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Nintendo Interactive Branding Audit

Table of Contents
1. Background of Focal Brand 1
2. Consumer Touch points 1
3. Brand Experience Audit Part 1

4. Brand Experience Audit Part 2

5. Brand Experience Audit Part 3

6. Integrate your three Brand Experience


7. Interactivity Audit Part 1

8. Interactivity Audit Part 2

9. Integrate your two interactivity audit sections


10.Brand engagement Audit Part 1

11.Brand engagement Audit Part 2

10

12.Brand engagement Audit Part 3

10

13.Integrate your three brand engagement audit sections 11


14.Brand co-creation Audit Part 1

12

15.Brand co-creation Audit Part 2

13

16.Brand co-creation Audit Part 3

14

17.Integrate your three brand co-creation audit sections 15


18.Overall evaluation of the interactive brand

16

19.Critical literature reviews about brand co-creation


References

19

17

1. Background of Focal Brand:


2. It is worth noting that Nintendo is an iconic brand in the electronic entertainment industry
with 21 subsidiaries and 8 affiliates (Tine, 2010). With the long history of a toy and
entertainment driven company, Nintendo has generated a brand identity of providing
home entertainment which is acknowledged by many generations of people around the
world. There is no denying that the brand reminds millions of people about happy
moments in their childhoods as it has become a part of their lives. Nintendo was
established in Kyoto, Japan in November 1889, and changed the name to Nintendo of
America Inc in February of 1982, introduced to the United States market. As a result,
Nintendo has effectively expanded its market globally with its entry into different
countries including Canada, Germany, France, United Kingdom, Korea, America,
Australia and New Zealand.
3. Regarding to the industry, it is a fact that Nintendo has been working in the video game
console market since 1977 with color television games and is seen as the oldest company
in this market (Tine, 2010). Nintendo is proud of being a leader in the hand-held console
market and also one of the largest console producers in the world. Currently, there are
three major rivals in the world-wide game console sector comprising Microsoft, Sony,
and Nintendo.
4.

5. Consumer Touchpoints:
6. - Product: Concentrated on both electronic entertainment hardware and software (Tine,
2010).
7.

Software Products (2)

8.

9.
10.
11. - Advertising: billboards, big posters in tram stations, and TV commercials.
12. - Official website: The Nintendo websites will be written in local language for each
country, yet all those websites utilize color synonymous with new consoles, representing
a new strong brand identity.
13. - Offline stores: do not be operated except the only physical store Tokyo like a toy
museum. Nintendo chooses mass merchandisers like Wall-mart, Target, Best Buy, and
specialist electronic stores or toy stores in game centers.
14. - Online stores: quick and convenient for customers. Nintendo eShop allowing players on
the Nintendo 3DS and the Wii U to access and buy unique digital games, certain retail
games and Virtual Console games (Nintendo Network, 2016).
2

15. - Brand community: Miitomo as Nintendos first breakthrough into the mobile software
market. Nintendo also has Miiverse as Nintendo's online social hub that lets a customer
connect with other players around the world.
16. - Social media: Nintendo has developed its LINE, Twitter, Youtube page and especially
official Facebook pages including Nintendo Australia & New Zealand, Nintendo
Handheld Gaming (America) and Nintendo Console Gaming.
17. - TV commercial: the main way of Nintendo in Japan to promote its brand as they are
very keen on using celebrities endorsement.
18.
19.
20. Brand Experience Audit Part 1:
21. Based on the brand experience model of Pin and Gilmore (1999), two realms can be
appropriately utilized for Nintendo, including escapist and educational. Besides,
Nintendo brand experience could partly fit in esthetic but not entertainment.
22. First of all, Escapist is the realm describing active participation and high levels of
immersion. In particular, when customers play Nintendo Wii, they can achieve an
experience of breaking out from reality and forget about everyday life for few hours.
What made Wii special is an advanced controller responding to users movements, and
the new controller can make gaming much more fun to play and easy to learn (Dahln,
2010). As a result, the player will be an active part of the game environment with both
physically and virtually aspects, while she also can directly have impacts on the games
progress.
23. Secondly, brand experience can provide learning center stage (Educational realm) as the
consumer absorbs the experience when taking an active role. Both Wii and Nintendo DS
can assist children in trying their hand at everything from generating works of art to
active learning the structure of songs (Nintendo, 2010). With software on offer that is
suitable for players of all ages and designed to leverage creative thinking, selfdevelopment and problem-solving skills.

