Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 28

MECH 466

Microelectromechanical Systems
University of Victoria
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

Lecture 4:
Basic Review of Stress and Strain, Mechanics
of Beams

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Overview
Compliant Mechanisms
Basics of Mechanics of Materials
Bending of Beams
Stress within Beams
Moment of Inertia
Appendices:
(A) Stress and Strain
(B) Poissons Ratio
(C) Stress Tensor
(D) Strain Tensor

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Design of Micro-Mechanisms
In order to utilize the mechanical aspect of MEMS devices,
most MEMS devices must be capable of motion.
In other words, most micro-mechanical devices are micromechanisms, and we can apply the concepts of kinematics and
dynamics when they are designed.
However, there are three fundamental differences between
macro-mechanisms and micro-mechanisms.
(a) Component Design Limitations (2D shapes only)
-Cannot make: Ball Bearings, Roller bearings, etc...
(b) Minimum Feature Size and Tolerance
(c) Stiction
-High ratio surface adhesion vs. volumetric forces.
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Compliant Mechanisms
In order to overcome most of these problems, many MEMS
devices are designed as compliant mechanisms.
Compliant mechanisms are a class of mechanisms that do not use
any traditional joints (i.e. revolute, slider, prismatic, etc...), but
instead use flexible spring like joints to allow their constituent
parts to translate and rotate.
The simplest example of a compliant mechanism is a common
spring:

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Compliant Mechanisms
A more complex example of a compliant mechanism is that of a
four bar linkage:

Consider the benefits of compliant mechanisms in general, and


how they apply to micro-devices.
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Benefits and Limitation of Compliant Mechanisms


Benefits:
-Single material with no need for joints or lubricants
-Built-in spring back
-Highly precise, with zero play/slop in the mechanism
-Lower fabrication cost
Limitations
-Built-in spring back
-Complex to design, often requiring Finite Element Analysis
-Must consider applied loads and fatigue life

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Compliant Mechanisms for MEMS


Because compliant mechanisms can be made from a single piece
of material, they are ideally suited for miniaturization.
-Since they have no revolute or sliding joints, there are no
internal stiction or friction problems.
-Since the hinges are undergoing elastic deflection, they
automatically return to their initial position when applied forces
are removed.
-They can be scaled down to any scale (even the nano-scale),
as long as the material exhibits linear-elastic behavior.

Movie of Compliant
Active Microgripper
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Mechanics of Materials,
Basic Concepts of Stress and Strain
Since compliant mechanisms are used for MEMS devices, there
is a significant need to understand the mechanics of materials.
The study of mechanics of materials describes how solid materials
will deform (change shape) and how they will fail (break) when
subjected to applied forces.
Mechanics of materials analysis is based on several basic concepts
such as:
(a) Newtons Laws of Motion:
- (1st Law): Inertia
- (2nd Law): F=ma
- (3rd Law): Reaction Force

(b) Equilibrium Condition


(c) Stress and Strain
(d) Material Properties
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Definition of Stress and Strain


Applied force on a material

Stress is a measure of:

Area over which that force is applied

Normal stress is defined as:


Strain is a measure of:

Elongation of a material due to an applied force

Normal strain is defined as:

The original length of the material

(*Note: the textbook denotes strain as s)

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Relation Between Stress and Strain


Hookes Law defines the relationship between stress and strain,
where:
The above equation is a simple linear model for the 1-D analysis
of materials operating in the elastic region of behavior.
If we require a 3D analysis of materials, we must use a more
advanced matrix relationship between stress and strain, known as
Generalized Hookes Law.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

10

Graphical Relation Between Stress and Strain

)$"&))

Ceramics, Crystal Silicon,


Polysilicon

!"#$$%&
'($&"#(%

Metals, Gold, Aluminum,


Certain Plastics

+&*&"(%
&%()$#,
'($&"#(%

Linear
Region

Linear
Region

)-.$
"/!!&"
)$"(#*

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

11

Movie of Tensile Testing of Steel


The relationship of stress and strain for steel can be observed in
the following movie:
!"#$!!
0&$1)2!"#$!!

