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Structural Analysis Laboratory

Record of work

Name

Roll No.

Section

Group No. :

Department of Civil Engineering


Sharda University
Greater Noida

Structural Analysis Laboratory

Contents

S.
No.

Title

Verification of Maxwell-Bettis Law

Determination of flexural rigidity of


beam

Deflection of pin jointed truss

4
5

Date

Marks

Signature of the
Faculty

Study the behaviour of various types of


column
Determination of elastic deflection of
curved beams

Verification of moment area theorem

Behaviour of three hinged arch

Analysis of Redundant frame

Behaviour of two hinged arch


Average

Prepared by Ruban Sugumar

SA Lab Manual

Experiment No. 1: Verification of Maxwell-Bettis Law


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To verify Maxwell-Betts Law.

Apparatus:
Aluminium beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands
and weights.

Theory:
Maxwells law of reciprocal deflections is special case of Betts law. It states that The
deflection of point A due to a load P at point B in is equal in the magnitude to the deflection of
point B produced by a unit load P applied at A.
K

X-X
W

Y-Y

Procedure:
i.

Apply a load either within the simply supported span or within the cantilever portion of
the beam. The deflected form can be obtained.

ii.

Measure the height of the beam at certain distance (i.e. at a given point) by means of a
dial gauge before and after the loading and determine the deflection of that point.

iii.

Now move the same load (step 1) to that point and measure the deflection of the section
where the load had been applied in step 1 along the beam at certain distance and for each

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


positions of the load the deflection of the point is noted where the load was applied in
step i.
iv.

Repeat the above experiment for various sections of the beam.

Observation:
Loading at X-X
Distance of
section
X-X from
left support
(cm)
1

Load at
Section X-X
(kg)

Distance of
Y-Y from K
(cm)
3

Deflection at any section Y-Y


Beam
Beam loaded
unloaded dial
dial gauge
gauge reading
reading
(mm)
(mm)
4
5

Deflection at
Y-Y
(mm)
= 45
6

Deflection at any section X-X


Beam
Beam loaded
unloaded dial
dial gauge
gauge reading
reading
(mm)
(mm)
4
5

Deflection at
X-X
(mm)
= 45
6

Loading at Y-Y
Distance of
section
Y-Y from
left support
(cm)
1

Load at
Section Y-Y
(kg)

Distance of
X-X from K
(cm)
3

Precautions:
i.

Do not apply the load with a jerk.

ii.

Allow the load to remain for a short duration.

iii.

Tap the dial Gauge before taking reading.

iv.

Ensure that there is no initial curvature or flaw in the beam.

v.

The load applied should cause deflection within limit of proportionality.

Results and comments:

Experiment No. 2: Determination of flexural rigidity of beam


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To determine the flexural rigidity of the beam verify it theoretically.

Apparatus:
M.S beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands and
weights, Vernier Caliper.

Theory:

a
y

a
W

l/2
For the beam with two equal overhangs and subjected to two concentrated loads W each
at the free ends, the maximum deflection y at the centre is given by
y

where, a

Wal 2
8EI

(1)

= Length of overhang on each side,

= Load applied at free ends

= Main Span,

= Modulus of elasticity of the material,

= Moment of inertia of cross-section of the beam.

From the above equation, we can find the flexural rigidity (EI) as

Wal 2
EI
8y

(2)

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Theoretically, the flexural rigidity is given as
EI E

where, b

= Width of the beam,

= Depth of the beam.

bd 3
12

(3)

Procedure:
i.

Find b and d of the beam and calculate the theoretical value of EI by Eq. (3).

ii.

Measure the main span and overhang span of the beam with a scale.

iii.

By applying equal loads at the free end of overhang beam, find the central deflection y.

iv.

Repeat the above steps for different loads.

