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LIGHT AND MATTER

THE NATURE OF LIGHT


11.1- REVIEW OF LIGHT AND WAVES
SUMMARY:
-

All waves involve energy being transferred from one location to another, without any net
transfer of matter.
Periodic waves are characterized by several features- frequency, period, wavelength and
amplitude.
The frequency, f, of a wave is defined as the number of waves or cycles that pass a given
point per second; it is measured in cycles by per second (s^1) or hertz (Hz).
The period, T, of a wave is the time taken for one cycle to be completed; it is measured in
seconds.
The amplitude of a wave is the value of the maximum displacement of a particle from its
mean position.
Wavelength is defined as the minimum distance between points in a wave that are in
phase.
Alternatively, wavelength can be defined as the distance that a wave travels during one
period. It is measured in meters (m)
THE WAVE EQUATION STATES:

v=f
v- The velocity (ms^1)
f- The frequency

- The wavelength

SUB ATOMIC PARTICLES., PHOTON- light particle, contain energy, light can also behave
as a wave + positively charged. NEUTRON- neutral/ natural + no charge, ELECTRONnegatively charged.
In the 17th century, two models for the nature of light competed with each other for
acceptance. Newtons corpuscular model considered light to be composed of small
particles, while Christian Huygens promoted a wave model based on wavelengths

11.2 THE WAVE MODEL ESTABLISHED


SUMMARY:
-

Waves diffract (bend) as they pass by an obstacle or through a gap


The extent of the diffraction is determined by the relative sizes of the wavelength,
and the obstacle or gap diameter,

w
The extent of diffraction of light
wavelength

slit

The interference pattern seen in a double-slit experiment consists of alternating bright and
dark fringes resulting from constructive and destructive interference of monochromatic
(single frequency) light. The small wavelength for light requires that the slits are very
close to each other and the screen is a significant distance from the slits
If the path difference (pd0 between the wave trains from the slits n
met, a BRIGHT fringe is seen. If Pd= (2n-1)

, n=0, 1, 2 is

/2, n= 1, 2, 3, then a DARK fringe is

seen.
If all other factors are held constant, the fringe spacing can be increased by using light of
a longer wavelength (lower frequency) or placing the viewing screen or film further from
the pair of slits, or decreasing the separation of slits
DOUBLE SLIT EXPERIMENT: THOMAS YOUNG 1801, demonstrated light creating series
of evenly spaced dark and bright fringes/ bands this is an interference pattern. The bright
bands correspond to constructive interference and dark bands are destructive interference
the characteristics
TWO SLIT INTERFERENCE: a series of evenly spaced bright and dark bands,
constructive= bright, destructive= dark, white light= series on wavelengths, colour filter=

blue- spacing smaller, red- spacing bigger, SPACING= band width, b/w, particles dont
diffract and transverse waves are not polarised.
SINGLE SLIT DIFFRACTION: smaller gap, bigger space in the middle, wide central
maximum and a series of bright and dark that come closer and closer together, A WIDE
CENTRAL MAX AND THEN A SERIES OF B+D THAT GET CLOSER, central- much bigger and
brighter than the rest, practical diffraction and transverse waves are polarised.
THE PRODUCT OF BRIGHT AND DARK BAND IS BEST EXPLAINED BY THE WAVELIKE NATURE OF LIGHT. THIS IS BECAUSE DARK BANDS ARE FROMED WHEN THE
LIGHT WAVE HAS DESTRUCTIVE INTERFERNCE AND BRUGHT BANDS ARE FORMED
WHEN THE LIGHT WAVE HAS A CONSTRUCTIVE INTERFERNCE

11.3 PHOTOELECTIC EFFECT: COUNTEREVIDENCE FOR WAVE MODEL


SUMMARY:
-

The photoelectric effect is the emission of photoelectrons from a clean metal surface due
to incident light whose frequency is greater than a threshold frequency,

THE MINIMUM FREQUENCY OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION FOR WHICH THE


PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT CAN OCCUR FOR A GIVEN MATERIAL; MEASURED IN HERTZ (Hz).