3!04

.#/./#"&/'%1

1&5&"

.1%!"&,
#$*&5$

+#%,"-#$
./&'"

0&$1)
./&'"

!"#%&'
$1%!"&,
#$*&5$

.$#+$,"
.1%!"&,&"0
/#20&$1)&'*

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

!"#%&'
(%#)$'&'*

'$,6&'*

Tensile Testing A36 mild steel, (speed = 4X),


[Civil Engineering, University of New Mexico]
12

Values for E (modulus of elasticity)


Some typical values for E for common MEMS materials are listed
below:
E
(GPa)

Material

130
168
187

N/A

600 to 7700

120 to 175

N/A

1000 to 3000

385
254

N/A

6400 to 14000

Silicon Oxide

73

N/A

8400

Silicon Carbide (SiC)

700

N/A

21000

Stainless Steel

200

2100

Gold

78

250

Aluminum

70

170

Single Crystal Silicon:

<100>
<110>
<111>

Yield Strength Fracture Strength


(MPa)
(MPa)

Polysilicon
Silicon Nitride (SiN)

<100>
<110>

Note: Appendix A lists numerous material properties for typical


MEMS materials.
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

13

Beam Bending
For MEMS applications, we analyze beams for a number of
reasons including:
(a) Internal stress at any point
(b) Maximum stress and its location
(c) Beam Stiffness
(d) Beam Deflection
For a majority of MEMS applications, there are essentially three
general cases for beam bending.
Note that for macro-scale beam bending, there may be dozens of
general cases.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

14

Beam Bending
We will consider only in-plane beam bending (bending about
axis that is normal to the page) for simplicity.
Case A: Cantilever Beams

(i.e. diving board configuration)

y
x Fixed End

Free End

Case B: Bridge Beam


y
x Fixed End

Fixed End

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

15

Beam Bending

Case C: Guided End Beams


y

dy

x
Fixed End

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Guided End

16

Analysis of Beams:
(1) Determine all forces and moments using static equilibrium
conditions
(2) Create diagrams for:
-Axial Force
-Shear Force
-Bending Moment
(3) Develop equation for stress at any point in the beam
(4) Develop equations for K (stiffness) and d (deflection) for the
beam.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

17

Example of Beam Axial, Shear and Moment


Diagrams:

See Class Notes

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

18

Definition of Beam Parameters


We will consider simple beams that have:
- A straight shape
- A vertical axis of symmetry

Neutral Axis

x
z
w
l

Examples of vertical symmetry include:

Cross-Sections of Various Beams


[image from Mechanics of Materials, E. P. Popov]
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

19

Pure Bending of Beams


These are cases where a beam is subjected to a bending moment
where we assume:
- Deflection as a result of bending is less than 5% of beam
length
- All plane cross-sections of the beam before bending remain as
straight planes after bending
Compression

Neutral Axis
y

+M

+M

Plane
Cross-Sections

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

Tension

20

Pure Bending of Beams


Consider some infinitesimal cubes of material in the beam:

Maximum
Compression
Zero Stress

x
define c

Point of Interest
Maximum
Tension

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

21

Definition of Beam Bending Stress


The beam stress formula is given by:

- where:

Applies to all beams in a state of pure bending. Derivation is


available in textbooks on solid mechanics.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

22

Moment of Inertia
The moment of inertia, I, of a beam depends on the geometrical
properties of the cross-section area A of a beam.
I is defined as:
- where: I is relative to the centroid of the cross-section area
More generally moment of inertia is defined as Izz:

This is known as the parallel axis theorem


N. Dechev, University of Victoria

23

Examples of Moment of Inertia

See Class Notes

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

24

Beam Deflection
A unique analytical solution exists for beam deflection, given by:
(a) beam geometry
(b) loading conditions
(c) boundary conditions
Generally, beam curvature (rho), can be defined as:

Additionally, we can also define as:

where v is the beam deflection from the initial position. This


approximation is valid when v < 5% of beam length.
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

25

Beam Deflection
Therefore, we can develop the following differential equation,
which can be solved for any beam, given the specific beam (a)
geometry, (b) loading condition and (c) boundary condition:

It is beyond the scope of this course to solve these equations. For


this course, we can use Appendix B in the textbook, which
provides the deflections associated with this equation, for
common general cases found with MEMS beams.
Example of beam deflection for cantilever beam:
"
!
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

!
26

Beam Stiffness
A useful concept in predicting the forces and deflections within
MEMS beams is the concept of stiffness.
The stiffness model normally associated with springs can be
expressed as:

Where K is a constant of proportionality that defines the relation


between applied force, F, and the resulting spring deflection, x.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

27

Beam Stiffness
Given the equation for the tip deflection of a beam, we can define
that beams stiffness as:

Example of beam stiffness:


Consider the cantilever beam in the previous example:
"
!

