.
,
j ; = jc^ - 2 + 5 = ( -1)^ + 4, . .
(.
7.10). ,
, .
1

1 /2-=0

+6-1=

. 7.10

310

5.5. ,
j ; ^ = ^ JCQ = 1 .

.
.
JCQ = 1, ^-\, (.
7.11). ^^; BN.

. 7.11
\
_
2< = 3'; ' = -,
\\) =
1 ' ^ ^'
'
(1,1)
1
2
3
:, =
= . \ ={ \)\
>'-1 = - | ( - 1 ) .
A^^B,
, j ; = ^ - , L
5 ,0 . \AN\^\ = ;
|^|==--1==-.|^\/|== II i + (1-0)^ = /.

V(.-o)==-^"

| \ = ^ 1
2 )

311

5.6. = ^
>^ = cosx, [ 0 , : ] ?
. (. 7. 12),
: sin - cos = , tg JC = 1,
XQ= . y = cosx
= -sin JC .
(. .

^0= j ) : '{) = ,

/2'() = . (4)

3.4 :

.:/2_V2
2_ = -2/2, ( = - arctg 2 /2.
tg<p = - '^
V2 /2
12 2

y=cosx

y=smx

^. 7.72
5.7. = \ \ - 1 j :?
. .

-^,
:
1(/:-11 = 0, v 3 x - l = l,
_ 2 _2/
x-F=-

Sx-\

312

^ =

/U) =

41

2N/3

= V3.

^/32^-l
3
,
_^
(4) 3.4: tg ^ = v3 . , ^ ~ "
5.8. ,
, ,

=( ( = 2 .
. (.7.13).
' = ,

= / 4 : ' ' =2:/1+4:' ;


\\
^
| MN \=^^ + (^p'f = ^J{2a +^ =
\\=-^1^+(

^^

^^

= avl + 4^ ; uK=-rj- =
ON = \'\ = .

.7.13

3^

, MKVL
,
^

2 ^
, t g a = - ^ =
= 2:,
a = arctg2:.
5.9. ^ = 2/^ - 3^ + 4 .
^ = .
.
ds
v = = 6 / ^ - 3 . t-
dt
t;(r = 3) = 6-3'~3 = 51c-^

W = = 12/. t = 3 w(t = 3) = 12 3 = 36 ""^.
dt
5.10.
< = ^ + 2/ + 4.
/ = 4 .
.
) = ^ = 2 + 2, dt
: = j- = 2.
dt
.
= 4 = 2-4 + 2 = 10,
, , ^ .

5.11.
VQ .
.
? (
).
. ,
,

314

X=

VQt-

gt'

X t, g
.

v^v-gt ,, w = -g.
,
, . . 0=;-g^, t= .
g

,

..

X = Un

2g

7.12.

x = acoskt,
y=bsmkt.

/ =

71

4^

.
. t = tQ
bkcoskt
- sin kt

b_


/ =

( = arctg

= -arctg
J

7.13. ,
, = ,

315

q = 3t^ -2. .
.
/ = = 6t. t -2
/(/ = 2) = 6-2 = 12.
5.14. q ,
, t
= (\ """ ).
.
.
dq

q-^a{A-q),
~dt

7.6.
1. . f{x)
[,\,
f{ci) = f {b) = ,
avib ^ ] , Z? [, / ' ( ^ ) = .
:
= /(jc) ,
, (. 7.14).
, f{a) =
f[b)^0.

. 7.14

316

2. . f{x)
[, ]
,
(^],[, / ( 6 ) - / ( a ) = (fe-a)/'(^).
.
: (.
7.15) ,
.

'^'^

/ \
!
\
:

, 7,15

3. , ({) ^{)
[, ]
.
vL(p{a)^(p {b), avib qe\a,bL

, ^
( [)^0

j-{

,,

7~^'~7^

^^^^

)-({) ({^)

[, ],

6.1.
: ) = ^ -2-3

[-1,3]; ) >^ = 1 - V^

[-1,1].
, ) ,
.
(-1) = ^^() =

317

= 2JC - 2
,
. ^ = , 2JC - 2 = ,
. . ^ = 1 .
) [-1,1]
^^(--l) = ^(l) = .
,
2 1
= ""-^ : = G [-1,1]
. ,
.
6.2. :) f{x) = -x'-x

+ \ [0,1];) / ( ) = \ / ? - 1 [-1,1].

, ^ .
, ) [0,1]
f\x) = :^ - 1 . ,
. ^
/ ( 1 ) - / ( 0 ) = (1-0)/<^),
1 = ^^ - 1 , ^,2 --

^ =

[0,1], ^ = .
) [-1,1] 2 1
f {) = 7=-. jc = G [-1,1]
3 yjx

,
.
6.3. = ^ +2
, (-2,0) (1,3) ?
.

318

. (. 7.16)

^
^2

-^1

3-0 = 1. 1+2

/ ( 1 ) - / ( - 2 ) = (1 + 2 ) , 3 = 3(2(^+2), ^ = - ^ .

2j

. 7.16
1
, , -

12

.
^
6.4. (jc) = sin X ^ () = cos 71

[ ,] t,.
.

(p\x) = cosx\
1/' () = - sin X. (j9 () ^ ^ (^7); sin ?^ sin ,
.

COS

COS

2
_-sing
. 7t .
""^^'
Sin
smO
^
2

319

t^ 1 ;: ^
t g . ^ = l , < ^ = - .
^

6.5. , "" - --1 = ,


X = , .
.
^, = ^
^ , / ((^) = .
/ ( ) = ' ' ~ - 1
fXx) -"" -\. , "" = 1, = .
,
t,, / (^) = ,
.
6.6. / ( ) = "^ - ^ 4- ^ - =
X = 1. ,

, dx
[0,1].
. ^ = 4^ ~ 3 ^ + 2 - 1 .
/ ( ) [0,1]
,
4^ ~ ^ + 2 - 1 = . ,
, , , .
/7 -f

[0,1]
dx

d f
2
, = 12 - + 2 ,
.

df

^'

320

7.

X -> ({) \lf{x)
,
, . .

, ('{) ^\)
.

^
,
.
-^ ~,
, 0

-- , 0

.

1~,00^,0^

^
-- ,
.
g 1
2 cos 2
7.1. : ) lim^^
; ) lim
;
^-^0 sin
^-^01 - cos
. ., - -\
Insinx
) lim;; ) lim
.
^-^0 sin 2
x^Q I n x

, ) jc -^ .

321

^-* sin 3JC

^-*<> 3 cos 3

) X > .

,. l-cos2x ,. 2sin2x
lim
= Iim
.
^-^01 _ cos 3x ^-^0 3 sin 3JC
0
X > 0 --.

,. 2sin2x ,. 4cos2x 4
hm
= lim
= .
^-^0 3 sin 3x ^-^0 9 cos 3x 9
0
) X -^ --.

,. "" ~^~1 ,,
Ixe"" - 2
,.
"" -
hm
-.
= lim

= hm

.
^-^0 sin 2
^-^0 4 sin 2 cos 2 -2 ^-* 4 sin 2 cos 2


hm
^
= lun
= hm- =
^^0 8 sin 2 sin 2 cos 2 ^-^ 8 sin^ 2 cos 2 8 ^-^ sin 2
1,.
2"'
I
=hm
= .
8^-^o2sin2xcos2x-2 32

) X > .


,. hisinx ,. COSXX ,.
hm
= hm
= hmcosx = 1.
^-^0 inx
^-^0 sinx
^-^0

322

,n..

I; ) lim

7.2. : a) lim

^-^Mlnjc
(
\ \

jcsinjc

jc-1

) lim(x-^)tg-~; r) lim xsin .


x-^n^
^ 2
^-^'"l
X)
, a) x -> 1


,. x ~ l - x l n x
In :
lim
= - lim
x-\
^-^ (x~l)lnx
^->J lnx +
jclnx
lnjc + 1
-lim= -lim^^1 xlnx + jc-1
^-^1 lnx + 1 + 1
6) X -> 0 (

).

--.

lim

jc-^O

,. sinjc-jc ,.
= lim
= lim1
^^0 x"^ sin X ^-^0 2x sin jc + jc cos x
jcsinjc
1

COSJC-1

-sinx
= lim
^-^0 2sinx + 4xcosx-x^sinx
cosx
= ~lim^-^o2cosx + 4 ( c o s x - x s i n x ) - 2 x s i n x - x ^ c o s x
) -^

( >).

--
lim ( x - ; r ) t g = lim
-^ ^

= lim

^-^^ .

ctg

'^*

sin

= -2.

323

) X -^ . 0

.1
1 1
.
sin
^cos
.
limxsin~ = lim-^ = lim=^^-=^ = limcos= 1.
>oo

X->

JC>oo

JC>oo

X^

7.3. : a) limftgxV^^''; 6) lim(lnxV ; ) "";


^_,
x->
4

^-^-

->

r) lim(x + 2^V; ) lim(l + sin2xV


-400 N

v__i.n ^

, a) x -^ 1~.
>' = (tgx)^ "";
In V = tg 2x In tg X, lim lny = lim tg 2x In tg x, . e.
X>

JC>

. .
0
-~

,. ,
,. Intgx
,. sin^2x
Iim In >^ = lim
f
= - Iim
= -1.
4
4
4 1-
x-^sin2x
tg2x
1

t 2x

limln>^ = -l,TO lim>^ = e~* = lim(tgx)^ ""=.


4

6) .
1
1
jv = (In )^; In = In In X
"^
:

liming = lim
-^

In In X

324


,.

lim

Inlnx
X

1-

= lim^^=^ = 0.
^-^** I n X

1>^ = 0, \\ = \ lim(lnx)^=l.
) 0^.

^^

\ In >^ = JC In X :

i ^~^

^^
1
_

Injc
-) 1

. lim = -^" = .

->0 1
XX

lim In j ; = lim y = l> "" = 1.


jc-^O

JC^O

) ^. = ( + 2''
: In =ln(jc + 2""). X

,
1( + 2'')
1 + 2''12
limln>; = lim5^ X ^ = ^^~
l i m ' ^X ^+ l""
"^^ JC>>

,. 2 ' 2
,. 2'2 , ^
= lim
= lim
z = In 2,
-^-1 + 22 -^~2^1n'2
lim;; = 2.
) .

y = {l + sm2xf'
lim In = lim ctg 5jcln (1 + sin 2x)
x-^O

Jc->0

325


ln(lH-sin2x)
lim In 3^ = lim cos 5 jc ^^
.
^^0

^-^0

sin

5JC

,

2 cos 2JC

ln(l + sin2x)
1 +sin 2 2..
1
2
limln>; = lim^
^ = i^j^i-hsmzx := ju^
= -.
^_
J:-O
sin 5x
^->o 5 cos 5JC 5 ^-^^ i + sin 2x 5
, lim (1 + sin IxT^ "" =e^.

7.8.
= f{x)

,
, . .
^2 > ,.

/ (-^2) ^ / (^i) ? , / (-^2) ^ / (-^i)' ^^
.

: ' > ,
, ^''^ < ,
.

. -

326

, ,
. ,
,
,

.
8.1. :
) ^^-\\

) ;; = l o g ^ x - l ) ; <\ \ )

^\

) = ( + 1 ) - 3 ) ; ) ;; = j c ' | x | .

, ) , . .
("-<^,^).
= ^. , >^, ,
(. 7.17).

. 7.17
) > 1, . . 1
(1,^). = . (jc 1) In

< 1 , \<0 ' > 1 .


, (1,>)
(. 7.18).

327

) -\,

. 7.18

, (-2)
^ ^

. =

\-~ Z)

Y - : , = , ^2 = .

\ i)

= 1,
(. 7.19)
. ,
(-00,0) (2,>) (0,1) (1,2). . 7.20
.

. 7.19

. 7.20

328

) .
/ = 3(x + l)^(jc~3) + (jc + l)^=4(jc + l ) ^ ( x - 2 ) .
( + 1)^(-2) = 0
Xj 2 = - 1 3 = 2 .
]->^-1]; ]~l5 2] ]2,<[. ,
^^ = ""^
. < -1 - 1 < < 2 : ^' < , ,
. > 2 j ; ' > ,
.
) }^ .

,
^
> 0 ;
-{
[-^ X < 0.
, < ,
J ' < , > , *>0.
. 7.21.

. 7.21
8.2. : ) tg > +
3

0 < < ;)> 1(1 + ) > 0;) X-~<sinx<

> 0.

329
JC^

, ) j = tgx

: =

^ -l = tg - .
cos X
tg^x-x^ >0, tg^x>x^, tgx>x,Toj^'>
'
'
, t g x - - - > 0 tg > + .
) >^ = -1(1 + ):
,_
1
X
-1
. X = ,

X > , *>0 .
X - 1(1 + ) > , > 1(1 + ).
)

'
X

<sinx,
3

sin X < X.

'
f{x) =
sin , ^() = sin -
/ ' ( ) = 1 - ^ - cos , (\) = cos - 1 .
^ ^ f\^) < , 1 -^ < cosx, (\) <
= 2 (/: = 0,1,2,...), c o s x < l .
^ .
, ---sin x<U
^' < smx<

s i n x - x < ,
.

7.9.
1. ^ = : / ( ) ^ JW^^K: {), (
)
^.

330


. ,
,
.
,
f\x) , ,
f\x) = . , ,
, ,
. . , .
^
, XQ ;
, ^ ;
, XQ .

.
,
, /'XXQ) > , XQ ; /'\^) < ,
XQ ; f'XxQ) = 0,
.
2. F(x,y) = 0, ,
^=

F^x.y)

^
= 0,

Fyi^.y)
F/(x, >^) = . F^ F^, Fnoxuy,
, ,
. F{x,y) = 0 F^{x,) = ,
.
^ =

-. -

J^!^ < , ; ^^>0 ,


.

331

9.1. : ) J^ =

---2\

6) = {-2)\
: ) -^ -x-l
jc^ - - 2 = . Xj = - 1 ;
JC2 = 2 .

= ( + 1)( - 2) ,
(. 7.22 ).

. 7,22
, = - 1
, = 2 .
, Xj = - 1 , 2 = 2
.
7
: / ( - 1 ) =
; / ( 2 ) =

. 7.23.

. 7.23

332

) = 2( - 2)^ (2 -1)
(jc - 2)^ (2 -1) = . Xj = 2,
1
JC2 = .
Xj = 2
, ,
^2 = . ,
^2 = .
,
27
.
/ ^1^=
v2y
. 7.24.

, 7,24
9.2. : ) = -- 2 + 1 ;

6) = '' ;) = 4-5^'

, ) ^ = ^ -4
(^ - 4 ) = . :
Xj =0, 2 = 3, 3 = - 2 .

333

' = ^ - 4
: ^^''() <
; \2) > ;
\-2) > .
: / ( 0 ) = 1 ;
/ ( 2 ) = - 3 ; / ( - 2 ) = - 3
. . 7.25.

. 7,25
) = ^ - jc^
jc^(3-x) = 0. :
Xj = , ^2 = 3 .
= 3(2-)
.
^2 = 3 ') <
. Xj = 0 (0) = 0,
, .
.
=0 , Xj =
.
^2 = 3
27

f(^) =

334

. 7.26.

. 7.26
) .
' = 4-4 -j= = -j=rlyjx - 1 j . ! X

yj X

(^/ -1) = ^ = 1.
jc, = 1 '
, , Xj = 1
j;(l) = ~ l .
,
\1 =0. 2 = ,
. ,
-0 j ; ' > , + j ; ' < 0.
, 2 = {0) =
(. 7.27).
9.3. :

) ^-^ = 2';) / - 4 = 0.
/

, ) . F^ = Ixy
F/=2X>'-X^

335

. 7.27
j ; = , F^ = , . . j ; - 2 = .

^ -^ = 2^,

/ - 2 = 0,

= ,

=^2.

]^

2-^

^^~ '^>0, > , '^<0, <0.

, j ; > , <0
.
) F^ =4 4, Fy =4 -4
F / = 0 , ^- = 0'

['^+-4 = 0,

['- = 0
= 0, = 0; = ^1, = /1

336

^ =
"^

'X

. jc = 0 , j = 0
Fy = ,
, (0,0)
.
X = /3 ^ =

^=j= =

< ,

. . X = / , = ^^7 .
8/^
X = - /3 ^ =

3^9
3^3^^
=^ =
> ,

. . , ^^ =z-^jTJ.

7.10

= / ( )
[,] ,
.

(),
()
( ).

[,]
j ^ ' = ,
[,].
[,], . . f(a) f{b).

.

337

10.1.
X

: ) = -

j - , [-2;2];) j^ = x + cos2x, [0;--];

) :^ = ' - 9 + 20, [-6,2].


, )
1+

-2JC'

(\ +

1-JC^

- 1 = 0.

{1 +

jc = 1, = - 1 .
,
: (1) = , {-1) = . 2
2
[-2; 2]: (-2) = , (2) = .

. ,
{^) ~ , yi^^) = ~".
[-2;2] . 7.28.

. 7.28
) ' = \-2sm2x,
1 - 2 sin 2JC = ,
[ 0;
].
=
12'

338



71 /
12 2

6/ +
2-3
71
. 0) = 1, \^
12
,
+/

,
12
12
27-3
71


v3y
7
[0;] . 7.29.

01

iL
72
Pwc. 7.29

) = ^ + 6 - 9 ,

jc^ + 2 - 3 = 0, jCj =1, 2 =~3.


[- 6,2],
{1) = \5, (-3) = 41.
^^(-) = -34, (2) = 22.

, ,
jc = - >^(-3) = 47,
jc = - {-6) = -34 (. 7.30).

339

. 7.30
10.2. :
fl

) f(x) = e 2 ;) (pix) = sm^x + cos^x;B) f(x) = ^x^-l.


) ,
- ,
] - , [.
f\x)

= - ^ ,

, = 0.
+ - ,
, X = / ( 0 ) = 1. ^^

, (. 7.31).

) .
,
X G ] - ^ [ .

340

(\) = 4sin^ xcosx-4cos^ jcsin jc


2sin jccosjc(sin^ x-cos^ ^) = ,

' 4 2
,
sin2xcos2x = 0, sin2x = 0,

COS2JC = 0,

^i-

nn

(w = , 1, 2, ...) -

, = (1 + 2)
4
1
.

( = , 1, 2, ...) -

) .
]-^[.

f\x) =

3 ^

X = .

= - 1 . -^ .
,
/ ( 0 ) = - 1 , (. 7.32).

7.11.

,

341^

.

, . .
.
.
11.1. V. ,
.
.
. S = S^^^+Sg^^ = 2KR^+2KRH

= 2K{R^-\-RH)

, R .

V = ^, = - . , S = 2

KR

R\ 5 ' = 2; 27?
V
2R

^
^
= , ,

KRT

\V
R - ?/-.
V 2%

, R = }1
V 27
\
2 ^
5' = 2: 2 + = 12:>0.

.
11.2. .
. , (. 7.33),
V = 7^, ,
.

342

. 7.33
i? ,
(OBf ={00 +(0')\

R' ={-Rf

'

+\ r^=2HR-H^.

V = n{2H^R - / / ^ ) . ,
,
: ; = ~ ( 4 - ' ) , 4HR-3H^ =0, = 0, H = ^R.
= 0 , ,
4
. = R F^
, . . . ,
, ,

Iw

= R, R = II.
3
\4:
11.3. + = 1 ^ f v 3 , - 2 j
. ,
ABC .
.
X, ,

^ = -\[,{2-)-^^2{-\)^^{\^2)'\\

343

5 = -(/3(1-;;)-2/3(: + 2) + (-2-1)) = - ( / 3 - 3 7 3 - 4 ^
, ,

,
, \ S' =(-/ -'),
' 2
'
f

15

'

'

X '

'

\
-3^

+V15-3/

//15- - ^^ = , = J - , X = J .
J .
-\1~^ ^~\1~

S^ .

, |

V2"V2

ABC .
11.4. 64 ,
.
. j^, ^ = 64. -

64'

z = x -hy , z = x +-.
X

64'
: 2'=2;-2--, '^-64'=0, ('-8')('+64)=0.
X


= 8 (. 7.34), . . ,
, X = S, = S .

344

. 7.34
11.5.
, ,
(. 7.35),
.
?
1

'2

1
X

^<

. 7.35
.
X, - 2x,
jc. V {-2)^,

JCG[0,

] . :

' = {-1){-\{-2){-6)

= {).

= (. 7.36). 6
,
.

345

. 7.36
11.6. w,
,
(. 7.37). (
, ,
// = 0,6 ?
i

FX

^<^

, 7.3 7
. ^
: Fcoscp Fsin<p. Fcosq)
. ,
mg - F sin (jO , g
.
, ,
. . F cos = Liimg - F sin (). F =

ii^g

: .
cos^ + jUsmcp

= cos ( +/J, sin .
' ,

346

7
71

~sin9 + ^cos()[) = , igcp^fi, (p = 3TCtgiJ. ([0,].


'' = - cos (jO - /X sin < = arctg ,
j , ,
, . . (
. (
( = arctg 0,6 .
11.7.

.
,
d,
?
. , b
(. 7. 38).

. 7.38
y = bh^.
^ =d^ -^ , = b{d^ -b^). /^
: y' = d^-3b^, d^- =0, 6 =

7
' = - 66, b =

d, '' = -2v3fif < . -

/
''<0, = d
3
, h = Jd.

347

11.8. 5 = 2 + 3^ - / ^ .
.
. v = ,
dt
: v = 2l-{-6t-3t^,
: v' = 6-6t, t= 1
v' = 0. v'' = --6 /, t ~ 1 v
, . . v^^ = 24 ..
11.9. ,
v^
X = VQ COS

t.

gt'
VQsma't-^,

y=

t , g ,

.
, ,
,
,
(. 7.39).
ii

. 7.39
.
,
, . , -

348

, pHHj; = x t g a - ^ ^

.
2VQ COS

(.
7.39) y^xigp
,
x\gP=xiga-fz
jc = - ^ ( s i n 2 a - 2 c o s ^ a t g 6 ) .
2uocos^a
g^
^^

dx

= 2-^(cos2a + sin2atgj8)
da
g^
cos2a + sin2atg)8 = 0 ,

ctg2a = -tg)8, 2 =+j8 = - | + j8 .

d^x
v^
1 /
-J =4(-sin2a+cos2atg)8). =- 2
d^x

< , ,

.
11.10.
25. , ,
, , 27:8.
. ,
. ,

(. 7.40), = 25 - .
/, - / .

. 7.40

349



, , ,
,

'

225-

=-27+
' 27 ( 2 5 - )
8
2
, (25 -)^
^ =0 25 - : = :.
,
^4 X = 15.
.
'' = 6 +
7. , '' >
' 21{25-
^'
X = 15, , .
11.11.
.
, , ,
?
. (. 7.41). ,


c o s
, : = , = const. R , COS = - 7 =
X +

/777
=

^^.

(.^)

350

. 7.41
' -

j -
('+')2
^/2
^ - 2JC = , =
,
,
X =

rV2

W, ,^3(2^-3^)
.'
\ t -
Zj,

^ ^

<0

, ^/2
x =

11.12. ,
, , .

, \\ ,
,
?
.
1 .,

351

2 . b 5
(. 7.42). ACD AD=^

.
sin

DB = b-actga
,.
z
2
z =
hmib-actga).
sin

. 7.42
dz
ma(l-2cosa)
=
^^

sin
1

1 - 2 cos = , cos = , = . = :
j2^

2 (l - cos + cos^ )

^^

>0.
da
sin

, ,
,
= .
11.13.
V /, , 60
,
, .

352

, 7.43
. , ,
, = (. 7.43). t
, : ^ = vt, ^ = vt.
^ = - ^ =a-vt.
^jSj=5,

S = {{vty-b{a-vty--2vt{a-vt)cos\20y
S =

S = (vY-Ivt
2v^t av

2(vV-avt
:

2vt-av

+ a^^.


+ a^y

= 0,t = .
2v

2v\vY-avt^-a')--{2vh-avf
S=
3
^ = ,
2{v^t^-avt + a^y
, .

^ = 2v

5 = t; - - a v - \ -

353

/
=

^.

11.14.
.
1 , 20 /
40 . ,
270 . ?
. q,
q = kv^,
40 = -20\ = 0,005 .

Q = a-\-q = a + kv^, = 270.
. 1
/

u{v) = ^^ = '\'av .
V

1
=+2
V

2kv^-a = 0, ,
t; = 30 /.
2
540
"=^+2^=^^^+01=>0,
I?
27000
, v = 30 /
1
= ^ + 0 , 0 0 5 - 3 0 " =13,5 .

354

7.12. .


, ,
,
.
- f(x) , f'{x) <
, f'{x) > . /"(^) = XQ ,
f'\x)
jc^, ^
. f'Xx) , .
= / ( )
,
/'()=0. ,

.
.
12.1.
: ) j ; = "^ - 8JC^ + 6^ -9;;6) = ^- + 1, ) .
: =12^ -24JC^ -12; / ' = 36JC^ ~48JC + 1 2

=0.

(JC-1) J C

1
^
^^
jCj = 1 ^2 =
.
(. 7.44 ) /'' .
'' ,
X = =1 .

355

]-^, [ ]1,[ , ] ,1 [
.

3
. 7.44
) :
i/' = 4 x ' ~ l ; ^" = 12'; 12'=0; = 0.
X = ' = Q.
: = 0
,
.
12.2.
5

: ) = \^- {- ; ) = ^ \) >^ = 1-1 ^ - 1 1 .


, 5 ,
,,|
10
, ) : ='z\^'~^) , = ,/
.
3
9/-3
= 3
. = 3
, ,
(3,1) . ]-^[
j ^ " < , . G ] 3,[
j ^ " > , , .
2 ~
)

:
= jc^,
//
2 ~
2
=""~ -^ ^ ~77=7 " 9
9^'

356

. = .
= :
/ ~ ) > 0 , / ' ( 0 + )>0, > . ]-,[ / ' < 0 ,
, .
) , j " = :
= 3^, ' = 6,
]-[ (<0), ]1,[ (>0).
X = j ; " = , = 1
,
. j ^ " = = 1
. 7.45. ;;" = = 1

1
. 75

, = = 1 .
]-,0] < 0 ,
X]0,1] > , ]1, ] / ' <
.
y{Qj) = , (\) = 1, (. 7.46).

, 7,46

357

7.13.
1. -
= f{x) jc > , lim {f{x) - ( + Z?)] = ,
JC-^oo

. .
. IA b
/()
= lim
= lim {f{x) - ).
, .
lim / ( ) = 6, = f{x) j^ = b.
lim f{x) = , = f{x)
, ,
= . =
. , .
2. x==(p[t), y=\i/[t),
, t,
(p{t), y^{t)
.
y = kx-^b,
A: = l i m ^ ^ fc = lim(VA(-:(0), (p{t,)=\i/{t,)=00.
'^'0 (pit ]

'~^'

V^(/o) = ^5 (^) = ,
X = . ((1^) = , {{/(t^) = ,
= .
3^. = {()
, ,
= pcos(p = p{(p)cos(p,
j^ = sin ^ = (^)sin ,
.

358

4^. F{x,y) = (. .
),

.

^ 1^^^ "^ ^ -> ^^ :/;(0<:<; 0<1<),


= +
,
, .

.


j ; .
1^ 1 U "

13.1. : ) =

^+ +

JC-1

sin X

) >^ = - ; ) =
X - 1

, ) jc = 1 ,
,.
lim

X^+3JC + 6

= -,

,. ^+ + 6

= 1 .

= lim

+6

, . ,. (^+ + 6
= 1; Z? = Km

^
X

=4

,
= + 4. .
7.47.

359

. 7.47
) lim

= , : = 1 - - 1


jc > lim f{x) - lim = , j^ = .
X

= lim
= Z? = ,
^-^-(^ - 1 )
. . 7.48.

. 7.48

360

) ,
,
.
:

, j ; = .

J = ,
= (: = 1,2,...)
(. 7.49).

-2

, 7.49
13.2.

)/(:) = '';

, )
lim/(jc) = lime'' = 1,
JC-*oo

lim /(jc) = lim e'^ = 1,

JC->oo

, = \.
:
lim f{x) = lim e"" = oo,
jc->+0

x->+0

lim
x--0

/(JC)

= lim e"" =0,


jr--0

361

, jc = (. 7.50).

0\

. 7,50
) jc G ] - ^ 0] ]1, +[. lim f{x) = lim J

= ^ = 1

. lim
^-^^ V Jc-1
lim

, .
-1
:

1) : = l i m - ^ ^ ^ ^ = lim ^ ^
/

= lim

7~

X \=

^ =.1,
x(yfx-yjx-l)

^:

= lim

jc(x-jc + l)
/

/;^(/ + >/;^)

= Imi

""'4

i+ji

__j_
"^"2
/

, + .

362

2) = lim ^-1

b = lim

x-l

: x = -t, jc -> -,

t -^, :

A: = lim^^^^ = - l i m j = - l i m 1-1-= ~ 1 ,

Z? = l i m

+\

= lim ^

7=^

= -lim-

^ lini

1+J1+

, --.
. 7.51.

. 7.51

363

t
-;

13.3. : ) --^

)-=7'

^=717' '^ ^

, ) /_^0:>;

yz=.

= ,

, y = Q. t -^ 1
X -> 1; >^ -~> ^, ,
X = 1 .
) / > 1 .
:

te'

h = lim

v'-''
Z?^ = l i m
/^-1

^ fe'

e4t-\)

'-'%
.r

= -lim= lim
'-^1 ( l - / ) ( l + r)
^^4 + /

v'-'' '-'%

.4^-fi)

= lim
^^-i(l-/)(l + r)

e-'
2

2'

1
2^'

, 7 - ^ ^ : 7 ,
^--

2
)
asmcp
=
- , (
: = (
(
. ^ - ^ 0 >, = , . . lim
^ = . , =
(. 7.52).

364

. 7.52
13.4. : )

^=6^+'',

x'-i
X

, )
(. . ^) 1, .

j ; = + 6,
'^ -^^+^ +' -6' - ' = .

X (. . ^ ^),

I '-1 = 0;
\^-6 = 0.
/: = 1, = 2 . ,
= -\-2.
) ,
X = , =
. :
= lim

^-1
= 0,

b= lim

Jx'-l
X

->

6= lim

-Ox

-Ox

=1

365

: = -^, -^ -, / -^ ,

= U m i ^ = -l.
t^oo

_^

\)

3JC'~2

(.^-1),

, ^ - - \ / ? '^^
(. 7.53).

, 7.53

7.14.


:
1. .

.

366

2. , ,
, . .
.
3.
.
4.
.
, .
5.
.
.
6. .
7. ,
.
,
, .
,
, .

,
.
14.1. :
^
2
) J^ = J C ' - 8 J C ' " 9 ; ) = ) =

^ ; ) = \

- ; )

j^ =

jcV^

, )
. , ,
.
: = ,
= -9.

367

= {^ + 1)(^ - 9 ) , ,
{^ + l)(jc^ - 9 ) = ,
JC = db3.
- ^ -16
4JC^ - 1 6JC = . {^ - 4) =
Xj = , ^2 = 2, =- 2.
/' = 12^ - 1 6 . \2) > , Xj = 2
= -2 , \0) < ,
X = .
: j;(0) = -9; j^(2) = - 2 5 .
, 2
: ' = 0; 12^ -16 = 0, = -7=-. /' /
,
.
161
:
9
^

lim (* -Sx^ 9) = .
. 7.54.

. 7.54

368

) , = v3 .
X = V 3 JC = -/3
.
lim - ^ = ;
;-^/--:^
'

lim
^>/+-^

'

lim

v3

- = ;
'

^->-N/3-0 3 - X ^

lim

;,_,_7+0 3 - ^

, ,
. = ;; = ,
, .
^
, ^(3~)(3 + )
;; = ^^
-^^- \ )

(3-)(3 + ) = 0 .
j^'
(. 7.55 ). , = - 3
(-3)=4,5, = 3
j^(3) = - 4,5. =
, , = .

-3

0
3
. 7,55

6(9 + ')
= ~^. (3-^)^
' - =
, , =
.

369

:
A: = lim

^ = -1;

fe

f x'
= lim

3-'

+x

3x
lim= 0,
3-'

, = -.
. 7.56.

. 7.56
) .

(. 7.57).

> 0 , . .

J C G ] - - O O , - 1 [ XE]2,OO[

+1

-/
2
. 7.57


lim In

-42+0

jc-2
JC + 1

= -. , = - 1 = 2 -

370


( + 1)(~2)
,
.
.

3(1-2)
=
^^-2
^ ( + 1) (~2)
1 - 2 = , = , =
2
2
. < - 1 /' >0
; > 2 " <0
.
X>
~2
lim In
= , , j ; = . . 7.58.

'1

. 7.58
)
. X = . ^ > e""" > ,
3^ > X.

371

' = '"" (2 - jc)


'"" (2 - ) = .
, ^=0
^2 = 2.
(. 7.59), jc = 0 , 4
, = 2 , (2) - ,

0
2
. 7.59

" = e'"" (2 - 4 + jc^)


'"''(2-4 + ^) = 0, jCj2 = 2 v 2 .

(. 7.60), jc,2 = 2 v 2
X < 2 - /2 , ]2 - /2,2 + /2 [
, ]2 + /2,[ .

2-42

2+42

. 7.60
:
lim ^ ""=>,

^
2
2
^ "" =lim = lim = lim= 0,

. . = 0 .
. 7.61.