If

<

If

occurs without any time delay.


Increasing the forward voltage does not alter the rate of electron release (i.e. the current).
The reverse voltage can be increased until it is large enough to stop even the most

, no electrons are released


, the rate of electrons release (current) is proportional to intensity of the light and

energetic electrons from reaching the anode. Thus the stopping voltage, V

the maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectrons, Ek (max).

, indicates

1 2
Ek ( max )= m v =eVo
2
19

THE ELECTRONVOLT IS AN ALTERNATIVE (NON-SI) UNIT OF ENERGY:

The wave approach to light could not explain various features of the photoelectric effect:
the existence of a threshold frequency, the absence of a time delay when using very weak
light sources, and increased intensity of light resulting in a greater rate of electron release
rather than increased electron energy.
Max Plank developed a photon model for light. The energy carried by each photon is given
by:
Ephoton= hf, where h= Planks constant = 6.63X10^-34 Js or 4.14X10^-15 eVs
In the photon model, a beam of light consists of a stream of photons. The total energy in
the beam will be Nbf
N- Is the number of photons in the beam...

1eV=1.610 J

11.4 THE DUAL OF LIGHT


SUMMARY:
3

Einstein Planks concept of photon to explain the photoelectric effect, stating that each
electron release was due to an interaction with only one photon.

The photon approach explained the existence of a threshold frequency for each metal, the
absence of a time delay for weak light sources and why brighter light resulted in a higher
photocurrent.

The work function, W, for the metal is given by W=hf

If the frequency of the incident light is greater than the threshold frequency of the incident
light is greater than the threshold frequency, then a photoelectron will be ejected with
some kinetic energy up to a maximum value.
The maximum kinetic energy of the photoelectron is determined by the incident photon

, and is different for each metal.

energy and the work function of the metal according to: Ek(max)= hf W =hf -hf
-

By experiment, the maximum kinetic energy for the electrons (i.e. that of the fastest
electron) can be found by using a reverse voltage called the stopping voltage, V

Ek(max) (J)= eV

A graph of Ek(max) versus frequency will have a gradient equal to planks constant, h, and
a y-intercept equal to the work function, W.
The longest wavelength always has the threshold frequency

The momentum of a photon, p, of wavelength,

, where V

is the stopping voltage.

, is given by:

h
p= =hf /c

Where h= 6.63X10^-34 J
As a consequence of the explanation of the photoelectric effect and the allocation of the
property of momentum, we now understand that light has a dual nature-wave-like and
particle-like. The photon model suggests that light energy is quantized rather than being
continuous.
NOTHING CAN EXCEED THE SPEED OF LIGHT (3.0x10^8) = SPEED OF LIGHT IS
THE MAXIMUM SPEED LIMIT OF THE UNIVERSE.

THE NATURE OF MATTER


12.1 MATTER WAVES
SUMMARY:
-

The de Broglie wavelength, or wavelength of the matter wave, of a body of mass m,


moving with a speed v is given by:

h h
= =
p mv

H=Js (you cannot use eVs in this formula)


De Broglie suggested his equation by using ideas of symmetry in nature, and scattering
experiments provided evidence for the wavelike nature of matter.
In particle-scattering experiments, beams of particles (electrons usually) are made to
travel with a speed so that their matter wavelength approximates the interatomic spacing
in a crystal. Consequently, a diffraction pattern is produced which can only be explained if
matter has a wave nature.
If photons and matter particles being scattered by the same crystal sample produce the
same wavelength and momentum.
Ek=1/2mv^2, mEk=1/2m^2v^2, 2mEk=p^2 p=

2mEk

Ek- must be in joules, momentum


All matter, like light, has a dual nature. Through everyday experience matter is particlelike, and under some situations it has a wavelength nature. This symmetry in nature- the
dual nature of light and matter is referred to as wave-particle duality.
SIGNIFICANT DIFFRACTION=