Since:
Therefore:
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

28

Calculation of Combined Mechanical Stiffnesses


Computation of Stiffness for Springs in Series.
Computation of Stiffness for Springs in Parallel

See Class Notes

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

29

Beam Torsion
For some MEMS applications, the beams that allow the sensor or
actuator to move undergo a twisting/torsional action.
In these cases, it is useful to review the basic formulas governing
the torsion of beams, to determine:
(a) Maximum stress and its location
(b) Beam Stiffness
(c) Beam Deflection

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

30

Beam Torsion For Circular Beams


The basic assumptions for the torsion of circular beams
(a) All sections initially plane and perpendicular to the
lengthwise axis, remain plane after torsion.
(b) Following twisting, all cross-sections remain undistorted
and have a linear variation of stress from the center of twist
(where xy=0) to the outer surface (where xy= max).
(c) Material is homogeneous and obeys Hookes law.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

31

Beam Torsion For Circular Beams


The governing equations for circular beam torsion are presented
below, without derivation:
where: - shear stress
T - applied torque
r - radius from center to point of interest
J - polar moment of inertia
For circular x-section
For deformation, we have:
where:

- angle of twist per unit length


G - Modulus of shear

and since
where:

- angle of twist
32

Beam Torsion For Non-Circular Beams


The governing equations
for non-circular beam
torsion depend on the
cross-sectional geometry.
Derivation of these
equations requires
advanced knowledge of
mechanics, and is beyond
the scope of this course.
Table 6.2 on the left
provides equations for
the maximum stress,
its location, and the
Angle of twist per unit
length for various crosssections.
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

33

Beam Torsion
Some FEM (finite element analysis) simulations of the distribution of
shear stress due to torsion, for beam cross-sections are shown below:

Some FEM simulations of the deformation due to torsion, for beam


cross-sections are shown below:

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

34

APPENDICIES: Definitions & Reference Materials:


(A) Stress and Strain
(B) Poissons Ratio
(C) Stress Tensor
(D) Strain Tensor

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

35

Basic Concepts of Stress and Strain

Mechanics of materials describes how solid materials will deform


(change shape) and how they will fail (break) when subjected to
applied forces.
Mechanics of materials analysis is based on several basic concepts
such as:
(a) Newtons Laws of Motion:
- (1st Law): Inertia
- (2nd Law): F=ma
- (3rd Law): Reaction Force

(b) Equilibrium Condition


(c) Stress and Strain
(d) Material Properties

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

36

Static Equilibrium of Bodies


The static equilibrium condition states that all forces and moments
applied to a body are balanced such that there is no net
acceleration of the body.
More specifically:
-The vector summation of all forces acting on a body must be
equal to zero, and...
-The sum of all moments acting must be equal to zero.
Therefore, for a 3D body in space:
- these six equations must be satisfied
for the body to be in static equilibrium
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

37

Definition of Stress and Strain


Applied force on a material

Stress is a measure of:

Area over which that force is applied

Normal stress is defined as:


Strain is a measure of:

Elongation of a material due to an applied force

Normal strain is defined as:

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

The original length of the material

(*Note: the textbook denotes strain as s)

38

Definition of Stress and Strain


Normal stress:
Normal strain:
03(!#"01#(00201#!+'

'$#/!*"01#(00201#!+'

"

!"#$%"&'%(#"'$"!))*+(%",$#-(

&'.*$!%(%

"

#
!

*$!%(%

%4

!
#$!#

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

39

Definition of Stress and Strain


Shear stress:

-->

Shear strain:
03(!#"01#(00201#!+'

'$#/!*"01#(00201#!+'

"

!"#$%"&'%(#"'$"!))*+(%",$#-(

&'.*$!%(%

"

#
!

*$!%(%

%4

!
#$!#

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

40

Relation Between Stress and Strain


Hookes Law defines the relationship between stress and strain,
where:
The above equation is a simple linear model for the 1-D analysis
of materials operating in the elastic region of behavior.
If we require a 3D analysis of materials, we must use a more
advanced matrix relationship between stress and strain, known as
Generalized Hookes Law.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

41

Definition of Poissons Ratio


When you strain a body along one axis, it will change shape
along the other axes.
For example, consider the rectangular body below:

If it is in tension, its cross-sectional area will become reduced.