372

2-42

2+42

. 7.61
) , = 1.
X = 1 . =
. ^ j ; > , . . .
= -

(^-1)


//

2(2+1)

X = . =

-- (-1)
= . \0) > , =
, ;;(0) = .
" = =
, ,
= ,

= , . . = 1
lim
--1 (-1)'
. > lim

^"^-*(-1)^

= 1, . .

373

= 1 .
. 7.62.

. 7.62
14.2. :
) x = acos^^ y = a^w^t, [0,2:[; )
x = a{t-smt)
,

y = ail-costl
te[0;2K];B) x = j ^ , ^^l + t''
, a) t.
X , ,
, . .
.
jc = , , cos ^ = t = , .
/ = ^fsin^ t ,
= .
= 0, , sin/ = / = 0;:.
/ = cos^ t , = .
,
((2,0); {0,); (-,0); (, -).
'^ = - cos^ t sin , ' = sin^ t cos /,
1

r
X
3a COS tsmt

374

;;' . ^ = , = :

, ^ = , ^ = .
, /

^6 0,-

,2:

7'"

j;^ < , >^^ > , . .


/

.
^

\\

j^^ > j;![^ > , . .

\ j ' < >^!^ < , . .

. 16

%
,1%

>,

j ; ^ < , . .
. , ,

, , 1^\ ,
t - {, :} j^^ = , j ; =
X, . . (,0) (-,0) ^

. = ; ^ ,
: = , (0,), (0,-flf)
. ,
(. 7.63).
,
,
.

375

. 7.63
) t
^ G [0,2;].
. jc = , sin ^ =/, / = .;; = 0, cos/ = l , / = 0,
t = 27t' , ^ =
, t-ln = 2

' = (1-8/),

y[ = as\nt,

sin
cos/(l--cosO-sin^^
1

a(\-cost)^
a(l-cosO^
=-1-cos^' "^ ^
[ , sin ^ =
/ = {0;;; 2;}.
l-cos^ = 0, . .
^ = {0; 27}.

= {0;2},
..

( - , + ), (27 ~ , 2: + ) , |^| > , [


. ,
= {; 2\ , t = n
'^<0,,. x = 7ia
= 2. , '^ <0 ,
^ G [; 2;], .

376

; ^ > ,
, . t ,2
'^ < , , .
(. 7.64).


.

. 7.64
) , = - 1 .
/ = = , j = t -><^
X, J -> , . .
.
.
^3at'l + t'^
A: = l i m ^ = l i m
=-1.
^^- x{t) ^-^-1 1 + r 3at

'3at'
3at
b = lim {y{t) - kx{t)) = lim
x-^-l

JC->-l

= lim

\+r

\+r

3at

^-'-n-t + r

= -a

x + y + a = 0.
t - - 1 , {,)
, , , , . .

377

, .
/ -1 {,)
, jc
, . , . . ,
. /
- ,
, ,, .

^ = ,
X

F(jc, ) = ^ +^ -- = .
F:
X ay =Fy -
^=0
F(x,y) = 0, = 0, = 0
= /2, = /4- '^ = /2

/: = 3{'-),: = 3(/-),

F''
6
1 - =
2
^^ ^^^ ^ >^^ < ,
Fy

-)
^^ = /4; = ay/l.
(0,0) F/ = F' = 0, ,
.
, (. 7.65).
.

. 7.65

378

1 5.
1. f{x) +1
^ = ,
w-
R^ ( )
/ ( ) = / ( ) + ^ ( - ) + ^ ( - ) ... ^i-^ix-aJ^K,
1!
2!
\

(1)

R^^-

^-^
;
= + 0 ( ~ ) ; <0<1 (w + 1)!
.
(- )
/ ( ) -
7?
, .
2. = (1)

/=/()./../^. ... .!^.:,


1!

2!

(2,

\
,

.
^ = - .

R^ = (9(( - )"),
( ).
R^ = 0('').
15.1. ) " \ ) sinx; ) cosx; ) (1 + )'";
) 1(1 + ), -
.

379

, ) /(jc) = e'', /^"^(jc) = e''


w= 1,2,3, ...
/ ( 0 ) = 1, /^"^(0) = 1, (2)
^-=1 + ^ + ^ 1 + ... + + .
1! 2!
\ "

/^

^"7
-^"
.

( + 1)!
""
3
I ^ 1"^ / . 14, ^"^^' '^' , = 1, | /?(1) |<
;
(w + 1)!
(/1 + 1)!
10 2"'^*
X = 2, I i? (2) |<
. . >
( + 1)!
,
. : = 1

, 1 1 1
1
- 1 + + + + ... +
1! 2! 3!

) f{x) = sin X, / ( 0 ) = ;
f\x)
f'\x)

= cosx = sin ^ - | \

0 ) = 1;

= - sin X = sin I + 2 ^ | , ( 0 ) = 0;

r V ) = COSX = s i n f x + 3 | \

/''^=sin x-\-n ,

/ '

= -l;

/<">(0) = s i n | .

380

' '
smx = x-+3! 5!

2-\

... +(-1)"-'^^:
+R
( 2 w - l ) ! "
2m+\

^2m+l

sm(ex+(2m +
R =
" (2m + l)! ^
^
'2'

\)-)<^
(2m + l)!'

T. K. |sina| < 1 >


.
) / ( x ) = cosx,TO / ( 0 ) = 1
f\x)
f'\x)

f''\x)

= -sinjc = cos fx + | \

/'(0) = 0;

fx+2|\

/"(0) = - l ;

= sin X = cosfx + 3 | \

/"'(0) = 0;

= - c o s X = COS

/*"4^) = cos (

^^

x+n ,

/^"40) = cos


2m

cosjc = l - + ~ ...
2! 4!

++R
(2m)! "
2m+2

i? = -

cos(0jc + (2m + 2))<

" (2m + 2)!


^
^
'2'
(2m + 2)!'
T. K. |cosa| < 1 n-^oo
.
) (1 + )'",
.

381

(1 + )"' , . .
=0

/ ( ) = (1+,
/'(x) = m(l + x r - ' ,
f\x)

= { -1)(1 + jc)-^,

/(1) = 1;
/ ( l ) = m;
/"(1) = { -1);

/'*>(x) = m(w-l) ... (- + 1)(1 + -\


f'\\)
= m(m-l) ... (m-k + l).

^

1!

2!

/ = " ^ ( " ^ - ^ > - ^ " ^ - " > - ( 1 + - " - ' ,


(<0<1).
(w + l)!
/? > X G ] ~ 1 , 1 [ , . .

.
) =
) = - ^ ,

/'(0) = 1;

1 + JC

/)=^,
f"(x)

=- ^ ,
(1 + )'

/':) = - - | ^ ,
\1- X)

/"(0)=-1
/"'(0) = 1-2.
/ ^ 4 ) = -1-2-3;

382

,
^

"

1(1+^) = - ^ + ^ - ^ + ... + ( - 1 ' ^ + ,


2 3 4

+ 1[1+)

i? >
]-1,1],. . .
15.2. '* 2^ + ^ + 5
+ 2.
. / () = '' 2^ + ^ + 5
:
/'() = 4^-62 + 3, /"(x) = 12x'-12x + 2, /"'(:) = 24-12,
/^'':) = 24,/^"^=0 >5. = -2 :
/(-2) = 25, /'(-2) = -57, (-2) = 74, /'"(-2) =36, ( - 2 ) = 24.
" - 2 x 4 - 5 = 25 - 57( + 2) + 37( + 2f -10( + 2)( + 2)\
15.3. ,
/() = (^ + 2 -1)^ .
. =
fix) = 2(' + 2 - 1)(3' + 2),

/'(0) = - 4;

/"() = 2((3' + 2 ) 4 " +12^ - 6),


/'"() = 12(2(3' +2) + 44-1),
/ ' ^ ) = 12(30x48),
/^^) = 720,
/ ' ^ ) = 720,

/"(0) = 8;
/'"(0) = -12;

/'>(0)=96;
/^0) = 0;
/ ' 0 ) = 720.

383

/ ( 0 ) = 1
: = ,
( X 4 2 J C - 1 ) ' = 1 - 4 X + 4JC'-2JC44JC4JC'.

15.4. vx
-\.
.
(2=1:
f{x) = x^;

/(1) = 1;

f\x)

= \x~';

f\\) = r,

44

44

1 1 7 --

117

4 44

444

^'''W = -777T^'^'
/'''(!) =-777T4444
4444
(1)
\2

-J / , -

1\3

<G = ui(.-l)-ii<izl)l^>-3.7(.-l)'
4^

'

44

2!

--!)"
4!

=^^^(:-1)';

4'

3!

+/.

= \-{-\);

<0<1.

15.5. : ) "^" *;
) In cos : X*.
, ) (15.1 ,)
cos : ,

384

,, ,
cos^x cos^jt: cos''x
e""'^ = l + cosx +
+
+
+ 0(cos''x).
24

x^ x"
(15.1,) cosx = l + + 0 ( ) ,

(

=1+
..2\
1/
1-+6

1/

4
1^ ' ^
X *1+ 1 -

+
2 24

2V
/

..2\

1--

1 - ^
2 24
V
)

.2 V

2,
.2

+ 1 - ^
24 24 V

2 \ .4

+4 1 - ^
2,
2
V

61 ^
65-32x4"
6
24 V

-4 ^
X

24

hHO(x') =

-0(.

) In cos = In (l + (cos : -1))


(15.1 ,), cos - 1

lncosjc = c o s x - l ( c o s j c - l ) ^ + - ( c o s - 1 ) ^ + 0 ( ^ ) .

R^ = (^),
X sin : , , 1 - cos jc = 2 sin^
2
: .

cosx

24

720

lncosx =

2
1 4
X +
X -

24

720^

2 4

24

1
+ - 1^ 8
3

^ ^

12

385

45

^ ^

15.6. 0,001
: ) sin 20; ) cos 65 .
, ) sin
: (15.1,),
=
180
.

--

--3

20 =
9

.5

2-\

sin ^
+ - ... + ( - 1 ^
^^
9 9 3!9' 5!9'
(2-1)!9'"-^
"*

,
,
3

I |<

^<0,006,
IR, | < - ^ < 0 , 0 0 0 0 3 .
3!9
5!9
17?21< 10"^,
,
7?2
s i n - = - ^ = 0,3491-0,0071 = 0,342
9 9 3!9'
: - 3,14159
, . .
10"^.
) cosx
/
\-
(
^K\{x df
+C0S + 2 \cosjc = cosa + cos
2
1!
2
2!

386

{-

+ ... +COS -

R - cos + {-)-{ + \)

{-)"

( + !)

+.
(<0<1).

I COS |< 1,

( + 1)!
,
.
,
.

= 60 =
60,
- = (65-60) - ,
180
36
^^^ \ S 71 1 : '
/ :'
+ /?.
cos65 =
;-+
-+
2 2 1!36 2 2!36'
2 3!36^
I /?^ |< 10^,
,
cos65= 0,4221.

8


8.1.
.
1.
(, j^,Z, ... ,t) w,
x,y,z, ... ,/, ', w = / ( x , y , z , ... , / ) .
x,y,z, ... ,/
, .

^{^,^,2^, ... .t^)

, -
.
2. z = / ( , )
. ,

388

, ,
,
, , .
= /(JC, , z)

. ,
- f{x,y,z, ... ,t)
- .
- / ( , )
,
, / ( , ) = ,
.
= f{x,y,z)
,
, f{x,y,z) = C .

.

1.1. / ( , ) =
Y ) X +
(1,1); ^(3,~4); ) / ( - 1 , + 1), / (\, 1^
/

, )
/ ( , ) N,
.
/(1,1) = - ^ j - = , '^
(-4)'
25
) ,
x,j^ - 1 , + 1 , -

389

1 1
^
^
, ,
.
X
(-\)(+1)
'-\
f(x-l,x
+ l) =
{x-iy+ix + \y
2(jc'+l)'
11
/

y'x

1.2.
6) f{^x'^y,lx-y)

lY

f{x,y^,

a)

xy
^ +/
/ 'y
-,x-y
yX

= xy.

, a) =,

=x

-y

v = x-y.

X
V

UV

,, =

, =
.
1
1

V _v'(\-u')
_v\l + u)
f(",v) =
(\-
(l-uf
(l-uf
1-
u,v ,,
,) = \ ^ /
\-)

1/

= 2 + ,

v = 2x-y.


f{u,v) =

l(u'-v').

u,v ,,
1
f{x,y) = - ( Ux'-y').
8

390

1.3.

) z = l n ( x 4 / - l ) ; 6 ) ^== /

=\'&) z = arcsin-;

) 1=^^-\- + ,]-;)

2 = \;) /(,() = (.

, ) , ^ +^ -1>0
^ +^ >l,T.Q,

.
) Z 2

>0 + < 1 , . . 4
3
4
3
.
.

) , ^ - 1 < <1

-JC< <.
, y x^^
= -X ,
0(0,0).
) , x-fj;>0 - ^ - ^ ^ . .

, ,
.
) , >^ > , . .
,
, .
)
sin ( > , . . < 9> ^ :, .
.

1.4.

) = arcsin

391^

.
2

, )
z x^ -^ > , 2>^ -^,
. .
, ,
.
)
2

~ -> 7 - ?

- + - ^ + -:;-< 1, . .

b
^
,
, .
) ,
' ++ '
. /:"
"
z ^ O -1<-^^^
=<1, 0 < j c ^ + / < z ^
Z

1.5. :
) 2 = : ^ - ; ) w = x ^ + / + z ^
, )
^ - j ; ^ = , . . .
> , <
,
)
^ + j ; ^ + ^^ = , . .
.

392

8.2.
.
1. / ( )
^MQ, >
5 > , , ^
I^ \< 5 ,

\f{M)-A\<e.
f{M) = 4 .
/(jc,)^^
X-^XQ

2. . f^{M) /)
-^ MQ ,
) Jim (;() + /()) = Jim ;() + Jim / , ( ) ;

) Jim (;()/,()) = Jim y;(M)Jim /,();


) lim ^^-^^^- =
M-.M, f (M)

^
;
lim /2 (M)

lim
fJM)^0.
-^/ -^ 2 ^

3. / ( ) ^,
:
) f{M) ^;
) lim

f(M);

) l i m / ( M ) = / ( M o ) .
^ ,
.
, . . -

393

f{M) G,
.
,

.
^. Jjcy + l - l
2.1. : ) lim^-^0

) lim^HW; ) l i m V ^ ; ) lim(l + ;c4;;^)"^^V .


, )

'

= , lim
.
= .
"-^4(l + A:)(Vfcc'+l+l)
)
lim

sina

= 1. hm

sin XV ,.
sinxv ^ , ^
^ = limx
:i-=:21 = 2.

B) j ; =fcc,. e. : j
.

',::;^'+/

;^^4i+t^)

i+*'

,
, . . .
)
lim(l+B)P = .

394

1 _

lim(l + jc^ + yM ^'V =lim (H-x4/)^'-^x 2

= e-'=i

2.2. : ) 2 = 1(:^ -^'^);


1
)" = -^, ) z = 1(^ + }^^)
X = , j ; = .
, 0(0,0) .
) ,
, . . ^ + j ; ^ - z^ = . ,
^ -^ - z^ .

8.3.
1. (XQ, j^Q)
z = z(x, ).
,
z-z{x^y)

(^o^J^o) ^^

jc:
Az
Az = z(Xo + Ax, >^o) - Z(XQ , J/Q ). lim 1- z
X (,>^) ~ - zj^x^y).


Z >^: = Z (, ^. z = z(x, )
, , j , .
z = z(x,,X2,...,^) , -

395

, .
( jc^) .
2. Z = Z (Xj, ^2,..., jc^)
,
9^
z(Ax,,Ax2, ... ,AxJ = A'"z(xj,X2, ... , x j .
.
Z = Z (jCp JC2,..., JC^)
X.,
mz{x,,x^, ... , x J = XiZ;(Xj,jC2.-.-^J +
' - ^ 2 ^ X 2 V"^l 9 "^2 ' 9 -^ / ' " " '

- ^ n ^JC V-^1 ? - ^ 2 9 9 -^/1 /

3.1. : a) z = ^

.;

X -^y

6)

z = xysin(2x + 3>^);

) z = In tg

z = ^cos(2x-j;) ; r)

z = 2

;)2 = ^ ^ ' - ^ ) z =

arctg

, a) j^ ,
:
dz __ (^+^)-2

_ (^ -^)

""(/)'-

(^+

X , >^:
dz _ (^ +^)-2

_ (^ -^)

^~

"(/)^-

{x'+/f

396

= >'(sin(2j: + 3;;) + 2xcos(2x + )). -

dz
, = x(sin(2x + 3;^) + 3;^ cos(2x + )).

dz 1 -f
2
)
= - c o s ^(2x-j;)-2 =
^ 3
3^cos'(2x->;)
^ = -cos'^(2x-;;)(-l) =
, ^
3
3^cos'(2x-j)

) = 2" 2

f
dz
-- = 2" "!

^41
[

X )

'
/

1
)

'' ")

3z_

cos

4 cos

\n2-V

\ 3

_Z
3

2\ X

12-2-''

1
tg

~ .

3sin

^-Ziv
3 4

1
2 sin

2x

e) ^ = ;^(e'"^-^ + xe'"^-^ (-1)) = ^ - ^ (1 - X),


dx
= xie""'-" + ye'''-") 10 = xe'"'-" (1 +1 Oy)

1
1
1
)
V / V 7

(/)
1+
arctg
v^y

1
;;
/''

(/)
arctg1+
\yj
3^

arctgV
)
X
2

arctg
3^

397
2

3.2. : ) =
) I/ = yJt-X^'-y^-Z^

+;

, ) , z , : = 3 ,

, z ,

Z*
_
X, J , ^
dz

^tl

) - = 1 2

OJC

2^"^^) = -

2^Jt-x^-y^-z^

^/^

^ - / - :?'
7

:(-2>') = -

7'

/^

1
2-'-'-2'

(-2z) = -

-x'-y^-z''

3.3. : ) //(1;2),/,'(1;2), / ( , ) = ^-^

+\;

):(1;0;2), ;(1;0;2), :(1;0;2), M = l n ( x ' + / + z ' ) .


, )
(1 ;2)
/: = 3'-\

/; = '-3\

/;(1;2) = - 2 , /'(1;2) = - 1 1 .

)
(1;0;2)

398

,_

,_

,_

2z

" ^ - 7 7 7 ^ ' "^"x4/+z^' ""^"^'

3.4. , : )

---^
=0,

, . . ^^ dz
dz
, V
z = + arcsin(xy); ) X-+ >^- = ^, z = jcln .

X
, )
2

dz __ 2

) = 1
1, - = .

X

,

-x + j^= 1 = z
X

3.5.

'

) Z = ^ - x v ' + ^; ) Z = a r c t g - .

, )
xz[^-yz'^=mz.

= ' -^, = -2 + ^. ,

(3' - / ) + -2 + 3 / ) =3(' - / + / ) =3z.

399

=
,
X -
dz
X
^
^ r^
= J
7 , ;
;
- = ,

X -
JC + /
X +/
m = 0.

8.4.

1^. z = / ( , ^
, , .
A^z = /(jc + Ax,j^)-/(jc,j^)
X, z
,
. z

, . .
dz ,
d.z = -dx.

(1)

d.^ = Yy^y-

(2)

w = /(^, ... ,),



d,u = ~^ dx,, d u = ^-dx^, ..., d u = ^-dx^
dXj

0X2

(3)

ox^

2.
, , z = / ( , )

400


,
,.
z
. .
dz = dx +dy.

(4)

w = / (,,^2, ... ,)

,
3w ,
3i/ ,
du=-dx^+dx^-^
dXi

,
... +-dx^,

0X2

(5)

ox^

3.
,
Au^du.

(, >^,..., z),
^(^,^, ... , ZQ)
{)^

u(M^) + u[{M^)dx + u^{M^)dy-^,..W^{M^)dz,

-=^, y-yQ=dy,

.., ,

z-z^^dz.

4.1. : ) z =
6)w=ln(x4/~2z').
, )
3z _

(6)

3z _

^x^+y;

401

Ixdx

dy

) .

2
2
x 4 / ~ 2 z ' ' j c 4 / - 2 z ' '
,

du =

2xdx
2

'-i

(i,.w:
v*^

2 '

X - -Iz

4.2.

dz

2ydy
2 ,

) z = arctg^^-^; )
\-

x4/-2z'*

4zdz

dM
'^ 2 ,
2
2
X ^- -2z

2 '

X - -2z

4z

^''.

, )
dz _

1
^-^'
1+

\ + -'{-)
(1 + )'

1+
1 + '- + / '

1 + jcy

az
1+

(1 + )^

l + jc^-xy + /

l + xy

(4)
(1 + / ) ^ ^ - ( 1 + ');
1 + x^-jcy + y
)
dz

fx'"-\

.
^_1
^= x^ In X'zy
dy
'

.,-,
2,
=:jc^ Injcy ln>;
dz

402

,
du = ^^ ~^dx + ^~ y^'^z In xdy + ^ ^ In In ydz =
dx

zlnx

= fx-'- +

dy + \nx\nydz

4.3.
: ) l n ( V W + V W - 1 ) ; ) (1,02)' (0,98)' (2,03)'.
, ) z = lnl^Jx+ ^-l).

(0,97;1,04).
^ (1; 1).

Jjc = x-Xo=0,97"l = - 0 , 0 3 , J); = J;-J;Q =1,04-1 = 0,04


(6)
1
z(M)=^z{M,) +

4b'

dx-{-

V^+VJ^-1

3^7

ln(^^+',llM-l)

= \n(fl + fl-l)+

dy

^+^-1

"^f

(-0,03) +

3 ^ 0 , 0 4 = - = ,32
VT+Vi-i
4
3 ' -

6) = x^y^z^
(1,02; 0,98; 2,03). ^ (I ;1 ;2)
. t/x = jc-Xo =0,02;
(iy = >^->^ = -0,02; t/z = 2 - ZQ = 0,03
(6)

{)-{^)-

dx-\-

403

dy +

dz
Mr,

= 1'1'2' + 4 1'1'2' 0,02 + 3 1'1'2' (-0,02) + 2 l'l'2 0,03 =


= 4 + 0,16-0,24 + 0,12 = 4,04.
4.4. :
= 2 , b = 3 , = 6 .
,
3 , b 1, 2 .
.

+ + = 7 .

Al-dl=
= ,

2ada
2bdb
,
=
+
^'+^+
^a^+b'+c^
^{ada+bdb+cdc)=

2cdc
^Ja^+b^+c^
=(20,3+30,l+6(-2)) =

= | ( - 0 , 3 ) = -0,0857,
T. e. 0,857.
4.5. z = 4xy + 5x-2y ^4(1;3),
5(1,04;2,97). :
) ;
)
,
.
, ) (6)
z{B) = z(^) + z; {A)dx + z; (A)dy .
: z(l;3) = 4 b 3 + 5 1 - 2 - 3 = ll; z^ =4>^+5, z;(l;3) = 17.

404

z\=4x-2,

z;(l;3) = 2, t/x = x~Xo = 1,04-1 = 0,04, dy = y-y^ =

= 2,97-3 = -0,03.

z{B) - 1 1 + 17- 0,04 + 2(^0,03) = 11,62.
)
z(5) = 41,04-2,97 + 51,04-2-2,97=: 11,6152.
"",
S 8 = -

111,61-11,62
, 5 =
= 0,00086.
11,62
11,62 100 %, ,
0,007%.

8.5.

1^.
= / ( , j , . . . , 0
.

'

(
\
" J

'
=

w,.

,
, ,
, . .

405

*


( :^2..

'

///
2 "~ ^ '

v^-%


.
2^.
- f{x,y)

d{du)^d^u\
, 2 .^ , J
-z-rdx -2-(1 + -

(1)


d{d\)

= d'u\

d^'u

dx-\

dy

(3)


, " .

406

= /(XpXj,..., jc^)

d"u

(4)

5.1.
) z = \n(x^ -^^); ) u=xy + yz + zx.
, )
dz _ 2
^ -^'

3z __ 2
^ + ^


a'z_2(jc4/)-2jc-2x_
'

/-jc'

(/)'

(jc'+/)''

'2^2(/)^4/^2('-/)
/
(/)'
(^/)^'
3'z _

3^2 _

(' + / ) ' '

4>;

(' + / ) ' '

,

.
)

= y + z; = x + z; = +

^
3z

^^^_.

^^"-.

^^"_-

'

dz^

'

'

^^" - 1 -

'

>^

'

^^" - 1 -

^^"

dxdz

dydz

-1

407

= cos(xy);
- _:^ :^:::^-,
5.2. : ) ^-
^ ^ ,, z =
cos(jcy); )
) ::;^

dxayoz
= (xyzf.
, )
,
,
dz
/
- = -xsin(xy);

9^z
^ /
= - cos(xy);

d^z

- = - (2 JC cos(jcy) - ^ sin(xy)) = ^ sin(xy) ~ 2 cos(xy)

) .

= 3 (xyz^ = 3x^y^z^
dz

dydz

= 9x'y'z\

'

^ i ^ i _ = 27xVV,

dxdydz

5.3. : a) z'^XO;l); 6) <;(0;1), z = ^ ^


, a)
(0,1).
z'y = ^"" ^,
z;; = 2''' + x^e'^'^lxy = 2(1 + ')'''',
= 4x^(1 + ')''' + (2 + 6')'''.
z;;;^^(0,l) = 2 .
) z^'^,
z'^y = Ix^e""^^' + 2{\ + ^)^'''^.
^rw(0;l) = 0.

408

5.4. , :
) w = ^sinAxcosaA/,
J^

2 Z

w = ^-^^^("'^">, ^^-^\

) z = e"^

2 Z

, )

~ = -AcL^ sin sin aXt, -- = -AiaXf
/
/'

- = AX
4 cos
COS
cos
COSaXt^
^

sin cos aXt,

-- = -}} sin cos aXt.

,
-^}} sin cos aXt = Aci^}^ sin cos aXt >
.

^ = sin(a^ + xK^^^^'"^\
^
~ = (' cos(at + ) + ' sin' (at + ))^-^^^^'''"^^,
dt
= sin(fl/ + xK^^^^^'"^\

^ = (cos(fl/ + x) + sin' (at + x))e-^^^"'^"^.

,
^ (cosiat + ) + sin' (at + ))^-'"^^^'^"^ =
= ' (cos(a^ + ) + sin' (at + ))^-''^^"'^"^.
.
)

3z

^Z

''

'

2 XV

"^

^2

'

409

^2

'

= jcV.

,
^^^^' -^^'^' = , .

z = .

ty\

1 fy"^

dz

2 ^ yXj
dz__l
~ 2

^^
'~4

yX J

^f

d'z _3

(
,

3/"
^-

^4-/

1
4

=0

3 ^

3 ^

1^-^=

5.5. : ) d z, z = xln ; ) J w, = ^;
X

) (i^z , Z = '' siny.


, )
(1).

d'z_
^

^ = ln^-l;

1
X

dz

d^z

'

d'z

410

^
^
,2
, J z =

xdy^
-.
X

) .
(4),
d^u=-dx
'

dx^

Idxdy

+-dy +-J z +
/
az'

+2

dxay-\-2
axdz + z
ayaz ^

dxdz
dydz

^,

^,,

^,
= yze^ , = xze^ , = '

dz
'
'

'' '

'

'

'
,
. ,.
= (z + xyz')e^\

'
{x^xyz)e^
dydz

'

'

'

'

'
^
= (y + xy'z)e''-^
:

d'u = "^' {{yzdxf + {xzdyf + {xydzf +


+(z + xyz' )dxdy + (jK + xy'z)dxdz 4- (x + x'yz)dydz).
) (2).

dz
^ .
= sin;;,

d'z

.
^ cosjv,

dz
^
= cosj;,

-z
_
1 ~ ~ ^ sinj;,

d'z
^ .
- = smy

'
' Z
j = e sinj^^

d'z

a'z

. .

411

'


d^z = "" sin ydx^ + "" cos ydx^dy - "" sin ydxdy^ -e"" cos j^tfy^ = e"" (sin j^fltc^ + 3 cos ydx^dy - 3 sin ydxdy^ - cos >^(i>^^).

8.6.
1. z = /(w,t;,...,w)
,, ... , ^
: =u(x,y,...,t),
v = v(x,y,.,t), ... ,
w=w(x,y,...,t).




dz _ dz dz dv
dv

dz dw
dw

dz _ dz
dy du dy

dz dw
dw dy

dz dv
dv dy

dz __ dz du dz dv
dz dw
dt du dt dv dt '" dw dt '

= {), v = v(x), w = w{x),
z

412

dz _ dz du
dx du dx

dz dv
dv dx

dz dw
dw dx

z z = /(x,w,t;,...,w), u,v, ,,w


X,

dz _ dz
dx dx

dz du
du dx

dz dv
dv dx

dz dw
dw dx

2. z = f{u,v,...,w) ,
(
)

. dz . dz .
dz .
dz = -du +dv-\- ... +-aw,
(4)
du
dv
dw
2-

d

d'z = du +dv+ ... + d w z +


ydu
dv
dw J
dz ,2 dz ,2
^z ,2
+ - - ^ w + d \ ... +d^w,
du
dv
dw
6.1.

(5)
:

) z = yju^+v^, w = cosx, 2; = sinjc; ) z=j^\ny, x=2u+3v, y = ;


V

) u=xyz, x = lnt, y = l-\-t^, z = smt; r) z=xlnwsmu, w = cosx,


v = x^ -\.
, a) u,v
,
(2)

dz

sin X +

41^

c o s JC = - c o s JC s i n X + s i n X COS X = 0

6) x,y
u.v.B (1)

dz _ dz dz
'
dz __ dz dz
dv dv dv '

= ^\-2 +
= 6(2 + \- +
V
V

dz

^ 21

XV

'

-. / - . . -
= 9{2u-h3vyin^

dv
V "%
V
V
) ,

, (2)
= yz- + xz2t + xycost =
sin/ + 2/ln^sin / + (1 + / jln^cosi
dt
t
t
r) x
, (3)
dz .
.
-^ / ,
^
= In W sin +sin v(- sm x)-\-xmu cos v-2x =
dx

= In cos jc sin(jc^ -1) - sin(x^ ~ 1) + 2x^ In cos x cos(x^ -1).


X

6.2. dz ^^2, z = f{u,v\ M=sin(xy), u = ln.


. 1 -
(4),

414

du= dx-\
dy = cos(xy)dx + x cos(xy)dy;
dx
dy
,
dv . dv , dx dy
dv- rfx+dy =

dx

X '

,( dx
dz = fXy co^{xy)dx + X cos{xy)dy) + / 1

dy I

2-
(5) d^u d^v '
'
'
'
d^u = -r-dx^+1dxdy-^^dy

= -^ s\n{xy)dx^ - 2 %\n{xy)dxdy - ^ s\n{xy)dy^


d'v
d'v
d'v
d^v = -rdx^ +2dxdy + jdy
^
'' ^

dx" dy^
r-+
2

2
x

,
^^^ = f'uuiy cos(xy) Jx + X co%{xy)dyf + 2f"^{y zo%{xy)dx +
+xcos(xy)(3(y)

dx

dy

-f^sm(xy)iydx+xdyf

dx

dy

+/;!

^dx__dy^
ful cos' (xy){ydx + xdyf + 2f"^ ZQb{xy){ydx+xdy)
X

+ f"
J Vb

[x

- fu^HxyXydx

+ xdyf + / ;

^dy^_dx^^

415^

8.

1.
,, ... ,t z,
F(x,j^, ... , ^, z) = , Z.
. z,
F(x,>', ... , t,z) =
Q,TjxtF
{,, ... ,t ,z),

dF_
^

3F'
dz

;;

^'
dz

* ' /

3F
dz

^'^

, - ^ .
dz

F{x,y, ... , ^,z) =


dF ^ dF ^
dF ^ dF ^ ^
dx +dy + ,.. +dt +dz = 0,

dt
dz
dz
dz , dz ,
dz ,
dz = d x +dy + , + dt
dx
dy
dt '
.
2. F(x, ) = 0,
F
j^,

dy
dy

(2)

416


(2).
3. =u(x,y,z) v = v{x,y,z)

\F^{u,v,x,y,z) = 0;
\F^(u,v,x,y,z)=:0,
.

D{u,v)

dFA

\
\dF,

dv
^2

dv

^0,

dv
- -

/^ dv
= 0;
dv
(3)
, dv
- + - + ^ 0.
dv
dv du dv
, -,- ^' ;; dz dz
.
. ,
,
. du,dv

du , du , du ,
du =dx-i
dy'\
dz;
dx
dy
dz
dv , dv , dv J
dv = dx + dy-\
dz,
dx
dy
dz

417

.
4. Z ,

X = jc(w, v)^ = y{u^v)^ z - z(u, v).
dz
.

.
, .
= -\
av;

dv
dy = du + dv;

dv
J 3z , 3z ,
dz = awH
dv.

dv

D{u,v)


dv
^0,
\ ^
dv

du,dv
,
dz =dx +dy,

dz dz
.
dx dy
. du dv
X , , -- zr-.
, ,
du dv
, - -. ,

418

JC >^ dz
dz
u,v ,, - - .

7.1. : ) ^ -\-^ -\-z^ -t^ =0',

) z^

-xyz^la^.

, ) z .
F(jc,y,zj) = x^ +^ +z^-t^,
^^2'

(1)

= 2'

= 2z- = ~2
dz
dt

dz _

3z _

dz _ t

dt

, ,
2xdx + 2ydy + 2zJz - 2tdt = .
dz, . .