, To get significant diffraction,

must be larger

than the gap size it is not possible for a tennis ball to fit through a gap with size 4.97X10^34m, so we do not observe its wave-like properties, GAP SIZE SMALLER THAN THE WAVE
LENGTH.
12.2 PHOTONS SHED LIGHT ON ATOM STRUCTURE
SUMMARY:
-

The energy of a photon is determined by its frequency:

E=hf =
-

hc

The energy absorbed or emitted by atoms provides clues about the atoms structure.
The production of spectra suggest an internal structure to the atoms. A line emission
spectrum is produced by energized atoms, and an absorption spectrum is created when
white light passes through a cold gas. The spectrum for an element is unique.
Niels Bohr suggested that electrons in atoms orbit the nucleus in specially defined energy
levels, and no radiation is emitted or absorbed unless the electron can jump from its
energy level to another. In this way, electron energies within the atom are quantized, since
only certain values are allowed.
An electron in an atom which jumps between energy levels m and n emits or absorbs a
photon of energy:

Ephoton=hf =EmEn

Where the electron starts at level n and drops to level m, the photon will be emitted,
where the electron is promoted from the lower level m to the higher n, the photon energy
will be absorbed.

12.3 BOHR, DE BROGLIE AND STANDING WAVES


SUMMARY:
-

The Bohr model was limited in its application, it being only applicable to one-electron
atoms, but it was a significant development to the energy levels of atoms and
incorporated the quantum nature of electromagnetic radiation.
De Broglie viewed electrons as matter waves and his standing wave model for electron
orbits provided a physical explanation for electrons only being able to occupy particular
energy levels in atoms. He suggested that the only way that the electron could maintain a
steady energy level was if it established a standing wave.
The quantized states of the atom are analogous to the quantized modes of vibration
(standing waves) that are known to occur in physical objects such as strings

SOUND
15.1 THE NATURE OF SOUND
SUMMARY:
5

Sounds are produced by the vibration of objects and require a medium in which to travel.
Sound cannot be transmitted in a vacuum.
All forms of wave motion transfer energy without a net transfer of matter. Once a sound
passes, the particles of the medium return to their original position.
Sound is a longitudinal wave. Vibrations occur in the same direction of propagation of the
wave.
Transverse waves are produced by particles which vibrate at right angles to the direction
of travel of the wave (e.g. WAVE IN A PIECE OF ROPE)
Sound waves are made up of periodic series of compressions and rarefactions
representing changes in pressure within the medium.
A compression is a region of higher than average air pressure. A rarefaction is an area of
lower than average air pressure.

15.2 THE WAVE EQUATION


SUMMARY:
-

In air, sound travels at approximately 340ms^-1, or about 1km every 3s.


The speed with which a wave travels through a particular medium is related to the
characteristics of wave and to the size, mass and spacing of the particles in the medium.
The speed of sound in air is influenced by the airs temperature. It increases by
approximately 0.6ms^-1 for every 1

increses in temperature

The speed of a sound wave in air is independent of frequency.

The wave equation links velocity, frequency and wavelengths by equation

In constant medium at constant temperature, the speed of sound is constant and

For a note of constant frequency,

v=f

1
f

v.

15.3 DIFFRACTION OF SOUND


SUMMARY:
-

Diffraction is the bending of waves around the edge (or edges) of a barrier or aperture.
The fact that sound diffracts provides further evidence that sound is wave-like in nature.

The amount of diffraction depends on the ratio of wavelength of sound (

to the width

of the opening or obstacle (w). significant diffraction occurs when the wavelength is at
least the same order of magnitude as the width of the opening or obstacle, i.e. when

1.
w
-

Higher- frequency sounds have shorter wavelengths. As a result, they will diffract less than
lower- frequency sounds, which have longer wavelengths, and they will be more
directional.