We can define Poissons ratio as:

Note for Si:


N. Dechev, University of Victoria

(See Appendix A for other materials)


42

Definition of Stress Tensor


Consider a solid body (as shown below) with an arbitrary shape,
subjected to a set of arbitrary forces.
F2

We wish to analyze the state


of stress that exists within
this solid body, and may also
want to determine the
deformation of the solid body.

F1

F3
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

43

Definition of Stress Tensor


The first step is to define a coordinate system that is suitable for
analysis.
F2
y
F1

z
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

F3
44

Definition of Stress Tensor


If a cross section of this loaded body is taken, we wish to
determine the stress at each and every point within the interior.
F2
y

Because there are various


applied forces with various
directions, in general, the
stress distribution throughout
the solid body will be
non-uniform.

F1

For the purposes of analysis


we can discretize the solid body
into cubes, and will consider
the stress on each cube.

F3

z
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

45

Definition of Stress Tensor


Consider a single cube of material from the solid body.
Further, assume that
the cube is infinitesimal
in size.

y
(1)

The external forces F1,


F2 and F3 act on the body,
while each infinitesimal
cube may have a set of small
local force(s)
(i) acting on it.

dy

x
dz
dx

(2)

z
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

46

Definition of Stress Tensor


We can now define the normal stress on a single face, as shown
below.
y

Note the notation used


to indicate the stress. It
consists of two indices, or
subscripts. The first refers
to the plane on which
the stress acts, and the

second refers to the
direction of the stress
xx =

xx = xx

xx

x
z

x
y

(2)

z
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

47

Definition of Stress Tensor


We can now define shear stress on the same face.
Note that since there
are two possible directions
we will define two shear
stresses.

xy
xz

xx = xx
xy

xx = xx
z

xz
x
y

z
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

48

Definition of Stress Tensor


Similarly, we can define the normal and shear stresses on the
faces of the cube that are perpendicular to the y-direction:
y
yy
yx
yz

xy

xz

xx = xx

xx = xx
xz

xy

yz

yx

yy

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

49

Definition of Stress Tensor


Lastly, we can define the normal and shear stresses on the faces
of the cube that are perpendicular to the z-direction:
y
yy
yx
yz
xz

xx = xx

zz
xy
xx = xx

zy
zx

xy

xz
yz

yx

zz
z
N. Dechev, University of Victoria

yy
50

Definition of Stress Tensor


A stress tensor completely defines the state of stress for such a
cube, with respect to the chosen x, y, and z cartesian coordinates.
Note that there are 18 stresses defined on the cube.
In order for the cube to be in static equilibrium in translation, we
can observe that stresses that are on opposite faces of the cube,
and opposite in direction must be equal.
Therefore, we only need to specify 9 stresses to represent the
stress tensor, as:

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

51

Definition of Stress Tensor


In addition, for the cube to be in static equilibrium in rotation, we
can observe that shear stress acting on the sides of the cube, must
all have a net moment of zero acting on the cube:
y

yx
xy

xy

yx

Therefore, we can see that:


And as a result, we only need to define six unique stresses to
describe the stress tensor. (Note the stress tensor is symmetric)

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

52

Definition of Strain Tensor


In a similar manner, the strain tensor can be derived, and is
expressed as:

When we apply the rotational equilibrium condition, this will


reduce to (which is expressed in common notation):
y

x
x

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

53

Tensor Notation as used in Text


Since there are only 6 pieces of unique information contained in
the matrices, an alternative method to describe these tensors, is in
a single column notation:

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

54

Definition of Stiffness Matrix


Using the new tensor notation for stress and strain, we can define
the general relationship between stress and strain as:
Where C = Stiffness Matrix:

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

55

Definition of Stiffness Matrix


Essentially, the stiffness matrix C is analogous to the modulus of
elasticity, E.
However, C encompasses all elasticity information for all normal
and shear stresses with respect to all normal and shear strains.

N. Dechev, University of Victoria

56

Оценить