Observation:
Length of main span, l (mm)

Length of overhang on each side, a (mm)

Width of beam, b (mm)

Depth of beam, d (mm)

Modulus of elasticity, E

= 2.11011 N/m2 = 2.1105 N/mm2

Equal loads at the


two ends
W
(kg)

S.
No

Deflection at the mid-span


y
(mm)
Initial

Final

InitialFinal

Flexural Rigidity
9.806Wal 2
EI
8y
(N.mm2)

1
2
3
4
5
6
Average
Dimensions of beam
Width of Beam (mm)

S.
No.

Main

Vernier

Depth of beam (mm)


Total

Main

Vernier

1
2
Average

Average

Total

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Calculations:
Value of EI from Eq. (3),

EI =
=

Precaution:
i. Measure the center deflection y very accurately.
ii. Ensure that the beam is devoid of initial curvature.
iii. Loading should be within the elastic limit of the materials.

Results:
The value of flexural rigidity from
i. Experiment

ii. Theory

Comments:

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Experiment No. 3: Deflection of pin jointed truss


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To determine the deflection of a pin jointed truss and to verify the results theoretically
and graphically.

Apparatus:
Truss apparatus, weights, hanger, dial gauge, scale and Vernier Caliper.

Theory:
U2

U1

U3

U4

U0

L0

L2

L1

L3

L4

The deflection of a node of a truss under a given loading is determined by

where,

F U L
AE

(1)

= deflection at the node point,

= Force in any member under the given loading,

= Force in any member under a unit load applied at the point where the deflection
is required. The unit load acts when the loading on the truss have been removed
and acts in the same direction in which the deflection is required,

= Length of any member,

= Cross sectional area of any member,

= Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of the member.

Here, (L/AE) is the property of the member, which is equal to its extension per unit load.
It may be determined for each member separately by suspending a load from it and noting the
extension.

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Procedure:
i.

Detach each spring from the member. Plot extension against load by suspending load
from the spring and noting the extension. From the graph, obtain the extension per unit
load (stiffness).

ii.

Load the truss with 0.25 kg load at each node and measure the distance between the
hanger and the table for each node. Assume this as the initial position.

iii.

Add load at central node and also to the other nodes symmetrically. Measure the distance
between the hangers and the table. The difference in the measurement gives the
deflection of the truss.

iv.

Calculate the deflection of the nodes using Eq. (1).

v.

Draw Williot-Mohr diagram for the deflections.

vi.

Compare the deflections obtained from analytical calculations, experiment and graphical
calculations.

Observations:
Stiffness of member ( L AE )
Member Parameter

Load
U0L1
Deflection
Load
U1L2
Deflection
Load
U3L2
Deflection
Load
U4L3
Deflection
Load
L1L2
Deflection
Load
L2L3
Deflection

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Deflection of Truss
S.
No.

Parameter

Initial loads

Initial distances

Additional loads

Final distance

Deflection (42)

L1

L2

L3

250g

250g

250g

Analytical deflections
Node L1
Member

L
AE

F
(N)

U
(N)

F .U .

U 0U1

U1U 2
U 2U 3
U 3U 4

L0 L1
L1L2
L2 L3

L3 L4
U 0 L0
U1L1

U 2 L2

U 3 L3
U 4 L4

U 0 L1
U1L2
U 3 L2

U 4 L3

Node L2
L
AE

U
(N)

F .U .

Node L3
L
AE

U
(N)

F .U .

L
AE

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Calculations:

Precautions:
i. Apply the load without any jerk.
ii. Measure the deflection to the nearest of a millimeter.
iii. Perform the experiment at a location, which is away from any external disturbance.
iv. Ensure that the supports are rigid.

Results:
S.
No.

Method

Experimental

Analytical

Graphical

Node L1

Node L2

Comments:

10

Node L3

Experiment No. 4: Study the behaviour of various types of column


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To study the behaviour of different types of columns and to calculate the Eulers
buckling load for each case.

Apparatus:
Column buckling apparatus, weights, Vernier Caliper, screw gauge and graph paper.

Theory:
If compressive load is applied on a column, the member may fail either by crushing or by
buckling, depending upon its material, cross section and length. If member is considerably long
in comparison to its lateral dimensions, it will fail by buckling. The load at which the member
just buckles is called buckling or critical load. For a slender column, buckling load is less than
the crushing load. The buckling load, as given by Euler, can be found by using following
expression:

Pc

2 EI

(1)

eff

where, Pc

= Critical load

= Moment of Inertia of the cross-section of the column

leff

= Effective length of the column

= Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of the column

The effective length of the column for various end conditions are given below
Parameter

Profile of
Buckling
Effective length
(leff)

Column 1 (Both ends


fixed)

Column 2 (one end


fixed and other end
pinned)
l

l/2

Column 3 (Both ends


pinned)

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Procedure:
i.

