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Structural Analysis Laboratory

Record of work

Name

Roll No.

Section

Group No. :

Department of Civil Engineering

Sharda University
Greater Noida

Contents

S.
No.

Title

beam

4
5

Date

Marks

Signature of the
Faculty

Study the behaviour of various types of

column
Determination of elastic deflection of
curved beams

Average

SA Lab Manual

Experiment No. 1: Verification of Maxwell-Bettis Law

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To verify Maxwell-Betts Law.

Apparatus:
Aluminium beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands
and weights.

Theory:
Maxwells law of reciprocal deflections is special case of Betts law. It states that The
deflection of point A due to a load P at point B in is equal in the magnitude to the deflection of
point B produced by a unit load P applied at A.
K

X-X
W

Y-Y

Procedure:
i.

Apply a load either within the simply supported span or within the cantilever portion of
the beam. The deflected form can be obtained.

ii.

Measure the height of the beam at certain distance (i.e. at a given point) by means of a
dial gauge before and after the loading and determine the deflection of that point.

iii.

Now move the same load (step 1) to that point and measure the deflection of the section
where the load had been applied in step 1 along the beam at certain distance and for each

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

positions of the load the deflection of the point is noted where the load was applied in
step i.
iv.

Observation:
Distance of
section
X-X from
left support
(cm)
1

Section X-X
(kg)

Distance of
Y-Y from K
(cm)
3

Beam
dial gauge
(mm)
(mm)
4
5

Deflection at
Y-Y
(mm)
= 45
6

Beam
dial gauge
(mm)
(mm)
4
5

Deflection at
X-X
(mm)
= 45
6

Distance of
section
Y-Y from
left support
(cm)
1

Section Y-Y
(kg)

Distance of
X-X from K
(cm)
3

Precautions:
i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Experiment No. 2: Determination of flexural rigidity of beam

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To determine the flexural rigidity of the beam verify it theoretically.

Apparatus:
M.S beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands and
weights, Vernier Caliper.

Theory:

a
y

a
W

l/2
For the beam with two equal overhangs and subjected to two concentrated loads W each
at the free ends, the maximum deflection y at the centre is given by
y

where, a

Wal 2
8EI

(1)

= Main Span,

= Moment of inertia of cross-section of the beam.

From the above equation, we can find the flexural rigidity (EI) as

Wal 2
EI
8y

(2)

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Theoretically, the flexural rigidity is given as
EI E

where, b

= Depth of the beam.

bd 3
12

(3)

Procedure:
i.

Find b and d of the beam and calculate the theoretical value of EI by Eq. (3).

ii.

Measure the main span and overhang span of the beam with a scale.

iii.

By applying equal loads at the free end of overhang beam, find the central deflection y.

iv.

Repeat the above steps for different loads.

Observation:
Length of main span, l (mm)

Depth of beam, d (mm)

Modulus of elasticity, E

two ends
W
(kg)

S.
No

Deflection at the mid-span

y
(mm)
Initial

Final

InitialFinal

Flexural Rigidity
9.806Wal 2
EI
8y
(N.mm2)

1
2
3
4
5
6
Average
Dimensions of beam
Width of Beam (mm)

S.
No.

Main

Vernier

Total

Main

Vernier

1
2
Average

Average

Total

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Calculations:
Value of EI from Eq. (3),

EI =
=

Precaution:
i. Measure the center deflection y very accurately.
ii. Ensure that the beam is devoid of initial curvature.
iii. Loading should be within the elastic limit of the materials.

Results:
The value of flexural rigidity from
i. Experiment

ii. Theory

Experiment No. 3: Deflection of pin jointed truss

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To determine the deflection of a pin jointed truss and to verify the results theoretically
and graphically.

Apparatus:
Truss apparatus, weights, hanger, dial gauge, scale and Vernier Caliper.

Theory:
U2

U1

U3

U4

U0

L0

L2

L1

L3

L4

where,

F U L
AE

(1)

= Force in any member under the given loading,

= Force in any member under a unit load applied at the point where the deflection
is required. The unit load acts when the loading on the truss have been removed
and acts in the same direction in which the deflection is required,

= Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of the member.

Here, (L/AE) is the property of the member, which is equal to its extension per unit load.
It may be determined for each member separately by suspending a load from it and noting the
extension.

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Procedure:
i.

Detach each spring from the member. Plot extension against load by suspending load
from the spring and noting the extension. From the graph, obtain the extension per unit

ii.