15.4 AMPLITUDE, INTENSITY AND THE DECIBEL SCALE


SUMMARY:
6

The loudness of any sound is related to the amplitude and frequency of sound wave.
The perceived loudness of a sound depends on the response of an individuals hearing to a
particular frequency
The intensity (I) of sound wave is the rate at which the wave is carrying energy through an
area of 1 square metre; it is measured in Wm^-2. The human ear can detect sounds as
soft as 10^-12 Wm^-2 and up to 1 Wm^-2 without pain.
The intensity of sound decreases with the square of the distance from a point source, i.e.

I
-

1
r2

Sound intensity is a measure of power per square metre (Wm^-2). Sound level refers to
measurements in decibels (dB)
The decibel scale simulates the natural response of the human ear by comparing the
intensity of a sound wave with a standard value.
The sound level is defined by the relationship:

L ( dB )=10 log

I
I

- Is the intensity of the sound


- Is the intensity of a reference source

THE REFERENCE SOURCE IS USUALLY ADOPTED AS THE THRESHOLD OF HEARIND AT 1


kHz, which is 10^-12 Wm^-2.
15.5 FREQUENCY, PERCIEVED LOUDNESS AND THE PHON
SUMMARY:
-

The human ear perceived different frequencies of the same intensity as having different
sound levels. This is called the perceived loudness of sounds.
The pitch of a sound is related to its frequency, but is dependent on the listener
Normal human hearing covers a frequency range of 20-20 000 Hz. Sounds outside this
range are called subsonic (less than 20 Hz) or ultrasonic (above 20 000Hz). Human
hearing responds best to sounds between 300 and 3000 Hz.
Frequency response curves, or phon curves, allow comparisons of the perceived loudness
of different frequencies based on standard sound of 1000 Hz.

15.6 MAKING SOUND: STRINGS AND AIR COLUMNS


SUMMARY:
-

The principle of superposition tells us that when two or more waves interact, the resultant
displacement or pressure at each point along the wave will be the vector sum of the
displacements or pressures of the component waves
Resonance occurs when the frequency of a forcing vibration equals the natural frequency
of an object
Two special effects occur with resonance: (i) the amplitude of vibration increases, and (ii)
the maximum possible energy from the source is transferred to resonating object
Standing, or stationary, waves occur as a result of resonance at the natural frequency of
vibration.

Standing waves are the result of superposition of two waves of equal amplitude and
frequency, travelling in opposite directions in the same medium
The standing wave frequencies are referred to as harmonics. The simplest mode is
referred to as the fundamental frequency
Within a string, the wavelength of the standing waves corresponding to the various
harmonics is

n=

2L
,
n

with

f=

nv
2L

. All harmonics (n= 1, 2, 3, ) may be present, and

the ratio of frequencies is f1: f2: f3: =1: 2: 3:


In the tube that is open

15.7 RECORDING AND REPRODUCING SOUND: THE FIRST AND LAST LINKS
SUMMARY:
-

Sound fidelity refers to the ability of a sound reproduction or recording system to


accurately reproduce the original sound
Microphone and loudspeaker designs are based on simple electrical and electromagnetic
effects.
A piezoelectric microphone contains a transducer element that generates voltage when it
is mechanically deformed. The frequency response is uniform through to values above 10
000 Hz and it is stable over time and over a wide range of environmental conditions. The
cost is also low. It is not as popular now as popular now as better options exist for modern
amplifiers
Moving coil- or electrodynamic microphone operates on the principles of induction. It
has a diaphragm that causes a coil to move between the poles of magnet, creating an
alternating induced voltage. It is suited to high-quality recording
An electret-condenser microphone operates on the basis of varying the internal
capacitance. It is not suitable for high resonant frequencies but is cheap to make.
A velocity microphone operates on the principles of induction. A metal ribbon vibrates
between the poles of a magnet. It can be easily adapted as a directional microphone
A vast range of other microphones have been developed for specific purposes.
A moving coil- or dynamic- loudspeaker has a cone that is made to vibrate by the
movement of a coil which undergoes an alternating current while sitting in a strong radial
magnetic field.
Specialist speakers have been developed for particular frequency ranges
Enclosures limit the diffraction effects that can occur for low frequencies, where sound
waves coming round the back of the speaker can cancel out waves from the front
Baffles limit resonance effects inside the speaker enclosure. Tuned ports can direct this
energy to the front, resulting in increased loudspeaker performances