Jz =

tdt-xdx-ydy
t ,
-LJL^^dt
z
z

X, ,
dx- dy,
z
z


,
3z , dz J dz J
dz = ox + dy + ~~dt,
dx
dy
dt

dz _

3z _

dz _t

dx

z'

z'

dt

6) F(x,y,z)=z^-xyz-2a^=0,

dF
= -yz,
dx

dF
= xz,
dy

dF
dz

^ 2
= 3z -xy .

419

(1)
3z _
^
3z _

3z^-jcy'

3z

xz
-xy

Zz^dz - yzdx xzdy - xydz .



yzdx - xzdy
yz
xz
az - 3z^ - xy
"~ 3z^ - xy dx-- 3z^ - xy-dy.

,
dz _
^
3z _
xz

3z^xy

3z^xy*

dy

d^y

d'y

7.2. V = X + In , "; ~'>~ dy.


dx dx
dx

. F{x, )^ -\ = 0.
, aF , 1 -\

= 1; = 1

-1
=

. (2)


X, , ^ jc

d^y _ d

dx^ dx y-\)

y\y-\)-yy

(7-ir

d'y
dx

d(d'y\
dx V dx^

\-\)-'

{y-^^Y

y{\ + 2y)
(>'-!)'

420

dy = y^dx = --^dx .
-\
^"

3 z

7.3. - ,

--:'

^ ' X +>' +Z = .

. z
. F ( x , y , z ) = x^ +^-{-z^-^
(1) :

^F _
^^ - 9
^^ - 9

'

'
dz
'

3z _

X
z'

=0,

dz _

d^z
-:^

, , z

I /

2_ d I
^ dx

X\
Z

z-xz^
z'

'

Z-\

z'

2 , 2

2__

Z - _
z'
z'

>^, , z
a'z

d (

^ -""^

dy\

^ ,

z'

z'

d'z^d(
d/

dy{

Z^yz'^^

z)

z"

7.4. d!z d^z,

^+7 " ^
z^

^2^^^2_^2
z'

x^ y^ z'
~ + 7 + " ~ ^ a

z'

421

. z
dz = dx-\--dy. ,

(1),

dF

b
dF

^ X

dF
dz

Iz

'

'" Z

, dz = -dxdy.
z
b z

i2

1
2

d z = jdx

.
r> ^ ^ ^

+2

^^^
C ^ ^ 1i 2

dxdy + -dy

a'z _ d f 2 X
^ dx a^ z

c'
a'

a'z _ d
dy
d'z _ d
dy^~ dy

1- ^

z'

'---1
- z-yz^

b'

z'

b'-/

c^ a^z^+c^x^
a
a z
c^xz\,
2

a z

aV

2 L 2 _ 2 , ^2_2

b'

b'z'

2f 2

xy
z' '
c'

a'-x'

2i2

a'b

,
-[{b^ -y^)dx^ +2xydxdy + (a^ -x^)dy^).
d'z = aVz'
7.5.

422

w + u + x + j ; + z = 0,

, .
z dz
. F^(u,v,x,y,z) = u-\'V + x-\-y + z
F^{u,v,x,y,z) = u^ +^ + x V / 4-z^ - / ^ - - , (3),
dz
az
^ + ^ + - = 0,
OZ dz dv dz
^2 dF, du . dF, dv
-+
= 0.
dz
du dz dv dz

du dv
dz dz
r^ du ^ dv ^
2u + 2v + 2z = 0.
dz
dz
,
du _V'-z
dv __z-u
dz u-v'
dz
u-v
.

du-vdv + dx + dy-^dz = Q,
udu + vdv + xdx -h ydy + zdz = 0.

du, dv
v-x , v-y , v-z J
du
dx +
dy +
dz,
u-v
u-v
u-v
xu , yu
dy-\
az.
dv =
dx + u-v
u-v
u-v

423

,

_^v-z
dv _ Z-U
dz u-v'
dz u-v '
, du, dv ,
_v x
dv _-
_v-y
dv ^-
u-v'
u-v'
u-v'
u-v '
7.6. W i;
d\
d^v
: ^ -\-v^ : ' , w^ + 2 3 J C ' = 1.

dx^ dx^
. .

F,(w,t^,Jc) = w^^-t;^-:^ F^{u,v,x) = u^ +2v^ -{-^ -\,


(3)
^ du ^ dv ^
2 + 2t;
2 = 0,
dx
dx
^ du . dv ^
^
2 + 4v + 6 = 0.
dx
dx
du 5 dv
:
dx dx
,
du
^^^'-5'
= 5dx
dx \

4
V

dv
v-x- dx _ v^+4x^
d^v _d i 4x
= -4= -4
dx\ )
dx ' ~ \
V
v^
in. w, V x
w + + = , uvx = 1. : d^u, d^v .

424

. , ,

du-\-dv-\-dx-^,
XV du + uxdv + uvdx 0.

du.dv,

u{v-x) ,
,
v{x-u) ,
du = ~ dx,
dv = -^^ dx
x{u-v)
x{u-v)

2 _ {du{v -x) + u{dv - dx))dx{u - v)x - u{v - x)dx{dx{u - v)
x\u-vf
x(du-dv))
X {u-vy

_ (u(v-x)^ +u(v{x-u)-x{u-v)))x(u-v)
X {u-vy

,2

-u{v-x){x{u-vY

+x{u{v-x)-v{x-u)))
2
dx' =
x^wvf
_ ia{{v^ +x^ -uv-xu){u-v)'-{v-x){u^
+v^ -ux-xv))
"^
x^u-uf
I

CIX

x\u-vf
2 __{dv{x-u)+v{l-'du))x{u-v)dx--v{x-u)dx{{u-v)dx+x{du-dv))
^"
^^{u-vf
_ {v{x - u f + v{x{u -v)-u{v""
x\u-vf
-v{x-u){x{u-vy

x\u-vy
vx{{{x-u)

\2

x)))x{u - y) , 2

+x{u{v-x)-v{x-u)))
.3/.

..\3

+{xu-xv-vu

x\u-vf

+ ia))x{u-v)

^2
dx' =

2
dx'==
2
CLX

_
"

425

-( - t/)((w - vf ^-{uv-ux'-vx- uv)))


dx^ =
x\u-vf

vx{(x^ +u^ +v^)(u-v)-(x-u)(u^


x\u-vf
3(u^+v^+x^)
,
x\u-vf

+u^ +x^))

2
dx' =

,2
dx'=-d'u

7.8. uHV x
: xu-\-yv = 0, u + v + x + = \.

\
\
' d'v
d'v
d'v
-,
, -, -,
, -.

. .
F^{u,v,X,) = + yv F2(UyV,x,) = + V + X + -I,'
dv
(3)
'

dv
- + -- + = 0,

dv

, :
dv _-
_
-
- '

dv
x-\'y- + v = 0,

dv
dy dy

426

y-v

: - =

dv

v-x

, -=

, u,v
,, :

-
-)

(-

1y-v

'

^^/
u-x
' [x-y)

ix-y)

+ {y-v)

(x-yf
'

{-
dv
-1

x-y+v-u
(x-yf
2{x-v)
ix-yf

-1 \(x-y)-(u-x)

^'

^^ v-x
{x-y

^,
s.
^2{y-u)
^x-yf

Vx-y)-{v-x)

yx+uv

{-

{x-y) + {v-x)
v-x
/ ~ x-y

2(-)
(x-yf

\{-) + {-)

{x-yf

'

-

'

(-)-{-)

^y

{-

(-

2{v-x)
(-

7.9. u,v x,y


: u + v = x, uv = y, d\, d^v .
. dundv.

427

du + dv = dx,
vdu + udv = dy.

du dv,
udx-dy

,
dy-vdx
dv =
.
u-v

du =

,
u-v

2 _ dudx(u -v)- (udx - dy)(du - dv) _

{u-vf

"~
_ {udx - dy)dx(u -v)-

(udx - dy - dy + vdx)(udx - dy) __

_ (udx vdx - udx + 2dy vdx)(udx dy) _ 2(dy vdx)(udx dy) _


"
(u-vf
"
(u-vf
"
_ 2(udxdy - (dyf - uv(dxf + vdxdy _ 2(uv(dx)^ - (w+v)dxdy+(dyf
(u-vf
(u-vf
-2

-dvdx(u -v)-

(dy - vdx)(du - dv)


:;

d V=

(u-vf
_ -(dyvdx){u - v)dx - (dy - vdx)(udx - Idy + vdx) _
~
(u-vf
~
_ (-udx+vdx - udx+2dy - vdx)(dy - vdx) _ 2(dy - udx)(dy - vdx) _
~
(u-vf
~
(u-vf
~
2 ((dyf - udxdy - vdxdy + uv(dxf )
~

(u-vf

_ 2(uv(dxf - ( + v)dxdy + (dyf ) _


~
(u-vf
"

~
2

428

7.10. , , X = MI;, J = W + U,
Z^U-V.

. . ,
,

\dx-vdu-^udv',
<dy = du + dv;
[dz = du'dv.
du dv
dx-udy

,
dx vdy
; dv =
,
v-u
u-v

dz,
2 ^ u+v
dx-udy
dx-vdy
dx +
dz =
dy -V
u-v
v-u
u-v
2
dz w + v
U-V
dy u-v '

du=

7.11. dz, x = e" sin a, j / = e" cos v, z = uv . .


, ,

dx = e" sin vdu + " cos vdv,
dy = " cos vdu - * sin vdv,
dz = vdu + udv.
duKdv:
du

smvdx-\-co^vdy

dv =

cos vdx-sin vdy

429

du, dv ,
dz = (sin vdx + cos vdy) + (cos vdx - sin vdy) =
e"
e"
= e~" ((v sinv + u cos v)dx + (v cos v-usin v)dy)

8.8.



.
.
8.1.
/1

2 ^ V

dy

( 1 - ^ )-7""-^~ + >'==^'10 x = sin^


dx
dx
. j
j t\
dy^ dy^
dy ^dt ^ dt
dx dx^ cos^?
dt
dy\
d^y
dy . ^

f
cosr
+
-^sm^
d^y _ d dy^ dt dx _ dt^

dx^ dx dx ]
dx^
cos^/cos^
dt
_

1 d^y
sint dy
cos^ t dt^ cos^ t dt
51
sin t,

430

1 d
cos / dt

(l-sin'O

sin/ dy
+ >' = 0.
cost dt

sin/ (fy
cos t dt

dt'

-\- = 0.

dy d \
'd'y'^'
8.2. = 3
,
dx dx^
y<^ ,
, a JC .
. j ; :
X j ;
{

___1_
dx dx^'
dy

d^y _ d
dx^ dx dx

d'y _ d
dx* dx dx'
V

dy_
dx

dx

dy
d^^x

( dx\
d X dx

d'x
dy'

dy\ (dx'

d_

()
d'x
dy' 1
r^\'dx
ydy^ dy

dy _
dx

[dy]

dy dy

-3

' d X^

dy'

^dx"^
^dy^

1
dx
'dy

d^x dx
'dy^'dy

dx

dy'

=3

dy'

d^x dx

= 0.

431

^ , dy
d'x _
- = .
dy
8.3.
dy _ +
dx
-'
.
: = cos(jO, j ; = sin^ .

( ,
dx.dy

:
dx = cos(pd -sin(pdcp , dy = sincpd-h cos(pd(p ,
dp
s\n(p-^ + pcoscp
dy _ smcpdp + pcoscpdcp _
dcp
dx ~ coscpdp-psmcpdcp ~ c o s ( p ^ - p s i n ( p "
d(p
, , -^^, dx
, ( ,
dp
sm(p^+ pcoscp
d(p
_ pcoscp -f p sin(p
^..cr^^P
^c.\^.^ t^
pcoscp-psincp
coscp^psinep
^ r
^ ,
dcp
dp cos^cp + sin^cp _
dcp coscp-sincp

sin^cp + cosV
cos^-sin^

, ^ = p .
dcp
8.4. x

\-y

= 0,

u,v, = , v = .
X

432

. z , ^lepes
z ,v.

dv '

dv '

_
^ ^ dv
dv \
- - = 1, - = 0, ^= - ^ , - = - ,

X
dz _
dz
dz _\ dz
^ dv'
X dv

, u,v,
dz

^
^^

2 = 0 -z = 0.

d'z , d'z
d'z
,
8.5. ~ 2 f- -j - ^,

dz
dz
V +V
du
dv
dv

=^ + , = -~ , X

W = .
X

. z ,
; w,t;.
:
xdy-ydx
,
xdz zdx
du = dx-^-dy, dv = -r^, dw =
z
.
x
x
dw
,
3w , dw J
u,v dw = d u -\-dv .
du
dv

dw , dw ,
dz z ,
d u +dv =
-dx
du
dv
XX

433

(dx + dy) + '

-^ -^ \dx =

dx
X

dz
dz = x

(fdw

dw
x^ dv

z ,
''^

dw
du

I dw\
dy
X dv

,
dz

dw
= X

dx

dw
V

du

dz _
dy

hW,

dv

8.6.

dw dw
du dv '

d^u d^u d^u


= 0, dx" dy^ dz'

.
.
X = sin 0 cos (, j = sin 0 sin ^, z = cos .
, x = rcos^,

j ; = ''sin^ ( z ),

z = COS0,

= sin0 ( ( ).
d^u d'u

dx' dy'

du _ du dx
dr dx dr

du dy
dy dr

du _ du dx du dy
d(p dx d(p dy d(p '

du
du
du
du
du
du
= -rsm(p-z + rcos(pz
^ = cos^
hsm^
d(p
dx
dy
dr
dx
dy '
du du

dx' dy ,

434

sin

. cosfl)
= cos(p
. = sm(p + . (*)



'
'

_(
= cos(p
ydXj

sincp
(

sincp ^
sincp ^
2 ^ 2 sin (2) cos ^
= COS (--
^-+
coscp

(
(
'


sin^ ( ' 2 sin ( cos ( sin^
(
'
' '
cos(p
'
(^
= sm(p
smcp h

' [By)
+

coscp ^
coscp ^ . 2 ' 2 sin cos '
s m ^ +
^
^ +
(
' +

sm (--
cos^ ' 2 sin cos
'
(

cos^

^
' ' ' ' ' 1 ' 1

1
1
=
1
1
1
.
' / dz' dz' ' ''

, z = cos = sin 0 ,

' ^_^ _Li!^ 1 ^


dz''^dr'~dp'^

''^

'

-, (*),

_ . cos

'

435

,
^

^ _ ^

1 ^

ctg0

8.9.
1.
. z = f{x,y)
^(^,^) (),
()
{,), ^, . .
/ ( M Q ) > / ( ) ( / ( M Q ) < f{M)), ,
I MQM \< , >0 .
.
Z = f(x, ) ^ (XQ , ^Q ),

^/(^^) ^Q.

^^^) ^Q

'

(1)

, (1),
,
.
. MQix^.y^)
z = /(jc, ),

MQ .

^^^^'/(^).
^

g^^'fj^o^yo),
'

/) = ^-5'.:

^^^VOwO.
'

(2)

436

1) Z) > , z = f{x, ) ^ {^, ^)


: ^ < ( < 0) ^ >
();
2) Z) < , ^ ;
3) Z) = , .
2.
z = z{x.) (/ = 1,2, ... ,) () (
), ()
{^),
MQ , . . /{MQ) > f(M) (/(^) < f(M)),
, ^ <, >0
.
.
Z = z{x-) ^ {^),

^^
^

0 = 1,2, ...,).

(3)

, ,
,
.
. M Q ( X )
z = z(jc^),

^. :
1) J^z(Mo,A JC^)<0
(z = 1,2,...,), ^ ,
d/^z(Mo,A x j > 0 , . =^-)';^0
(/ = 1,2,..., ) ;
2) (i^z(Mo, -) ,
., . . -

437

., ^
;
3) ^f^z(Mo, X.) - ^ ^Q {i-1,2,... ,)
,
.

^^, (-^?-^!' "^


= (2-^ (/, : = 1,2, ... , w),

... ,^. ^^^^^^


1^=1

, . .
,
*1\

.
4,22

^2

*\
*1

>,

(4)

(jc, ,..., ) ;
, .
,
(xl'jX^,... ,^) .

.
9.1. : )
+ 9x-6j^ + 20; )

Z = 3JCJ;-4JC-8>;;

-^-^-

) z = / - 6 + 27>^;

) 2 = 1 + (-1)'(;; + 1)';) z = l ~ x ^ - j ; ^ .
3z
, ) - = 2 - j^ + 9;

= 2j; - : - 6.

438

2->; + 9 =0,
[-2;-6 =0.
^ = - 4 , J;^ = 1.

. : ^"=2,

=-1, =

=2
^

D- -^ = 4 - 1 = 3 > 0 . 4> , (-4,1)


.
z^=16 + 4 - f l - 3 6 " 6 + 20 = ~ l .
) :
---\
- = - 8. ,

,
: 3>^-4 = 0, - 8 = 0, ,
_8
_4
.
: ^~^'
^2

^~

^^'

= = . Z) = - JB^ = - 9 < ,

8
4
=~,
^=-.
dz
) : = 3 x ^ - 6 ,

= 'iy^ + / j^ ,
: Mj(V2,0) 2(-/2,0).
: -> < JC < 4-00, 0 < j ; < + ^

, ,

439

Mj ^
, j^ = ,
.
, ,
, , . .
.
3z
) - = 2(x-l)(j; + l) ,

-\
_
_
= 4( -1) (>' + !) . = 0 = 0 qy

M Q ( 1 , - 1 ) .

= Y = ^(>' + U ->

^ = - 7 - = 8(-1)(;; + 1)\ = ^ = 12(-1)'(;; + 1)'

D = -^ ^(1;-\), D = 0,
.
Az = z(M) - Z(MQ)
MQ . ^ < - 1 , Az = ( -1)^ (>^ +1)"^ > ,
j;^^ > - 1 , Az > . ^ < 1, Az > ; ^ > 1,
Az > . , ^ Az >
(1;-1) z^^ = 1 .
dz
2 1
) : ~ ~ ~ ^ '

3 ijx
dz _ 2 \
V" - ~ 7^
, ^ (0;0).
, MQ
MQ ,
.

440


^.
2

Az = z{M) -Z{MQ) = -^ ^
,.
, ^ z^^ = 1.
9.2. : ) = xyz{4

-x-y-z);

) 5 x 4 5 / + 5 z ^ - 2 x y - 2 x z - 2 > ^ z ~ 7 2 = 0 .
, ) .
:
= yz{4-x-y''z)-xyz,

xz(4-x-y-z)'-xyz

=
xy{4-x-y-z)-xyz,
az
,
;0;0) ^;!;!).
: j = -2yz^

-^=-2xz

^'

= z(4-2x-2v-z)

= -2JCV

'

az'

^ '

^'

2:
dxdz
, , .


Mj(0;0;0),
..
Aw = w(M) - {^) = xyz{4
-x-y-z)
,
^ (0; 0; 0), ,
, ^ .

2 (1,1,1). (4)
= X ( 4 - X - 2 > ; - 2 Z ) - ^ = J;(4-2JC-J-2Z).

-2

-1

-1

-1

-2

-1

-1

-1

-2

441

:^<0.

,
;!;!) ^^^ -1.
) Z ,
.

F{x,,z) = ^ -^ -^ -1-Ixz-2yz-12
= 0,

aF

3F
_ _
^~~^~~

\0x-2y2z
\0z-2x-2y'

dz

\0y-2x-2z
\0z-2x-2y

dz

: 10x-2j^-2z = 0
10>'-2x-2z = , = , z = 5 x - j = 4x. j
Z 1 5 16 ^ - 2^ - 8^ - 8^ - 72 = ,
= = \.

=

a'z

'

d'z ^

^z
/

(10-2z;)(10z-2x-27)-(10x-2;;-2z)(10z; - 2 )
(10z-2x-2>')'
(-2 - 2z' )(1 Oz - 2 - 2) - (1 - 2>^ - 2z)(l Oz'^ - 2)
(10z-2x-2>;)'
(10-2z;)(10z-2x-27)-(10j;-2x-2z)(10z^-2)
(10z-2x-2j^)'

D = -^
: =

,
18

= ,
18

= = \.
=

,
18

442

25 \_
D = -^
j- = ^;;^>0. ^ < 0 , ; = >^==1 18' 18' 27
.
D = = -\. 5
1
5
2
: = , 5 =
, = , ^ = > .
18
18
18
^/
v4 > , = = -\
.
9.3.
,
.
. , , z
. V = xyz.
S =/ xy
V + 2(x
V^ + y)z . z,
S = 4-2
+
^

S(x,y) .


\^ = 2V,
[y^x = 2V,
XQ=yQ=0 = = y/lV
,
1
V = xyz, z = ~ v 2 F

443

8.10.

Z = / ( )
D,
()
, Z),
. ()
.
,
Z), ,
,
Z), ()
.
D ,
z = / ( )
, .
()

.
10.1. :
) z = x^-j;^-jc + jv; = 0, JC = 2, >^ = 0,
-\\
) z = x ^ + 3 / + x - > ; ; = 1, j ; = l, x + j ; = l;
) z = sinjc + sinj;-sin(x + 3;); jc = 0, >^ = 0, --1.
, ) .
z, [
. :
z^ =2:-1 = 0, z\, =:-2j + l = 0. ^,-

444

z(M) = .
.

.
= z = -^ + jv, . .

< ;; < 1. z^ - -2 +1;

. . .

> - . z"^ = - 2 < , =


2

1
4
z(0,0) = 0; z(0,1) = .
j ; = z = x^ - .
0<<2.

z[=2x-l;

^ = ; ^ ^ = 2 > 0 . ^^IZ

; z^j^ ;0

z(0,0) = 0 z(2,0) = 2.
= I z = ^ . z,
z(0,1) = z(2,1) = 2 .

1
^= --^.

J^

= 2 z = 2-y^ + .
< jv' < 1.
, /'z^^ ==--22<<00. .
>>^^== -
z'^ = - 2 ; ; +1, = i,
2
''
2
/
, z^ 2; =2.
z(2,0) = 2, z(2,l) = 2.

445

z
, , -

=.
9
z^\ ( 2;

2)

z^j = .
;

) (. 8.1).
: z'^ = 2 +1, z[=6y-\,

^= ,

1
- . 6
,
.
.

. 8.1

X = 1 z = 2 + ^ - .
< >^ < 1.
z ^ = 6 j ; - l , = - , z ^ = 6 > 0 . = -
6

446

( \ \ 2
; ^-^^ ; =
V 6 J 12
2(1,0) = 2, 2(1,1) = 4.
;; = 1 2 = ^ + : + 2.
< JC < 1.
2^ = 2 +1, X = . =
2
2
,
: 2(0,1) = 2 2(1,1) = 4 .
X + JF = 1 z = ^ -4 + 2.
0 < j ; < l . ^-^"^-,
_1
2 = 8 > . -'Z 2

2'2

>^~;
= 1.

2(0,1) = 2, 2(1,0) = 2 .
, z^^^\ ^ = 1
2 2

) (. 8.2).

, .

^^

= cos X - cos(x + ;;) = ,

ox

. - . -
sin
sin
= 0,

3^

447

= cos j; - cos(jc + ) =

cos x - c o s j^ = 0 ,

= -{- 2 .

< < 2:, j = .


-
z = 2sinjc-sin2x .
z[=2 cos jc - 2 cos 2x, cos x - cos 2x = 0, 2x = x + 2 .
x 2kn
.
2
, = - - 1
2
2
XQ = , ^ = . {^.^) z =

, . . = , j ; = , -^- = 2
2 = 0. {^,^) ,
.
10.2. {,),

:
= 0, JF = 0, -+ 1 = 0 .
.
.
{,)
.
= , j^ =
^ ^ ,3. -+ 1 = 0

^x-y + l"^"
^
. \ + + \
,
= .

^

448

^^ -^ -\-{x-y-\-Xf.
:
= 3x--j^ + l = 0, = - + 3>'--1 = 0.

M(jc, ^ - , - ^

= '^'

^-

-~^'

^~"^

D = AC-'B^ = 8 > 0 >0

( > 0),

\,-

.
10.3. 2
, .
. x,y,z;
S = ^( - )( - ){ - z) ,
,
S=

+ '^ = 2,

^Jp(p-x)(p-y)ix-^y-p).

,

t^ = ip-'x){p-y){x
+ y-p).

= -(-)(

+ -) + (-){-)

= 0,

= -{-)(

+ -) + (-)(-)

= 0^


x = y = z = ^.

449

, ^
2 _ ^ _ /? ^ _ ^ _
: = - = , ^ ~ 1 ~ ^ ~ ~
^
3

3 '

i ) = ^ - 5

= ^^ > ^ <

2/7
;~
3

( < 0),

.
2/7

= y-z =
.

, ,
, .
10.4.
,
.
.
S = x-\-y-hz + t , xyzt = .
t t =
,
xyz
S = + y + z-i, . . ,
xyz
> 0 , >0, 2 > 0 . .

dS _

ayz
(xyz)

^^ -}

^^^
(xyz)

^'^ - 1

^^ -
(xyz)

= = Z = t = / , . . . ,
.
, -
= 0, = 0, z = 0
, S . -

450

, ,
S .

8.11. .

1. z = f{x,y)
MQ(XQ,JVO) ,
, ,
((,) = 0, . . /(^) > / ( )
f{M,)<f(M)
((,) = 0 ,,

u{x,y,X) = f{x,y) + l(p{x,y\

(1)

(
).

(2)

((,,) = 0
XQ , >', .

0
D= -

<',)

<;{)
(3)

451

) < , z = /(jc, ) ^ (JCQ , ^)


, D > .
2. z = z{x.)
(/ = 1,2,... ,) MQ(X*') ,
^ ^,
^ (JC.) = 0, (: = 1,2, ..., m; w < /i),

f(MQ)>f(M)vf{MQ)<f{M);

=\

\( = 1,2,... , ) ,
.

+

1^ =0

(/ = 1,2,...,);

[(,{) = 0 (/: = 1,2,...,).


, ^
^, .
:
1) d^u{x^, ^ ,dx.)<0,
, dx-

, = 0 {k = l,2,...,m)

(5)

\dxf^O

, z = z(x.) ^{^) -

452

2) d^u{x^,X^,dx.) > , (5),


Mo(jcf) .
11.1. : ) z^x-^Sy
^+^=10;
) u = x-2y + 2z '^ +y^ + z^ =9;
) u = xyz x + y-\-z = 5, xy-^yz + xz = S,
, )
, z
z-- jc^ + >^^ = 10.

w(x,j,A) =
--'\-{^ -^ -\Qi) :
= 1 + 2\ = 3 + 2.

(2)
1 + 2 = 0,
3 + 2>; = 0,
jc'+/=10,

: jc^ = 1, j;^ = 3, , = , jc^ = - 1 , ^2 = - 3 ,


^

^:;;- = 2,

'

^ ^ =0,

'

7-7 = 2,

d^u = 2(^^ +dy^), = ; J^w < , ,


^(1,3) z^^ = 10.
=; d^u>0, ,
2
2(-1,-3) z^j = - 1 0 .
,
(3).

453

, : ^(x,;;) = j c ^ + / - 1 0 , ^;[(,) = 2 , ^(/,) = 6,


1/;(,) = - 1 , < ( , ) = 0, 1/;(,) = -1
|0
D.

= -40<0,

2 -1
|

-l|

. . /, .
, ^

I - 2 -61
D = - -2

I = 40>0,

-6

. . ^ .
) .

W = A : - 2 7 + 2Z + A ( J C ^ + / + Z ^ - 9 )

= l + 2Ax,

= - 2 + 2,

dz

= 2 + 2Az.

|1 + 2 = 0, \- = 0,

>Li=-.

^1=-1.

J^i=2,

z,=-2,

^=--,

2=1,

3^2 = - 2 ,

Z2=2.

454

a'w 2,
..

a'vv
^ .,2, '

d'w

d'w

''

dxdz

dydz

^ 2,


d^w\ -1,2,-2, = 1 > .
,
^^ = - 9 .

9

J w(l,-2, 2,) = -1 < , ,


^^ = 9 .
) .

W = xyz + X^(x + y + z-5) + X2 ( + yz + xz-S).


- = yz + X^+A^y + A^z = 0,

= xz + A^+ A^z + ^ = ,

= -\-^+ ^ + )^ = ,
z
JC + _ + Z = 5,

+ yz-bxz

= S.

455

: ,(2,2,1), ^ - , - , - U 3 ( 2 , 1 , 2 ) , M J - , - , 5(1,2,2),,

/ 7 4 4^
''

d'w d'w '' ' dz'


^W

= z + X
'''

'W
dydz

= 0,

= X + l2,

^'

d'w
dxdz

= y + l2


. , d^w(2,2,1, Aj = -1) = 4 >
= 4. .


^ 4 4 7_ . _
'''^"

^^

7^

- 4 < -

4 .

.
^,^ ^-^ = 4 ,
4
/4, Mg ^^ = 4
27
11.2.
.
.

V - xyz, . .
. ,
,
^'
/
z' ,
= xyz + - + ^ + - - 1

456

.
= yZ + A
-^ = ^'^^-2'

('"

^ 2

. 2z
^2

^Iz
^
- = xz + A-, -= +
= xz + A ^ , = + -,
b
dz


yz + X-^ = 0, xz + X-^ = 0^

b
. 2z

^ ^

z^

/
/
, = , = ,
Z = . ,

/
= ,

=^,

^
z = c . ,


2/
^ 2/
2^3
=
, =
, z=c
.

9


9*1*
1.
. 7. .5.
F(x,y) =
((,,)
:(,)(-,)

+ ;(,)(-,)

= 0.

(1)


Fy(x, )( - ) -

F;(X, )(

-) = 0

'

'

(2)

2. = (p{tX y=\l/{t)

t g a = - 7 ,
^t

458

--^^^)

7 - - -

^0

-^0

(3)

(3) , ^' = ,
j ; ' 9^ , . . ,
. , ' = 0 ' = 0 ,
(3) .
3. = {(), ,
= cos (, = psincp,

/^
p^sincp + pcosip
tg = - r = - 7
:
X coscp-psmq)

(4)
^ ^

. 9.1


- (. 9.1 ),

tge=-^^.
.

(5)

1.1.
2^ - x V - + ;; + 7 = (1,~2).
. .
(1).

= 6JC^-2^-3;

= -5.

459

- - = -2>' + 1;

=5

, ~5(-1) + 5( + 2) = --3 = 0.
(2):
5(-1) + 5{ + 2) = 0 + ;; + 1 = 0.
1.2.
X = ^ - sin /; 3^ = 1" cos t , / = -
. :

,
.
= l - c o s = 1
-^^
2
^
dy
sin t
..
=
dx 1 cos^
:

sm
=
' 2

.
sin =
2 2

^
1,

/=-

1-COS

,
-\ = \\X

+ 1 -

h 2 = . , -

, j^ - 1 = - X

+ 1 +
= 0.
2
2
1.3.

^ = 2^ cos 2(.
. (5).
, < pp^=-2a^sin2^.

460

tg0 = - ^ = --ctg2(jf),

=-2(.


,
= 0 + (=:- + 3(;

^=-,

, j8 = 3<, . .
.

9.2.

.
,
,
.
,
.
F(x, y,z) = 0,
^(^,^,2^)

OZ

3FO ^ dpQ
-^, ^, ^

OZ

; x,y,z .

^ - ^ 0 _-<,

461

_^-2

^
3z

(2)

^^"^-?-^jTf [ ^; J
. ,
dF ^
^ .
.
= = = , : ;; dz
, .

z = f{x,y),

z-z,^^{x-x,)

+ ^{y-y,),

^/ /

(3)
, ,

^, ^^^ MQ .


^

-1

(4)



.
-
-q
1
cosA = .
:r; cos/l=.
=; cosv =
(5)
p = -:r- =
7, -^-- 7 -

F,
>^
^
.
2.

462

x = (p{u,v), y = \{/iu,v), z = x{u,v),


TO
(xo,3;o,Zo)
|^-^
/
\
/

-
/

"^

2-^0
/
2
/

= 0.

(6)


cosA =

1^+^+^'

cos ji

^""^

1'+^+&

cosv =

(7)

+ / ' + 5 ' + ' '

^
\

; = /
^0

; =
^

/
^

/
>'|

3.
,
, .
^
Of =
.
2.1. : ) z = arctg

) ^ + / + z ^ - j c : V ^ - 1 0 = 0
Mr, -1;1;~1;
(~1;2;1); ) x = psin(p, >^ = 8, z = ptga
^(');) rlucosv,

us'mv, ^la^-

r^^ixo^y^.z^}.

463

, ) .
(3),(4).

71,
..
Z

X' + ^

^^

dz
X

X +

1,
..

]_

:
. " 2

^ ;

= (jC-f 1) + ( - 1 ) X-Vy LZ ,

^ 1
1
^

x^^y-AJ_^

2
+ 1 -\
^-^/^
j- = -j- = ^-^
/2
/2
1 / 1 /
-1

1
-2 '
) .
F{x, , z) = x^ +^ +z^ - xyz - 1 0 ,

dF

^^0

= 3 -yz,

= 3

-JCZ,

dF

^ = 1,

^ = 13

^^0

~ = 3z -,

'

-^^ = 5.

dz

OZ

(1),(2),
jc + l + 13(>'-2) + 5(z-l) = 0 x + 137H-5z-30 = 0

jcH-1

--2

Z 1

) .

464

{pQ,%)
(6). ^,
Z-Z,
sm%

COSCPQ

Pocoscpo

tga

-PoSiiKPo

= 0.