Pin a graph paper on the wooden board behind the column.

ii.

Apply the load at the top of columns.

iii.

Gradually increase the load in small increments. At certain stage of loading the columns
shows abnormal deflections and starts buckling.

iv.

Note the buckling load for each column.

v.

Trace the deflected shapes of the columns on the graph.

vi.

Mark the points of change of curvature (inflection) and measure the effective length for
each case separately.

vii.

Also calculate the theoretical effective lengths and buckling loads by the expression
given above and compare them with the observed values.

Observations:
Cross Sectional properties
Parameter

Column 1 (Both
ends fixed)

Column 2 (one end


fixed and other end
pinned)

Width of the
column, b (mm)
Thickness of the
column, t (mm)

Calculations:
i.

Both ends fixed


Effective Length

leff

= l/2
=

Euler Buckling load

Pc

2 EI

eff

=
ii.

Both ends fixed


Effective Length

leff

= l/2
=

Euler Buckling load

Pc

2 EI

eff

12

Column 3 (Both
ends pinned)

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


iii.

Both ends fixed


Effective Length

leff

= l/2
=

Euler Buckling load

Pc

2 EI

eff

Precautions:
i.
ii.

Increase the load on the columns gradually without jerk.


Mark the points of inflection on the graph very carefully.

Results:
Effective Length
S.
End Conditions
No.
Theoretical Experimental
1 Column 1 (Both ends fixed)
Column 2 (one end fixed
2
and other end pinned)
Column 3 (Both ends
3
pinned)

Comments:

13

Buckling Load
Theoretical Experimental

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

14

Experiment No. 5: Determination of elastic deflection of curved beams


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To determine the elastic displacement of the curved members experimentally and verify
the same with the analytical results.

Apparatus:
Curved beam apparatus with four different types of configurations, weights, scale,
dial gauges and Vernier Caliper.

Theory:
The elastic displacements of a curved member can be determined using Castiglianos first
theorem which states that The partial derivative of the strain energy with respect to any force
gives the displacement of the point of its application in the direction of the force.
The total strain energy of any structure is determined in terms of the entire load with their
actual values and a fictitious load P applied at the point at which the deflection is required and it
is acting in the same direction in which the deflection is required. In case no external load is
acting at the joint in the direction desired, a fictitious load is applied in that direction and forces
in all the members are worked out. After partial differentiation with respect to P, zero is
substituted for the fictitious load P (or if P is not fictitious its actual value is substituted). Thus
the result is the required deflection.
a. Quadrant of a circle
The curved beam is fixed at the point A and is free at point B. The concentrated load, P is
applied at the free end.

Vertical displacement at point B along the line of action of the load ( VB )

VB
where, R
E

PR3

4 EI

= Radius of the quadrant,


= Youngs modulus of the material of the beam
= 2105 N/mm2

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


I

= Moment of Inertia of the cross section of the curved member


=

bd 3
12

Horizontal displacement at point B ( HB )

HB

PR3
2 EI

b. Quadrant of a circle with a straight leg.


The member is a quadrant from point A to B and then straight line from B to C
P

Vertical displacement at point C along the line of action of the load ( VB )

VC

PR y
R

EI

Horizontal displacement at point B ( HB )

HC

PR
2 EI

B
y

2 R2

y 8 4 yR

c. Semicircle with straight arm

VB )

Vertical displacement at point C along the line of action of the load (

VC

Py 3 PR 2 y 2

R
3EI EI
2

B
R

Horizontal displacement at point B ( HB )

HC

R 2

PR 2

EI

P
C

A
P

d. Circle
Vertical displacement at point C along the line of action of the load ( VB )

VB

PR

B
R

21EI
A

Procedure:
i.

Place a load of 0.5 kg on the hanger to activate the member and treat this as the initial
position for measuring deflection.

ii.