24. Finally, esthetics experience is created when consumers are deeply immersed into a
particular event, happening or environment with passive participation. In the case of
Nintendo, the customers can gain a little esthetic experience when they take part in
Nintendo Game World Tour held in different countries every year or when they visit the
physical store in Tokyo. Yet instead of only observing various games in the event/store,
the customers actually have chances to try new unreleased games of Nintendo, thus they
still can have some active participation.
25.
26.
27. Brand Experience Audit Part 2
28. The five bullet points describing Nintendo brand experience comprise:
-

I was so impressed with console handheld, lively sound and visual effects of the game.
I have strong emotions with the brand because it is a part of my childhood.
I actively do physical exercise when I play the game Nintendo Wii.
Being part of a social game club
The Nintendo products always delight and surprise me with new game situations,
upgraded characters and design of products.

29. The first and foremost, Nintendo brand experience offering to customers is the
augmented reality environment via sound and visual effects, and console handles.
Secondly, many customers have seen Nintendo game as a part of their life because they
grew up with every game provided by Nintendo, the brand experience in here is
nostalgia. Besides, the Nintendo Wii experience might encourage customers take part in
some physical exercise when they play sport games like tennis and baseball. There are
lots of social fan clubs which attract a lot of gamers to join in and talk about game topics
that members are interested in. Finally, core product experience of Nintendo has never
made customers disappointed with new innovative games which all customers can play.
30.
31.

32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38. Brand Experience Audit Part 3
39. Using the seven-point Likert scale, three responders evaluate four components of
Nintendo brand experiences as below:
40. Items

46. The console handheld, the


sound and visual effects of

41. Res

42. Res

43. Res

pon

pon

pon

der

der

der

47.

49.

48. 5

50.

the game make a strong

51.
52.
6

impression on my senses
(Sensory)
59. The brand delights and

60.

63.

66.

surprises me with new

61.

64.

67.

game

62.

65. 6

68. 4

situations,

characters and design of

44. O
v
e
r
a
ll
s
c
o
r
e
53.
54.
55.
5
.
3
69.
70.
71.
72. 5

45. R
a
t
e

56.
57.
58. H
i
g
h
73.
74.
75.
76. H
i
g
h

products. I have strong


5

emotion with the brand as


it is a part of my life
(Affective)
77. I actively do physical

78.

80.

82.

exercise when I play the

79.

81.

83. 2

games as it creates a

healthy lifestyle for me


(Behavioral)
90. The brand inspires me to
create new game ideas

91.
92. 4

93.

95.

94. 3

96. 4

(Intellectual)

84.
85.
86. 2
.
6

87.
88.
89. L
o
w

97.
98. 3
.
6

99.
100.
Med
i
u
m

101.
102.

Integrate your three Brand Experience Sections

103.

In term of experience realms, the customers will become a character in the games

and they have to totally focus on the game to win, thus the game experience is escapist.
Secondly, the Nintendo DS is possibly the best educational gaming system for every skill
level and subject (Nintendo DS Education, n.d). Finally, the company also holds
Nintendo Game World Tour held every year in various countries which encourage
customers to come and enjoy new unreleased games and collection of different Nintendo
characters. Customers also may visit the physical store in Tokyo which is considered as a
toy museum of Nintendo. This experience could be classified into esthetic realm in the
model of four experience realms.
104.

When it comes to four dimension of experience, the brand experience offered by

Nintendo include strong sensory, strong feeling, medium intellectual and low behavioral.
Playing any kind of Nintendo game, the customers have to use most of human senses like
listening to the game sound, touching the console handheld, watching the screen. The
Nintendo game can stimulate players senses when they totally immerse themselves into
the argument reality of the game situation. The Wii is a great appealing party game
system able to create fun, exciting and enticing feelings. The brand also offers some
6

educational games, thus enhance players creativity and problem-solving skills


development. Furthermore, some of Nintendo fans might have ideas of generating new
game and send them to Nintendo game forums. Finally, even the Nintendo Wii seems to
create a healthy lifestyle for players, they just do some physical exercises when playing
the game, yet they are not likely to start working out in reality.
105.
106.
107.