XQ = P o s i n % , = Pocos(p^, z^ = p^ t g a

xpo sin (p^iga- PI sin^ %^% + yp^ cos (Potga-pl

c o s ' < t g a - zpo + Po t g a = 0

X sin %-\-y cos - z ctg a = 0.


(2) ^
. ,
x-ppSincpo ^y-p^cos%
sin<pQ

^ z-potgg

cos^o

~-ctgao

r)
= cos v,

y^usmv,

z- 4^ - w' .

{x^^y^-^z^

(6).
u,v (XQ, J^O,ZQ) ,
^-^0

-^

cos ^0

sin v^

-UQ

s m VQ

UQ COS VQ

z-z^
= 0.
0

(z-ZoKCOS v^+{y-y^)
/

465

" -f

t/oCOSt^o

+(z-Zo)WoSin ^ , + ( x - X o ) - f = = f = 0
, JC,J;,Z

XXQ + j^>^o + ZZQ = XQ + >^ + ZQ


,
^ + ^ -\-zzQ=a^.
2.2.
^ + ^ = z^ (4;3;5).
?
. .
F(x, , z) = ^ + j^^ - z^,
= 2,

= 2^

^ = 8,

^ = 6,

= 2z,
dz
^ = -10.
dz

x-4__j^-3_z-5

x-4_y-3__z-5

^\dF dF Fl
<,' ~ ^^^^ [ dz ]
. (0;0;0)

466

dF

dF

dF

- = -= = ,

OZ

.
2.3.
^ +^ -xz-yz = 0 (0,2,2).
. .
(5).

dF^
dF^

Ix-z
=-\\
+ '

dz

_2y-z

3F/

2_

q = l.

, cos = - ^ , coSjU = 1=,

cosv=-j=r.

2.4. ,
^ + 2^ + 2 ^ = 4 ) x-2y + z = 0;
^
x +l v - l z +1
)
=
=
.
2
2 - 1
, ) .
F{x, , z) = ^ + 2^ - z^ - 4 ^ .
dF .
dF ^
- = 2,

-- = 4,

= 2z.
dz



aF 3F aF
_^__^__2_
2 _ 4>; _ 2z
~ " ^ 1 " - 2 ""

^+ 2;;^ H-z^ = 4 ,
1,-1)2,1,-1).

467

, :
2 ( x - l ) ~ 4 ( j ; + l) + 2 ( z - l ) = 0 x - 2 j ; + z-~4 = 0;
-2(jc + l) + 4(>;-l)-2(z + l) = 0 jc-2;; + z + 4 = 0.
)

^F

aF

dx_ = ^^3z_
^,= 22^=2z
I

1 1 - 1

^ \-2^ +z^ = ,
4
2 2 ^
-^

,
/,
V7' /7'/7
Vv'Vv' V?
, :

^
.
14 ^ ,
^
14 ^
2JC + 2 V - Z + - = 0, 2x + 2 y - z - = 0.
V7
/7
2.5. jc^ - j ; ^ - 3 z =
, /, (0,0,-1),
^ = Z
^
1 2'
. F(x,, z) = x^ -^ -3z )/^

= 2, = - 2 j , = - 3 .

dz

dF

dF

OZ

/ + m + -2 = 0 2-7""3 = 0. -

468

,
^
2{^ -)

2(^ -^)- 3(zj - z) =

2 J C V 2 - 2 / - 3 Z - 3 = 0,

2 -3 = 0,

x'-r-3z = 0,
[2x'-2/~3z-3 = 0.
,
= 2, = 1, z = l. ,

4 ( x - 2 ) - 2 ( > ; - l ) ~ 3 ( z - l ) = 0 4x-2>;"-3z = 3 .
2.6. , ,
,
2

^ +^ +z^ =^, ^.
. F\pc^y^z) =


3
3
dz 3
(1)
(^'^'^)

x/\x-x^)+y/'(y-y^)+z~/'(z-z^)=0
,
X

v/3
^0

Z _
^/
^0

469

-'^\^^

-^^^

z-a'^z^^

.
2.7. , ^ -^ -!^ ^
jc^ + ^ + z^ = .
.

.

,

.
F,(x,;;,z) = x ^ + + z ^ -

^2 (, ^ z) = x^ +^ +z^ -
/, =^ = 2 - ,

1^=^ = 2, =^ = 2, ^=^ = 2-4,

n,=^ = 2z,
2=^ = 2z.
az
az

1^2 + ^^ - 1^2 =
= 4,
2(2 -) + 2(2 - 46) + 2z 2z = ,
4x^-2ax + 4 / - 8 6 y + 4 z ^ = 0 , 4 - 2 - 2 = 0,
. . ,
.

470

93.
(. 9.2 )
s MN,
N^> ,.^. = lim.

.^duL

. 9.2
- / ( )

=-

\ I
/2

(1)

jc = jc(/), = y(t),

\xy-yx'
/2

(2)

F(x, ) = 0,

IF" F"

F;

(^; '+F:

\\
4
|
2

(3)

471^


= (<),

^1:;^^-

(4)

, ,
R = . k
,
.
.

.

. 9.3

R,
, ,
(. 9.3 ). ((^,7])
(,)
^=

^ = . +

;
5^-

1+/ '
^-' .
77- = ^ ...
...^'

(5)

472


. ,
. (5)
.
,
F(^,r7) = 0.
3.1. : ) = ^-4
2

(2,-4);

) + - = 1 ; ) ^ = ^ cos 2(
b
;) x = a{t-sint),
y = a{\-cost) t = n .
, ) : = 2 - 4 ; = 2
2) = 0, ''-2.
(1),

) . :
,^2
^

^2 '

^-^2
XX

'^^^
2 '

F" = ^ ,
I 2 '

I 2 '

F " = 0

(,0): F ; = ~ , i^;' = , F; = 0, = ^
F^ = 0, (3),
?.||

I '^'
2

\\

0
?
^ =

\\

"

1 '^ 8

473

(0,6) :
// 2
^/ = 0, F^ = -j,

, 2
Fy=-.

2
^^^^

/^/^'= 0.

1^
'0

7.

?,

\~2

0
0

\
?

, {-, 0) = ? ^ ^
(0,-6) : = - .

) 2pp' = -2a^sin2<p, ' =

(^'

2^

2(3^

=^sin2^
cos2<p =
i-sin 2(
'

'
(4),

sin2(j!>,

cos2^ -

/^4

p^+2^-sin~2(p + p ysin 2( + 2cos 2(

'

Y''

^ cos 2^ + 2 -sin^ 2^

_ " + 2* sin^ 2+a*sin^2(p+2a^p^ cos 2 _


'((^ cos' 2( + * sin' 2()1 p^f^
~
^cos'2^ + "*sin'2( + 2''sin'2( + 2*cos'2<; _* _

474

) :
i = a(l--cos/), >' = sin^, x-asint,
t-:

= cost

= 2, = 0, = , j ; = - l .

(2), =

^ = - .
{2)
4
3.2. 2

: ) = ^;
) p = a(p,

) ^+^=^;

) x = acos^ t, y = asin^ t;

, a) ' = ^, '' = 6
R =

R=

(1 + / ' ) ^ _ ( 1 + 9JC')^
1

|6|

+ ^^
-^^ = .
) F{x, ) = ^^

(.

I ?\2

R=

\{^:'+ . ) !

\\

F:\

\: 4|

2 --

\\F:

2 --

2 -X

V
- -

2 \

(>.)3

3
_2

475

_4

X ^ ^ - ^ ^

{xyf
( l
1
^
-'^

= 3\.

3 3

: = -3acos^ ^sin^,

= 3asin^ ^cos^ ,x=--3(2(-2cos^sin^ ^+cos^ ^) =3(2Cos/(2sin^ ^-cos^ t),


= 3a(2 sin t cos^ t - sin^ /) = 3a sin ^(2 cos^ t - sin^ 0 .

\ \
{9^ cos^ t sin^ t+9(2^ sin"^ / cos^ /)
-9a^ cos^ ^sin^ ^f2cos^ r-sin^ t)-9a^ sin^ /cos^ /(2sin^ /-cos^
3(2sin^rcos^^
|sin'r cos'r (-2 + 1)1

3^|sin2/|
2

r) : p' = a, p'' = 0 no
/^ - .\T.

r. R = -^
.
p'-^2a'

2''-'

3.3. = .
. ' = , '' = ^-
(1), =

^ . -

(i+xY^

476

, ,
. . X = . , /: = 1.
3.4.

(,) = [ + -^-/-0.

[ + [=^1;

1 -1 -1 -1 -FZ = - -X 2 F " = - - v 2
^
2
' ^
2^ '

F " = 0 -

-
1

1 -1 1 -I

-4^

X ^

=\2

1 4

11

11

X yYi + j^X

'^'

1{ + )

, = (Va - 4xY,
^(^)=

2( + ([^-[^

'

'=-

1
,
+ (/^-/^)')2(1-2(>/^-/]^)7=
21

2-ix + (yf^-yf^ff

x+{y[a-4xf=0,

All

+-2/^+ = 0, 4 ' = 0

; \-2{yJa-yjx)7=^ = 0, yjx-yja+\fx=0,
2]

^^
^

2v^=J,
VA:

\
, 4 4)
, . . jc =
4
, .
)

,, . ((^
,(
= sin 2 COS"

p ' = asin^cos,

. .(\
sin' (4)

2
2
sm^ ^ + 1^ sin cos
sm
2cos -sm
3
3
3 3
3

^ 2

2 - 4

2(^

sin -ha sin cos

^ . 4 ^ . 4

3 sm + 2 sm cos - sin cos + sm


3
3
3
3
3
3
3a'sin^^

1 . /

= sin 4 +cos
3a
3V
,
:
1 (
^ 2 . (
. \
cos 4 + C0S sincossin
3
3
3
3
3
3
V

478

= COS 5 - 3 s i n
3^
9
3^

.. s i n ^ < J - , c o s ^ = 0,

5-sin'^^O,

:
^

( < =
, . . . , ( = =

3.5. =
(1;1).
/
1
// 2
. : = -, = - ^
X

: = - 1 , ''= 2

(. 9.4). , '
.
, O'N.
, MN = N0' -1

479

, (2;2).
, ( - 2)^ + (j; - 2)^ = 2.
3.6.
: ) ^'"" (0;1);
) JC = a{t - sin t), ^{\- cos t) {, 2).
, ) : ' = -""", '' = """,
: = - 1 , = 1

1
(5)(^=
^ 7 = 2 , 77 = j ; + - ^ = 3.
, ( - 2)^ +(>-- 3)^ = 8.
) : x = a(l-cost), y = asint,
x = asmt, y = acost. t :
2 = {\ cos /), cos ^ = - 1 , t = K . ^ = -1
: = 2, = 0, = 0, y = -a.Uo (5)
^ =,1 = -2.

\-\
\2{-)\
,
:
{x-Kaf ^{y + 6af =\6^.
. 3

: ) ^^',
) X = cos ^ >^ = 2 sin ; ) = '''^.

2/

2/

2/

) ^^ -^^ = ^^;

480

, ) (5)
.
3jc(l-f9jc')
^ 3
1+9JC' 1 9 2
<;= X
= -: ,7=7+~~^'^~^^
.
= -3/.
,

9 9fti
3 2 . ,
V
(. 9.5).

. 9.5
) . .
1

: =

1 ^ ' ^ . -

J
(5),

\
1+
^ = + \-+^\
' ^ )

1 = + 3^\

v^'^/
,
:

481

((^ -])^ = ^ - j ; ^ , ((^ +7])^ + (^ - 7 ] ) ^ = 2 ( ^ + ^') = 2^\

45
^

gj =

^+7]

^-77

, 7] J = -

j ^

,
^^/^ +7]j^ = (2)^ ,
(. 9.6)
, 45
.

. 9.6
) .
: : = - sin ^, 7 = 2 cos /, Jc = - cos /, j^ = - 2 sin t.
(5),
,
, =cos^

sin^/ + 4cos^r ^

r-2cos/ =
2sin / + 2cos t
= cos / - (1 - cos^ t + 4 cos^ t) cos ^ = - 3 cos^ t.

482

ri = 2smt

:;
^sm t
2sin^^ + 2cos^/

. 3

sin^ + 2 - 2 s i n ^ sin/= sin t.


2
/
/,
^ + (2])^ = 3 ^

(. 9.7)
= 2 sin / -

. 9.7
) , ,
. ' = ,
^2

'' = ^ . R = ~^
:,'+2''-'
R = ^1 + ^ .
,
Q - (.
9.8). t g 0 = - ^ =

const, -

483

. : = ctg0 ,
R

, /S.ONM , sin0
NM. /^
, Pp<Pi

(.. 9.8) ^= pctgd = ,(pi -( + ~.

. 9.8
,
^ ,

pj = ^

9.4.
1. {^,) F(X,JH) = 0
,

484


A^F'^{x^,y^\
B^F^ix^.y^),
C = F;^(x,,y,l
D = -^,
Z) > , MQ (. 9.9).

. 9.9

. 9.10

JD < , MQ , . . (. 9.10).
D-0, MQ (.
9.11) (. 9.12)
(. 9.13), .

. 9.11

. 9.12



.
^ + 2 + ^4 = .
;
;
.

485

, 9.13
2.
x = (p{t\y = \f/{t) ^ = ^ x'^=(p\t^)^Q
1^\1/^)^0^
.
^ ,
^ , ^>0,
. ^^- ^'^'- 9^ , MQ
; ^^- ^^'= , ^
.

: , . .
4.1. ^ = ^ + ^ . F(x,y) = ^ -h ^ -jc^
F^ = -2, F^, = lay + ^.

-2JC = 0,

2;;+ 3 / = ,
0(0,0).


F: = -2-

= -2,

F" = 0; 5 = 0,
F';^2a + 6y; = 2.

486

D = -^ = -4 . > , D <
(. 9.14).

i\

1
/ " " .

. 9.14


2^ - 2 = 0 :^ = , . .

-1<^ - j=. < , Z> >


/
(. 9.15 ) . (2 = , Z) = 0.
^ = ^ = ^jy^ ,
J > , . . ,
. ,
(. 9.16).
1i

=0

. 9.15

. 9.16

487

4.2. , jc = acos^r,
^ sin^ t .
. ^''^- cos^ sin ,
[ = 3<2sin^ ^cos^. , ^

^, =0, ^2 -~-> h -^
= {2 cos / sin^ ^ - cos^ t),
= (2 sin / cos^ t - sin^ t).
'/ ''
, .
x''' = 3a(7sin^cos^^-2sin^0. y=3a(2cos^^-7sin^^cos0.
M.{i = 1,2,3,4)
^\'

^~

9^^ (7 sin t cos^ t-2 sin^ t){2 sin t cos^ t - sin^ t)\

-9a^ (2 cos t sin^ t - cos^ /)(2 cos^ t -1 sin^ ^ cos 0|

^ 0,

TO . ,
(. 9.17),

(t/,0),(0,a),(-a,0),(0,-a).

. 9.17

488

9.5.
1. - f{x) y-g{x)

^(^' >^)
, ^ .
^

^ / ( ) g(x)
(w + 1) -

/() = g(Xo), /'() = gVoX


/ V o ) = gX^ol - . /^"^) = ^"^)' ,
MQ . >2
= ) j ; = g(x) ^
, .
= f{x) y = g(x)
^(^) , . . /(XQ) = g(Xo),
/(XQ) ^ g(Xo), ,
MQ .
2.
,
.
,
, F(x, >^,) = ,

F(x,;;,a) = 0; F;(x,j;,a) = 0.

(1)

(1) ,

D{x,y)^0,

(2)

489

.
,
.
3. .
y = f{x)
G{x,y,a,b,... ,/) = 0. , ,
,
^(^,^)
, . .
= f{x) MQ .
{,,,... J) = G{x,f(x),a,b,... ,/)

(,,6, ... ,/) = 0,

'^(^,,, ... ,/) = 0, ... ,

[::!\,,^^^.1)=.

(3)

(3)
,, ...,/.
, -15.1. = (^^ + "'')
= ^-\-\ ^ = .
1

1 9

. f(x) = (e''+e "") g(jc) = JC +1


) = ^('--'),

g\x) = x,

() = ^('+-^),

g'Xx) = h

) = ^('--'),

g"Xx) = 0,...

490

XQ =

/ ( 0 ) = 1, g(0) = l, 0 ) = 0, gXO) = 0,
( 0 ) - 1 , g"(0) = l, ^(0) = 0, g\0) = Q.
/ ' ^ ( 0 ) = 1, g(^>(0) = 0, . . ^\0)
g^'\0).
- .
5.2. , = 2-^
^'^ ^ =
?
. / ( x ) = 2x + Z? g(x) = e'".

=0

:
/(0) = g(0), / ( 0 ) = gXO). , 2 0 + /7 = " 0 ;
2 = "'' . = 2, 6 = 1.
5.3.
( - ) / = .
2
.
. , (1)
{-)

=,

2 = .

. 9.18

491^

, = ,
,
(. 9.18).
5.4. , /,
.
. ,
,

cos
,
xcosa

jHsina

2
FiJijri
.
3
-+
-. = 0
~ 3
sm cos
sin cos
,,
X
cos^a
,
, .3
\
jc = /, jc = /sin ;
sin sin
sin^a

.
, 3
:y-v-^ = /, j ; = /cos ,
cos
cos
. . (. 9.17).
5.5.
-{of
.

--{-^,
0--3(~)'.
,
j^ = ,
(. 9.19).

492

. 9.19
5.6.
{x-af -{-{y-bf =^R^.
a,b,R, .
= f(x),
(, =

{-+(--\

'^{,)=^2{-) + 2(-)\
':,{, = 2 +

2/'+2(-)\

, \ '',
X = XQ, ,, .
a,b,R (3)

(x,-af+iy,-^bf=R\
-1 +

{^-)^=0,

^^?+(-):=.



^1 + ?
^ = - ~

/2

1+Zo
= +

R = -^

493

\\

a,b,R
.

9.6. -
1. d(t) -, /
. 5(/)
/, ,
,
a{t).
- ^~>0
t^
da ,. (^+^)-(/) ,.
= lim ^^
^"^ = lim .
dt ^-^
^
/-^ /

d(t) = a^(t)i+ay(t)j+ a^(t)k, -

dd da^ - da _. da^
dt
dt
dt '
dt
^^
d no
t. d{t)
, ,
R=\d\
. d{t) ,
, .
.

494

2. -
:
14 ^ -.\
da db
1) {ab)^ \
dt
dt dt
dc
2) = 0, ;
dt
d
da
3) {ma) = m-^ m ;
dt
dt
d
da ^djl
4) {lia) = fi + a-^YjiQ ii = ii{t)

t;
5)
^
^^
6)
^
^
7)

d .-. . da ^ db
ia'b) = b
+a ;
dt
dt
dt'
d .^ r. da r ^ db
(axb) = x b + a x
dt
dt
dt'
d ^. ^ .. da do
a{(p{t)) =
, (p = (p{t) dt
dcp dt

/.

3.
x = x{t), y = y(t), z = z{t)
= x{t)i + y{t)j + z{t)k , -

dr dx-T dy -, dz ^i +-^j+k.
(2)
dt dt
dt
dt


ds = ^x^+y^+z^dt.
(3)
4. d{t) -
/, ,

495

- r{t),
.
f{t) (
7{t) ), {

. ^. ds
\^\=-. =^w ,
dt
( ^1
d^r dr
d'x dy d'z
dt" dt Yt
de' dt^' de
,
r{t) = r^{t)i + ^( + K{t)k .
: v^= , v^,=r^Xtl v^=r^(t).

^='^f.
2

,
t

z = r^{ty

-
6.1.
(/) = cost-i +sint' j + , te R.
.
x = cos^ j^ = sin^, z = l. ,
^ +^ =1; Z = 1. , -
(/) .
6.2. - =dt^ -\-bt,
b , .

496

. ,
b , jc = /^, y = t.
, -^'
, -
.
6.3.

-
= sin^ / + sin t cos t] + costk , te [0,2].
. (1)

= 2 sin ^ cos ti + (cos^ t - sin^ i)j - cos tk =


dt
= sin^ ti + cos^ tj - cos tk 6.4.

-:
= c o s / / + e 7 + (^^+l)^

(1;1;1);

) =^' + (1)7 + /'-4^ / = 2.


, )
x = cos/, = \ z = / ^ + l ,
, t^^O. -
= -sin^z + / + 3t
= /.
dt
-^
"^
dt
'
) = 4t i + 2tj + .
, dt
2//'-4
^!:^221 + 4] + .
"

*-

6.5. , = / + sin/ + cos/:


.
dp
-^
. = cos tj - sin tk. dt

. 1 +sin / cos / - cos / sin / =
.

6.6. -:

a-l

497

+ t]-^t^k

^ = / + '7 + ^'^-:) (5-6):) ().


dt
dt
, ) (5) ,
{db)
dt

= (ti +1^] + t^k){] + 2tk) + (i+t] + t^k)(i + 2t] + 3t^k) =

= t^ -\-2t^ + l + 2t^ +3t^ =l + 3t^ +5t\


6) (6) 2 ,
(^) = (7 + 2/^)(^7+^^7 + ^^^) + (^+^7+^^^)><(^ + 2/7 + 3^^^) =
dt
= t4 + 2t^j-tic-2t4

+ 3t4 + 2tk + t^j -tk-2t4-3t^j

= 0.

da
n^ -
,
-*
6.7. , a = u i -Vu j -\-uk , w=cons/.
dt
. (7) 2 :
= 3w^(--sinr)z +2w(-sinr)7-sin^^ = sin^(3w^/ +2uj-\'k).
dt
6.8. -:
) r ( 0 = cos3^r + sin/7 + N/2/^; ) (0 = (/'^-3) + (/4)7 + 1/^;
.

= - 3 sin 3ti + cos tj +


dt

. -

^ d^r
^
. -,
j - = -9cos3^i - s m r ^ .
dt
) ,
dr
\ - d^r
1 = 4/ + 3^^7 + - ^ ; -= 12^^?+ 6^7 :. L = l dt
t
dt^
*" r^
^ '
"^
^ = 12 -] - .
dt

498

6.9. r{t) = 3 cos + 3 sin tj + 2tk .


,
. / = ^ = .
.
= 3 cos t, j^ = 3 sin ^, z = 2^
.
V w
^ dr
.
v = = - 3 sin ti + 3 cos tj + 2k ;
-. a r
.
r ^ . -:
w = j-=-3cos^z - J s i n O .

dt
V = ^J{-3sinty
+ (3cosO^ + 2^ = / ,

w = yj(-3 cos tY + (-3 sin ty = 3 t. t = 0


_ -.
_
:
v^ = 2j + 2k , w^ = - 3 / ; t =
^^ = ~ + 2^ , w^ = -37
= / = . 9.20.

. 9.20.

499

6.10. r ( 0 = cosr/ -\-smtj-\- t^k .


w w^
w^ / t = 0.
.
-. dr
. -
-: - d^7
. -Z
V = = -sin/z +cos^y -htk; w = r- = -cos^z -sin^y -\-k
dt
dt

; = V sin^ t - cos^ t-^-t^ =yj\ + t^ .
dv
>^~~7" ^
dt
^ = I
, w^ =-yJw^ - ,
yl-\-t
H; = ^ ^ + W ^ + W ^ ^ , vv;=Jcos^^+sin^^+ 1
--J
j-.
, / = VHJ. = , w = /2 .
6.11. ,
,
v^,
r{t) = (vQt cos ) i + v^tsma

\j . -

.'
.

dr
. .
.-:
v = - = VQCOsai -i-{vQsma-gt)j .
dt
IV 1= 7(^0 cos )^ + {VQ sin - gtf = yjv^^ -Iv^gt sin a + g^t^

[ = 1^0/cos ,
gt'
y^v^tsma---

500

,
= x t g a

^
. . Ivl cos
.
6.12.

X = cos t, y-a%\Vit^z-a\vL cos t.


. i = - sin ^, - cos t,
sin/
z = -a
. (3)
cos/
^ sin/
^^^ * ^
adt
ds = M-a^\xit) +(flfcos/) +
dt =
cos/
cos/

9.
.


. ,
,
^{^^^,2) .
-
= ?(/), (. 9.21)
:
) ^^^ dr
d^r

-yj-; ) ^^^ dt
dr
dr
.
; )
dt
MQM^M^ .
:

501

. 9,21.

MQA/J

= ;
dt
) MQM^ ,
=

dr d"r
) MQM^ ,

N = [B,f]. :
-^ f
^

^
N

= =:-, = =-, V = :-
||
^ \\
\N\
df
^

dr

ds

-,

(1)

df
ds

s .
2.
X = x(t),

= y(tX

z = z(t) MQ (XQ , J^Q ' ^ )

dx
'dt

di
dt

di
dt

(2)

502

T.

(3)

x,y,z ; XO,J^Q,ZQ /^;


dy
dx
dz

7;=, = - ^ , =
"

dt
'
dt
' dt
^

(-)

dy_

dx
-)

dt

+ (2-Zo)

d^

(4)

dt

{x-x,)T^+{y-y,)T^+{z-z,)T^^Q.

(5)

:
^ - ^ 0 _-

N^

N^

_^-^o

N^

(6)

()
(7)

(8)

..


{x-x,)B^^{y-y,)B^+{z-z,)B^=Q.

(9)

3.
F{x,y,z) = G{x,y,z) = ,
dr
d^r

^
Y ar\dx,dy,dz]

503

d^r ^i^x,d^y,d^zY
x,y,z

.
7.1. jc = ^, y=^t^, z = ^^.6 /^ (2,4,8)
: ) f, v, j8 ; )
, ; )
, .
, ) -
f -ti -t^] - V'k
dr ^ -: ^ 2 d^7 rs- ^
= /+2//+:, T- = 2j+6tk,
dt
dr
^ /^ = 2 ,

^ dr ^
^
T = = i-]-4j + l2k,
dt

2-

5 = dt ' dt^

i J
1 4 12 = 24-127 + 2:,
0 2 12


i
N = {B,T] = 24

J
-12

k
2 = -152-287 + 108:.

12

,
_ /+4/+12:
=
==

Vi6i

^ _ 24r-12j + 2it _ 12-7 + ^


V724
/181

504

^ _ - 1 5 2 - 2 8 7 + 108^_-7-1437 + 54^
/116564

/29141

) ^ ^ = 2, >^ = 4, z^ = 8
^
dx ^ dy ^ dz ^^
1^=2 = 1, - ^ = 4, = 12, dt
dt
dt
(2)
-2_ j;-4_z-8

"''~"'~12~'
(6)
-2

-4

Z-8

z-8

=
=

-152 -286 108


-76
143
54
(8)
x-2_3;-4_z-8
-2_ j;-4_z-8

~24'~~^~'Y~

-2

-4

^ ~12~~~^~~~'

) (7)
-152(x-2)-286(>;-4)+108(z-8) = 0 76x+143>;-54z = 292.
(5)
( x - 2 ) + 4(j;-4) + 12(z-8) = 0 jc + 4:^ + 12z = 114.
(9)
24(x-2)-12(j;-4) + 2(z-8) = 0 12x-6>; + z = 8.
7.2. f, \7,
= ^, Z = 2 ^=2.
.
= ^ z = 2.
, ,
dy = 2xdx dz = 2dx, d^y = 2dx^ ^ d^z^O XQ=2
dr {dx,4dx,2dx}
rf'r{0,2Jjc',0} ^{1,4,2} rf'r{0,l,0}.

505

, :
, _ _1-\-] + 2
\i J \
^-
B = [dr,d'r] = 1 4 2 = -2i+k,
1 0
i j
N = [B,T] = -2 1 = -Ai+5j-U,
1 4 2


-2i+k
=^
=
.
1^1
/5

V = ^ ^ = -

-4i+5j-Sk

7.3.
: ) x = t, y = t^, z-t^, tQ=\;
) r ( 0 = sin^/r + sinfcos/7 + cos^/^, f = ; ) 2 x ^ + 3 / + z ^ = 9 ,
4
3 x 4 / - z ' = 0 (1,-1,2).
, ) : = \, y = 2t, z = 3/^
^ = I: (1) = 1, ^(l) = 2, z(l) = 3.
^ = 1, =1,
ZQ = 1 . , (2)
(4): z i = Z z l = z l , (^-1) + (;;-1)2 + (-1)3 = 0
1
2
3
x + y + z-6 = 0.
) x = s'm t,
y = sint cos t, z = cos^ / - /^ = , 1
Mf,: ^= , - - ^, ^, ^0

1
-

= - -

: = 2 sin t cos t = sin 2t,


y = cos^t-sm^t = cos2t, z = -2costsmt = -sm2t

506
^^

= -1.

= 0, Z

v4.


(2),
:
1
1
JC

2_

2_

-1

(3) 7^ = ,
, .
(5), ,
\

0 +

1
Z

= 0 jc + z - l = 0.

) :
(p{x,y,z) = 0 \i/{x,y,z) = 0, , , , x = x{t)
, = y{t),
Z = z{t) ( ,
).
x = t, :
2^43/+z'=9,

1
1
: = v9-5r% z = v7^^+9.
2
2
^ t,
.
/

:
I =5
Z

2 V? + 9

2V9-57

^: (1) = 1, (1) = -

507

^(1) = . ,

^ :
=^ ^ =^-,
4

( x - l ) + - ( y + l) + - ( z - 2 ) = 0

-^^^2-2^
8^ + 10j; + 7z-12 = 0.
8
8
8
7.4.
= cos t, y = asmt^ z = bt t = 7i.
,
^ -^ = .
. x--a^\Vit,

y = acost,

z = b.
x-acost
y-asint
z bt
+

z-
\
=
= ^ , / = : - - = ^ ^ = - ,
-asmt
cost
b

-
b
. . t = 7r ,
X = .
^ +^ =^ ^ Oz,
,
Oz:
Z
b
b
cos 7 =
yjz^+y^+z^
yJa^sm^t-\-b^cos^t + b^ 1^+^

Oz ,
.
7.5.
: ^ + + z ^ =9, ^ - =3 (2,1,2).

508

.
. ,
X ,
xdx + ydy + zdz - ,

xdx - ydy -

, ^ =2, ^-1, z^ = 2, dy - Idx,


dz = -2dx, d^y = -3dx\ d^z = -3dx^.
,
{dx, 2dx,-2dx} |0,-3^:^,-3^!^} {1,2,-2}
{0,-3,3}.
,

\
= 1

2 "2 = -12 + 3 7 - 3 ^ .

10 -3 - 3

-12(x-2) + 3 ( j ; - l ) - 3 ( z - 2 ) = 0 4x-y + z-9 = 0.

9.8.

1.
.
= r(s), s ,
R

ds'

(1)

R .
= r(t),

509

(2)
3
dr
dt
2.

R

1 ..

= = lim,
-^

(3)

As*,
.
= r(s),

dr d^r d^r
\dp\ ^ds_dsl_di_
ds

(4)

ds'
,

- ; ds
.
= r(t), . .
,
dr d^r d^r
^^}_^Js_di_dl_
(5)
2:
^
d^
dt ' dt^
3.
dr
ds

V dv _ f
~R' ~ds~~J

P
p^'

dl

510

8.1.
x = ^cos^, j^^^sin/, z = bt ( > 0) .
. F = cos ^ + J sin t + kbt (2) (5).

dr
_
_
-*
= 4asmt+ facost + kb
dt
d^r
^
=
-la
cos t- ja sin t.
dt'
d'r

de

-,

lasmt-jacost.

dr d^r
dt' dt^

-a sin t

a cos t

-a cos t -a sin t
2,-:

I3-:

dr d'r d'r
dt dt^ dt^

b : iab sin t - jab cos / + ka^


0

-asmt

a cost

-a cos t

-a sin t

a sin t

0 = a'b.
-a cos t 0


\_

^ =

[a'b' sin't + aV cos' ^ + a' )2


[a" sin' ^ + a' cos' / + Z?' )2
G =

a (/?' + a ' )
[a" + Z>' )^

a'b
a^b^ sin't + a'Z?' cos' / + a"^

a'+b'

b
a^+b^'

,
.

511

8.2. : jc^-3;^+z^ =1,


j ; ^ - 2 x + z = 0 (1,1,1).
.
. ,
X
xdx - ydy + zdz = , 2ydy - 2dx -^dz = 0

dx^ -dy^ -yd^y + dz^ + zd^z = 0,

2dy^ + 2yd" + d^z = 0.

x^ = 1, =1, 2:^ = 1,
dy = dx, dz = 0, d^y =

dx^,

d'^z^dx'^,
3

dr[dx;dx;0}

d^r lO;dx^;dx^>

^{1;1;0} t/'r{0;-l;~l}.
(2).

[dr,d^r] =1

-1

-1

= +]-.

\[dr,d'r]\

8.3. : ^ = 2, ^ = 6a^z
M(jc, j , z ) .
. ,
X
^ '

xdx = ady, dy = d!x,


a

.2.,_.2.^

.__

x dx = 2a dz, dz =

2a'

_^

512

d'y = ,
a

d'y = 0,

dr\dxAdx,-^dx\,
a

2a'

d'z = ^dx\

d'z = '^
a

dx^ X
\ a a^

d'r\0,Adx'\,

d'rloA^''

(2),(4),
.
I

[dr,d'r] =

^
2

X -:

jij+k,

drd rd = 0
0

'\
^
2'\
1
0

-1.