Load the truss with 0.25 kg load at each node and measure the distance between the
hanger and the table for each node. Assume this as the initial position.

iii.

Add load at central node and also to the other nodes symmetrically. Measure the distance
between the hangers and the table. The difference in the measurement gives the
deflection of the truss.

iv.

v.

Draw Williot-Mohr diagram for the deflections.

vi.

Compare the deflections obtained from analytical calculations, experiment and graphical
calculations.

Observations:
Stiffness of member ( L AE )
Member Parameter

U0L1
Deflection
U1L2
Deflection
U3L2
Deflection
U4L3
Deflection
L1L2
Deflection
L2L3
Deflection

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Deflection of Truss
S.
No.

Parameter

Initial distances

Final distance

Deflection (42)

L1

L2

L3

250g

250g

250g

Analytical deflections
Node L1
Member

L
AE

F
(N)

U
(N)

F .U .

U 0U1

U1U 2
U 2U 3
U 3U 4

L0 L1
L1L2
L2 L3

L3 L4
U 0 L0
U1L1

U 2 L2

U 3 L3
U 4 L4

U 0 L1
U1L2
U 3 L2

U 4 L3

Node L2
L
AE

U
(N)

F .U .

Node L3
L
AE

U
(N)

F .U .

L
AE

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Calculations:

Precautions:
i. Apply the load without any jerk.
ii. Measure the deflection to the nearest of a millimeter.
iii. Perform the experiment at a location, which is away from any external disturbance.
iv. Ensure that the supports are rigid.

Results:
S.
No.

Method

Experimental

Analytical

Graphical

Node L1

Node L2

10

Node L3

Experiment No. 4: Study the behaviour of various types of column

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To study the behaviour of different types of columns and to calculate the Eulers
buckling load for each case.

Apparatus:
Column buckling apparatus, weights, Vernier Caliper, screw gauge and graph paper.

Theory:
If compressive load is applied on a column, the member may fail either by crushing or by
buckling, depending upon its material, cross section and length. If member is considerably long
in comparison to its lateral dimensions, it will fail by buckling. The load at which the member
just buckles is called buckling or critical load. For a slender column, buckling load is less than
the crushing load. The buckling load, as given by Euler, can be found by using following
expression:

Pc

2 EI

(1)

eff

where, Pc

leff

= Youngs modulus of elasticity of the material of the column

The effective length of the column for various end conditions are given below
Parameter

Profile of
Buckling
Effective length
(leff)

fixed)

Column 2 (one end

fixed and other end
pinned)
l

l/2

pinned)

Procedure:
i.

ii.

Apply the load at the top of columns.

iii.

Gradually increase the load in small increments. At certain stage of loading the columns
shows abnormal deflections and starts buckling.

iv.

v.

Trace the deflected shapes of the columns on the graph.

vi.

Mark the points of change of curvature (inflection) and measure the effective length for
each case separately.

vii.

Also calculate the theoretical effective lengths and buckling loads by the expression
given above and compare them with the observed values.

Observations:
Cross Sectional properties
Parameter

Column 1 (Both
ends fixed)

Column 2 (one end

fixed and other end
pinned)

Width of the
column, b (mm)
Thickness of the
column, t (mm)

Calculations:
i.

Effective Length

leff

= l/2
=

Pc

2 EI

eff

=
ii.

Effective Length

leff

= l/2
=

Pc

2 EI

eff

12

Column 3 (Both
ends pinned)

iii.

Effective Length

leff

= l/2
=

Pc

2 EI

eff

Precautions:
i.
ii.

Increase the load on the columns gradually without jerk.

Mark the points of inflection on the graph very carefully.

Results:
Effective Length
S.
End Conditions
No.
Theoretical Experimental
1 Column 1 (Both ends fixed)
Column 2 (one end fixed
2
and other end pinned)
Column 3 (Both ends
3
pinned)

13

Theoretical Experimental

14

Experiment No. 5: Determination of elastic deflection of curved beams

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To determine the elastic displacement of the curved members experimentally and verify
the same with the analytical results.

Apparatus:
Curved beam apparatus with four different types of configurations, weights, scale,
dial gauges and Vernier Caliper.