Interactivity Audit Part 1


108.

Import

Ma

109.

Example

jor

ance

interactiv
e
functions
Ent

110.

111.

1
113.

ertainment
118.

114.

Nintendo Wii with a wide range of games.


123.
- Online order tracking: check the status of
orders or repair, enter the information requested in

120.

Support part of the Nintendo websites.

122.

124.
Cu

stomer
116.

Nintendo products including Nintendo DS and

119.
121.
115.

112.

- Nintendo support forum: classify different

game community with discussions between users and


staff.

Support

125.

- WiiConnect24 allows messages to be

received and updated through the Internet.


117.

126.

2
127.
128.
129.

- The Nintendo Network offers online

functionality for the Nintendo 3DS and Wii U


systems
139.
- Nintendo brand community: live brand

133.
134.

experience

135.

communicate directly with Nintendo staff, talk to

136.

Nintendo game developers.

137.
138.

140.
Bra

provides

customers

to

visit

and

- Miitomo: a social platform attracts players

with a series of questions selected by Nintendo.


7

130.

nd

141.

communit
131.

- Miiverse as Nintendos in-game society lets

players communicate and share their experiences


142.

- Gamers can play together through Nintendo

Network and share rankings and to review the ranks


132.
3
144.
145.

of others.
143.
152.

148.
149.

ratings, screenshots, and videos relating to that piece

150.

of software. Nintendo game experts can also post

151.
146.

- Nintendo official Facebook page


- Nintendo e-shop: customers can watch

Ch

oice helper

demos of both digital and physical games on the


eShop.
153.

- Nintendo TV is a video gaming online

147.

magazine with features footage, video reviews and

previews of upcoming and recently launched

154.

157.

Nintendo games.
160.
- To promote the new version of the games

158.

The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, the

155.

159.

Mu
lti-media

156.

[Video]

5
162.

- Short films: The Nintendo eShop provided a

Nintendo.
165.
- My Nintendo, the Nintendo new customer

ine Deals/

rewards system, is very beneficial for Nintendo users

Offer

with personalized discounts Just for You (Fernando,


2016).
174.
- Comments: are collected from Nintendo

170.

support forum, Facebook pages, blog,...

172.
173.

168.

161.

Onl

164.

171.
167.

customers to watch as the game expert of Nintendo.


variety of downloadable video content for the

163.
6
166.

company released Nintendo Treehouse Live @ E3 for

dback
firm

175.
Fee
to

- Feedback: the brief customer satisfaction

survey on the Nintendo website. Holding game events


in different areas to receive feedbacks.
176.

- New product proposal: new game ideas from


8

169.
7
177.

[Market
Research]
180.

customers
183.

181.
178.

182.

purchase replacing parts or accessories for their


Onl

game. The store has a real-time checkout process and

ine
179.

- The Nintendo Online Store: customers can

Purchasing

online ordering security.


184.

- Nintendo Online Store Order Support -

8
185.

Shipping and Processing

186.

As a leader in the electronic game industry, Nintendo has extremely spent its

effort, budget and human resource on creating new games that can be played by
customers of all age. Furthermore, most Nintendo users are quite satisfied with the
customer support in ordering/ repairing process and warranty policy of the company.
Having various types of games, Nintendo also provides customers with attractive useful
reviews and ratings to ensure that customers can find the game matching their favorite.
Besides, Nintendo has also improved My Nintendo, market research feedback, and online
purchasing to catch up with two rivals Sony and Microsoft.
187.
188.

Interactivity Audit Part 2

189.