,
1

^'
'
^"
+

+
1
4' '
'

'
/ ^^
1 +^
- +4*

<7 =

1
,

'
'

'
4'

10

10.1
*
*


1. f{x),
F ( x ) , f{x),

F\x) = fix).
1, F(^x)
f{x) [;],
F'(x) = / ().
f{x) ,
, , F{x)
/(:), F(x)-\-C
/ (), (F{x) + ) * = F ) = f(x).
.

514

10

2. ^cnvi^ynK\xvL^ F[^x)
/ ( ) , F{x) + C
/ ( )
\f{x)dx.
,
\f{x)dx = F{x) + C,
F'(x) = / ( x ) .
/ ( ) ,,
f(x)dx :;
.
/ ()
/ ( ) . ,
.
,
, . . ,
.
.
2. .
1.
, , F\x) = f (),
(lfix)dx)=iFix)

+ Cy = nx).

2.

d[jf{x)dx)

= f(x)dx,

3.


J j F ( x ) = F(x) + C JF\x)dx

= F{x)-\-C,

515

4.

\ (/i (^) + (^) - / ^^))dx = \f, {x)dx + j /2 {x)dx - j /3 (x)dx.
5.
, , const,
\af(x)dx = \ f{x)dx,
3. .

:
f
"^'
1. jc"Jjc =
+;
^
+1

ai^-l.

2. J=:1||+;
3. J sinxd[r = COSJC + C;
4. J cosx(ix = sinx + C;

j cos^x

tgx + C;

<fc
6. \^Y-=-^S^+^''
sin^x
J cin V

7 f^-^ = J[l_+C;
'
In a
8. \e'dx = e' + C;

r dx
1
x ^
9. \ ^ = -flfrc^g-+C;
dx

J 77^

= arcsin + C;
a
dx
x a+ C
11. 1^^ T = ^^^
^ X -a
2a x + a
10.

516

10


1 ,In + +
-X = 2
12. J-1
1 -
dx
. 3 . 1 4^ - = 1 + 1^ + \ + ;
dx
14. J sin : In tg: + ;
d[r
In
+ C;
15
cosx

16. jshjc^ = chx + C;


17. Jchx<ic = shAf + C;
18. Jch^
19.

thx + C;
= -cthx + C.


,
.

.

.
,
,

.
4. ,

.
.

517

1 \{) sin axdx = sin ax|

-cosax
-+..
c.
a a
a a
P(x) .
\
jy p""
\
P P'
2. J {) cos axdx = sin ax - - +
+cosax -T-+- +C;

3. JP(x)e'"^ = e'^

P'

P" ^ ^

4 fx"ln"xd:x = - ^ x " ^ 4 n " x

\x''\n''-'xdx

m+\

m+n

n -\\ -\, 2,3,...


5 f "^ cos bxdx =Z?sin6x
^ ^^" ^^,+ 'acosZ?x
^ ^^ ^^ g"^ + C;
*'

(2^+Z?^

f ^ . , , (3sinZ?x-Z?cosZ?x ^ ^
e'^sinZ?X(ix =
;
e^ + C;

7. J Vx^ + adx = I/^ + a + < In (x + Vx^ + (2 |) + C;


8

I V(2^ ~x^rfx = xv^^-x^+(3^arcsin WC;


J
21^
aj
f

9.

/ = 1^

5-7

.),
( = 1,2, 3,...)

2n-l 1 ,
2'(')"
2 a'
1
. -2 xax;
,
10. sm xax = c o s x s m x + w-1 ssm
' -^
w
w -^
11. [cos" X(ic = sinxcos""* x +
[cos""^ xdx;

/..1 =

csmlnx
^sin(2A:-l)x
10 .
12.
^x = 2> ^ ^ + C , (w = l,2,...);
^ sm X
t^
2A:-1
fsin(2A2 + l)x ,
^v^ sin 2Ax ^
,
1 -1
2A:
^=1
13. J^^T
( = 1,2,...);
sm X ^ ^ = ^ + 2 X ^ + C

518

10

dx
smx
^'^Kos''''x~2kcos''x
dx
1 cos X
15. J sin''^4
2ksin^'x\
J CI

1V

1 ^
dx
2k COS X
1 dx
\kPsm''-'x'
2k

16. jx'e~'dx = ~ x V + njx"~'e~'dx;


a
be-ad
ln|cjc + <i| + C;
^x = x + '^ cx + d

dx
1 ,
18
=
li^

17.

1.1.

6, J

a)

m; ) Jctg'jcabc; r) j -

\{x^ -\r2x-\-)dx\

jdx; ) j

yb ^4x\

dx
sin^xcos^x
, a)

'dx "^ ^ X
fx^d!x+ f2x(ix+ f = 4-2+ln|x|+C = -x'^+x^+ln|x|+C;
::

{-'-' -flnlxl + C I = x 4 2 x + ~ , T. e.

.
)

\e'dx-\^

= e' -\x-'dx
X-

"

= e' - -^'
-2

+-\^C,

519

fcos X ,
r il-sin^x
-sm X ,
ax
,
^
:=
dx=
Jx = ~ c t g x - x + C.
' sin jc
' sin X
' sin X '
r)

^^-1
1
J 1 + '
J + " 1 + '

= j(x'-l)^jc + j

<ix

: =

1 + '

^3
3

^
x + arctgx + C.

)

\x~~^dx- \~ = -^

-4^ + C = - V J C ' - 4 V x + C.

^
^
2
2
) ,
1 = sin^ + cos^ ,
sin^x + cos^x
sin^xcos^x

dx
dx
= tgx~ctgx + C.
J cos^
. X

J' sin^ X
dx
dx
ax
r ax
1.2. : a) ^-;
6)
i
'x - 9
-^ ^ 2 5 -

^^^ih' ^^^'''^-'^4i^2, a) 9 3^
(11), = 3
dx _ I
-3
In -3 + = -1
+ .
' - ' ~2-3 + 3
6 + 3
)
(10)
dx
J 4^

^ ^
= arcsm+ .

7i^

520

10

) (12)
dx
= 1

+/jc^-l

)
(7)
{ley . ^
Ve'
J
\{1)
In 2 + 1
)
^

dx

(/2)^

^
^
arctg-7=
+
C.
/5
"V5

10.2.
,

dx^d(ax-^h)\

"""^dx = dx"\ cosjc^fr = ^f(sinjc);

dx
dx
sin xdx = - J (cos jc); = (i(ln jc);
r = d{ig x)\
X
cos X
dx
,,
^
dx
w .
= -t/(ctg x);
- = t/(arctg x);
Sin X
1+x
= (i(arcsin x);

e'^Jx = d{e''),


t,
.
dx
2.1. : ) ^-^; ) J
cos

) J(2-3.)'dx; ) \-^;

521^

) 1 ^ ; ) \ ^ ^ .

, ) (-2)
(-2),
\e-^'dx = --\-^{-1)

= ---'"

+ .

dx

I f fif(4x) _ 1

^ \ ^ =-tg4x + C.
' cos^ 4 4"'
cos'' Ay
4 4
J r>rc
) ,
ji2-3xydx

= --ji2-3xfd(2-3x)
=
3
1(2-)\^
1
+ =
(2-3jcf+C.
3
6
18
)
j^j=^

li6-5xydx^~li6-5xyd(6-5x)=-^(6-5xy+C.

)
, ,
h-6x

-" 1-

'

,'
/

)
_ i

__

i
2

J3-2e'^"2J3~2e'""""~4J 3^^2

= -lf'<^-^f>=-lln|3-2>Uc.
4J

3-2'^

'

'

522

COSX

2.2, : ) -."^;
^
^ 'l + 4sinjc

10

dx

) J . . . , ?
^ -^ x(l + lnx)

, )

cos X ^
'l + 4sinjc

c/sinx _ 1 f flf(4sinx) __
'l + 4sinx 4-'l + 4 s i n x

1 f J(l + 4sinx) 1. ,, . . , ^
= - ^
^ = ~-ln l + 4smjc +C.
4-' l + 4sin X
4 '
'
) ,
=
Jx(l + lnx)

J l + lnx

= \
^ = ln 1 + lnjc+C.
J 1 + lnx
'
'

) 4x
:2^+.
) ,
J

3J

)
rsinxiix
J cos X
-5 ,
1 4
^
= = - cos cos X = cos + .
^ cos X
-^ cos X
^

4
) ^

x^dx
'9 + '

\ dx"
^'+')'

1
9

^^
3

523

^ ^ ^

dx
^^ xdx
2.3. : )
,
; )
,
'(arcsinjc)Wl-Jc'
W l + Jc'
Jx42x +3

W l + cos'x

e) J - 7 = = ; ) f i - i ^ ^ ;

'

3)J-7=f--^.

, a)

dx
_ (iarcsinx _
' (arcsin )' V l - x '
f

^ (arcsin )'

-3

= (arcsin ) d arcsin x =
+ .
^
2(arcsin x)*"
6) X

xdx
If
dx^
1 , I 2
- ^ ^ = = - - 7 _ ^ = -1'+/1 + (') + .
) ,

+1

If

2 + 2

dx = Z

'^+2 + 3

dx =

2Jx^+2x + 3

1 fflf(x'+2x + 3) 1, I 2 n ^1 ^
= -
^ = - l n X +2x + 3 +C.

2J x42xH-3

2 '

r) sin 2x

Sin2xdtc

/COS^X

^,

-1/2 7/1

1 .
=-1 .
_
= - | ( l + cos^x) ^^^^f(l + cos^x) =
Vl + cos^x
vl + cos^x
= ~2(l + cos'xy'' + C.^

524

10

) sin 2

je^^"'^ sin 2xd^ = je^^"'" J sin'X = ^^"'^ + .


) x"

f x'dx
1 f dbc'
1
. 4 ^
- 7 = = - 7 = ^ = = = arcsinx +C.
)
f 1-tgx , f cosx-sinx , f rf(cosx+sinx) , 1
1 ^^
^--dxdx^ \-^
\ ^ = ln cosx + smx+C.
'l + tgx
'cosx + sinx
' cosx + sinx
)
'Vx(l + x)

1+x

M + cVx)'

= 2 J arctg Vxrf arctg vx = (arctg v x ) ' + C.

10.3.

1. \f{x)dx ,
f{x) .

= (), (p{t) ,
X = = . dx = (p\t)dt.
dx (p(t)

lnx)dx = lf((pitWit)dt.

525


t ,
X, .
,
.
2. .
1. ^^ ~jc^ ,
x = asin^vx = acos/; yja^--x^

=acostvasmt-

2. /:^ -^ ,

= - ; / ' - ' =atgt


cost
3. /jc^ +^ ,

V?~^ ^

x = atgt; /JC + =

COSX

3^. :
1.

,
=t, : = In /, dx = .
t

2.

dx
R{\n ), R '

, - 1

dx

In = , = dt,
X

dx
/
^ x'^^iax^+by
1
^
dt
= - , dx = ^ .
3.

526

10

3.1. : ) \{2 + )^(1; ) f

dx.
'Vx + 1
t-
, a) 2: + 3 = /, =

* sm2x

<^-~dt,

Vx + 1

* x\nx

/ = Jx(2x + 3)'d:x = -J(?-3)/^J^ = - J ( / ' - 3 r ' ) J / =


/

11 10

+C= V
4

+c.

10

,
/ = -(2+3)"' r2^c + 3 _ J _ Y ^ ^ _ l _
4
11
10
44

,0

27/10) + .

) = /, = - , J'x = ^,t


dx

^f

,'
^

^(^'^

S^-^f

^-

-I

dt

/^

=4=arccos(V20 + C.

V2

:,
/ = p^arccos

+ .

527

-dx2^ sinxcosx

sin2x

Intgx
'dx
-b
-' sinx 2
9 J Sll

cosx COS

dx
, / = dt^
cos^x
2J /
lnt = z, = dz,

igx = t.

/ = \zdz = z^+C.
2^
4
/ = - l n ' ^ + C = - l n ' t g x + C.
4
4
) + 1 = /^, dx = 2tdt,

/ = [sinVx + l ,
= 2\sint = 2Isintdt = - c o s / + .
J
V^c + 1 '
t
'
, / = - 2 cos
dx
) In x=t, -"^,
Vl-ln:
'

jclnj:

/
'


l-t-z^,
t = \-z^, dt = -Izdz,
,

rlz^dz

^rz'-l+l^

(
1, z - 1
\dz = l z + - l n
+ C.
2 z+1


/ =2
V

>^-1

N/P7+I

+c =

528

In x + 2Vl--ln
2/1 - In X + In
In X

x-2

10

+c.

e) = 1^, dx = 2tdt,

/ = -7=etc = 2
rJ? = 2 e+t
dt.
"Vx + l
' f + 1
J ^+
,

= t^-t + 2

^+1

t+l

/ = 2j t'-t

+2

2 ^
\dt = 2 -^
t+l
V

+ 2f-21n? + l + C.
)

/ =2

-,

+.

h 2 V JC - 2 In /JC + 1

3.2. ^>1: )

x^dx
dx
/
, > ) i
;
Wl-x'
'/x'+l

, ) jc = sinr, dx^costdt

Vl-x^ =cosr. ,

fSin^^COS/ ,

.
^tx:=
'Vl^
J

cos^

. 2

1 f/1

-1_1

= sin^/Jr = - (l-cos2/Wr =
J
2J

If
-

529

1 . ^!+C = -(/-sin/cosO + C =
2

/ S i n 2/

21 2

-(t- sin W1 - sin^ 0 + = (arcsin x - JCV 1 - jc^) +


^4

dt

6)

x = t g / , ax =

cos^
1
VJcVT
cos/

dx

Wx^+1

tdt
COS
cos 1
_ dt
"f _ , tg: + C = ln sm / + C:
'tg/cos'/ 'sin/
l + cos/

= ln
1 + Vl + x'

+ C = ln

^
)

i+VT+v

+ C.

, asm/ ,
x=
, ax =
dt
cos/
cos /
x^ -a^ = aXgt -

'yjx^-ci
- ,
fV^
f flftg/cos/asin t ,
f 2 ,
fl~cos / ,
\dx= \^
dt = a\tg^tdt = a\
dt =
'
jc
'
acos t
^
' cos /
= a\ f

{ d t \=a{tgt-t)

y^^ cos" /

'

+C=a

= ^Jx^-a

-arccos + C.
^3;c

3.3. : a) J

dx; 6) J

3JC\2

(l + e^^)

dx;

530

10

dx

dx

. f

"^1^^^^^-'/:

rit

, ) "" =t, dx =
t

= - U-'i
^-3arctg^ = - l n ( r + l ) - 3 a r c t g ^ + C =
2^ r + l
2
= -ln(e'"+l)-3arctge" + C.
6) e^"" =/, / =


J(l + e'^)'

3J(l + 0 ' ?
3(1 + 0

3J^

'

'

3(1+ e'^)

B) x = - ,

(ic = ;-,

2:

) : = - ,
t

dx = ;-,

531^

f f" 3/2 =-['^^=-+'{+)=


b yja + bt^
) e"" =t,

b yJax^-\-b
dx = ,
t

e'^dx
e ax

_ p

dt
at

__ rr

dt
at
(/-+4

= arctg
+ C = arctg
2
2
2

_ f " d(t-3)
2 , o2
'(/-+2
+ C.

10.4. no
1.
\udv-uv-\vdu.

(1)



w (it;. w ,
, dv
, dx,
V.
udv
vdu,
, vdu
2. , :
[ jc" In xdx,

I x'^e'^dx, J x" sin bxdx,

J x" cos bxdx, J x" arcsin bxdx,

\ x" arctg bxdx.

532

10

J "^ sin hxdx^ J e"^ cos bxdx


T. .,
.

,
.

^
, , Z)sin6x + acos6x ^ ^
\ cosbxax =
-\-;
1 , asinbx-bcosbx
"^ sin bxdx =

^ ^
"^ + .

(2)

3. , "
"
[sin" xdx = cosxsin''"^ JC +
[sin"~^ xdx,
^
n
n ^
I cos" xJjc = sinxcos""* JC +

[cos""^ xdx.

4.1. : a) {xe^dx; 6) \xaictgxdx;

(3)

B)\\nxdx;

xdx
r) \x^ sin xdx; ) - r i ; e) [ arcsinjcrfx.
sin^x
X

, a) x = u ^ e^dx = dv, du = dx
X

V = 2e^. no

JC

XX

jxe^dx = 2'- -l^e'dx

XX

= 2^ -^+ = le^ix-l)

) arctgx = w,
2
X

v = , (1) :

+ .

xdx = dv, du=

-,
1+

533

, ^^
I f x^dx ^
1 f ^ + 1 " \dx
xarctgxax = a r c t g x \z = a r c t g x
;
=

x^
\ , \ dx
\/ 2
\ ^
= arctgx\dx-\-\
-~[x arctgx-x-arctgxl + C.
dx
) In x = w, dx = dv, du=,
v = x.
(1)
J In xdx = j c l n x - j x = x(ln jc -1) +
) x^ = t/, sin xdx = dv, du = 2xdx, t; = -cos x.
(1)
J x^ sin xdx = -jc^ cos x + 2 J x cos xdx.
,
X = t/ cos xdx = dv ,
J ^ sin xdx = -^ cos + 2( sin - 1 sin xdx) =
= (2 - ^) cos X + 2 sin X + .
) X = W,
(1)

dx
= /, du=dx,
sin X

v = -ctg .

I- = - x c t g x + ctgxJx = -xctgx + In|sinx| + C.


^ sin X
^
) arcsin = w, dx = dv, du = ,

dx

(1)
f

arcsm (2 = arcsin -

- = arcsin +
J
J 1-'
+ - J ( l - x ' ) 2 J ( l - x ' ) = xarcsinx + V l - x ' + C .

, t; = .

534

4.2. : ) \4^ ^rkdx\

10

) J cos(lnx)(ir;

) Je^^'cosSxc/x.
, )
du

xdx

1^-\-=, dx = dv,

, v = x. (1)

I /^ +kdx = x^Jx^ + - \ ,

^ +- dx
~xsjx^ + - \,

= xyjx^ +- /^ + kdx + \ .

'/77

= X'sJx^ + -{-klnlx + x^lx^ +: - J /^ +kdx.


,

2jvx^ + kdx = \1 ^ + +kln\x + \Jx^ -

j V x ^ + ^ x = ~(xVx^+A:+A:ln ; + /:^+^+
) cos(lnx) = w, dx = dv, du=-

sin(lnx)

dx,

v^x.

(1)
I cos(ln x)dx = X cos(ln ) 4- J sin(ln x)dx.
sin(ln x) == w, dx = dv du =

dx,
X

v = x. (1),
J cos(ln x)<ix = X cos(ln x) + X sin(ln ^) - J cos(ln x)dx.

535


2J cos(ln x)dx = jc(cos In x + sin In x)

J cos In xdx = (cos In X + sin In x) +


) cos = w, e^'^dx = dv, du = - 3 sin 3xdx,
^ = - ^ . (1)
'^

J e^"" cos 3xdx = e^"" cos 3x + j e^"" sin 3xdx.

sin3x = w, e dx = dv,

du=3 cos 3xdx, v = e^''. (1)


'^

I ^"" cos 3xdx = e^"" cos 3x + e^"" sin 3x \e^'' cos 3xdx.
J
2
4
4-'

13
-le^^''cos3xdx = e^^''\ cos3x +sin3x L
2 t
2
J
4J

2 '2

e ''cos3xJx = 13
e ""' cos3x +sin3x + C.
2
,
(2).
4.3. : )
. rarcsinvx ^ :

X
7^ J
arctgx
dx;
je ; ) J- '

536

10

, ) = ^^, dx = 2tdt,
{e'^dx = 2\te'dt.
t = u, edt = dv, du = dt,
(1)
jte'dt = te'-je'dt

v = e^.

= e\t-'\) + C.

Je^^ = 2e^(V^-l) + C.
) arctgx = /,

dx
= cit ^ = tg^t.
1 + '

'^ arctgx
/ = ,
(1)

tg^tdt = dv, du=dt,

v^tgt-t.Uo
2

jttg'tdt

= t(tgt-t)-\(tgt-t)dt

= t{tgt-t) + ln\cost\ + + C.

,
^ a r c t g x

1 1 ^i

1 /

or = arctgx(x-arctgx)ln(l + x )-f(arctgx) + C =
1

= xarctgxln(l + x )(arctgx) +
) a r c s i n v x = / ,
dx __
I
2 sm tat.
Vl-:
rarcsinvx - ^f . ,
.
dx = 2\tsmtdt.

vx=sinr,

537

t = u, sintdt = dv

du =dt, V- -cost.
J/sin^ dt = -tcost+\QOStdt

= -tcost+ smt +C.

f arcsin VJC ,
. n
^
;
dx = -arcsinyjX'yJl-x + ^lx + C.

' Vl-x
4.4. : a) j cos^ xdx; 6) J sin^" xdx .
, a) (3)
I cos^ xJx = sinxcos^ JC + [ cos^xd!x = sinxcos^x +
J
7
7J
7
4

7 V*

-smxcos x + cos xdx

5J

4 4 .
2
2.
6^ 1 .
=sin xcos^xH
-sin jccos xH -sin xcos x-\sin X
5 3
3
7
7 5
1 .
6
6/
=sin : cos JC +

+C=

cos" X +(cos^ X + 2) + C.

7
6) (3)
|sin"'ji:<ix =
J

cosxsin'x + \sin^ xdx =


cosjcsin'x +
1010
10
in
inJ
in

9( 1

+ cosxsin
10 8

gJ

10

cosxsin'xH-

9
1
. 7 7^ 1
+ cosxsin xH cosxsin^ xH [sin'* xc/x
10
V 6
J
8
8
1

. 9 9

. 7

cosxsin x 4 cosxsin xH
8
8
10
10 V

cosxsin x +
6

538

10

^^^
5( 1
3
3
c o s x s m jc + [sin^xrix:
:+ V

1
. ^
7r
cos jc sin x + cosxsin/x-f
8V
10
10 V 8

-cosxsin x +

1
. 3
3^ 1
+ C.
cosxsin x + cosxsmx +
4
4V 2
2^ J

+-

10.5. ,

Ax-vB
,
;;
.
' " + /? +
1 .

^-c-t,

+ = z
2
(2,9,11)

+Z7X + C
2

'=

-;:

_ dz

1
14 1 z'k'
2 ^ /

( b

yia]



1 . +
dx\
\yjax^ ^-bx-^-cdx.
yjax^+bx + c
^ n XX

2. J

= ^ a x
{mx-^nfyjax^ +bx-\-c

539


1
t
3.
J

IZ3~T~i~rZ
sax^
--\-

yjax^ -\-bx + c
= ' " - ... +^_,)1'+ + ^\

""

^^ --
.(/ = 0,1,... , )


.

[{^^'+^'^'^- ... + ^)]^ + + cdx =
= (,-^'+,-+

... +A^,,)^Jax'+bx + c + A^,,j

f^
.
yjax - +


,


4. / =

(Mx + N)dx
^^
^

^ , -

{^ + + ] ^ + +
x^+px-i-q ,
= t + l .

540

\At''

10

,
, ^ . ( 0 .
+ Bt + ^. + B,t + ,

5, ,
B = la^ + p{a + fi)-\-2q = Q\ B^=2aap+bia + |i) + 2c = 0
.

:

1{Af^-\-Cy.jA,t^+C,
t

/it

7 .

(^ = 0,1,2,...),

\At^ + Cy^A,t' + C,
, ,
A^t^ + Q=u^
A^+Q'^-^v^,
p = b = 0,TO

xdx
_
dx
(^ -hqyyjax^+c

*' (^ +1^+ '

, , ^ + = i/^
+ ~^ = v^.
r(5x-3)Jx
f
xflfx
5.1. : ) J ^ n ^ ^ T i ' ) ] 4 ; + 5'
J:C&

+3 ^

, -.

2'dx

4-2"+2'
, )
{5x-3)dx

_ (5x-3)d:r

K--6x +9-16
9-l6~^'(-3)'-16

541

--t,

dx = dt, x = t + 3,

r5^+12,
^r+iz ,

5rd(t^-\6)
(
-10) ,_f

^-\6

t^-ie

dt
at

J, \

'^'-4'

2 I

12 , ^-4
i^
+C-' 2-4 t+A\

x-1
= Inbc^ - 6 : - 7 + In
+ C.
2 I
I 2
- + 1
6)
1f
3J 2

xdx
A 4

2xH

-w

1f

xdx

34

2X 11
x+- +
3
9

9 9 3
2
2
x + = t, dx = dt, x = t ,
dt
3J 2 11
9

-* 2
9

9''

^^^

r+-

11

2 3

3t

9Vn

rarctg-F=+C =

4
15
=i, :2+x
+
6

3>/n

'ViT

3JC + 2
^
arctgf=r-+C.

" Vn

B)

xdx
1

^-^

=1-

-+2-+
4
1

'!

2
J

xdx

^"

- +
2

x + = t, dx = dt, x = t,
2
2

542

\dt

dt

tdt

I-'

t'

10

ir'

r'

1
. 2t
1
. 2-7=
? +=
arcsm-7=- = - 5t "!arcsin
2
VS
V5
\
J 2
7 1
. 2x + l ^
x - x arcsin7=hC
2
VS
r)

:->/r:

(^ + 3)

' V x 4 2 x + 1-1

^^,_ f ( +
'V(x + 1)'-1

+1 = /, dx = dt, x = t-\,

4^
+21nL + V/^-l + = /^+2; + 21 + 1 + /^+2 + .
)

" -^lx + \-'dx = \^{x^\f

-Zdx

+1 = /, dx = dt, J v/^ ~ 3 J / .

(7.. 10.1).

\4t'-3dt = -(//?'-3-31(^
-'^'^'
+ //'-)) +=
= - ( ( + 1)/:'+2-2-31( + 1 + / 2 - 2 ) ) + .
) 2' = /, 2" In 2dx = rf/,

^ [

543

dt

_ 1 f

dt

d{t-2)

(/-2)

2^2 In 2
5.2.

In

-2-V2
t-2 + y/2

+C=

2/212

2"-2-/2
+ C.
2 " - 2 + /2

In

a)

etc

( + 1)/^ + 2 + 2 '

6) I

dx

. f

,^

,f

, a) x + l = - , d!x = j - ,

dx

J {x + l)^ix + \f +
:-ln i + ! + C = - l n
1

1 + /?+2 + 2
+ C.
x+1
^^

6) x = -, ax = ^ ,

_ f

^^^

dt

_
1

1
1
J
) x-l=-,
dx = ^^
^ ,

2 '(2^-1)^

l^x J

+C

10

544

dx
(x-l)V(x-2)^-1

t^dt
- \ -

tdt

t\\\\-\y\

\-2t = z',

t=

-J yl\-2t'
, dt = -zdz,

ij(izV^aj_..),4 f z 1 z 3^+ C^
2-

^jl-2t--{l-lty
3

+C=

1 /

+ C.

r) x = - , d^ = ;-,
t
r
tdt
rc/r
rrf^

-J .

^v^

^ 2 4

f = z, ? = z +, dt = dz,

f z + -Jz
fl

2J

-ii
2

.2.7

,
'
1 2 7 V _ , . 2 7,

1 fife

-.z'+-In z + . z"+- C = -^t^-t


V
4 2
V
4

^
Vl-x+2x^
?+/^^7+2 +C=
2
X

+ 2-

1, Vl-x+2x4l
In
2

+C.

5.3.

6) J

545

/ ^

==(ix\

(lx + \)dx
(3JC^ + 4X + 4)/:^+6-1
, a) (1),

^ + 4

, ,

^.

tic

Vx^ + 2x + 2
yJx^+2x + 2

^+4

, 12

( + ,)( + \)

.,

+ 2 + 2
/:^ + 2 + 2


^+4 = ^ (^ + 2 + 2) + (^ + )(: +1) + .


X

1 = ^ "1" )?

" 0 = 24^+4+^^2 , 4) = ~ ^' ~ "'


7
- ~- ,
,
dx = -{x + 5Ux^ + 2x+2
,
' =
'Vx42x + 2
2
2^(; + 1)'+1
= -( + 5)^^ +2 + 2lnx
2
2 I

+ l + Vx^ + 2jc + 2+ .

546

10

^ v - .,dt.
^Zl
) = (^^ +dxt+\

(2 + \)dx
- \

(^ + 4: + 4)/^ + 6JC - 1
{7at+2p+t+\\a-p)dt

-\


t , , fi
6ai8 + 4 ( a + j8)+8 = 0,
2a^8 + 6 ( a + j 3 ) - 2 = 0,
= - 1 , j8 = 2.

{t-S)dt
' - \

tdt

dt

(?8)/15-6/' -^,\-.
>/3-'(/8)/5-2/'

41;
/-'(^8)/5-2^'"


1_
5-2t^=u^, t^ =(5-^), tdt = udu,
.
2
+>/21
tdt
du
In
+=
^\t'+S)yl5-2t'
S^2\-u'
6/7 -/2

6/7

In

( + N/21)'

-21

(/:;-1+(:+1)/7)

+=-

'^

In

6/7

In
/4(:4;+4)'

VX46JC-1+(JC+1)>/7

72(3x44x+4)

+ .

+ =

547


-2

Ar

v'+2

=:^1,

Jr

4\45^

1 t;42

.Ju_= - _

/-* 8 ^ 4 2 1

8/

/8

8N/3

48VI4

V21

/-1
8(2-x)

5
48/14

f/y

au

8/
^

/8('+6-1)

(2-x)yFJ

/-1
8(2-)

/7

In

5
48Vl4

/8('+6-1)
(2-x)V7

|VX' + 6 X - 1 + (X + 1)N/7

^2(^+4 + 4)

+ C.

10*6.
1.

. . > ,
aw

.
,
.

548

10
(jc)

2. -^-,

aw

<
. :
1. Q^ ()
, :
) ;
)
;
) ;
) .

Q^{x) = a^{x-aY'

... {x-bfix^-^px

+ qf-

m,,A:,/ = l,2,3, ... ; ^,,,,,,1

... (jc'+CJC +t/V,

p^-4q<0,
c^-4d<0.
2.

()

,
^
,

-Jnl^ =

L_4-

1-+ ... +

L_+ ... +

QSx) -
(jc-a)'
{x-af
x^-b
(x-b)"
, M,x + N, ^^^^ ^ M,x + N, ^ C,x + D, ^^^^^ +
x^+px + q '" (x^+px-^-qY
x^+cx + d '" (x^+cx + dy'
A^^A^, ... , ^ ^ - . ^ . ^ - ^^k^ ^ P - ' ^k^C^^ - '

Q'

, ..., .
Q^ (jc)
, (,,,1).

, ,
.

549

3. ,
Q^ {).
4. ,
(
).
.
5.
, 5j, TVp , ...
.
,
X
Q^ix) .


.
3. . Q^ (jc)
,

'Qs^)

Qw 'aw

Q (x) Q^ (JC)
Q[{x)\ 6 2 W
Qni^) I Q\i^)'^ \{^\ ^W
, ,
, Q(jc) Qjix).
,

aw

Q^{x)

aw

550

10

^{), Pjix)
.
6.1. : )
f

^dx

. f

2x+l
^- , f fl^^
;
ax\) \,.
(x-l)(x4l)
Jx'-x'-6
, a) .

^dx

xdx
-^
Tdx\ )
-
'+'
' J ( x - l ) ( x - 2 ) 2. f,

4
X

4
1

^ J-X - -^ 7>
^-^-
'^-"
\^ -dx^ \\ ^-^ +.
\dx= \x^dx- \a^dx + a^ \z
\
J

f=

a x + a arctg + C.
3
a
6) ,

X
A
B
C
( x - l ) ( x - 2 ) ' -\ - + -2 + - {x-2f'
,

jc = ^ x - 2 ) 4 5 ( j c - l ) ( x - 2 ) + C(x~l)

= ^ - + + ^ - + 2^--,
,

0 = ^,

^--

'

0 = 4 + 2-,

+ ,

551

: -\\

f

xdx

_ { dx

dx

= - 1 ; = 2.
f

dx

'(x-l)(jc-~2)' " ~ J ] ^ " J x ^ ^


= lnU-l - l n U - 2 --

x-2

-+C=:In

^x-lf

x-1
jc-2

jc-2

-fC.

) (x + a ) - ( x + Z?) =flf-Z>,
1
_ 1 (xH-a)-(x + fe)_ 1 f 1
{-){^)
a-b {x^d){x-\-b)
a-byx + b

1
x+a

Jx

^ ({

f ^-^ 1 _

(ln|jc + Z?|-lnU + ^ | ) + C =

In

+ C.

x-\-a
r)
, ,

Cx + D

2. 2 . . = - + - J + - 2

(^+4)

X +4

l = Ax^-\-4Ax-^Bx^-\-4B-\-Cx^+Dx^,

'

0 = + ,

0=5 +

0 = 4,

'

1 = 45.

552

10

: ^ = 0, 5 = , = 0, D = .
4
4

rfx
1 f(ix \ dx
J X44JC' " 4 J ] ? " 4 J x' +4 ~

M 1
x^
arctg~ + C = -+--arctg- + C.
2
4x 8
2
4 X 2
) ,
,

2 +1

+
=

(-1)('+1)

-1

'+1

2'^1 = ^ + + ^---.
,

^ 0 = + ,
X

2 = -,

'

\ = -,

3
3
1
: ^ = ~? = -^ ^ ~ ' ^ * ^^"

JCx-lXx' + l)
3 , I ,,
-lnX-1

Zd{x'+\)
\

-+

2^ -\
dx
;

l^x'

+X

3 , I ,1 3 , , 2
=-lnx-l

1 ^
^ 3 , (x-1)' 1
+-arctgjc
+ C.
-arctgjc + C = - l n ^ ^- \^ +-arctgx
+2
4
x4l
2
e)

'-'-6

553

{'-3)('+2)

^- Cx + D
'- + -' + 2'

\=^ +2+^ +2+^-3Cx+Dx^ -3D.



