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- Buckling - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
- Experiment 1, Maxwell Theorem
- Flexural Rigidity
- Inclined Columns Design - Loads and Bending Moment in Inclined Column
- Tensarity by Pedretti
- 4.2 Effective Lengths and Critical Loads
- Cellular Beam Design Guide
- Equivalent Frame Method
- 1974_JPT_Palmer.pdf
- problems
- ANSI MH16 1-2012
- Doc 528
- CheatFinal01F
- Fundamentals of Beam Bracing[1]
- Short Column Design
- M4.7-Unified09[1]
- Topic -Connections -Typical Joints
- 63965314 Fundamentals of Beam Bracing 1
- Cold Formed Steel Beams Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading- Experimental Investigation
- Buckling of Columns

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

Record of work

Name

Roll No.

Section

Group No. :

Sharda University

Greater Noida

Contents

S.

No.

Title

beam

4

5

Date

Marks

Signature of the

Faculty

column

Determination of elastic deflection of

curved beams

Average

SA Lab Manual

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To verify Maxwell-Betts Law.

Apparatus:

Aluminium beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands

and weights.

Theory:

Maxwells law of reciprocal deflections is special case of Betts law. It states that The

deflection of point A due to a load P at point B in is equal in the magnitude to the deflection of

point B produced by a unit load P applied at A.

K

X-X

W

Y-Y

Procedure:

i.

Apply a load either within the simply supported span or within the cantilever portion of

the beam. The deflected form can be obtained.

ii.

Measure the height of the beam at certain distance (i.e. at a given point) by means of a

dial gauge before and after the loading and determine the deflection of that point.

iii.

Now move the same load (step 1) to that point and measure the deflection of the section

where the load had been applied in step 1 along the beam at certain distance and for each

positions of the load the deflection of the point is noted where the load was applied in

step i.

iv.

Observation:

Loading at X-X

Distance of

section

X-X from

left support

(cm)

1

Load at

Section X-X

(kg)

Distance of

Y-Y from K

(cm)

3

Beam

Beam loaded

unloaded dial

dial gauge

gauge reading

reading

(mm)

(mm)

4

5

Deflection at

Y-Y

(mm)

= 45

6

Beam

Beam loaded

unloaded dial

dial gauge

gauge reading

reading

(mm)

(mm)

4

5

Deflection at

X-X

(mm)

= 45

6

Loading at Y-Y

Distance of

section

Y-Y from

left support

(cm)

1

Load at

Section Y-Y

(kg)

Distance of

X-X from K

(cm)

3

Precautions:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To determine the flexural rigidity of the beam verify it theoretically.

Apparatus:

M.S beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands and

weights, Vernier Caliper.

Theory:

a

y

a

W

l/2

For the beam with two equal overhangs and subjected to two concentrated loads W each

at the free ends, the maximum deflection y at the centre is given by

y

where, a

Wal 2

8EI

(1)

= Main Span,

From the above equation, we can find the flexural rigidity (EI) as

Wal 2

EI

8y

(2)

Theoretically, the flexural rigidity is given as

EI E

where, b

bd 3

12

(3)

Procedure:

i.

Find b and d of the beam and calculate the theoretical value of EI by Eq. (3).

ii.

Measure the main span and overhang span of the beam with a scale.

iii.

By applying equal loads at the free end of overhang beam, find the central deflection y.

iv.

Observation:

Length of main span, l (mm)

Modulus of elasticity, E

two ends

W

(kg)

S.

No

y

(mm)

Initial

Final

InitialFinal

Flexural Rigidity

9.806Wal 2

EI

8y

(N.mm2)

1

2

3

4

5

6

Average

Dimensions of beam

Width of Beam (mm)

S.

No.

Main

Vernier

Total

Main

Vernier

1

2

Average

Average

Total

Calculations:

Value of EI from Eq. (3),

EI =

=

Precaution:

i. Measure the center deflection y very accurately.

ii. Ensure that the beam is devoid of initial curvature.

iii. Loading should be within the elastic limit of the materials.