To evaluate the efficient of each major Nintendo brand interactive functions, those

functions can be divided into following five terms. First of all, Customer support and
Online purchasing process in the Nintendo websites contain all useful information which
customers might want to know about the companys products. From basic knowledge of
Nintendo, Entertainment and Multi-media could generate preferable impressions about
the brand for customers. It is true that Nintendo games, especially the game Wii, provide
fun and interesting feelings to everybody, even people who just watch other users
playing. Multi-video is also another clever way for the company to promote new games
and to strongly arouse consumers curiosity. Having favorable approach to the brand from
customers, Customer support and Choice helper and Online Purchasing might assist the
company in developing trust with customers through increased interaction and contact. In
9

particular, Nintendo Network comprises diverse services available through the network,
thus the company can create comprehensive proposals to consumers when they connect
via Nintendo Network service. In addition, checking ratings, screenshots, and videos
relating to game software on Nintendo eShop and Nintendo TV, users can easily base on
those recommendations to make purchasing decisions. More and more customers are
likely to choose to buy Nintendo products online as the company can assure trust for
customers with security Online purchasing process. Since consumer gained some brand
experience, Customer support, Online deals/offers and Feedback to firm continue to build
up an effective online relationship between customers and Nintendo brand. For instance,
WiiConnect24 allows messages to be sent and updated via the Internet which enhances
customer click-in and stimulates two-way communication, eventually developing brand
loyalty. At the final stage of interactivity, Feedback to firm and Brand community can
improve consumer attitudes toward the brand through the overall evaluation of the brand.
When customers go to Nintendo Facebook pages, they could read comments from
different perspectives about one topic of Nintendo products, thus they can perceive
comprehensive information of the brand and evaluate the brand more objective.
190.
191.
192.

Integrate two interactivity audit sections:

193.

Nintendo are going the right track of developing and fostering brand interactivity

from different interactive function including entertainment, customer service, brand


community, choice helper, online deals/offers, market research feedback and online
purchasing. Beginning with Customer support and Online purchasing process with basic
information of the brand, Entertainment and Multi-media function can create situations
where customers feel more favorable toward Nintendo products. Brand experience is
constantly built up while Customer support, Online deals/offers and Feedback to firm
function help the brand facilitate the effective online relationship with users. The
interaction and communication between the company and fan was something truly
special. Finally, Nintendo has partly achieved the positive overall evaluation of the brand
from customers.
194.
195.

Brand engagement Audit Part 1:


10

196.

Dessart et al (2016) state that consumer-brand relationship including brand

relationship quality, brand commitment, and especially brand involvement could result in
brand consumer engagement (CBE) which provide extremely interactive and social
relationships between customers and the brand. Hollebeek (2011) and Hollebeek et al
(2014) assume that consumer involvement can result in cognitive processing (absorption)
and affection (emotional/ dedication) of CBE. From different CBE conceptual
relationship models, CBE is defined as a deeper connection between the brand and would
seem to indicate a level of passion (emotional/dedication) and immersion
(cognitive/absorption) in the brand.
197.
198.

Brand engagement Audit Part 2

199.

CBE can be improved effectively through active customer experience

management and social content management. In the case of Nintendo, the company
provided Miiverse, a social network for Wii U and Nintendo 3DS with the prominence is
to get people to talk with other individuals, eventually Nintendo can understand each
customer as an individual. The Miiverse encourages players to communicate and share
their experiences by text, screenshots and drawings through their own Miis (Emily,
2012).
200.

Moreover, Nintendo also launched Mittomo for Nintendo users to start collecting

points not only by utilizing their software but also by interacting both at theme parks and
also with merchandise. With Mittomo, Nintendo targeted to form these roads by which
consumers can access Nintendo content on smart devices, thus raise the number of people
who interact with the company's IP more frequently (Damien, 2016).
201.

Besides, three official Facebook pages of the company always update posts all

about Nintendo almost every day, attracting hundreds hearts, likes, comments and
shares from customers. Those pages are very useful for the company to find out what
Nintendos things that make customers feel excited as it encourages them to speak up
their mind in the comments.

11

202.
203.

Brand engagement Audit Part 3

204.

From the consumer perspective, they could be inspired to involve with the

Nintendo brand in two particular forms including a passionate (emotion) view of the
brand and to be immersed (choose Nintendo over other brands). In term of passionate
view, the brand can make customers feel happy and relaxed every time they play
Nintendo games. While Sony and Microsoft games aim high graphics technology for
young men, Nintendo tend to stay with the brand heritage as a simple toymaker and
concentrate instead on involvement and fun with products that is low tech. Therefore,
the brand always presents something special personally relating to Nintendo fans all over
the world, as a symbol of childhood for everyone.
205.