^

0 = + ,

0 = B + D,

0 = 2-,

l = 2B-3D.

: = 0, = - , = 0, D = --.
5
5

^ ^ -^ -6~1^

21

In

^ + 2~

xS

+ =

+ /

^ -3~1J

+S

- - a r c t g ^ + .
)

4'-4+7
dx.
6.2. : ) f-^; ) -
-1)(2-3)(2+5)
' +1
'(+
, )
" +1 = (' +2^ + 1 ) - 2 ' = (' +1)' - ( x V 2 ) ' =
= ('+/2 + 1)('-/2 + 1)

Cx+D
-^
+ 1 / 2 + 1 x^-xV2 + l"

554

10


1 = (^ + 5)(jc'- /2 +1) + (CJC + D)(x'+ ^ +1).

^ 0 = ^ + ,
^

0 = -/2 + + 12 + ,

0 = A-yf2B + C + y!2D,

" l = B + D.

B=D=-1
= - = - L ,
2V2
2
,
dx _ 1 + /2
'x4l~2V2-'x4x>/2 + l
1

[ 2+/2

~4N/2-'X4XN/2+1

2-/2

4N/2-'X'-XV2 + 1

1 x-v2
. _
2/2-''-/2 + 1
1 [-

4/2-'/

ctc + -

yl2dx

J7

4V2

V^

V^

/2 V

X -

4N/2

In

' + [2+\
+ =1(/2+1) + 7=arctg(x^/2-l) + C.
2%/2
^-/2 + 1 2^^

)
^-+7/4

4^-4+7

=
+(x+lX2x-3X2x+5) (+1:-3/2+5/2) +1 -3/2 +5/2

' - + 7 / 4 = -3/2:+5/2)+5(+1+5/2)+(+1-3/2).

555



= -~1, 3/2, - 5 / 2 , = -1,
^ ~'7'

*- -~-> .. .

,
4;'-4: + 7

dx
\ dx
1 dx
dx = -\
++J(x+ 1)(2X-3)(2JC+5)I
J x + l 4-'x-3/2 4-'x+5/2
1
7
= -ln|jc + l| + - l n | x - 3 / 2 | + - l n | x + 5/2| + C:
(2JC+5)(2X-3)'

6)

256(X + 1)'

+ C.
2-3x + x^
f
' (x+iyix'+x+iy
(x+

6.3. :

a)

rdx; r)

-dx; )

z;

-etc;
r-.

, a)
2- + ^
( + 1('+ + 1

^+ +
^+2^ + 2 + 1

2- + ^=(2+)(^

Dx^ + Ex + F
^+2^ + 2 +

+ 2^ + 2+1) -

-(^ ++)(3' + 4 + 2) + ()^ ++F)(x' + 2 x 4 2 +1).



, ,

'

0=

'

Q = 2A-3A + 2D + E,

0 = 4A + B-4A-3B

+ 2D + 2E + F,

556

10
"
X

l = 4A + 2B-2A-4B-3C
-3 = 2A + 2B-4C-2B

+ D + 2E + 2F,

+ E + 2F,

2 = B-2C + F.
:
= -9, = -20, C = -7,D = 0, = -9, F = - 2 .

,
2-3JC+X^
,
9:20:+7

9x+2
/=
;;
=
:;
;
.
J {+1)\^ +x+lf
(x+l)(x' ++1) J (x+lXx^ +x+\)
,

9 + 2

+
+
(; + 1)( +jc + l) : + 1 + + \
9x + 2 = {^ ++\) + { + ){ +1),
" 0 = + ,
X

9 = + + ,

" 2 = + .
= - 7 , = 7, = 9.
,
/ = -

9JC420x4-7
VX+ /

^

dx
f lx + 9 ,
+7
\
dx =
(x + i)(x^ ++
x+
l)
+ 1)
^ + 1 ^ + + 1
9jc420x-t-7
yjc + / U X + /

.
,, ff
_ , I,
,1
-l-71nbc + l - ( x + l ) ( x 4 x + l)
'
' V

7x+9

flbc.

'^ 3
x+ 2 +4

x + = t, dx = dt,
1
x = t-,

'

557

7+9

f '7^+^

IT 3
+- +2
4

+ [

7 ^

>

2f

7,^2
, 11
2 + 1 ^
= -1( + x + l ) + - ^ a r c t g 7 = - + .
2
/
/3

2+1
920+7
^,1 , , 7 , ^ 2
, 11
/=
7,
+71+11(^++1)r^arctg - +.
(+1)(+1)
'
' 2
/
/
)
( AX''+BX^+CX^+DX+E\

4'-1
(+1
V

X + + 1

FX' +

GX'+HX^+IX+J

X + + 1

4' - 1 = (4^' + ^ +2 + D)(x' + +1) - (' + ' +


+' +Dx + )(5' +1) + (Fx' + Gx' + ' + / + J)(x' + +1),
'
0 = F,
^

0 = 4A-5A + G,

'

0 = -5 + ,

'

0 = 2-5 + 1,

4 = D-5D + J + F,

X*

0 = 4A + 5E-A + F + G,

0 = 4A + 3B-B + G + H,

0 = + 2- + + 1,

0 = 2C + D-D + I + J,

-l = D-E + J.
^ = 0, 5 = 0, = 0, D = -\, = 0,
F = 0, G = 0,H = 0, 1 = 0, J = 0.

558

10


-dx =

J (jC^+JC + 1)^

JC^+JC + 1

+ .

ix'-\f

Ax^ + Bx^ + Cx + D

{ + \){-+\
' - 2 '

Fx + G
+ + 1 +- ^ + 1

+1 = ( 4 2 5 + ) ( ; ' + + 1 ) - 4 ( ^ 4 X 4 5 X 4 +

+D)(x^ +)+:(* -'' +3^ +l)+(Fx+G)(x^ +^ +2' +2^ ++1).



,
'
Q = E + F,
'

Q = -A + F + G,

X*

l = -A-2B + 3E + 2F + G,

'

0 = 3A-2B-4C

X
X

+ 2F + 2G,

-2 = 3A + 2B-4C-4D

+ 3E + F + 2G,

0 = 2B + C-4D + F + G,
\ = C + E + G.
= , C = , ) = 0,

: A = -,

: , F = , G = .
1 3_1 2 2

J(x + l)(x4l)'

-dx = 3

~"

(x' + l)'

3^^1 ^-^

3x'+l

x^ x^ + 2x
- + arctg X + C.
(x^+1)^

559

)
1
_
1
{x-\f{x'-\f~{x-\f{x + Xf

1
(-1)'(+1)'

Ax^+Bx*-\-Cx^+Dx^ + Ex + F
G

+
+
jc-l x + l
[
{x-\)\x + \f

,

1 = ( 5 ^ 4 ^ + ' + IDx+){^ -1) - (.4x4 5 x 4 " + Dx" +
+ + F)(6x+2) + G(x' - " + ' - 1)( -1) + (' - ' +
+-1)('-2'+1).
^

0 = + ,

0 = 5A =

'

0^4B-2A-6B-3G-2H

'

0 = -5A + 3C-2B-6C

+ 3G +

6H-H,

0 = -4B + 3D-6D-2C

+ 3G +

H-6H,

0 = -3C + E-2D-6E-3G

0 = -2D-2E-6F-G

"

l = -E-2F + G-H.

6A-G-3H,
+ 3H,

+ H,

+ 3H,

, 1
_ 1
: ^ - ~ > ~~~7- = -5

^ = , = - , F = - , G = , =-. ,
36
18
36

6

dx

J (x-ir-(^'-l)'

'.'-1
_

23

5 3

-X

1
X

36

(x-l)\x + lf

11
X

18 36

10

560

\ f dx

\ f dx

_ '

-6:

-20JC423X' -2X-1 1

{x-\)\x + \f
1 6x-l
+-ln
+ C.
x+ \
6

10.7*

.
,
.
1. i?(jc,jc"', JC"' , ... )dx, R
; ^^^.^.^ ,

= ' dx = kt^'^dt,
.
2^.

1^

+ f ax + b
,\ cx + d
cx + d

\^

\dx

ax + b

ax + b = t ,

= t , / :
cx + d

,j8, ....
3.

jx'"{a-}-bx"ydx , , , ,, ,
x = z " [z'^^a + bzY dz.

q =

1
:
1. , z = /"', ^ = ^.

2.

1
171

+ " =a + bz = t"', = ^.
3.

\- , p + q =

1+

fa + bzY
\z^{a + bzY dz = z^^^
dz.

+ =

= t \ ^ Z

= ^.
4''. R(x,yjax^+-\-)'
.
1. > , /^+ + =t-yjax
=

I2;
yfat^ + + /
,
+bjc + c =
7=
,
2yjat + b
2yjat + b
, ^yfat^-hbt + cyja .
dx - 2
=
dt,

{24at^bf
2. > , ^ -^ + =xt + yjc ,
2y[at-b
:;,

JC =

a-r

I2]

yfct^-bt + yfc

/ +bx + C=

a-r

562

10

ax 2

r;

at.

{a-ef
3. ax^+bx + c
,. . ^+6X + C = ( 2 ( X - A ) ( J C - / I ) ,
11^ -hbx + c = t{x - ),
t^-a

'

. > , > , . .
, ,
yjax^ -i-bx + c =^ + vax , vox^ +bx + c = - vc .
yjax^ + -=1{-11)- ,

, .
5. \R{x, yJAx^ + ^ + ^ + Dx + E)dx,
R , ,
, R
. , 1
, + = ^
X

1
X

= t.
X

7.1. : ) |
i^dx;
' + /

xv3-xJx;
-^

^) \ I 7 ^ ^ ^) \~\~^^^'^ ) \'.
="*
^ / + 1+/ + 1
^ X VX-1
-^ 1 + / + /1 +

563

, )
, x t^, dx = At^dt.

\ +t
j=dx =\--rdt

= A\-dt

= A 1 + ^ dt =
+C=

= 4 V x + - l n ( V x + l ) - a r c t g ^ + C.
6) , 3-x = t^,
x-3-t^,
dx = -Itdt,
J :/^! = - 2 J (3 - / ' V ' J f =

= -2\(bt^-t^)dt = -2 t'-^t'

+ C = {b-xf\x

+ 2) + C.

) ,
x + \ = t^; dx = 6t^dt.

r-t+i
+r-ln ? + l + C = 6 -y[x + l
=6
3
, 3 2
'
/

1
\dt^
/+i

/ + \ +
2

+ /+-1/ + 1+1 + C.
/

) ,
Atdt
+1
;
dx-t ;
J,
(,'-i)

564

-J

dx = -4\-

-dt = -4\

10

/41

('+!)(/'-1)

t^-l

r=At-A

+ Bt+B;

{l = A + B, 0 = - + }^^ =; =,
1, t-l
= -2 arctg/ +In
+C=
t+l
x-l
2arctgJ

hln

; - V x ' - l \+C.

Vx + l
) ^Jl + x - (1 + [),

[ - 1 ^ - ^ - ^ ^^

h + x-(l + ^f

[^^^'^-^^

dx = - \ x \ x +

-2/1

2J

-\dx-

2J

IJ
dx = 4x+x [J
dx.
X
2 in X

1+ X

2
=r,

n,c

jc

r1+x
dx = I .

e-\

, Jx

tt4tat

Itdt

('=-')

^ ~ "^J 717

(^ - i r

At-^B

Ct^D

{t-\y

(r + 1)

565


t" = {At + ){ + 2/ +1) + ( + D)(/' - 2/ +1)
t
t^ Q = A + C,
t^ l = 2A + B-2C + D,
t

0 = A + 2B + C-2D,

/" 0 = B + D.
, : =, = 0,
1
4
= , ) = 0.
4

\ tdt

1=

\ tdt

Z-+-

7=

\((

dt

,._2,

+ (^-1)

^ +

1
- [ ( ? + ! ) - ' f / H = - ( - l n | / - l | + - ! - + l n If+ l| + + C =
+ Jff
+
l
J
J 2
'
' /-1
'
' f+1
2
+ ^ + = lnl/x + yjl + x\ + yj x(l + x) +
2
,
f

r=

i=== = -ix + 2yJ^-\n\^fx + yJl'\'x\--Jx(\ + x)] + C.


2V
I
I ^
/
dx

:
/;(1 + ^ ) ' '

+ [ + +

7.2.

6) J

^)1

r; B) j -

, a)
. = 2 ,
; = ", dx = 4t^dt.

566

t+\-\
(1+0^

10

dt =

4t+\y
ink+il+ + c =
f+1

l+c.
6) 1
1
1
= , -,
-,
3
2
4

+\

^
-2-

, x = z*, dx = z^dz,
z

I = f:!l^dx^A\^z4z

= ^\z{\^z)y^z.

-1/+1
m+1
-1 = - 1 = 1 ,

1 - z = /^

z = /^ - 1 , dz = 3t^dt -

/ = 1 2 j ( / ' - l ) f V / = 1 2 j ( / ' - ^ ' ) ^ = 12

1+ =

=H(z-|)(i.z).c=f(</:?-i)(i.</jf.c.
) ^
m = -2,

^
1 /w + l
= 3, /? = ,
+/? = - z
3

!/
1 -
, x = z^^, dx =z^^dz,H

567

% ^ - \ \ A'-^Yd..

dx
- \

>


1+Z
1
_3dt_
, dz

= t\ z =

(,'-if

t'-\

'4i'4r'-^4^^-lf-l^'=
/

--t + C =
2t^
2 1+z

1+z

+C=

^ , 3

l + jc'

7.3.

6) J

dx

:
. f

; ) J ,

a) I

dx
jcMjc + V x ^ f l J

3JC~-5X

=dx.

, a)
: + l = r - x .
, =

, dx = ^ dt.

'=1

dx

JC^(X+VJ?+1)

=1-

^41

(^4lVf

/,2_1' / . 2 - 1 2+, 11
2^^
2/
2/
2/

=2 [ ^

^^

f(r-ir

568

At + B

_LL

10

Dt + E

++

e-\

t
,

t{r-\f

f" 0 = +
t^ 0 = - + ,
i"

\=

0=

-lB-lC-D,
--,

f \ = .
: = 0, = -\, = \, D = -\, = 0.

/ =2

\-

=2 In ,

+C.

x,
\

In

x + Vx^hl

:(jc + Vx^+lJ

2JC

+ C.

6)

V ^ ^ - ^ + l = / ^ + 1. ,

2^ + 1
2 '
1~

^ ^+ +1 ,

7 r +r+1
dx-L
T-rdt, sx ~jc + l = 1-;.
,
dx
'x + Vx^-x + l

+/ +1
-dt.
J ( ^ ' - l ) ( / ' + 3 f + 2)

569

r+f+i
{t'-\)it'+2>t + 2)

t-\

t+\

{t + \y

D
t+2

f 4 f + l = ^ r + 2 ) ( ^ 4 2 / + l) + 5(? + 2 ) ( r ' - l ) +
+C{t - \){t + 2) + D{t +1)(/' -1),
t^ 0 = A + B + D,
t^ \ = AA + 2B + C-\-D,
t

l = 5A-B + C-D,

f"

l=

2A-2B-2C-D.

1
3
5
A = ,B = , C = -l, D = . :
6
2
3

/=_if^_f-^+2f-A_-l^f^=
3J/-1

Jt+l

Ht + ^)

3-'/+2

=ln|f-l|-31nlf + l|
+lni/ + 2| + C.
3 ' '
' ' f+1 3 '
'
x,
/ = InNx^ -x +
3 I

l-l-x\|-31n yjx^ -x + l-l + x\


2x

+101n yJx'^-x + \-l + 2x\

+ C.
yjx^ -x + \ - l + jc
)
,
\J3-2x-x

=(3 + x)t, = ^ , , = l + t'


(\+ty

3x'-5x

1+ 4/'-2'

^ =-2-'
1- .dx = 4l'

(f'+l)'

dt.

570

H-4r'-2k'

10

Et + F

At^ + Bt^ + Ct + D

(+1
1 + 4/^-21t' = {3At^ + IBt + C)(?' +1) - AtiAt" + Bt^ + C/ +
+D)-^{Et + F){t^ +
0 = E,
-2l = 3A-4A + F,
0^2B-4B

+ 2E,

4 = 3A + C-4C + 2F,
0 = 2B-4D + E,
\ = C + F.
: A = 14, B = 0, C = S, D = 0, E = 0, F = -1.
.
r dt
dt

\4t'+St
+ '6t

1=4

2t{7t^+4)

-7arctg/

r+1)
2

1"^

, t = 3 + JC , ,
I = -{\9-x)^J-2x-x^
7.4.

-28arctg J ^ - ^ + C.

.
a)

rx^+l

dx

(jc'-l)^

-&

WXV3JC^+1

1
, a) x-\- = t,
Tdx = dt.

571

x'+\ =

:'+1

{t^-l)x\
r ^
x ++i1

dx

t.

,
tdt
tat

_r

t^ -2 = z^, tdt = zdz



In

U-V2I

+c.

z + 4i
t, ,
z'-2

1
I=-^\xi^

2/2

2^

(V?^-V^)
1
^ - ^ + = Win
2/2
-4

1'+\-/2

+ .

'-\

1
x' + l
) = t, dx = dt

/:'* + ^ +1 = xvr^ + 5,

'-\

=t.

= /^ + 2 . -


{^-\)dx

WJCVSJC' + I

^?/

' /?+2[?~+5'

t +2 = z , tdt = zdz,

dz

'=i yfT^

= ln z + Vz^+S +c.

572

10

, jc,
/=:1

+ = 1

'+1 + /'+1

+ .

10.8.

1. sinx, cosx

2

sin = (l~cos2x), cos = (l + cos2x).

(1)

2. sin , cos

.
3*^. J sin'" cos" xdx
(1), ,
(2), ( ) . -\' = -Ik,
. . ,
dt
tgx = t ctgx = r, dx =
^ ^-^^
^ - ~.

2 ,

, ,
.
4. tgx
ctg X, tg = / ctg = / .
5. fi?(sinx,cosx)c?x, sinx,
cosx , -

573

tgx = /, ax =

-, sm x cos x 1+ r
^'

. 2

tgjc sin x =
6.

j cos x =
:

j,

{sin cosbxdx;

J sin ax sin bxdx; J cos ax cos bxdx,


:
sin cos bx = (sin{a - b)x + sin(a + b)x),
sin ax sin bx = (cos(a - b)x - cos(a + b)x),
cos ax cos bx = (cos(a - b)x + cos((2 + 6)x).
7^.
R{sinx,cosx)dx

(2)

t g ~ - /

, . . sin , cos
dx t
sinx =

2t

1 - /2

-, cosx =
2
l+r
1+^

2dt
dx = ^,
(3)
l+r

/?(sinx,cosjc),
.
8.

574

10

J COS ax cos bx cos cxdx =


1 sm(a+fe+c)x
a+Z7+c
V

sin(6+c-a)jc
b+c-a

sin(+c-Z?)x
a+c-b

sm(a+fe-c)x
a+b-c

_ irsin(a+Z7-c)jc sin(a+c-6)x sin(a+6+c)x


4(^ --
a-\-c-b
a+b+c

sin(6+c-a)x
b+c-a

Vc,

J cos ax sin bx sin cx(ix =

I sin ax cos Z)x cos cxdx =


_ 1 [^cos(a+Z?H-c)x cos(Z7+c-(2)x cos(a-\-b-c)x cos(a+c-Z?)x
4(^ +-
6+c-a
-
a+c-b

Vc,

J sin ax sin bx sin cx^ix =


_ l(^cos(a+6+c)x cos(a-Z)+c)x cos(Z?+c-a)x cosiia+b-c)x\^
a+b-c )
41 a+6+c
a-b+c
b+ca
8.1. : a) jsin'^xJx;
) I cos^xsin'^xJx; r) [ sinxcos^xJx; ) |
J

6) Jcos^xJx;

Tdx\ e) |tg^5x(ix.

J cos X

, a)

J sin^ X(ix = j(sin^ )^ = J (l-cos2x)^<ix =
= (l-2cos2x + cos 2 x ) ^ = (x-sin2x)4- cos 2xdx =
4J

4J

=(x-sin2x)+-J(l + cos4x)fitc = (x-sin2x)+-(x+sin 4x) + C.


6)

575

jcos^ dx = J cos^ xcosxdx = J (1 -sin^ x)dsm x = sin xsin^ jc + C.


)
J cos^ X sin"* xdx = J (1 + cos 2JC)(1 - cos Ix)^ dx =
1

= - J ( l - c o s 2x)(l"-cos2x)d!x: = --(l-cos2jc-cos 2jc + cos 2x)dx =


= -(xsin2x)
8
2

\(l + cos4x)dx + | (1-sin^ 2jc)^fsin 2x =


16J
\6^

= (xsin2x)
(: +sin4x)4- (sin2xsin^ 2x) + C.
8
2
' 16
4
16
3
r)
sin X cos^ xdx = -J cos^ xd cos x = cos^ x +
)

fsin^x ,
fl-cos^x ,
fJcosx
fJcosx
J
5 - ^ = -J
4 ^cosx = -J
^ +J
=
' c o s X

'

COS X

' c o s X

' COS X

= -1 cos"^ xd COS X + I cos"^ xd cosx = ~cos^ x


'
'
3
cosx
)

tg5x = t,

x = arctgr

~ sn-i-/^^

\tg^ 5xdx--

, ,

576

10

10

''+1

loJ

\_

=(' - 1(' +1) + =(tg' 5 JC ~ ln(tg' 5 +1)) + .


10
10
8.2. : )

xt/x
fssin^
i n

1; ) cos3xcos7xJx;
^ cos X
'
f
/
dx

) ;
^
; )
; ) cos2xsin3jcsin4xfii!x:;
^ 2cosx4"3smji(: + 2
-^ cos
J
dx
- ; )
J CI
sin^ X - 8 sin X cos x - cos^X

dx.

J sir
sin X cos X

, a) ,
dt
tg = ^; dx =
^,
fSin^xJx fsin^x dx
j.^ i^i dt
, 2 4
J
^= J-2
=\t\^^ty^=\{t'+t')dt =
^ cos X 'cos xcos X -^
1 + / '
= - ^ 4 ~ ^ 4 C = - t g ' x + - t g ' x + C.
3
5
3 ^ 5 ^
) no (2),
J cos 3x cos Ixdx =J (cos 4x + cos 1 Ox)d!x = - J cos 4xJ(4x) H-

+ |cosl0xt/(10x) = -sin4x +sinlOx + C.


20J
8
20
)
tg = ^, (3)

577

dt
dx

12cosx4-3sin;inx+2 = 2f^

ILJL
A-t

1+/'

dt

=i\

2 "'2-2/46^+2+2?'

2^L

l+t^

dt
1
: f - ^ = -ln|3? + 2|+C = - I n |3<gf^2 +c.
J 3^ + 2 3 '
'
3
r)
(13)
dx
sinx
3 dx
sinx
-=
-+-\
COSi X 4cos X 4''COS X 4cos x

3^ sinx

1f ^

4\^2cos x +7J
2*'cosx

sin X

3f sin X
1
+ln|tgx
+ secx| +C^
1
1
-+4cos X 4\^2cos X 2
T

) (8"^),
I cos 2 sin sin 4xdx = (sin(2 + 3 - 4)x -hsin(2 + 4 - 3)x J
4
3
sin(2 + 3 + 4)xsin(3 + 4-2)x) + C = - ( s i n x + - s i n 3 x 9
5
4
3
sin 9xsin 5x) +
9
5
e) cos~ ,
f
^tgx
J tg^ x - 8 t g x ~ l

f J(tgx-4) ^ 1 ^ tgx-4-^/7
J (tgx-4)^ -17 2/17 t g x - 4 + Vl7

:) cos ,

r''^dx=

^ sinxcos X

\^digx=

^ tgx

\tgKdtgx

-^

= 24^

+ C.

578

10

10.9.

.
.
sh , ch
:
ch^x-sh^x = l; sh2x = 2shjcchx; ch^jc = (ch2x + l);
sh^x = (ch2x-l); sch^x = l--th^x; csch^x = l-cth^x.
sh , ch
, sin , cos .
2.

^R\x,yjx^ -a^^dx

x = achr;

J / [X, yjx^ -^a^\dx x = sh x;


J 7?(x,/ -X \dx

x = athx-

^
,
1 + /^+^
: x = asht, ^ = In
,

. + /^-^
x = achx, t = m
.

9.1. : a)jsh^2xt/x; ) jsh^'ch^x^x;


)

Ith'^xdx;
J

[-;
-;
^ chx-fl

) [-;;
-^ shx

) I /chx-ltic; ) |
; ) f sinxshxJx.
'
'chx + shx
^

{x^shxdx;
'

579

, ) ,
Jsh^2xtic = -|(ch4jc-l)d[x:=- --|ch4jc<i4jc~x = - -sh4x~x + C
) ch x ,
J sh^ X ch^ xdx = J sh^ X ch^ jc<i sh x = J sh^ x(l + sh^ x^d sh x =
= I sh^ XJ sh X + sh"^ xt/ sh X = sh^ X + - sh^ X + C.
J
3
5
>-.

dx

dt

) th x = ^; ^ = dt\ dx = --,

\-t'

|*=0=-|; t+\

it = -

'e

1,

v3

/-1
l+C =
/+1

thx-1
-th^x+thx+In
+ C.
3
2 thx + 1
r)

dx

Jchx+l ' 2 c h ^X-

2
)

ch Jx

fi?X

f = J 2 sh ch = J - = 1
2

Jth2- = In t h - + C.

th

e) ,
^ = , sh xdx = dv, Ixdx = du, v = ch x.
jc^ sh xdx = :^ ch jc 2j X ch xdx.

580

10

= , ch xdx = dv, dx = du, = sh x.


J x^ sh xdx = x^ ch x - 2(x sh x - ch x) - .
) J V c h x ~ l ^ = J j 2 s h ' - d ^ = 2 V 2 J s h - J - = 2 V 2 c h - + C .
V

3) sh x = ("" - e"""), ch x = {e"" + e""") ^


f - ^ ^ ^ ^ = 2f

'^

= f!x = x+C.

'chx + shx
^ e"" +e'' +e^ -e"" '
)
(6)
Jsinxshxd!x = Je''sinx^&fJ e'^'sin xdx = (sinx-cosx)e''+
+(sin X + cos x^e'"" + = (sin x ch x - cos xsh x) +
4
2
f /~^

9.2. : a)

^ :

|Vx"+4fitc; 6) J r^;

dx

.)j V2x-x^
, a) x = 2 sh ^; d!x = 2 ch xdt,
JVjc44Jx = 4JVsh'/ + lch/Jr=:4Jch'/J/ = 2J(ch2/ + l)^f^ =
=sh2/+2/+C = 2sh^Vl+sh'^+2/ + C = - > / 4 + x ' + 2 k i ^ ^ ^ ^'^ + C.
2
2
6) x = a ch tdt, dx = a^h tdt,

^ 4 7 ^

sh^

2 J'

581

= (sh2/H-0 + C = a^(ch^Vch^/~l+0 + C =

^xslx

+ In

-.
(2

) \-x-t,

dx

dx

t = thz, at-

dx = -dt,

{ dt

dz

^ ,

dt
h-t^

dz
cchzdz
dshz
,2
^
Jchz
J ch'z
M + sh'z
th'z
^
/'
^
(1-)' ^
= -arctg
r+ C = -arctg
r- + C = -arctg-^
^ + C.

10.10 !

,
= F{x)
= F(x) + -

/(jc), ,
tga = /(JC) .

, ,
, {^,^),
, . .
.

582

10


,
D = (jc), S
5 = 1 f{t)dt, . .
.
dt
,
.
. ,
(1,2),
.
.
/ ( ) = . (1) =,
X

= \ + .

, ,
2 = 11 + = 2. : = \-2.
10.2. v = 3/^ /.
5, ^ = 2, S = 20.
. : S ={vdt = 3 [t^dt = ^^ +
: 20 = 2^ + , -\1.
5 = /^ +12.

11

11.1.
. .
-
1. [,]
= / ( ) . [,] .
AJC. = JC. Jc,_i ^,,
f{^.). ^ fi^i).

f{x) [,],
[,] ^.
.
f(x)
[,] ,

\f{x)dx=

lim X /(^,)^,-

max ; >0 ^. ,
'

1=1

584

11

6 , ,
, \,\
.
2. : 1.
/ ( ) ,
, . .

\f{x)dx=\mdt.

2.

b

j/(x)rfx = -J/(x)fifx.

3.

| / ( ) ^ = 0.
4.

\Af{x)dx =

A\f{x)dx.

5.

b

J(y;w+/2W)^=Jy;w^fx+J/2(x)rfx+.
6.
b

\f{x)dx

\f{x)dx^\f{x)dx.

585


( < <). ( <<)3. -. F{x)
f{x),
\f{x)dx^F{x)l=F{b)-F{a).

-
, ,
, .
4.
,

[ f{x)dx = 2\f{x)dx,
-

f{x)

, I f{x)dx = , f{x) .
-

5. ,
b

lfix)dx=

J fix)dx;

( = 0,1,+2, ...).

1.1. :
) j'(3x'

+ \)dx; ) llil + e~')dx; ) , ^ / = ^ ; ) sin|flfx;

, )

-
3

\(3x^+\)dx = 3Jx^dx + \ dx = x'[+x\l=(3'-\')


1

) -

+ i3-\) = 2S,

586

11

= (4 + 4)-(0 + 4) = 4.

) -

f ,

1
-2
= - f(3^ + 4)"2 J(3/ + 4) = - ( 3 / + 4)

JVSM^

3_V

'

= -(/21 + 4 - / - 3 + 4) = - .
3
3
) -

Jsin(ix = -2cos

- -2(cos
2

cos 0) = 2.

1.2. : ) J sin^xd!x; ) Jg
3

- 2
sin^x
+ sin2x

g-'^

COS X

"i

^ dx
^

-t/x.

, a)
, . . ,

'
1 0 ^2
1 sin^ xdx = 2 jsin^ xdx = j(l -cos 2x)dx Xsinzx
2

71

6)

-3

x^dx
X''+4JC^ + 7

587

) ,
2.

In

sin^jc + sin2x - f sin^jc + sin2jc ,


I
5
dx^\
dx =
4

cos

'jj.

COS X

= ](tg' x+2tgx)dtgx

= \-tg' x+tg" X

= - / 3 + 3 - - - 1 = /+-.
3
3
3

11.2.

\f{x)dx, f(x)

[,]. t
x = (p[t).
({) = ; ({) = , (p(t)
(p\i) [of, j8 ] / (^ (^))
[,],

lf(x)dx = lf(cp{t))(p\t)dt.

2.1. : )
1

_
I

dx

f 1 + tg^x
4

;
:; 1 +
( x^dx

588

) \^^.; )
{

X -

11

]^^dx.

^ 1 + COS X

, ) x = t ^
dx = Itdt. : = ,
^ = X = 3, ^ = / .
\-

=2

-tdt = 2\ ^

dt = 2\ dt-2\

^r
+1

= 2^|f-2arctg/|f =2(V3~arctgV3) = 2 f V 3 - | \
6) e"" = t, dx = .
: = In 2, / = 2 = In 3, ^ = 3 .

le'

dx

dt

_ f ^ ^ _ l i

-e-'~\{t-t-')r\j^\~2

t-\

ln--ln4
3

t+\

) f = tg, d!x; =

Idt

\-e^

^ , cos x =

: : = , f =
f = 1.
X =,
dt
dx
J03- - +
2 C2COSX
OSX
^f

dt

J^_^2^ 1 - r '
1 + /^
2

dt
+ 2 - 2
^ /5
arctg.
5
5

2N/5

589

) tgx = f, dx =

dt

IT?

: = , t = \
Jf - , ' - V3 .
} 1 + tg'jC ,
^^dx=

f 1 + /'

, (1+0

dt
f ,, ._2^^, ,
;-= (1 + 0 d{\ + t) =

V5

1
1
J__ /-1
\+t
1 + / 2 2(1 + /3)
2
) jc = 4sin t, = 4 cos tdt.
: = , / = =4,

t .
7t_

.
JVie^

^16
{

= 8 (l-cos20^?/ = 8 tsm2^
4cos/

J/

'

1^

4:.
J

e)
.
^
dx
. jc = tg/, dt =1 + ^
= 0, t = 0,3. = \, t = . ,
4
ln(jc + l)
^^^^

sin/ + cos/ dt
COS

= jln v2sin + / L//-jlncosrJ/ =


V
\
J)

590

11

= --ln2H-jlnsin + / p-jlncos/rf/.
^

V
/

, . .
^ ^
/ = -- .
%
, dt - -dip, / = , < - , / = ,
^
4
4
=
fln(x + l) , ^1 ^ f, . ^
J-^^ ^(ix = --ln2~Jlnsm

-^ "^^

V
fi
( /-18 =

~i

= 12- ]ncos(pd(p- lncosrJ^ = 12.

) = - / , , = ,
/ = ; X = :, ^ = .
^ xsinx ,
(:--/)8 , ^(7r~0sin^ ,
dx^-\^-dt= \^-dt =
M + COS X

1 + COS^

r sin/
,
;Jl + cos /

1 + COS /

r /sin/
;Jl + cos /


, ,
/ X ,
} xsinx , } sintdt

Tdx-\
- =
arctgcos/l =
J l + cos'x
2 J 1 + COS'/
2
'"
=---(arctg(-l)-arctg 1) = .