Fix the dial gauges for measuring horizontal and vertical deflections.

iii.

Place the additional loads at an increment of 0.5 kg and tabulate the dial gauge readings
against the applied loads.
16

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Observation:
a. Quadrant
S.
No

Load
kg

1
2
3
4

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Vertical deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

b. Quadrant with straight leg


S.
No

Load
kg

1
2
3
4

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Vertical deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

c. Semicircle with straight arm


S.
No

Load
kg

1
2
3
4

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Vertical deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

Vertical deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)


Dial Gauge reading
Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

d. Circle
S.
No

Load
kg

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

Dimensions of the beam


S.
No
1
2
3

Configuration
Main Scale
Vernier Scale
Total
Radius
Arm/leg
length

Quadrant

Quadrant with
straight leg

Semicircle with
straight arm

Circle

17

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Calculation:

Precautions:
i.

Apply the loads gently

ii.

Measure the displacements very accurately

Results:
1. Plot the graph between load and deflection for each case to show that the structure remains
within the elastic limit.
2. Vertical deflection in mm, VB
S.
No
1
2
3
4

Case (a)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (b)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (c)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (d)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (b)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (c)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (d)
Exp.
Calc.

3. Horizontal deflection, HB
S.
No
1
2
3
4

Case (a)
Exp.
Calc.

Comments:

18

Experiment No. 6: Verification of moment area theorem


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To find the slopes and deflection of a simply supported beam experimentally and
compare it with the theoretical results to verify moment area theorem.

Apparatus:
M.S beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands and
weights, Vernier Caliper.

Theory:
Moment area theorem is otherwise called Mohrs theorem. It has the following two
theorems:
I.

The change of slope between the two points on an elastic line is equal to the area of
M
diagram between these points
EI

II.

The tangential deviation of a point A from a tangent to the elastic curve at a point C
is equal to the static moment of area of the area of the

M
diagram between A and C
EI

taken about point A.

a
P

a
P

B
b

M/EI

y2

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Slope at point B
M
curve between C and B
EI

B C = Area of

Since the tangent at point C is horizontal, C = 0

= Area of

M
curve between C and B
EI

=
Displacement at B

= Moment of the area of

M
curve between C and B
EI

Procedure:
i.

Measure the thickness (t), width (w), overhangs (a), distance of loading (b) and centre
span (l) of the beam.

ii.

Place the hanger at equal distance from the supports A and B and load them with equal
loads (P).

iii.

Measure the deflection by dial gauges at the overhang end (y2) and at the centre, C (y1).

iv.

Repeat the above steps for different loads.

Observation:
Thickness of the beam (t)

Width of the beam (w)

Length of overhangs (a)

Distance of loading point (b) =


Centre span of the beam (L) =
Youngs Modulus (E)
S.
No.

Load,
P
kg

Deflection
at free end,
y2
mm

= 2.1105 N/mm2
Slope at B
Experimental
y2 b

Calculated

1
2
3
4
5

20

Deflection at C
Experimental,
y1

Calculated

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Calculation:
wt 3
Moment of inertia, I =
12

Precautions:
i.

Apply the concentrated load without jerks

ii.

Measure the deflections only when the beam attains equilibrium

iii.

Measure deflections very carefully and accurately

iv.

Check the accuracy and least count of dial gauges used for measuring deflections.

Results:

Comments:

21

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

22

Experiment No. 7: Behaviour of three hinged arch


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To study the behaviour of a three hinged arch experimentally for the horizontal and
vertical displacement of the roller end for a given system of loading and to compare the same
with the results obtained by analytical calculations.

Apparatus:
Three hinged arch apparatus, weights, scale, dial gauge, etc.