Theory:
The elastic displacements of a curved member can be determined using Castiglianos first
theorem which states that The partial derivative of the strain energy with respect to any force
gives the displacement of the point of its application in the direction of the force.
The total strain energy of any structure is determined in terms of the entire load with their
actual values and a fictitious load P applied at the point at which the deflection is required and it
is acting in the same direction in which the deflection is required. In case no external load is
acting at the joint in the direction desired, a fictitious load is applied in that direction and forces
in all the members are worked out. After partial differentiation with respect to P, zero is
substituted for the fictitious load P (or if P is not fictitious its actual value is substituted). Thus
the result is the required deflection.
a. Quadrant of a circle
The curved beam is fixed at the point A and is free at point B. The concentrated load, P is
applied at the free end.

Vertical displacement at point B along the line of action of the load ( VB )

VB
where, R
E

PR3

4 EI

= Youngs modulus of the material of the beam
= 2105 N/mm2

I

=

bd 3
12

HB

PR3
2 EI

b. Quadrant of a circle with a straight leg.

The member is a quadrant from point A to B and then straight line from B to C
P

VC

PR y
R

EI

HC

PR
2 EI

B
y

2 R2

y 8 4 yR

VB )

VC

Py 3 PR 2 y 2

R
3EI EI
2

B
R

Horizontal displacement at point B ( HB )

HC

R 2

PR 2

EI

P
C

A
P

d. Circle
Vertical displacement at point C along the line of action of the load ( VB )

VB

PR

B
R

21EI
A

Procedure:
i.

Place a load of 0.5 kg on the hanger to activate the member and treat this as the initial
position for measuring deflection.

ii.

Fix the dial gauges for measuring horizontal and vertical deflections.

iii.

Place the additional loads at an increment of 0.5 kg and tabulate the dial gauge readings
against the applied loads.
16

Observation:
S.
No

kg

1
2
3
4

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Vertical deflection (mm)

Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)

Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

S.
No

kg

1
2
3
4

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Vertical deflection (mm)

Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)

Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

S.
No

kg

1
2
3
4

0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0

Vertical deflection (mm)

Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)

Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

Vertical deflection (mm)

Theoretical
VB
Initial Final Actual

Horizontal deflection (mm)

Theoretical
HB
Initial Final Actual

d. Circle
S.
No

kg

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

S.
No
1
2
3

Configuration
Main Scale
Vernier Scale
Total
Arm/leg
length

straight leg

Semicircle with
straight arm

Circle

17

Calculation:

Precautions:
i.

ii.

Measure the displacements very accurately

Results:
1. Plot the graph between load and deflection for each case to show that the structure remains
within the elastic limit.
2. Vertical deflection in mm, VB
S.
No
1
2
3
4

Case (a)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (b)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (c)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (d)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (b)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (c)
Exp.
Calc.

Case (d)
Exp.
Calc.

3. Horizontal deflection, HB
S.
No
1
2
3
4

Case (a)
Exp.
Calc.

18

Experiment No. 6: Verification of moment area theorem

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To find the slopes and deflection of a simply supported beam experimentally and
compare it with the theoretical results to verify moment area theorem.

Apparatus:
M.S beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands and
weights, Vernier Caliper.

Theory:
Moment area theorem is otherwise called Mohrs theorem. It has the following two
theorems:
I.

The change of slope between the two points on an elastic line is equal to the area of
M
diagram between these points
EI

II.

The tangential deviation of a point A from a tangent to the elastic curve at a point C
is equal to the static moment of area of the area of the

M
diagram between A and C
EI

a
P

a
P

B
b

M/EI

y2

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Slope at point B
M
curve between C and B
EI

B C = Area of

Since the tangent at point C is horizontal, C = 0

= Area of

M
curve between C and B
EI

=
Displacement at B

= Moment of the area of

M
curve between C and B
EI

Procedure:
i.

Measure the thickness (t), width (w), overhangs (a), distance of loading (b) and centre
span (l) of the beam.

ii.

Place the hanger at equal distance from the supports A and B and load them with equal

iii.

Measure the deflection by dial gauges at the overhang end (y2) and at the centre, C (y1).

iv.

Repeat the above steps for different loads.

Observation:
Thickness of the beam (t)

Length of overhangs (a)

Centre span of the beam (L) =
Youngs Modulus (E)
S.
No.

P
kg

Deflection
at free end,
y2
mm

= 2.1105 N/mm2
Slope at B
Experimental
y2 b

Calculated

1
2
3
4
5

20

Deflection at C
Experimental,
y1

Calculated

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Calculation:
wt 3
Moment of inertia, I =
12

Precautions:
i.

ii.

iii.

Measure deflections very carefully and accurately

iv.

Check the accuracy and least count of dial gauges used for measuring deflections.