591

11.3.
1.

b

\udv = uv\^'-\vdu,

(1)

2.

la

+(--iy'']u^"'%dx.

(2)


, :
-

1. /^ = J 2 sin'" xdx, /^ = J ^ cos'" xdx


/^ =

/^_2

{'^sm'"xdx={^cos"'xdx-

Jo

Jo

(-1)!!:
!! 2
(w-l)!!

- ,

- .
mV.
2. ,

I;

i(m-l)!!(-l)!!;r
, -;
( + 2
sin'"xcos"xcfcc = <
(m-l)!!(n-l)!!
.
(-^.\

592

11

3. ^ ^ = i ^'^ In'" xdx '

/ , , =

JO

-/^_j
-\-\

h,m=i-W
4.

\{\-xyx'"dx=
Jo

.
( + w + l)!

5. /^ = Tocos'" xsmmxdx

Jo

/^ = - +/_,
21
/ fn =

1
\-\-\

2 -

-+++...+
1 2
3

6. /^ = p c o s ' " cos mxdx /^w

om+l

7. :
) [ 2 cos'" X cos(m + 2)xdx = 0;
) J ^ cos'" X sin(m + 2)xdx =
m+1
^
) [^sin'"xcos(m + 2)jc<ix =
'0

sin

m+1

nrn

cosr) J ^ sin'" jc sin(m + 2)xdx = m+l


_

'

593

3.1. : ) 1 sin xdx\ ) I ( + 7) ""dx.


, ) -\
sin xdx - dv, du = dx;
V = -cosX. (1)
I xsinxd!x: = - x c o s x r + |
= -{K

cosxdx =

cos + COS ;r) + sin xT = 2,

6) = x + 2; e^'^rfx = dv, t/w = rfx; ; = -e^"".


(1)
\\^2)'

5
3.2.

= -{ + 2) --\''

25

'

25

) ^ cos^ xJjc;
Jo

) J^^sin^xcos'^xt/x; ) ^^x^Wxdx\

) j^sin^jccosTx^tc.

, a) 1. m = 9,
. . ,
f^cos9xd^ = =
^=0,406.
Jo
9!! 3-5-7-9 ) (2), m = 5; w = 4,
f.

43
|^sin^xcos"xd!x = - ^ ^ ^ =

Jo

Off

2-4-3
^.S.7.0

.0,0254.

) 3, AZ = 4, m = 3,
\\'\n'xdx

3!_
= {-Xf^
(4 + 1)

= - ^ = -0,0096.

594

11

) ) 7
5

Jo

\ , 5

11.4.

1. / ( ) > [,\
b

j/(x)Jx>0.

2^. f{x) ()

{a,b], < f{x) < ({), \f{x)dx < \(p{x)dx.

3^. / ( ) [,],
< ,
\
I b

\jfix)dx\<j\fix)\dx.
\

4. .
[,],
<,
< f{x) < ,

m(b-a)<jf(x)dx<

M{b-a\

f(x)
[,].

5.
. f{x) [,],
([)>0 [,],

595

m^(p{x)dx

<\ f{x)q>{x)dx

<

M\q>{x)dx.

6. . / ( )
{,\, (, ),

\f{x)dx

{b-a)f{c).

1 *
f(c) =
\f(x)dx

/ ( ) [,/?].
7. . / ( ) ({)
[,], ({)
^() > (({) < 0)
< / ( ) < , (, ),

b

jf(x)(p{x)dx

= f{c)j(p(x)dx,

8^.

-.

/ ^ ( ) (^ ( ) [,],
\
\ f^
^

\jf{x)(p{x)dx\<\
\

jf\x)dxj(p\x)dx

4 . 1 . , : ) 1_ dx;
) J xe^'dx; ) ^ In xdx.
2

, )
[-2,-1] [-1,1]. .

596

11

[-1,1] . [-2,-1]
, ,
.
) [-1,1]
, .
)

^>

, ,
.
4.2. , ,
: )

x^dx ^^xdx. ) ^^x^cos^xdx

I xsm^ xdx,
Jo

, ) [0,1]
vl + j?>jc, I yj\ + x^dx> I xdx,
' J o

Jo

) [0,1]
jc^cos^jc<xsin^x, I ^^^ xdx< \ ^^ xdx.
'

Jo

Jo

2:
2

4.3.

dx

. 2 cos X

J^ /:

. 0<jc<27r l < 3 + 2cosx<5 , . .


= -=, = 1. 6 - = 2:, 4
2
/5

^:

dx

^2:.

/ 7 _|_ /-

J^ ./+^
COSJC

J0

4.4. | ^Jx(l + x^)dx, : ) JO

; ) .

597

, ) () = VJC , / ( ) = v 1 + ^ .
/ ( ) [0,1]: = 1, = \/2
5 j ylxdx<\
-- < 4x{U^dx

/(1 + ^)6</2|

yjxdx,

< .

) /^() = 1 + ^ ^() =
[0,1], -
4

^/^)^^^

+-

4.5. .
: ) /(jc) = x^ 0 < < 1 ; ) cos , 0 < <
, ) , = \.
(6) [0,1]
/ ( ) = ~^- I If{x)dx
f{x)dx=
= I I
"^== -.
)
2 ? . , 2 ?.. . . . . .
2^
1 . 3
f{c)= \^cos^xdx= {^(l-sin^ x)dsmx= sinxsm X
3
: '
: '

11.5.

/ ( ) [a,Z?],
[,], [,].
b ,

598

11

0(x) = J/(rW^
.
,
/.
V. t - , \, \,
^{^)
'() =

\fit)dt

= /W.

V"
2. (p{x)\i\^{x)
X, \,\ f{t)
(p{a)<t<^{\)),To

\ mdt

1/())/\)-(())().

5.1.

) (;)= r^dt;

) ()= sinV/^/

' ^

Jyjx

, ) (1),
f J
\
'
\)=\
'

) (2) , ^(jc) = vjc,


1
l/(x) = :^ (\) = -, V^'W = 2,
2^
9

0'(x) = sinvjc ^-sm^J^^x - =yfx

1 .
2-sin - s i n v^

599

5.2.
()=J/,
Jo I

(>0).

. () ^,, ^ sin JC
.
^
,
() =
; sm = , -^
(/:=0,2,...).
5.3.

, ) (1),
d
["^ dtdi __1
dx ' In ^ In X
)
,
d ^ .

d f

11.6.

.
*
1. J f(x)dx,

f{x) [, [
\f{x)dx

= \\m\f{x)dx.

(1)

600

11

,
.
, .


b

\ f{x)dx=
oo

lim \f{x)dx\

(2)

j f{x)dx = J f(x)dx + J f(x)dx,

^2)


f(x)dx

Ja

f(x) > , = , = .

, = f(x),
= .
2. f(x)
= , [,]
, f(x)


b

\ f(x)dx = lim f f(x)dx + lim f f(x)dx,

(4)

.
(4)
, = f(x),
= , JC = 6, =
.
= = b

601
b

I/(x)d!x = lim \ f{x)dx\

\f{x)dx^\\xs\

\ f{x)dx\

a+e

3.
.
1. << +00 f(x) < <(),
|

(p(x)dx

Ja

| f(x)dx,
I

[ f(x)dx,

(p(x)dx

Jo

2. <<-{-
lim

= (< : <+), | f(x)dx


(()
'^
.
3. X> / ( ) > 0
f(x) = -^

\ (p{x)dx
'^

( > 0 ) , > 1 (() << +

I f{x)dx , < 1 <p(jc) > .


Ja

4. J |/()| dx,
[ f(x)dx.

Ja

,
f(x)

[,+ [.
5. . f{x) ()
[, ), / ( )
, . . | f{x)dx , <()
Ja

602

11

|(()|< L {L - const, [,<^)),


| f{x)(p{x)dx .
Ja

6. . f(x)
[,] >),
I ^

f{x)dx\<L

(L const, a<b<^)

, ({) -> ^
f f{x)(p{x)dx .
Ja

7.
.
/ ( )
f{x) = -^^ ( > 0), <1 (() <L< -

(c-xf

rb

{L const)

f(x)dx {a<c<b),

a > 1

Ja

(p(x) >L>0 .
6.1.
. ~ x^dx ^ 7
dx
f^ "^ ,
: )
-; )
)
^dx;
J> 1 + '
'+2 +2
J____
dx
^ roo rdx
dx
, a)
(1)
- x^dx

1 ,. ^ dx^
1 ,.
^ 1^
= - lim
- = - lini arctg X =
Ji 1 + ' S^-^-Ji 1 + (-^ )
3^^1^
1

603

) =
,

dx
_ ^(jc + l) _ fo J(x + 1)
d{x-\-\)
J - x ' + 2 x + 2 ~ J - ( x + l ) ' + l " J - ( x + l)'+l^-'o (x + l ) 4 l ~
= lim

^^r-^^+ lim

^-.-co J^ ( ^ + 1 ) 2 + 1

^T-^^ lim arctgfx +1)1 +

/ ^ - ^ - Jo (;c + 1 ) 2 + 1

/^^-

'^

+ lim arctg(x + l)|f = lim (arctgl~arctg(/3^-l)) +


+ lim (arctg( j8 +1) - arctg 1) = + = :.
)

X

, = , ^dx = dv; dx = du,


X

xe ^dx = lim

--

xe ^dx = lim Ixe 2+22 (e ^dx


V

= -2 lim(x + 2)e 2

= -2 lim 2-(j8 + 2)e 2

.
) = /^; dx = 2tdt.
X = 1, / = 1, X = ^ / =

2/(i/

__ *" ^^

604

dt

11

dt

2 lim(arctg j8 - arctg 1) = 2

2"

)
I

=lim| ln^jct/lnx = lim^-^-'9


2 ^-^~ In" jc

^9 x l n ' j C

= lim
2^->' l^ln'jS In'9 J
6.2. :

1
21n'9

1
81n'3'

, a) x = 1, , ,

(4)
- 7 = = = "(-1)"^^ + (;-1)'^^ =

=lim3V^r+lim3V^f
e^O

1-1

e->0

=31im(^l-e-l~V^)+
ll+e

->0

+3 lim(Vl - ^1 + e - l ) = 3(^2 +1).


6) = 1,
. . [1,2]. ,

f2 dx ,. f2 Jinx
f
=limf
=limlnlnjd^ =lnln2-limlnln(l+e)=lnln2+oo=c
Jl xlnx
v l n V ^^'1+e
^OJl+ Inx
In V =limlnlnjcl,
-
'^+^ =lnln2~ -
^-^

605

) : =
, [0,1]
. ,
dx
dx
.. fi1 dx
,.
.
7 = lim
= lim
[
'o x^ - 3x^
^-^0 ^' x^ (x - 3) ^^0
fJ

9x

1
1
\dx =
3x'- + -9(jc-3)

i
111
v"^
= 1lim lm
x H 1 1 h lnuc-3
= -1 + -l il n 2. 3 9
^->n 9
3x 9 '

-lim 1 1 1 ,

111 . 1^ 1+-12+-(1+1)"-11=lne+-lne-3 = 3
3^^
3

3e 9
9 '
'J 3^
. . .
) [0,2]
: = 1, .
,
f2

dx
--Z

,.

fi-e

dx

dx

,. 2

= lim

+ lim

x-3f-4


rl-e

lim

dx
,

s-^oJo (^--

= limln
4^-^o

jc-5

x-1

\\-

1
+4
-ln5
= lim In
4 -^0 I


(. 11.1), >^, = X
- + > , : = 1,

dx

lim I
-= limln
..XX.
->0 Jl+e ( 4
4 ^-^0

jc-5

x-1

= lim ln3-ln

-4

4 e-^O

606

11

(. 11.1), , = 2,
X = 1 = ^; <
X -6 + 5
.

. 11.1
,. . .
6.3. : )

l^'^'dx;

[ ^ d x

(>0);

)|^

-;
J 1 + ' + '

>2/(-1)^

3x4^^ +2
sin2x
^)p..sm
zx^

dx;

(>0).

.) f(x)

1
1 + '+'

, () = -.
X

I 7- , .

607

)
-fl

-:^

- ^

I ^dx= \ ^dx+ \ ^dx.


Jo

Jo

Ji

, , ^ < '^ : > 1,


X

I ^dx = -2 lim
J\

== -2 lim ^ - ' = 2\

->

, .
) , / ( ) = sin ,
^\^) = ^.

6
Jfl

'

'

sinxJx = cosa-cosZ? <2

(a<b<oo)\i

1
^, , -^ ^
poo jj^ ;

TO J >sinx
^ ^ ^ a > 0 .
)

/w= 27-1?

1
({) = .

,. 2x'+x^{x-\f
lim

;c-~

h=

..

= lim

2+.

1
x'"

1
x'"

2
3'

i^i
, 3/4
^+^/'+

Vx

/oo ^2X

, 'i

608

11

) , f{x) = i^"" sin 2,


( () = ^. - ^ -^ X -^ , .

Jo

^ = sinx, | = 0, = 0; x = Z?, r = sinZ>|,

psinb

""'' sin lxdx\

Jo

,
\\

I ,

isin

te'dtUl\eit-\\

<2.

. . / ( ) .
,
.
6.4. : ) |
! dx
) f - ^ ; ) [

dx

Inx
=\ ) f4nsinxd!x; ) r-^Jx.

, ) = 1
, . . .

1
1
1
1
/'-1

/(^~1)( + 1)(1)

/ ^ 7 ( ^ + 1)(1)

, X -^ 1

77^^27^'

dx

Ji

_ 1

(-\

d-^\jp

^->i

=2

609

, .
) X = 1 .

(() =
JC-1

.. 1 ^
lim
= 1.

( = 1),

JC-1
.
) = 0 .

,. -
lim
-^

--

_-JC

., +
= lim
^^0

.
= 2,

1

X

2 . ^
= <\. , .
) X = .
. w = In sin jc,
cos X
dv = dx\ du =

dx, v = x,
sinjc

f7i
T = jclnsmjc2
1 I- - fT^x cosjc dx
, = -\^
c^^xdx .
Mlnsinxax:
Jo

10
X

Jo

gjj^^

Jo t g X

lim
= 1 lim
=0 , -^+ngx
x-.|-otgx
. ,
.

610

11

~ 1 ,
1 1 - - 1 ,
^= -] - .
x = - ,
"^ = Y
,
Inx

fo

lnf-1
[/ j

Jo jc'+l ^ ~ Jl Y

J / _ roln/<i/_

filn/flf^_

filnx(ix

?'~Ji / ' + 1 " J o ^ 4 l ~

Jox4r

12

.

12.1



.


[,],
1. )
( = ^ < Xj < ^2 < ... < x_j <x^=b

)
^^ , ,^_^ <^^<,^,
f{^j^)

612

12

Aw^
)

/(^,),+/(<^,),+ ... +/(^)=/(^*)^*.
=\

w, Isjc^.
) ,
, ,
^ -> , . .


.
2.
, .
)
Aw X,
{^\.
) du
du = f{x)dx, / ( )
X.
) du dx-^Qn
Aw
, du
= = Z?, . .
b

u = jfix)dx

613

1.1. ,
= ^, = 7: )
;
) .
, ) [0,1]
,,, ...,
,1

, .
. Xj = , ^2 = , ... ,^_, =
, Jc^ = 1.

1
^ =
2

= ,
'

,,)

/(^.)=

^nV

,-,/ =

K"J
K"J
AS^

AS,=

^tV 1
3

vy

^=1

=\


^
^=1

2_'?( + 1)(2 + 1)
6

1 1 1
1
+ + - = 3- +
+
2 "
,3
2 6^
/..3

5 =

12

614

/Sx^ -^ , .
. >
1
1 1
5 = lim - + + -

3 2 "

) ,
(. 12.1) S{x) = S^j^^
dx, . . dS = ydx.

= 0, = \,
S = \ dx = Jo

12.2.


, .
1. (. 12.2),

S={''nx)dx={'ydx.
Ja

Ja

(1)

615

2. /)?(. 12.3),

S = \(p{y)dy = \xdy.

'
d

-^5^

(2)

= <()

*^

. 12.3
3. ,
, ,
(. 12.4),

S=\\Ux)-f,{x))dx=\\y,-y,)dx.
Ja

Ja

2=!2()

y,=f,(x)

. 12.4

bx
. 12.5

(3)

616

12

,
, ,
, (. 12.5),

S = \\(P2iy)''%(y))dy

= [(,

-x,)dy,

(4)

4.

.
(. 12.6)

2 ''I

. 12.6
5. ,
, = (p{t); = \ff{t),
/ 6 [; /3] ^ () -; () = ,
S=\''ydx=
Ja

[\it)((>\t)dt.

(6)

Ja

2.1. , :
); = + 2, / = 9 ; ) = 1, j ; = V^,jc = 4, =

0;)=^-\

= 1, = -3; ) = ^,

^=-';

ji) y=j^,y=x',x=]:,)

617

^ ;) =x(x--a)^.

, ) (. 12.7)
.

J ^-1\
|/=9.
(jc + Tf = 9 jc^ - 5 + 4 = .
5 ^ (25 . 5_^3
.
,
x , = J
4 = ; X. =4; 2=1.
(3),

= +2

. 12.7
3

S=j\-j9x

-{x+2)]dx=3fylxdx-j\x+2)dx= 3 - j c ^ 3

'2^

'

^2
\\
+2JC

JJ

= 2-8-8-8-2 +- + 2 = - .
2
2
2
V
)
(. 12.8)
,
; ^(1,1).
,
(1),
2

12

618

S=\

4xdx^\

^dx

2 \

+ 1
=-+14-11
= -+212.
Mil
3
3

1
. 12.8

) ABCD (. 12.9)
(2)
5 = -\

= (1 + 27) = .

. 12.9
) (. 12.10) :
= ^, ^ =- (0,0),
(-1,1). (3),
S=

j\yFx-x^)dx-

'

1
''^
-.(- -

1 1

619

, 12.10
) (. 12.11).
.
/

5 = 1 ' (x'-x')Jjc = '

3
X

4
X ^

2,
3*

= ^

=
. 12.11
) , ,
.
V

= -\-: /: = lim= ^ =0, 6 = limj; = lim = 0,


, = 0,. .
(. 12.12).

620

12

. 12.12
,
7

5=
9

->

^ dx = - lim

Jo

( '
^ d\

B^ooJo

= -lim(e 2 -1) = 1,

= lime ^

5 = 2.

)3>>

) ;;,
, , ,
(. 12.13).

. 12.13
. ^^ = ,
X = , -, , .
(1)
\

S= I yjx(x-a)dx=
9

Jo

( I

I jc^
^

Jo

1
-ax^

3
'2 '
\dx = ~x^ -ax^
V5

3
J

a4a.
15

621^

, .
, , ,
4{ - ) <
X 6 [, ]. ,
. ,

5 = 4.
15
2.2. , : ) = cos t,
= 6 sin ^; ) x=^a{t- sin t\ j^ = (1 - cos /)
X] ) : = cos t, y = as\x\ t; )
= 2(^^-1), y = t(4-t^).
, )
(. 3.32). ,

1


, /. = , / = ,
= , t = 0.
(
1
Mi
S = -4Jja6sin^^J^ = 2aZ?j2(l-cos20^^ = 2aZ?( ^sin2r
-,
) X = , ^ = 0; 7 = 0, -In
(6)
2:

5 = 1 ""a^{{-Q.o^ifdt^a^\
'

^2

"^(l-2cost + cos^ t)dt =

- ^ - 2 s i n r + -sin2r

(. 3.67).

jL

622

12

)
(. 7.63). , -

-^,
. = , / = ;

^ = . (6)


S = ^ L 3a^sin^t cos^ tsintdt=-a^\^{\-cos2t2

cos^ 2t+cos^ 2t)dt =

\ ^1

J 2 (1 - COS At)dt+- j ' (1 - sin' 2t)d sin It


o"2

r) .
X = , ^ = 1; j ; = , ^ = , t = 2.
: / = - 1 (, -3), t = \ (0,3);
^ = 0 (-2,0); ^ = 2 (6,0).
t G [-2,0], ;; < 0; G [0,2], > . (6,0)
. ,
(. 12.14).

. 12.14
,
;
(6)

623

5 \

S-^2\\{A-t^)Atdt--%\\At^-t^)dt

=%
V 3

512
15 '

2.3. , : )
= (; ) = a(\ + cos(p);
) (^+^ =2^(^-^);
)
p=acos(p = /sin(; ) ^ +^ - = ().
. ) (. 3.58)

( 2:. (5)
f27r 2 2 I
^
5 = 1-1(
=^(\

3 2

^ ^'
66 ' '^' 3
2 Jo
Jo
)
(. 3.61), ,
( :.
(5)
S = 2'-\

2 Jo

a^{\ + cos(pfd(p = a^\ (l + 2cos(p^- (l + cos2(p))d(p =


^3
a

1
2(p
2 '(p + 2sm(p' +sm
4

.
\'
2
)
(. 3.62).
= cos (, = sin <,

^ =2a^cos2(p.
71

. (5)
4

624

12

) , /
/ \

(. 12.15) 2 6
V

.

, 12.15

< ,
6

SocA = ^ \^ ' sin' (pd(p = -a^ J^** (1 - cos 2(p)d(p =


1
>
3 2 (
S]
(psin2^ =a
Jo 4 6 4
^
J

< , ,
6
2
1 2 2 _ ' fA,
SoBA = -^ 'cos' (pdcp = =- ' (1 + cos 2(p)d(p =
2Vb
4 ^
= a

625

( +sin2(p

,
5
^ - ^ + ^

-'

-Si

) x = p c o s ^ ,
y = psin(p ,
sin cos ^
=
^. sin ( 4- cos (

(. 12.16),

^ 1 ^ 9a^sin^(Z)cos^(p ,
5 =-
^ , \ d(p.
2-^0 ( s i n > + cos>)^
cos^ (,

9 , t t g V t
g =
3^^f^(l + t g =
3 ,

29 JJ(l 4+ to^
t g \^
^

92

iJ(l
(^.
+ \^
t g \^
^

. 12.16

92

1
14l +tctg>

"

626

12

12.3.
1. .
S{x)
(. 12.17).
, dx

dx S{x) , . . dV = S{yi)dx .

V^^

S{x)dx,

(1)

. 12.
2.
(. 12.18), ,
, ,
^.
V^n^

y'dx,

(2)

. 12.18

627


(. 12.3),

^\\,

(3)

? .

(. 12.2),
,
y^^dx^^
X.
V = 2K\ xydx.

(4)

Ja

,
,
\ = /i (^) ^ - fi (^) ' ^-^ /j () < /2 (jc) , -,
= , .,

V,^it\{yl-yl)dx

V^=2n\x{y,-y,)dx.

(5)

, ,
,
.
3.
= (() < = ;( = j3 ,

2 ^
V = 7i\
71] ^p''sm(pd(p.
sin (pd(p.
3

(6)
2

3.1. - + " + " ^ ^

^ b^

628

12

. ,
/,
(. 12.19).

. 12.19
/,
xz
(

^2^

v'-^^

+-

= 1.

\j-^
V

*%

i"

, , \-
1^
^\\-, (. 2.2, ) /
I
S{1) =

,.\

, (1)

-,
V = nac I
3
-\ '^ J
" -b
-b
3.2.
. ,
.

629

. . 12.20
. ,

, BCD.
= yjr^ - ^ .
S(y) = ^ -'^. , (1)

-=^
.
3
V
)

16

. 12.20
3.3. ,
, " y = Oii 1.
. (. 12.21)
(2),
V=n]x'e"'dx.
,

-''"
2

-i:

dx ^=;rf-xV^ -1^''-^]

630

12

'--\-

. 12.21
3.4. ,
, j ; ^ = 4 = 0
= 4.
. (. 12.22)
(3),
V = n \\xdx
Jo

= 2:;^ = 32,
10

3.5. (),
^ + (;; -4)^ = 9 .
.
, R = 3 (. 12.23). -

631

;;,
j^,2 = 4 v 9 - x ^ .
,
. ,
V^2\\^,

-yl)dx--2K^\25-x'-%49^-

-25 + 8/9-' +x')dx = \6K^^y}9-x^dx.

. 12.23
: = 3 sin /, Jx = 3 cos tdt\ x = , / = 0;
X = 3, t- .
V = \6^9^'
(

. + co^2t)dt =
tdt = 12KY\\
\

= 12 / +sin2r
= 36:'
2
3.6. ,
, ^ -\- ^ =\ (
X > ) ;; = .
. (. 12.24)

632

12
2

: 2jc^ --2 = 0;
-3/9 + 16
^-1,2

-35
=

Pwc. 12.24
,
, , ,
(2),

J

= \ y^dx = nyxdx^'Ku{\-x^)dx

=K

+ 7r

10

1 , 1 1 \ \ 19
.
= \ +1
+ = 48

^283
2 24j
3.7. ,
,
.
. ,
'^ =2 OJC,
(. 12.25).

=: 2(1 =

633

=^

. 12.25
,
, V^ = ^. ^ =2 ,^oV^- 1^,
, V^ = 2F^,
.
3.8. , ,
: - cos ^ = - 1 \
: <<; .
. , ,
, . 12.26.

. 12.26
j ; = - l ,

634

12

X - \ - -.
V^\

{y + \)dx = 7ir (cosx + \fdx =

(1' =
J-n

J-

-i:(l + cos

J-K

2JC + 2 cos :

\dx = Kx
2

'

3.9. ,
: ) = a(l-'COS(p); )
^ =a^cos2^.
, ) , ( ; (. 3.61).
(6)
2

-1

-7

-1

f^

V = K\ (l-cos(pysin(pd(p = Ka \ (l-cos(p)d(l-cos(p)
^

F
4

3/1

= {l-cos(p)\

1 =-7
3'

)
(. 3.62), (6)
./
I
22
-3
2.

-V
=-
"^a\cos2(py
sm(pd(p
=
-na^
^{2cos^
(p-iy
smcpdcp.
2
3

^
1
.
,
cos tdt
: cos (p =/2^ sin
-7=7-;
^ , sm (pd(p =>y2sin^r
= 0, ^ = ; = , ^ = ,
4
4
2
F=

/2

3 r% cos"^ tdt
4
3
,
= =
WA sin'/
3V2'

-cigt-2t+-

2+sin^/ \dt =

1 .
^
-'
sin2^
6
2

635

. , : )
x = a{t- sin ), = (\- cos t)
\ ) , = 3/^, y = 2\nt
, ; ) = cos /,
= sin^ t = .
, )
^ 2:, X 27 (. 3.67). ,

= :|

y^dx.

,
^
3
V = ' J'"" (1 - cos )' dt = " j ' ' 'l-3cosr + -(l-hcos20V
2:

/5
3
1 ^
-(1-sin^Ocos/ -%' ^-4sin 1sin2^Hsin^/
:57rV.
2
4
3
) ,
, . 12.27, ^]0,1].

V = KJ

y^dx

V = 24KJ

. 12.27

tln^tdt.

636

12

/ = 0 .
: \n^t = u,
1

t^

2 ~In tdt = du; tdt = dv^ v = ,


/

= 24:
^^0

\p

f tin tdt

jfi

:24:

/3->o

J8^
f

+ lim \nt+
, 2
4

- hm-t-+hm-^In + ^->o
4
/3^0 2
4
J8^

= 24: lim-^ + = 6:.


^-o 1

(3). = -, / = 0; 7 = 0, / = 1,
^ ^dt 9
X dy = 97r\ r = -7tt
J-^ -^
Jo ^ 4

V = K\

9
= 7t.

4
) ,
(. 12.28).
= ,
(afi),
' = -, ' =

^V =n[{xyd/

= nllix-aydy.

,
= , -

637

, /,

V = ' (1 (cos^ t -1)^ sin^ t cos tdt -y^ (cos^ t -1)^ sin^ t cos tdt) =
= 6^^^(r^(2-3sin^/ + 3sin^^-sin^0sin^^^sin/-2K^cos'^/sin^^fi?/--J

( 2 - 3 sin^ t + 3 sin'' t - sin^ 0 sin^ td sin t + l\


2.

-i

= 6 sin

J .

l . g

J .

sin t-i

sin /

cos"* t sin^ tdt) =

sin /

f'^ l + cos2^(H-cos40-(l-sin^20cos2r \dt(2

. ,

3 . 5

3 . 7

1 . 9

- sm / s i n ^ +sin / sin r
3
5
7
9

~A

+ cos 2t(1 + cos 4t) - (1 - sin 2/) cos 2t \dt) =

3.1 2

= 6\\

+
5 7 9

1
t

8 .

. 12.28

-n'a\

638

12

12.4.
1.
= / ( ) = F{y),
jc = (p{t), j ; =i//(/), ^f/
(. 12.29) , ,

rf/ = ^1 + {yf dx = ^l + (xf dy = yjx" + y^ dt.

(1)

,

b

)3

L^\dl = \4^ + {yydx = \4\-^{xfdy--\yjx'+y''dt.

(2)

2.
= p{q>) (. 12.30),
dl - yj^ + {p'Yd(p,

^

L = \4p'Hpydcp,

(3)

. 12.30

639

3. ,
= (/), = y{t), z = z{t)
t ,
L = j^x^+y^+z^dt.

(4)

4.1. : ) >^ = lncosx jc = 0

^ = -; ) ^'^ +^^^ -^'^\ ) j ; ^ = 9 -


\ )
;^ = \ ^^ +^ =6.
, ) (1),

l+iliLljx= 'Yi
f/\
f' dx

L=y'Jl+[ilncosxyfdx=
Jo

Jo

= lim In tg

^-1

rn^^
cos XV

= lim In tg

^-f

Jo

P 7t

cosx

=oo.

6)
(. 12.28),
. , =-{1)^'^.
(2)

=\14^1<=\1^;"'+/'= dx =
X

2/3

3
Jo v^^^

-.

L = 6a)
(. 12.31).

640

12

, 12.31
: jc = , =^3.

. (1),

,
4ydy
du - ,
, v = ,

^L=:yyll + 4y'f

-4^ =, dy = dv;

dy
'\'^-^4y'dy-hf-j=^

1 = j ; ^ l + 4 / +-1|2>; + /1 + 4 / | | =3/37+-1(6 + /7).


2 I
11
2
) (. 12.32)
.
'^ =^, ^ 6 + ^ =0-
2.

. (1)

641

. 12.32

i-r/

4r2f^
9 Jo

9 V /
4
v4

8 9 "t
1 + -;
4
27
V

27 V 2 y

-1

, L =

11

27
V

4.2. : ) x = fl(cos/ + /sinO,


= a(sin t-t cos /) ^j = /j = 2:; )
x = a(t-smt),

y = a(l-cost);

) =^ = ^7
6

.
, ) (
) (. 12.33).
x = at cos t, y = at sin /.
(2)

642

12

. 12.33
iK

L= \ ""yla^t^cos^/ + aYsin^tdt
Jo

= a\ ''tdt =
Jo

^lair

6) t In (. 3.67).
i = (1 - cos , - sin t.
(2)
i = J "" ^^ (1 - cos tf 4- ?- sin^ tdt = a /2 f yjl - cos tdt =
C^Tt

= la
Jo

t\

2:

sin dt = --4a cos = 8a.


27
2L
7

) : jc = , / = 0;
j ; = , ^ = /8 . x = t^, y = -t^
(2),
Jo

Jo

JO

= -(/"+1)2

11
3'

4.3. : )
= (; ) = 0(1 +cos);

643

) - sin ; ) = "^"^ ( > 0),


= .
. ) ( < ^ < 2:)
(. 3.58) (3)
Z = J '^^j{a(pf -{-a^d(p = ci\''y]l + (p^d(p.

(pdcp
I
,

1 + (-=,

d(p = dv;

(-'^->

Vi+(p'
L = a \( + (^\ -{^"^ ^ + (p^d(p + \nl(p + ^l + (p^\
I
1 '
\
/| I

L= -((pyjl+(p^ +ln(^+^l+(pMj

=:^11+4^ +-1[2:+/1+4:.

)
(. 3.61) .
(3)
L = 2 -yja^ (14- cos (pf + ^ sin^ (pdcp = 2 V2a yJl-\-cos (pdcp =
= 4ci\ COSd(p = Sa :^<P
sin
= 8a.
2
2|
) <p :, (. 12.34). ,
. 2

, = a s i n cos. (3)
L= \""Aa^sm^ + a^sm^cos^d(p=^a\ ""sin 1/ =
\
3
3
3 J
3
2(^
(
3 . 2 ^
_ ^ f ^^
1-C0S^ / = <j9sin^
" " 2 Jo
3 j
2\^
2
3 ^

3
= .
2

644

12

. 12.34
) ^ =
, = .
, ( ~ 0.
= . 3.60.
' = "''^.
,
, (3)
L=f

yJa'e'^+m'aV'^d(p = ayJ\+m^f e^d(p =

= ayjl + m^ Km f%'"^rf(m(p) = /l + m' lim e"4' =/l + m'.


4.4. : )

x = acos^ y = asint, z = ct;


6) y = -\nx,

z = x=^\ 0 x = 2.

, a) 2
(. 4.20). x = -asmt, = cost,
z = c, (4)
Jo

Jo

6) . x = t, y = mt, ^ =;

645

= 1, t = \\ = 2, = 2. i = 1,
j ; = , Z = (4).
2/44^1
It

^=f^R^^^=i

|2

..=j;
V 2^J

= - ( / 1 [ = - ( 3 + 12).

12.5.