Theory:
A three hinged arch is a determinate structure with the axial thrust assisting in
maintaining the stability. The horizontal thrust H in the arch for a number of loads can be
obtained as follows
W2

W3

W1
W4

The reactions VA and VB are calculated using the following equations:


W1 L a1 W2 L a2 W3 L a3 W4 L a4
VA
L
W a W2a2 W3a3 W4a4
VB 1 1
L
HA HB 0
VA VB W1 W2 W3 W4

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Take Moment about the hinge C

1 L
L

VB W3 a3

h 2
2

Procedure:
i. Use lubricating oil at the roller end of the arch so as to have a free movement of the roller
end.
ii. Balance the self-weight of the arch by placing load on hanger for horizontal thrust until the
equilibrium conditions is obtained. Under this condition, the roller end of the arch has a
tendency to move inside on tapping the table. Note down the load in kg.
iii. Place a few loads on the arch in any chosen positions. Balance these by placing additional
weights on the hanger for horizontal thrust. The additional weights on the thrust hanger give
the experimental value of the horizontal thrust.

Observation:
Span of the arch,

Central rise,

Initial load on the thrust hanger for balancing,


S.
No.

Load Applied
on Hanger
kg
W1

W2

W3

Distance from
Left hand
Support
cm
a1
a2
a3

Additional load
on thrust hanger

W4

W1

a1

W2

a2

W3

a3

W4

Calculation:

24

Calculated value
of H

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Precautions:
i.

Put the weights in thrust hanger very gently without a jerk.

ii.

Measure the distance of loaded points from left hand support accurately. Perform the
experiment away from vibration and other disturbances.

Results:
i.

Find the horizontal thrust for a given set of load experimentally and theoretically.
Experimental value of horizontal thrust, H exp

Theoretical value of horizontal thrust, H th

Comments:

25

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

26

Experiment No. 8: Analysis of Redundant frame


Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To study the behaviour redundant frame subjected to coplanar force experimentally and
to verify the horizontal and vertical displacements obtained from the experiment with the
analytical results.

Apparatus:
Three bar suspension system, weights, scale, dial gauge, etc.

Theory:
The diagram of the apparatus is shown in the figure below.

The horizontal (U) and the vertical (V) displacements of the point D is calculated as follows
U

N1a N 2b
W

L3 N1N 2 a b 2 N3 n1a 2 n2b 2

N1a 2 N 2b 2

W
V 2
L3 N1 N 2 a b 2 N3 n1a 2 n2b 2

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


where,
N1

A1E1 1

L1 L12

N2

A2 E2 1
2
L2
L2

N2

A3 E3 1
2
L3
L3

L1

= Length of the member AD

L2

= Length of the member BD

L2

= Length of the member CD

a
b
W

= Distance between A and B


= Distance between A and B
= Applied load at D

The tensile force in the members are calculated as follows

T1
T2

L3V aU A1E1
L12

L3V bU A2 E2

T3

L22

L3V A3 E3
L23

where,
T1

= Tension force in member AD

T2

= Tension force in member BD

T3

= Tension force in member CD

The expression

AE
represents the axial stiffness of the structure. It denotes the force required to
L

produce unit deformation. This value can be calculated by finding the slope from load vs.
deflection graph plotted for each spring.

Procedure:
1. Isolate each spring, apply load and measure the deflection and tabulate it.
2. Draw a graph between load (y - axis) and deflection (x - axis) for each spring and find the
slope. The value of the slope corresponds to the stiffness of each spring.
3. Connect the lower end of the spring to make a redundant frame.

28

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


4. Apply load at increments and note down the horizontal and vertical displacements and the
reading in each spring.
5. Calculate the tension force in each spring, horizontal and vertical displacement of point D
and compare with the experimental results.

Observation:
Length of member AD

Length of member BD

Length of member CD

Distance a

Distance b

Youngs Modulus, E

Load, kg

Deflection in member, mm
AD

BD

CD

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

Load, kg

Horizontal, U

Vertical, V

Deflection, mm
Spring AD

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

Calculation:

29

Spring BD

Spring CD

Structural Analysis Lab Manual


Precaution:
i.
ii.
iii.

Calculate the spring stiffnesses carefully.


Measure the distances AD, BD, CD, a and b accurately.
Tap the dial gauges before taking a reading for vertical and horizontal displacements.

Results:
Experimental
Load,
kg

Deflection, mm
U

Analytical

Force, N
T1

T2

Deflection, mm
T3

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

Comments:

30

Force, N
T1

T2

T3