ELECTRIC POWER
MAGNETS AND ELECTRICTY
9.1 FUNDAMENTALS OF MAGNETISM
SUMMARY:
8

All magnets are dipolar; i.e. north and south poles always occur together
Like magnetic poles repel, and unlike magnetic poles attract

The earth has a dipolar magnetic field which acts as a huge bar magnet, with the south
end near the geographic north pole
An unmagnetised piece of iron will have magnetism induced in it when placed in an
external magnetic field
The direction of a magnetic field at a particular point is the same as that of the force on
the single north pole of a magnet. The direction of the force on the south pole of a magnet
is in the direction opposite to the field
When a magnet is placed in a magnetic field, magnetic forces cause a torque which tends
to align it with the field, the north end of the magnet pointing in the direction of the field
The magnetic field, B, is a vector quantity. Vector addition enables us to add fields and to
compare the magnitudes of different fields.

9.2 THE FOUNDATIONS OF ELECTROMGNETISM


SUMMARY:
-

An electric current produces a magnetic field which is circular around the current. The
direction of the field is given by the right-hand grip rule
An electric current placed in a perpendicular magnetic field experiences a magnetic force
perpendicular to both the current and the field. The direction of the force is given by the
right-hand force or palm rule.
It is important not to confuse the two right-hand rules. The grip rule gives the direction of
the field produced by a current, the palm rule gives the direction of the force on a currentcarrying wire placed in an external field.
As a current produces magnetic field and also experiences a force when placed in a
magnetic field, there is a magnetic force between two parallel currents

9.3 CURRENTS, FORCES NO FIELDS


SUMMARY:
-

The magnitude of the force on a wire carrying current I in a magnetic field B is given by:

F=IlBsin
L is the length of current in the field and
-

is the angle between the current and field.

The unit for magnetic field, B, is the tesla. A current of 1A in a field of 1T will experience a
force of 1N on each metre of its length in the field. A field of 1T is a very strong field.
The direction of the force is given by the right-hand palm rule and is perpendicular to both
the field and the current

9.4 MAGNETIC FIELDS AROUND CURRENTS, MAGNETS AND ATOMS


SUMMARY:
9

The magnetic field produced by a single loop of current is perpendicular to the loop, and is
stronger inside the loop than outside
The magnetic field of a solenoid is much stronger inside than outside
The field around a loop or solenoid is a dipole field, like that of a bar magnet
A soft iron core in a solenoid can increase the overall strength of the magnetic field up to
around 1000 times.

All magnetism is electrical in nature. At the fundamental level, a magnetic field originates
from the electrons orbiting in atoms.
In ferromagnetic materials, the field from each atom tend to align so that they add
together to produce greater field. This alignment can be permanent (hand iron) or
temporary (soft iron).

9.5 FORCES ON MOVING CHARGES


SUMMARY:
-

Fundamentally, the magnetic force on an electric current is due to the force on the moving
charges
The magnitude of the force, Fq on a charge q moving at speed v in a field B is given by:

Fq=qvBsin
-

THE DIRECTION IS AT RIGHT ANGLES TO THE MOTION AND TO THE FIELD.


Charges moving freely at right angles to a magnetic field will move in a circular path.