= f(x) (. 12.35),
, ,

(1)
(. 12.3)

Ja

Ja

S = 2nf xdl = 2: J^ xyjl + ixfdy,

(2)

= x{t),
= y(t), < / < j8 ,

. 12,35

646

12

S = lK\%{t)^{x{t)fHmfdt.

(3)


= {(), <(<,
S = 271 f psm(p J ^ + (pyd(p.

(4)

2,

(5)

Ja

R
; dl ; , b
, . R (i/
.
5.1. , X

: ) y = ach = 0 = ;

'
'
) + = ^ ; )

b
9^ = (-- ,
, ) ,
. 12.36.
y' = sh Jl + iy'^Y =ch.
(1)
S = 1K['ach^dx

= na['\ c h + 1

2x
^
= \ sh+x

1^2

- s h 2 + l

647

. 12.36
) , >,
J = 1 - , =1--^-^-^ (1)


\
b \ 1

''- -

b r~f

7~

-"- ^sja -

- = , = .
,
5 = 2: yla^-^x^dx =
J-a

- xdx

4n-r^la^-^x^dx.
JO

yja^ -^^ =w,

dx = dv;

= du, x = v,
S = 4n

-1\4^-^^
a\

xyja - X H arcsin
2
2
a

H-a^ 8| = 2:/?(6 +arcsin).


f

648

12

, 2

2
jy.
(2): = r-v , ' =

=^x'Hxx'f
=-J64

=f'-f^/+^/ =

y=f>^+^/^

b'
f''

/1.2 , c ' ..2

^ = 2^lLr-^77^^^6 J-*

no

Jb +-^

=u,

dy = dv;

du _
= 6

, v=y,

b'+Tl/
,2

8 = 2%a

2 V

c' ,
b^

b'
Ic

^^^
2 / ^ 7 ^ 1 ^
2

T fL 2e ',+ ^2
c^-c

6 + = , = ,
\ +
b^ , +
In
2 +
In
lea
\-
lea
-
)
(. 12.37).

S^lKa

649

1 ' = ( - jc)' - 1{ - ),

/ = (3^ ^^ ^) 1

6
,
, (1)

. 12.37
(-(-

(-)/ +2 + dx =
' 2 , 2
3^ -

-^

'^

( +2-

)dx =

= 37'

3
5.2. ,
: ) = cos^ t, = sin^ t ; )
x = a{t- sin t), y = a(l- cos /)
.
, )
, ,
,
( < ^ < ). (3).

650

12

S = 2' 2\

sin^ ^ ^ 0 ^ ^^^^ t sin tf + ( sin^ t cos 0^ ^^ =

= 12:

9 f/^

sin r cos^fi?^ = -a
Jo
5

s iV

12

sin ;;^ = .
''
5

6) y = Q, cos^ = 1, r = 0 r = 2:. t = 27i


= 2. , (.
7.64) { ,0).
(5): 7? = : a - a ( r - s i n r ) = a(:-^ + sin/)5
dl = ^J(xy+(yfdt

= 7 ^ ' (1 - cos tf + a^ sin^ tdt = ay/l^ll-cos tdt =

= 2a sinrf^.
, . . t
:.
,
9 ^

-)

Jo

Jo

S = 4na \ (;r-r + sinOsinrf^ = 47ra [2: sinJ


Jo ^

+4 sin^ -dsin-]
Jo

tsindt-^
9

'^
^
t ^ . t 2 , ^t^
= ^ -:cos+/COS2sin+sm
9
V
2
2
2 3
2^,

= 8:' :-2 + - = -:^(:-4).


3
5.3. ,
: ) ^ = 2^ cos2(p ; )
p = a(l + cos^)
(2,0).
, )

(. 12.13). (4)

651

5 = 2 2:f-^/2 aJcoslcpsin<,lla^cos2(
+ 2'^HL?^<7):
Jo
^
^ '^^
'^
cos2<p
= 87

8^?< = - 8 : ' 8 ( | ^

=S7ra^

2
V
) (4).
0<(<

. 3.64.


8-2\

{\ + cos () sin (pyja^ (1 + cos ^f + a^ sin' ^^f^ =


JO

= 4 I (l + cos^)sin^cosJ(p = -16;r(2 J cos (icos=


32
=

5<P

5 : cos

32 2
= Tca .
5

12.6.

1.
/
J O T ^ = md .

Wp ^2,... ,^
^=^

m-d-, , -

/, .
y = f(x),
a<x<b,

652

12

m^ = J 8{x)ydl = J S(x)yJl + () dx;


m^ = j'5(jc)jcJ/ = | ' 5 ( ) 7 7 ) ^ ^ ,

(1)

S{x) , dl .

,
= (),

^ = { ' psin(pJp^ + ^d(p,


^ = cos (pJp^ + p^d(p,

(2)

.
,
= f{x), = , = ,

1 ^ . , , . .^ 1
w^ = - f 8(M)ydS = - f S(M)y^dx;
m^ =-f5{M)xdS

= -fS{M)xydx;

(3)

8(M) , dS = ydx
.

.
,

S(x) jc ,
, ,

dm = ^^(JC)^^^

653

^^.= I xS{x)dx,

(4)

,
,
-\

dx.

(5)

= f{x)
ia<x<b) (. 12.38)
,
, ,
Inydl

^ = 2: xydl = 2: J + (y'^dx.

(6)


= x(t), = y{t)
z (. 12.39)
Z = z{t)
'w,,

= \^xzdl; m^=\jzdl;

m^^=-\^z^dl,

()

dl = ^Jx^+y^dt; L
.

654

12

z = z(t)

. 12.39
2.
/
J O T /^ = md^.

^, ^,.^- ,^

/^ = V m^d^ 1=1


= f{x) (a<x<b)
Ja

Ja

I = f 5(x)xV/= {''S{x)x^J\ + {yfdx,


Ja

(8)

Ja

5 (x) , dl .
,
= f(x), X = = b

/, = i 6(M)/dx;

/ , = SiM)x'ydx.

(9)

(. 12.40), -

655

jVi = yj (), 2 = /2 (),


b X

, 12.40

I,=[5{M)/{(pM-(p,{y))dy;
I^=[5(M)x'{f,(y)^My))dx;

(10)

^ () = ,, ^ () = 2
, .
6.1.
: ) -"" ( < < 1); )
5 , 5 () = 1; )
^ +^ =^, ,

.
, )
(1),

Jo

^ = "", dt = e'^dx, ^ = \ ^ll + t^dt.

656

12

: = /+^, dv = dt; du = / ^ ,
? = ,
rff
m.

w_^=j' /^^?=- (f Vi77+\{1+Vi+7))


/1 + ^-/2 + 1

e + yl\ + e^ I
I + V2

(8)

1 f
/ , = '" 1\ + ' = - (1 + '" )'^' d(\ + e^'') =

)
x = acos^t, y = asin^t.

(1),

dl = ^Jx^ + y^dt = Sflvcos"^ t sin^ t + sin"^ t cos^ tdt = 3a sin / cos tdt,
3a^
sm4\
5<:
^ Jo -^
Jo
I("
(8)

m, = \ ydl = 3a^ |

sin^^sin/cos/flf^ =

/ = f ' ^ / j / = 3a' C'^hin'tsintcostdt


" Jo -^
Jo

=sm'
8

tp
'

=-
8

657

, 3
^=^=

,
,
3 3
1^=1=

)
(1) (8).
dl - ^\-\- {' dx , /

2 + 2=0,

dl = Jl-\'-Ydx = yJy + dx = dx.


\

^ = \ kxyydx-ka]
-

Jo

xyja^-x^dx =
wo

/^ =

kxy-ydx^kaX
Jo

(^-x^y^^d(a^-^)

2 '^

2 43/21"

^"

' ' 0

dx = ka\
Jo

x(a^-x'')dx

Jo

2 X
X
ka'
= ka a
V 2
4^
/: .
6.2.
.
.
, ,
.
: = cos t, = sin t.

658

12

dl = \1^ sin^ t + a^ cos^ tdt = adt.


(1) (8),
^ = j"" ydl = ^ sin tdt = 2a^ /^ = y^dl = "" sin^ tdt = -Ka\
6.3.
= 2 sin (.
. (2).
^^ + '2 ^^4'sin'( + 4^cos'(=2

(0<(p<7i) (. 12.41),

^=4^\ sm^(pd(p = 2a^{ {l-cos2(p)d(p = 2Ka^;


^ \ sin(pcos(pd(p = 0.
, ^, = ,
.
6.4.
.
. ,
. 12.42.
(3),(9),
. :

"

659

2Jo-^

2 Jo

"

"

2
1 2

m^,= | 5=1 bxdx =ab,

I=lry^dx

/^, = 1 xydx=\

-rb'dx^-ab\
X bdx = a b.

Pwc. 72.42
6.5.
, = 0, = + = ; )
; ) ,
; ) ,
.
, )
(. 12.43)
(3) (9)
3

. = -ry'dx

= -\\a-xfdx

= -\ - +

/ =-

ydx = -\ (-) dx =

12

660
^3

.
.
'w^ = ^^^ = V^ = 7^ = .
6
12

Pt^c. 12.43
) , , /.
^ , ,
h . ci

- ^ == =h. ,

"

L^\\h4h=rh4h =h'
^

Jo

) "
. / (. 12.44 ).
^, , /,
h . /
2
2
a^,=--a-h, = + .
' 3
' 3
/ ,
.
,

661

2
\
3

-i ^\
la^ ) /

i 1

. 12.44
2

^2 h' h'^^
hdh =
3 2 3

27 3'

=lHh*''

hdh =

27 3'

,
/,
, , , = " ," =0.

/
2

^4
2 h' h4
3

813'
3 4
V3

^'=f |'-**=

2 h' h4
+
8112'
3 3 4
,

^11

'^ =

aV4
81 3 12

36'

662

12

6.6. ,
= ^ = /
.
. ,
, . 12.45.
X ^2^)'"^\{) = ^^ ^ .

. 12.45
,

= VJ^-/)^=

(2

.5/2

20'

(10)
5

h=iy\4y-y")dy =

Z//2_y_
2
5

35'

6.7. :
) ; ) ; )
; ) .
. )
, . 12.46.
MNB

(5)

663

. 12.46

(
-2

= 7^

' ^

3
^ JC"

2 + 4 '

\ =
'

2 2

'
12

) ,
. 12.47. OMN ^ =R^ ^.

(5)

. 12.47
f

^V2^'^\

^ dx = Kl x(R

-x)dx-K

/?^-
2
4

nR'

)
(. 12.46), -

664

12


(6)
\

/.^ = 2KJ" + y^dx =


2KR

ylH'+R'

27cj"xR\l-

1+

R_Vdx =

^2

) (. 12.47)
(6)
/^ = 2 J xyyjl + '^ dx.

j ^ =/?^-Jc^: 1' = 2,

=,
yjR^-x

yjl + y'^ =./1 +


'

'

'

'

,
rR

^=2\

iz

R^

x^R^ -x^ -r==clx

= 2KR = KR\

6.8.
^ -^-^ =R^,
z = 0 z = ( > 0 ) .
.
. 12.48.
(7), ,

z = y, : ' + / = 7 ^

=-

VF^'

665

Rdx

dl = yjl + y^dx =

ylR'-x''
f*

m, = \ xzdl=\
m.

Rdx
Rdx
f
xy I
^ = R\ xdx = 0

i^'-t^'^-'t^^"^-

. 12. 48
,
Aw_ =

Rf

4^]

R_
cyjR^-x-+R2
mv

dx

1 r
2J-R

arcsin R
1 f

2-'-*

= -R'
2
i?rfx

^-

,
^

666

12
jc'

''

6.9. + = 1
.
.
,
, ,
4. (10)
^V ~ ^

/ - X X dx , = sin /,
'^
dx = acostdt
1= \ cos ta^ sin^ ta cos tdt = a^b
a Jo
Jo
=

(1 - cos 4t)dt =
2 Jo

sin^ 2tdt =

71,
4


1=4\ ^Jb^-y^y^dy.
Jo If

y = bsint,

dy = bcostdt
4 f^,
,2.2/
^b^
I =\
b cos tb sm tb cos tdt =
.
'

6 Jo

6.10. : a) ; )
, , R.
, )
(. 12.49).
V = InyHdy,
dy .
1|
dl^ = InHy^dy,
,

667

1,=\1^=2\1 = ]-\

. 12.49
)
(. 12.50 ).
dV ^ 2 hdy , j dy
h. MNB ,
h = H 1V

dl = 2
\

_ /dy.
R

. 12.50
,

668

12

pR

Jo

"^

\dy = 27tH'

Jo

5R

10

KHR\

6.11. : )
, , R,
; ) R .
, )
(. 12.51) R
SlnRdx.

. 12,51

dl^ = R^8lTcRdx.
,
,
/ = f"" dl = 2K5R^ \" dx = InSR'H = mR^,
^

Jo

Jo

m = 2K5RH .
)
, dx,
Oj;z (. 12.52).

, ,
SlKydl

669

. 12.52

dl^ = y^Slnydl. ,

^

J-R

J-R

, ^ + >'^ = i?^, = yJR^ ~^, =\]

dl = ^Jl + /^dx =

-X

Rdx

4 = InSR^" (R^ -x')dx =

2K5R

R'x-
3

-n5R'=-mR\
3

m = AnSR^

12*
,
, .
1.

670

12

\''5{M)xdl
_ ^

fb

-^

>

\ 5{M)dl

\''5{M)ydl
X __ J a

1)

'

\ 5{M)dl

Ja

^^

Ja

\ ^,
,;;; 5{)
{, )\ dl .
L,
5 = 8((),

^=--\'pcoscpdL;
J c = v f P^^^^P^L,
(2)
dL = yJp + p d(p ; L={

dL -

.
.
2. ,
,
jfi
^c

\ 8{M)xydx
(>b

I S(M)ydx

2f

8{M)y^dx
f>b

Ja

'

K^J

5{M)ydx

Ja

m ; m^,
,.
3. ^ =/(:);
= fi {^\ = ; = (. 12.4),

\''SiM)x{Ux)-f,ix))dx
= -

l''d(M)(f,(x)-f,(x))dx '
Ja

\''S(M)(f,\x)-f,\x))dx

Ja

f 5(M)(/,(x)-y;(x))^
Ja

(4)

671

5{) , . .
.
5{) ,
5
.

, .
,
= ((),

''=-:^\

P^oscpdcp;

,=\

'smcpdcp,

(5)

5 = I ' p^d^ .
4. ^

xS{x)dx
.=^.

(6)

S(x)dx
Ja

S(x)dx
; S(x)
.
, y = f(x)
(a<x<b) (. 12.18), ^
yOz

dx

672

12

^
, jc,

_ ^^ _ I W^ + Z^^

^ - " ~ 7^

, ,

(8)

^ I Wi+(/) ^
J

5^.
, (. 12.29),
z = z{t),

'= ''= '-^-

<''

S ; ^^, ^^, ^
(12.6 (7))
.
6. .
1) ,
, ,
, ,
, .
2) ,
,
,
,
.
7.1. : )
y = ac\i ( 0 < < ) ; \ ) x = a{t-smt),

= {\-cos/),
; ) p = a(l4-cos^)
{0<(<).
, ) (1), ,
.

dl = ^j\^-y^dx = ^\^^h^dx=c\i'-'dx,
\

L^\

Jo

dl=\

673

ch(ix^flfshJo /7
a
a

: a sh 1.

:
m,, = I xc\idx\ m^=a\ ch^dx,
Jo
a
Jo
^

no :

v = ashxa,
m =axsh a\ shdx = {axsh
/7

'0

/7

x = u, chdx = dv; dx = du,


a

a^ch)
/7

= a'(shl-chl + l).

/7

a ^ l + -1s h ^
2
~2
,

(
a , 2x
m, = - 1 + c h \dx- + s h
2i:('
Jo
a ]
2
2
a

=-^
=
( s h l - s h l + l) = a 1 - t h 2
" Z, shl

)
5() =
dl = ^Jx^+y^dt = sja^ (1 - cos tf + a^ sin^ tdt =

lasin-dt


'2-

^ f 2:

J0 xdl = 2a Jo ^(t-smt)sm~dt
"^ 9

/^ 2-

pin

= 2a \ tsm-dt-\
Jo
9 Jo

smtsmdt

674

12

'In ,

4 . 3 ^

, (1

= 2' Itcosl-4sin
= .
sin
(^
2
2 3
2

X dl = 2

t Sina^-2

= 2a

Jo

(t - sin t) sin -dt =

Jo ^

tsmtsmdt+l
9

Jo

sm /sinrf/
9

Jo

, :
= 2

if" sin

8
tcos-dt/sin-'-H^ Jo
2'
3
2 -
t

-2rcos- +4
9
Jo
V

dt2

-"('-^"^1 cos^rfcos
2

= 2a'

8
3

-2t cos+8/sin+ 16cos


V

. 3/
2
2

^
cos
3
2 >

-cos

/
COS

2 5

16 /
3 cos
2

2,

= 16a' \^
3 15
15

^ =

xydl = 2a J (/-sin/)(l-cos/)sin <i/ =


- ( 2;

= 2

2;

/sinJryjo

Jo

- [ sin/sin//+I
Jo

Jo

tcostsindt2
/

sin/cos/sinJ/

675

,
\2

|2:

/^

-1 -

/'

t
^ =2flV ~2^cos + 4sin + 2^ cos
cos
2
2
22 Jo
3
2
4 f2;r

3J0

rlK

Jo

cos a^ + 2

4 . 3 ^

cosatsin
2

2;r

^ f 2;r ^ ^
tf
2^ . 2
+2 Sin COS cos s m \dt) =
Jo
2
2|^
2
2)
(

4
(%^ . t
sin
= 2a' An +: 2
3
V
V

\ . t
sin - 4 s i n
3
2
2

2;r

2:

/
\
t
2 .
1
32a'7i
+ 4 sin
=
2a'
AK +7t =
sin
3
3
,3
2 5
2,
(1)

_^_2(

16^

"


15 ^
) :

, 4
= = -
3

.
JZ = { (1 -f- cos () + sin () d(p = 2 cosd(p,

: Z = 2 J cosJ^ = 4 a s i n ^

=4.

(2):
jc^ = J pcos^-2acos =J (l + cos^)cos^cos( =
= J cos^cos<i^ + | cos^^cosJ^ =

676

12

= ^ ( 2 r f l - 2 s i n ^ ^ V s i n - + 2 r f l - 4 s i n ^ ^ cos 2 < ^7 9
2-'(^
1)
1 ^^\
2
asm=
2

^^
. ( 2 . ^( . (
/ 1.3^
^ 59
s
i
n

s
i
n

+
s
i
n

4
=
-sm sin
2 3
V
3
2 5
2

y^ =

psm(p'2acosa(p
ctf r^ .

(p J

= {\ + cos(p)sm(pcosd(p =
f^

= I sin<pcos<-1 cos^sinepcosa(p
^V

<P
- 4 r c o s ^ ^ J c o s ^ - 4 r f 2 c o s ^ ^ - l ' | bos (P
^Jcos
Jo

,(p

Jol^

4
^.
= (2.
cos

^3
2 5
5
2 3
2
7.2. , -

= -2a| --cos^^+-cos^
^
cos ^

: ) = /^ - ^; )
= cos ^ = sin ^,
! ,
; )^ >^^ = = ;; )
^ -^ cos 2(j0.
, )
,
^ = .
^
(3). (3) 5 ( ) = 1
, , /^ - ^ <ix =

.
J

677

= - / ^ = {a'-x')dx = ^

__

) , (3). w =

dx,
JO

t ,
= j fe^ sin^ t{ra sin /)t// = ab^ \ (1 - cos^ t)dt =

'^

^/^
/
^'

COS/

= -a6^

COS t

, 5<

:
/,

= - f" y^dx = - \ ,' sin' t{-a sin 0^?^ = - f, - (1 - cos 20^ dt =

1
l - 2 c o s 2 / + - ( l + cos40 p =

U(

ab' f
\(
1
?-sin2/ + - f+sin4/
4
8
2
'^; = 1 xy^dx=\

"/^

= Ttab ,
1

acostb sin /(-asin/)rf/ = - a 6 I sin /Jsin/ =


,0

= a sm /
4
"/{

x^ = ^ = , jn = ^ = ^ ^
m
8
"" m
64

12

678

) (. 12.53).
, j^^ = .
: = / = sfax . (4)

. 12.53

2 | xyjaxdx
_

\1.
'

Jo

2\ ^axdx
J0

4 -

\/

= .
5

)
^
^=0. ^
(5).
\%

S = \\

d(p =
XOS 2(pd(p = s i n 2(
2^-
2 J-^
^ ^
4

~2


^ =

mil/
2 %

I fi
mJl/
1

, ^ COS (Ddcp = y^, (cos 2(fif'^ cos q>d(p =


=

~fj^^(l-2sm'cpf"cos(pd(p.

679

sin^ = prsinf; cos (pd(p = -j=r cos tat


^

2 ^

'

V2
t--,

V2

^ V L r-X ^^^4^^^^ V2a r/^fi + 2cos2/ + -!-(l + cos4/) V =

3 J-^

12 J-^^^l^

\M^^

V2a /

]2
^ + sin It + -sin4/
4
12
8
V

7.3.
: ) , ,
, ;
) , ; )
, )
JC = j ; ^ ,
(7)
j^ dx ^^^ X dx ^2'
=

2
^ f^
~ ^v^
3
\ dx
I xdx ^-^
, -

.
)
6.7, (. 12.46). 1 ->
V ^TiRH

^ = - ^ - =
= .
'
V
'
4

680

12


(7), .. .
)
6.7,6 (. 12.47). , 2
,
V = KR\

^ =-^ =
- = -'.
'
V 4 27' 8
(7).
7.4. .
.
6.4,6 (. 12.47).
, (8)

__^_
^
^ _1
2://'-'

, ^

dx

7.5.
x ^ + j ^ = K ^ , z = 0
z =y

{y>Q).

.
, Oj(pHC. 12.39),
(9).

5'JzJ/ = J_ z^+y^dx. z=y, ^+/=]^, -,

5 = ^R'-x^ -^

dx = Rxf = \

681

, 6.8.
J^_7i_
X, =0, =^:^ =^^

_ R^ _
^=1^^ =^'

7.6. ,
: ) =^ cos^ t, = sin^ /,
; ) .
, )
,
^=^.
,
, ,
, , . .
S = L-2ny^.

5.2 S = ^. 4.1,6
3
S
6 ^ 2 2
L = a, ^ = - = ~7~ - ^
2
2 5-2 5
) ,
, .

^=0.
,
4

V = KR . S = KR .
, V = S- 2^. _

AKR^'2

_AR

^^ ^'~3KR^'2n~
'
7.7. ,
{- +^ =^R^, 0<R<a
( ).

682

12

.
.
,
S = = 2KR ' 1 - An^aR.
V - ^ 1 = 2 ,

12.8.

1.
(. 12.54)
S
= yxS
P = y\\dS
Ja

= Y{^xydx,

(1)

Ja

= f(x) ,
; ,
;
.

y = f(x)

. 12.54
2. f{s)
s = a s=b

683

\''Ks)ds
Ja

(2)

/ ( ) ,

= \ Kx)dx.

(3)

Ja

s=^s{t)
t,a<t<

,
A = \^f(s{t))sXt)dL

(4)

Ja

3. v = f(t)
, t ,

S = fvdt = ff{t)dt,
Ja

(5)

Ja

a,b / .
4.
h
V = lJiyJ2gh , jU ,
, ( fi - 0,6), g
.
t
, , ,
/ ,
V = iiyJ2g{h-x).


/j,Syj2g(h-x)At - S(x)Ax, s , S(x)

684

12

, ,

=

S{x)dx

^s^^' Jo jTrT4h^

(6)

5^. V
, . .
, -
pV = poVo = - const.
J^ ^2

(J)

IpdV
-
iy. V

F,

^ ^ .
, ;
,
dx

(9)

.
,
,
, V
pV^ = poVo =- const,
, ( /: - 1 , 4 ) .

685

,

dx
"" s:^-^ Jo (H-yV

PoVo^
~

1
k-l
{H-hJ-'

1 ^
jrk-X

()

6. m,
V , =


.
, /7 > >, ,
1
"
= lim V ^^

( = ,
= 1^, / = ^
,
. ,
, ,
.
8.1.
200 , 150 10.
.
. (. 12.55).

. (1) = 2\ xydx, = 1 /^.
.
F {,) ABC AEF,

686

12

k"'

10
X
1

. 12.55
EF
--: =

EF 10-JC
1 , F = 25--jc; v = 75 + F = 1 0 0 .
25
10
2
2

10

^
' 5' ^'
\dx = 2 1 0 0 - -
= 10328.
2

2 3,

8.2.
7 = 0,9 /^.
, 1.
. (. 12.56).
y = \Jl-x^ . (1)

. 12.56

P = Y\'^xydx = y\\^\-x'(h

687

= -Y-\\\-x^yd{\-x')

I = M = o,3T.

2 3

8.3.
,
h.
.
(. 12.57), dS =
(1),

sin

. -

. 12.57

-[

h+bs'ma

h+bs\na

xdS = -fl-r'"%dx

sin '

= -^^x^
2 sin

= ^(2hbsma-\-b^sin^a) = yab(h +bsma),


Isina
2
8.4. ,
R ,
,
.
. , ,
(. 12.58) /^ = Pcosa .

688

12

. 12.58
.
, dS = Inydl,
dl = yjl + y'^dx . - 7 7 + " - ^
R
y = R 1 - , dl =

dx

(1) 7 = 1
^H' + R'
dx =
)

= 2\
^0 {
InR

4'+R'

COS =

(
2
' JC

3
X

J^

2
R

1
=-7rHR^jH^+R'

1 ,
- , =-/'.

VF+F^'

" 3

8.5. ,
b
{>

689

.
(. 12.59),
dS = 2Kydl. ^+^=^
/ = -^iidl

= yjl + y^dx = h + ^dx

= -dx^ -

+ ,
(1) 7 = 1?
\

= 27 (b + x)y^dx
J-a

= 2na +'-

= 4 ,

. 12.59
8.6. ,
h.
. ,
^ ,
,.
, F = , ,
X

X ,
. x = R F = mg, g ,
mg = '
,
_
_ = gR'
_ F_ = mgY
R^
R'

690

12

(3),
-\

mgT-dx--mg

-mgr

1
R+h

\\
mgR
R
R+h

, . . -^ ,
h
= lim m^R
= mgR.
h---

R+h

8.7. ,
,
R.
.
(. 12.60),
X. 2 =

dV = laydx la^JR^ x^dx.-

. 12.60
,
, dA = lyax^jR^ x^dx,
.

^ = j lyaxylR^ -x^dx = -a [R^ - X^ )

'-yaR\

691

8.8. ,
, ,
.
.
(. 12.61),
. AMNB
,
MN

2 =

1
(

1=

dx. , -

, dA =

1~
V

xdx.

,
,

3

\dx =

^'

692

12

8.9. R
> R. ,
?
.
, 4
4
P^=y7tR^ K R ^ ,
^
H-2R
A,=^nR\y--l)(H-2R).
, ,

, (. 12.62)
F = ^ (3R - jc), .
3
.
.
,
4
1
^
^ = yjiR :/?^KX^{bR-x^ 3 327?,
(2)

, 12.62
A^=-\l\AR\y-\)^Rx^-x')dx
J\\

4R\y-\)x

+ Rx'-'

IK

-7tR\2Y-\).

693

,
=

,-^=-\-{-\)).

8.10. ,
S = 4000 ^, = 50 ,
. ,
: ) ? )
, 7 = 0,8 /^?
, ) ^ = ySH.
P^=Sh,
,
: 0,8-4000-50 = 4000/; = 40 .
, ,

,
= -^= ySH - S{h - ). ,

A = j S(yH-h-\-x)dx

\
= S yHx-hx +
^
2

40

402
= 32.
= 4000 0,8-50-40-40' +
V
) 10 . ,
,
/^ = ( + x)S
^ = ySH . ,

= 40-^)3'-)
Jo

=8

40JC+

:4000= 2.
2

694

12

8.11. 2
0,5 4 .
.
, F = ,
S , /
, ( ^\20)^/^),
.
^ F (3),

=\

S
12-10'*
f2
Exdx =
n\6\ xdx = l,6Sn .
Jo /
500
Jo

8.12. ^ ,
, ^=0 ^=.
2= (>) ,
. ^

, F = -^-, . X

(3),
^ ^2
cbdx
rbdx _
(\
\\
X
J
8.13.
. 10 ,
1 1.
. F = ks, F
. s = 0,01, F = 1, = = 100.
Ja V

(2)

695

0,1

100-

Jo

= 0,5.

8.14.
= 1^ -It ulc. 5 ?
. , , (5)
5 = j'(3r'-20t// = (/'-^')[=100M.
8.15. kt

mg ., .
; =
(1- ""), g ,

, ,
. ,
, .
. , ,
(5),
|180
{
/
180

m
mg
,mg
t-\e ""
1-
'
"
U
=
180+ ' m
-1
Jo Jr
t
)
V
8.16. t; = 0,"^'^^'/.
,
.
. (5),
, >

5=,1/ -0,01/ dt.


Jo

: ^ = w, ' dt = dv\
^-0,01/

v =

0,01 ,

dt = du,

696

12
-0,01/

5 = 0,llim

te
0,01

,-o,ou | ^

0,01'

= 1 0 1 i m - - - + 0,l

^ = 10'M.

8.17. v = 2(6-/) /.
.
.
(5)

5 = 1'2(6-0^^ = 12/-^'.
,
: 5^ = 12-2/, 5 = 0 / = 6, ,
5 _ =12-6-6^ =36.
8.18. : = 40,
= 0,3 R = 6.
: ) ; )
.
, ) t
-X. .
,
,
,
(. 12.63).

. 12.63

697

MNO :

MN

S{x) = "/? 1
, fi = 0^6, s=nr^, (6)

7=

^1

'

rV7=

fo

(-){-) =

5
>2]

2'

2-36

1 40
3 0 , 3 ' V 2-9,81 -3,8.

''12^

) , ,
X = ,
, , ,
.^yJlgH , . .
_

y^TcR^H
'^

36

:.2.

30,60,3'V2-9,81

8.19.
. , .
. h^
(. 12.64).
dx.
bdx,
V = |Ll^J2gx , dQ = ji^Jlgxbdx.
,

698

12

. 12.64
+
rh-i-fiQ

Q = liib\

yjlgxdx = -iLibyl2gx

-fibpg {h + hj2^h.
\


, . . = ,

8.20.
.
. ,
,

V=
((2^ '~^^) 4/i/
/, // .
,
,
.
,
2,
, . . ,
, dQ = vnrdr .

'

Q=rv'27irdr=^^na'-x^)rdr.
Jo

699

l\il

4^1/Jo

8.21.
VQ = 0,1 ^ ^ = 10330 /^.
,
?
. ,
(8).
= VQPQ =1033 , F; = 0,05 1
, ,
,
^ = = 10331 =103312.
JV,

0,05

8.22. D = 20
L = 1 ^ = 10 /^.
,
/ = 80 .
.
(11).
: = P^VQ = ^{^)^, : = 1,4. ,

dx

PV^

s'-\k-\) {{L-l) -\
PV

( L

-\

[L-I

-1

^
-1

\-1

IOKR^L

-\

L-1

-1

10^
(S""-!).
0,4

8.23.
R 7 , (
.

700

12

.
, (. 12.65).
dV Inrhdr ,
.

. 12.65
, 7?
dm = ATuyrsR} -r^dm dl = r^dm ,
, ,
,

= - (O^dl = \\'^dm =
2 Jo

2 Jo

: R^ -r^ =t^,

2K0yr\\'y[^dr.
Jo

rdr = tdt,

= 2^^^(^ -t^ydt

= KCo'yR',

8.24.
(.
, , d,
. .
. ,
. 12.66, = 2^. -

701

M\,h , '
: h = 2p,

2h
^~

^ ^ ^ ^^ N

. 12.66

, ,
.
AV =\ QN \ dAr.
,
dm = y\ QN I ddr.
4 2 \
4r 2 \
\QN\=h-y = h - ^ = h 1 dm = yhd 1 \dr.

dl = dm .
,

2 -
^'
= yhd
2
3

^-Yi

\-^\dr =
\

4 5
= yhda .
, 60
5 -'/

702

12

8.25. ,
/ = /Q ^
R.
. - ,
/,
= , 24/'/. , ,
Ag = 0,24/^ sin^ (OtRAt
dQ = 0,24Rllsm^(Otdt.
IK

, -

= 0,12/?/' f ^ (l-'CoslcoOdt = 0,24^^^.


Jo

Q)

8.26.
.

.
. ()
()
F = /,
, , /
. ,
= .

/7 -
,
.

703


,
, .
, -dr.
2nrdr. dr, , ^"^^.


2 dA=
r^dr. ,


2 , 47CUP 4 ^
^-
dr=^-^-jqiPa,
'
'
8.27. ,
/
,
.
. /^
= -,
, ,
.
( )
= const .
dx, .

dx.
dF = -J(aVxfl

/
,
1
Jo //7 4- v^2

( +


1. . , . .
. .: , 1984. 190.
2. . , . .
. .: , 1984. 431.
3. . . . .: , 1980. 400.
4. . ., . . . .:
, 1999. 232.
5. . ., . . . .: ,
1983. 317.
6. . . .
, . 1, 1998. 687., . 2, 1998. 584.
7. . ., . ., . .
. .: , 1999.
695.
8. . 5.
. .: , 1984. 320.
9. . .
. .: , . 1, 2001. 415., . 2, 2001. 544.