As a result, the brand encourages customers to take part in social game fan clubs

where they start immersed into Nintendo world. For example, customers after
consistently use Miiverse and Mittomo, they can have the access to different unique
benefits of Nintendo Network service, eventually becoming Nintendo brand advocators.
Once customers start to play any kind of Nintendo game, they are likely to follow and
frequently check Nintendo Facebook pages where Nintendo update posts about the brand
every day. Furthermore, there are hundreds of Nintendo fan pages created by fans all over
the world to share game experiences.
206.

Besides, fans can also take part in Nintendo Game world tour events with

different themes each year, involving live character appearances, stage shows, Nintendo
quiz, toy giveaways and competitions among fans. For participants, those events could be
considered as small Nintendo world in reality which makes them feel so impressed and
more engages with the brand. It can see that Nintendo is very loyal to its fan while trying
to offer as many benefits as possible for loyal customers, and that is why they choose
Nintendo over two main rivals Sony and Microsoft.
207.
208.

Integrate three brand engagement audit sections:

12

209.

From the company perspective, Nintendo has tried step by step to move from the

traditional approach of product driven to a customer-driven marketing strategy as an


effective way for the company to reach customers in individual. Even Miitomo had an
unclear premise at the beginning and it was considered as a bit disappointing for
Nintendo's first mobile community, yet it still attracted much attention from customers
and shown that the company really started listening carefully to the customers.
Meanwhile, Nintendo is relatively careful in control the big data from social networks.
From the customer perspective, Nintendo fans always want to connect with the company
through brand community and different Nintendo fan events. As customers could find
their values align with Nintendo brand value and dedicate their love for some Nintendo
games, leading to the increased involvement of customers with the brand. In particular,
Nintendo fans tend to actively seek for Nintendo products information, sharing and
talking about it with other fans. They are proud to be a part of Nintendo brand community
and frequently contribute their opinions towards the brand.
210.
211.

Brand co-creation Audit Part 1:

212.

Customer co-creation can be defined as a creative and active collaboration

between companies and customers through the social process. The idea of value cocreation is to actively engage customers in the design or enhancement of future products
through tools offered by the companies like communities and online interactions
(Bernardo, 2005). Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004) state that customer now search for
utilizing their impacts in every piece of the business system, thus they tend to increase
communicate with the company and eventually co-create value.
213.

The types of customer brand co-creation will be the ways that customer giving

back to the brand. First of all, users can advocate the brand through word of mouth
(WOM) which can be considered as free marketing for a company. Secondly, customers
can devote ideas or input to new products/ services. Thirdly, users can also send feedback
to the firm, thus assist the firm in understanding brand performance and ultimately
enhance the customer experience of the product/service. Nowadays, customers not only
13

interact with the firm but also actively communicate with others in online communities,
thus they are willing to help or share experience with other customers which is the fourth
type of customer co-creation. Finally, customers might start to create content of the
company on different social network platforms like writing posts about service
experience or product reviews on Facebook, blogs, forum.
214.
215.
216.
217.
218.

Brand co-creation Audit Part 2:

219.

220.

221.

Types of

Explain and Example

customer brand co-

222.

creation
223.

224.

experience/tips about games though

225.

Mittomo and Miiverse, or Facebook.

226.

Sharing/hel

227.

228.

- Customers often share their

- Bring questions or problems

ping with other

about Nintendo products to Nintendo

customers

online forums and Facebook fan page,


and then receive recommendations
from other customers.
229.

- Share Nintendo news/contents

on their own Facebook or Twitter pages


238.
Posts/Review
created
by

230.

234.

231.

235.

passionate

232.

236.

Nintendo game or join in game events

233.
2

237.

User-

generated
content in social

239.

fan

after

they

play

- Compare Nintendo products

with Sony/Microsoft
240.

Help

Nintendo

understand
14

media

touch

points

from

customers

perspective, thus the company can


improve

products

245.

242.

246.

effectively

243.

247.

around the world.

248.

Advocating

enhance

experiences.
249.
- WOM can reach quickly and

241.