9.6 ELECTRIC MOTORS


SUMMARY:
An electric motor relies on the magnetic force on a current-carrying loop in a magnetic
field:
-

F=IlB

There is a torque on the loop whenever its plane is not perpendicular to the field
The loop keeps rotating because the direction of current, and hence torque, is reversed
each half turn by the commutator
The armature of a practical motor consists of many loops that are fed current by the
commutator when they are in the position of maximum torque
The torque depends on the strength of the field, the current, the number of turns and the
area of the coils

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
10.1 MAGNETIC FLUX AND INDUCED CURRENTS
SUMMMARY:
-

Symmetry suggest that if an electric current creates a magnetic field, it should be possible
to use magnetic field to create a current
It is relative movement between the field lines and the loop that induces a current in a
conducting loop
Magnetic flux is defined as the product of the magnetic field and the perpendicular area
over which it is spread. That is :

Any way of changing the magnetic flux through a loop induces a current in the loop. The
greater the rate if change of flux, the greater the current

10.2 INDUCED EMF: FARADAYS LAW


SUMMARY:
10

B =BA =BA cos

Faradays found that the EMF induced in a loop was dependent only on the rate of change
of magnetic flux through the loop
As a conductor moves perpendicular to a magnetic field, work is done on the moving
charges to produce a potential difference long the wire
This potential difference appears as an induced EMF in any loop in which the flux is
changing
The induced EMF in a loop is equal to the (negative) rate of change of flux through the
loop

10.3 DIRECTION OF EMF: LENZS LAW


SUMMARY:
-

Lenzs law states that induced current in loop will be in the direction so that the flux it
creates will oppose the change in the flux that produced it
Lenzs law is an expression of the principle of conservation of energy
Induced currents set up by the relative motion of a conductor and magnet will create a
field that will apply a force that will oppose the relative motion.

10.4 ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION


SUMMRY:
-

An induced current in loop will experience a force, that will oppose the motion causing the
current
The work done by the force moving the loop is equal to the electrical energy produced
The electrical output of a coil rotating in a magnetic field is sinusoidal. The peak EMF is
proportional to the strength of the field, the area of the coil, the number if turns and the
speed of rotation
A practical generator rotates either a coil inside a magnetic field or, more commonly, a
magnet (permanent or electromagnetic) inside a fixed set of coils

10.5 ALTERNTING VOLTAGE AND CURRENT


SUMMARY:
-

The alternating current (AC) produced by power stations and supplied to cities varies
sinusoidally at a frequency of 50Hz. The peak value of the voltage of domestic power (Vp)
is

340V, and Vp-p= 680V

The root mean square voltage (Vrms) is the value of an equivalent steady voltage (DC)
supply which would provide the same power.

V RMS =V P / 2

The RMS value of domestic mins voltage is 240V.


-

For simple resistive circuits the current is given by Ohms law, and

The average power in a resistance AC circuit is given by

10.6 TRANSFORMERS
11

I RMS=I P / 2

1
P=V RMS I RMS= V P I P
2

SUMMARY:
-

A transformer consists basically of two coils wound on an iron core so that all magnetic
flux generated by one also passes through the other
Where is no load on the secondary a back EMF in the primary opposes the current and
reduces it to almost zero
Each turn in both the primary and secondary coils experiences the same flux changes and
so the voltage ratio is given by:

V S /V P=N S / N P

Assuming no power loss in the transformer, the power into the primary is the same as the
power out of the secondary. Thus the current ratio is the inverse of the turns and voltage
ratio:

PP =PS ,so I P V PI P /I S =V S /V P
10.7 USING ELECTRICAL ENERGY
SUMMARY:
-

The power is delivered by an electric transmission line is equal to the product of the
current and voltage. High power requires high current and/or voltage.
The power lost whenever current flows through transmission lines is equal to I^2R
Because the power loss is proportional to the square of the current, it is important to
reduce the current in long-distance transmission lines by using very high voltages
The practical upper limit to the transmission voltage is around 500kV
The demand for electric power varies during the day. The base load is normally provided
by coal-fired (or nuclear) plants and the peak demand by hydro or gas turbines
Total energy demand is represented by the area under a load-time graph (E = Pt)
The kilowatt hour (kW h) is a useful unit for electric energy. It is energy to 3.6 MJ.