Results:

21

22

Experiment No. 7: Behaviour of three hinged arch

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To study the behaviour of a three hinged arch experimentally for the horizontal and
vertical displacement of the roller end for a given system of loading and to compare the same
with the results obtained by analytical calculations.

Apparatus:
Three hinged arch apparatus, weights, scale, dial gauge, etc.

Theory:
A three hinged arch is a determinate structure with the axial thrust assisting in
maintaining the stability. The horizontal thrust H in the arch for a number of loads can be
obtained as follows
W2

W3

W1
W4

The reactions VA and VB are calculated using the following equations:

W1 L a1 W2 L a2 W3 L a3 W4 L a4
VA
L
W a W2a2 W3a3 W4a4
VB 1 1
L
HA HB 0
VA VB W1 W2 W3 W4

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

Take Moment about the hinge C

1 L
L

VB W3 a3

h 2
2

Procedure:
i. Use lubricating oil at the roller end of the arch so as to have a free movement of the roller
end.
ii. Balance the self-weight of the arch by placing load on hanger for horizontal thrust until the
equilibrium conditions is obtained. Under this condition, the roller end of the arch has a
tendency to move inside on tapping the table. Note down the load in kg.
iii. Place a few loads on the arch in any chosen positions. Balance these by placing additional
weights on the hanger for horizontal thrust. The additional weights on the thrust hanger give
the experimental value of the horizontal thrust.

Observation:
Span of the arch,

Central rise,

S.
No.

on Hanger
kg
W1

W2

W3

Distance from
Left hand
Support
cm
a1
a2
a3

on thrust hanger

W4

W1

a1

W2

a2

W3

a3

W4

Calculation:

24

Calculated value
of H

Precautions:
i.

Put the weights in thrust hanger very gently without a jerk.

ii.

Measure the distance of loaded points from left hand support accurately. Perform the
experiment away from vibration and other disturbances.

Results:
i.

Find the horizontal thrust for a given set of load experimentally and theoretically.
Experimental value of horizontal thrust, H exp

25

26

Experiment No. 8: Analysis of Redundant frame

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:
To study the behaviour redundant frame subjected to coplanar force experimentally and
to verify the horizontal and vertical displacements obtained from the experiment with the
analytical results.

Apparatus:
Three bar suspension system, weights, scale, dial gauge, etc.

Theory:
The diagram of the apparatus is shown in the figure below.

The horizontal (U) and the vertical (V) displacements of the point D is calculated as follows
U

N1a N 2b
W

L3 N1N 2 a b 2 N3 n1a 2 n2b 2

N1a 2 N 2b 2

W
V 2
L3 N1 N 2 a b 2 N3 n1a 2 n2b 2

where,
N1

A1E1 1

L1 L12

N2

A2 E2 1
2
L2
L2

N2

A3 E3 1
2
L3
L3

L1

L2

L2

a
b
W

= Distance between A and B

= Distance between A and B
= Applied load at D

T1
T2

L3V aU A1E1
L12

L3V bU A2 E2

T3

L22

L3V A3 E3
L23

where,
T1

T2

T3

= Tension force in member CD

The expression

AE
represents the axial stiffness of the structure. It denotes the force required to
L

produce unit deformation. This value can be calculated by finding the slope from load vs.
deflection graph plotted for each spring.

Procedure:
1. Isolate each spring, apply load and measure the deflection and tabulate it.
2. Draw a graph between load (y - axis) and deflection (x - axis) for each spring and find the
slope. The value of the slope corresponds to the stiffness of each spring.
3. Connect the lower end of the spring to make a redundant frame.

28

Structural Analysis Lab Manual

4. Apply load at increments and note down the horizontal and vertical displacements and the
reading in each spring.
5. Calculate the tension force in each spring, horizontal and vertical displacement of point D
and compare with the experimental results.

Observation:
Length of member AD

Length of member BD

Length of member CD

Distance a

Distance b

Youngs Modulus, E

Deflection in member, mm

BD

CD

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

Horizontal, U

Vertical, V

Deflection, mm

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0

Calculation:

29

Spring BD

Spring CD

Precaution:
i.
ii.
iii.

Calculate the spring stiffnesses carefully.

Measure the distances AD, BD, CD, a and b accurately.
Tap the dial gauges before taking a reading for vertical and horizontal displacements.

Results:
Experimental
kg

Deflection, mm
U

Analytical

Force, N
T1

T2

Deflection, mm
T3

1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0