244.

and

250.

to

most

of

customers

- Example: new commercial having

the brand

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe dressing as

through WOM

Nintendo's Mario drew attention and stimulated


interest from both Nintendo customers and noncustomers, the commercial was spread on social
media and talk about within the day that the TV

251.

commercial released.
260.
- Nintendo devoted enthusiastic fans can

256.

252. 257.

come up with so many the ideas of creating new

253. 258.

games and try to send them to Nintendo website.

254.
255.
4

259.

Ideas or

input for new


products/services

261.

- Nintendo has received hundreds of

recommendations and requests about Nintendo


games and systems.
262.

- Nintendo wants to utilize those fans

ideas to generate actual games, yet due to the big


amount of requests which need time and
resources to be evaluated, Nintendo cannot
accept unsolicited game ideas (Nintendo, n.d).
263.
264.
265.

Brand co-creation Audit Part 3:

266.

Types

267.

Nintendo actions/activities

of customer

15

brand cocreation
268.

272.

- During Wii advertising campaign, the company

269.

utilized the "alpha Mom", who would spread the message to

270.

family, friends, etc (Dahln, 2010)

271.

Advoca

273.

- Embrace challenges and became vulnerable to bad

ting the brand

comments and negative reactions from users, then persuading

(WOM)

for even more effective word-of-mouth after customers get


familiar with the product.
276.
- Create Nintendo idea-submitting policy to clarify what

274.
275.

Ideas or
input for new

customers need to do for dedicating their ideas.


277.

- Run program called DigiPen that provides an

products/servic

excellent educational program for video-game devotees who

es

want to learn how to become expert game developers (Greg,

278.
279.
280.
Input to
Giving
feedback to the
firm

n.d).
281.

- Create site survey for customers to send

feedback about Nintendo products and website


presence.
282.

- Organize game events to listen carefully to

feedbacks during hands-on gameplay, recording


consumers attitudes and feelings toward the
games.
286.
- Launch Mittomo and Miiverse to encourage customers

283.
284.

to play game with their friends, share whatever they like (has

285.

Sharing
/Helping with
other
customers

288.
289.

Usergenerated

content/other
social media

further plan of developing in mobile app)


287.

- In Game World Tour held by Nintendo, customers can

enjoy memorable experience with other participants having


similar interest
290.
- Use blogs and other social media tools to engage
customer, thus encourage users to bring Nintendo content to
their social media page or to create new contend about Nintendo
291.

- Offer information about the brand in social media like

Facebook official pages with everyday posts. As customers feel


16

know more about the brand, they start talking about it more.
292.
293.
294.

Integrate three brand co-creation audit sections:

295.

From the customer perspective, Nintendo fans are likely to contribute to the

company with feedbacks, suggestions and even their ideas of new games. Even WOM
possibly include both positive and negative comments, it could be a very effective way
for customers to spread Nintendo news and experience to millions of people around the
world. Furthermore, some Nintendo devotees create their own content about Nintendo,
resulting in drawing attention from other fans to talk about the brand as well as providing
a source of feedback for Nintendo.
296.

From the company perspective, Nintendo has recently offered more tools for

customers interacting with others in online communities. Meanwhile, the company also
took the risk of negative comments in WOM and then invested in pursuing about the
product quality/brand experience, instead of trying to manipulate WOM. Even having a
relative strict policy of submitting game ideas, Nintendo still offers a good job
opportunity in video-game development field for fans having solid ideas. In short, the
company is on the right track of effectively fostering customer brand co-creation.
297.
298.
299.
300.
301.

Overall evaluation of the interactive brand:

302.

The key specific features of the Nintendo interactive brand include fun creative

excited games, nostalgic characters, good customer support, brand communities


integrated with social media. They all combine together to offer the escapist holistic
impression of the focal brand with high sensory, high affective, medium intellectual and
17

low behavioral. In the case of Nintendo, it could be considered as a company having a


medium interactive brand. This is because the brand has changed its strong focus on
products during the 120-year history to start engaging in collaborative dialogues with
customers.
303.