ELECTRONICS AND PHOTONICS


ELECTRONICS
4.1 ANALYSING ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS
SUMMARY:

4.2 DIODES
SUMMARY:
-

12

A device for which the ratio of CURRENT TO POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE is not a constant is
called non-ohmic
Diodes are non-ohmic devices used to control the direction of current flow within a circuit
A diode conducts current only in one direction, i.e. when it is forward biased. When a diode
is forward biased, a minimum threshold potential must be applied before the diode will
begin to conduct. The threshold potential depends on the materials from which the diode
is made.

When forward biased and conducting, an ideal diode maintains a constant potential
difference
Commonly, silicon diodes are used that are characterised by a threshold voltage, Vs, of
0.7V
A characteristic curve will show the operating specifications of a diode. It is commonly
assumed that when an ideal diode. It is commonly assumed that when an ideal diode is
reverse biased, negligible current flow through it and it can be considered to have infinite
resistance (effectively an open circuit)

4.3 AMPLIFICATION
SUMMARY:
-

Amplifier circuits convert small varying AC voltage into a large varying voltage with the
same characteristics, by utilising the amplifiers additional power supply.
Amplifier circuits have a limit to the range of input voltages that can be amplified
LINEARLY. If this range is exceeded, clipping occurs and the output is distorted.
When an amplifier is operating in the LINEAR gain region, the voltage gain is consistent. A
negative gain indicates an inverting amplifier

AV =

V out
=GRADIENT of V out vs .V graph
V

Voltage gain is given by:

Biasing a transistor circuit means setting it up so that when there is no AC input, the
output voltage is the value in the middle of its possible output range. This allows for the
greatest possible variation in

, without distortion occurring.

INTRODUCING PHOTONICS
5.1 PHOTONICS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS
SUMMARY:
-

Light can be modelled as a continuous wave or as a stream of particles (photons), each


with a discrete amount (quantum) of energy
Optical radiation covers the near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared regions of the
electromagnetic spectrum
The rapid growth of the internet is due to the very high information-carrying capacity of
optical fibers
With solid copper wires, high-frequency electrical signals are highly attenuated because of
the skin effect.
Light signals in optical fibers are unaffected by the skin effect
The internet is distributed communications system, usually linked by optical fibers

5.2 OPTICAL TRANSDUCERS


SUMMARY:
-

13

Light-dependent resistors (LDRs) re semiconductors whose resistance depends upon


illumination. Their response is non-linear and slow.
Photodiodes are pn-junction semiconductor devices which, in photoconductive mode (i.e.
when reverse biased), generate a photocurrent that depends upon illumination. The
response is linear and fast

Phototransistors are BJT devices that, when biased correctly, can generate a collector
current that depends upon illumination, they have a high optical gain. The response is
linear, and the response time moderate
The light-emitting diode (LED) is a pn-junction device and the intensity of its emitted light
is directly proportional to its forward-biased current. Its light output can be modulated
rapidly, and it has a narrow range of emission wavelengths
The laser diode (LD) is a pn-junction device and the intensity of its emitted light is directly
proportional to its forward-biased current. The device has special current-confining
geometry and very high dopant levels, and emits LASER LIGHT (when the current is above
a given threshold). Its output can be modulated rapidly, and it has a very narrow range of
emission wavelengths
The energy of a discrete photon is given by

- Is Planks constant

is the wavelength

is the speed of light in a vacuum

is frequency

E p=hf =

hc

5.3 AUDIO TRANSMISSION VIA A LIGHT BEAM


SUMMARY:
-

Intensity (or amplitude) modulation is when the intensity of a light beam varies in
accordance with the fluctuations in the amplitude of the information signal.

MOTION

(IN ONE AND TWO DIMENSIONS)

MOTION
1.1

MECHANICS REVIEW

SUMMARY:
-

14

Physical