Regarding to key strengths of Nintendo interactive brand, the company has

innovative products, good customer sport, strong brand communities with the loyal fan
base, recommendation for choice help, different tools to receive feedback from
customers. In particular, Nintendo has extremely spent its effort, budget and human
resource on creating new games that provide its consumers with overwhelming
recreational experiences which assist them in immersive into game worlds.. Meanwhile,
Nintendo has strong brand communities with loyal passionate fans who actively engage
in and dedicate to the development of the interactive brand through creating new
contents,

commenting

and

sharing

Nintendo

contents

on

social

networks.

Notwithstanding, there are still some weaknesses that Nintendo should pay attention in
brand interactivity. For example, the company has a good website survey but users have
to log in their account to fill in the survey. Secondly, customers can post comments or
interact with other users in the Nintendo Facebook pages, yet they do not receive any
reply from the administration of the pages. Besides, Nintendo used to apply a system
which utilized automatically-generated numbers called friend codes as the best way to
protect user privacy, but this system makes lots of customers feel annoying.
304.

In the case of Nintendo, after achieving memorable products and service

experience of Nintendo, the company offers brand community, feedback tools so


customers can continually interact with other players having the same interest, engage
with the brand and create value co-creation. This is a relatively attracting interactive-logic
of the brand, yet Nintendo still needs to find the way to address the problems and
leverage the brand communities advantages.
305.
306.

Critical literature reviews about brand co-creation

18

307.

Customer brand co-creation is now inevitable in the fast development of value

revolution, therefore there are different authors having important researches in this area.
The literature review clarifies about the increased influence of customers in value cocreation process, four building blocks in corporate branding, reasons why companies
should be aware of this trend and why they are relatively reluctant to face with customer
brand co-creation. In addition, several authors also talk about the profound impact of
social media in paving the way for customers in engaging with the brands, and the
antecedents of brand co-creation.
308.

First of all, Prahalad & Ramaswamy (2004) state that customers are empowered

to interact more with companies through consumers communities, thus take part in both
defining and generating process. Besides, Hoyer et al (2010) emphasize the motivations
of brand customer co-creation including financial rewards, intellectual property, cocreation competitions, social benefits and a desire to achieve technology/product/service
knowledge by joining in forums and development groups.
309.

In the case of new product development, there is no denying that consumer co-

creation could bring several benefits for companies (Hoyer et al, 2010). In particular,
companies can utilize social media to stimulate the breath as well as the depth of inputs in
the ideation and product development stages by customer co-creation with low expense,
thus save both time and money and minimize the risk of the new product failure. At the
commercialization and post launch stages, firms can use social networking sites, online
customer communities, wikis, and instant messaging for harnessing the consumer-firm
relationship, eventually generating positive awareness for the firms new product while
reducing advertising and promotion costs. Besides, if companies can active manage
feedback from customers and social media, it could help the firm in perceiving low
repurchase rates reasons.
310.

Regarding to four building block of brand co-creation, Prahalad & Ramaswamy

(2004) emphasize dialogue (shared learning and communication between company and
customer equally), access (tools and information offered by company), risk assessment
(inform customers about personal risk and societal risk related to products/services) and
transparency (information of products, technology and business system). Since the role of
19

customers changed, the role of companies also has changed, and thus the whole future
competition will depend on how co-creation value can be generated between customers
and firms. As a result, it is significantly urgent for companies to change the current
product domain into service domain, thus enhance product quality, improve experiences
and strengthen loyalty brand communities. Notwithstanding, Hatch & Schultz (2010)
suggest that the growth of transparency in brand co-creation can expose the company to
added risk including reputation risk, the risk of decreased distinctiveness as other rivals
trying to copy the companys competencies, and lack of control since management shifts
from the traditional approach to the dynamic results of stakeholder co-creation.
311.

When it comes to social media, Mangold & Faulds (2009) suggest that it is very

challenge for companies to directly control the timing, frequency, and content of the
social media-based conversations arising between consumers. As a result, companies
nowadays must learn how to evolve consumer interactions in a manner which align with
the organizations performance goals and missions.
312.

Finally, France et al (2015) assume that the customers need to have enough three

elements of brand antecedents including brand engagement, brand self-congruity and


category involvement for customer brand co-creation occurring. As a result, companies
ought to nurture brand engagement, brand interactivity, and brand communities and make
sure that brand authenticity and brand communication assure brand self-congruity.
313.
314.
315.
316.
317.
318.
319.
320.

20

321.

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