Results:

The value of flexural rigidity from

i. Experiment

ii. Theory

Comments:

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To determine the deflection of a pin jointed truss and to verify the results theoretically

and graphically.

Apparatus:

Truss apparatus, weights, hanger, dial gauge, scale and Vernier Caliper.

Theory:

U2

U1

U3

U4

U0

L0

L2

L1

L3

L4

where,

F U L

AE

(1)

= Force in any member under a unit load applied at the point where the deflection

is required. The unit load acts when the loading on the truss have been removed

and acts in the same direction in which the deflection is required,

Here, (L/AE) is the property of the member, which is equal to its extension per unit load.

It may be determined for each member separately by suspending a load from it and noting the

extension.

Procedure:

i.

Detach each spring from the member. Plot extension against load by suspending load

from the spring and noting the extension. From the graph, obtain the extension per unit

load (stiffness).

ii.

Load the truss with 0.25 kg load at each node and measure the distance between the

hanger and the table for each node. Assume this as the initial position.

iii.

Add load at central node and also to the other nodes symmetrically. Measure the distance

between the hangers and the table. The difference in the measurement gives the

deflection of the truss.

iv.

v.

vi.

Compare the deflections obtained from analytical calculations, experiment and graphical

calculations.

Observations:

Stiffness of member ( L AE )

Member Parameter

Load

U0L1

Deflection

Load

U1L2

Deflection

Load

U3L2

Deflection

Load

U4L3

Deflection

Load

L1L2

Deflection

Load

L2L3

Deflection

Deflection of Truss

S.

No.

Parameter

Initial loads

Initial distances

Additional loads

Final distance

Deflection (42)

L1

L2

L3

250g

250g

250g

Analytical deflections

Node L1

Member

L

AE

F

(N)

U

(N)

F .U .

U 0U1

U1U 2

U 2U 3

U 3U 4

L0 L1

L1L2

L2 L3

L3 L4

U 0 L0

U1L1

U 2 L2

U 3 L3

U 4 L4

U 0 L1

U1L2

U 3 L2

U 4 L3

Node L2

L

AE

U

(N)

F .U .

Node L3

L

AE

U

(N)

F .U .

L

AE

Calculations:

Precautions:

i. Apply the load without any jerk.

ii. Measure the deflection to the nearest of a millimeter.

iii. Perform the experiment at a location, which is away from any external disturbance.

iv. Ensure that the supports are rigid.

Results:

S.

No.

Method

Experimental

Analytical

Graphical

Node L1

Node L2

Comments:

10

Node L3

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To study the behaviour of different types of columns and to calculate the Eulers

buckling load for each case.

Apparatus:

Column buckling apparatus, weights, Vernier Caliper, screw gauge and graph paper.

Theory:

If compressive load is applied on a column, the member may fail either by crushing or by

buckling, depending upon its material, cross section and length. If member is considerably long

in comparison to its lateral dimensions, it will fail by buckling. The load at which the member

just buckles is called buckling or critical load. For a slender column, buckling load is less than

the crushing load. The buckling load, as given by Euler, can be found by using following

expression:

Pc

2 EI

(1)

eff

where, Pc

= Critical load

leff

The effective length of the column for various end conditions are given below

Parameter

Profile of

Buckling

Effective length

(leff)

fixed)

fixed and other end

pinned)

l

l/2

pinned)

Procedure:

i.

ii.

iii.

Gradually increase the load in small increments. At certain stage of loading the columns

shows abnormal deflections and starts buckling.

iv.

v.

vi.

Mark the points of change of curvature (inflection) and measure the effective length for

each case separately.

vii.

Also calculate the theoretical effective lengths and buckling loads by the expression

given above and compare them with the observed values.

Observations:

Cross Sectional properties

Parameter

Column 1 (Both

ends fixed)

fixed and other end

pinned)

Width of the

column, b (mm)

Thickness of the

column, t (mm)

Calculations:

i.

Effective Length

leff

= l/2

=

Pc

2 EI

eff

=

ii.

Effective Length

leff

= l/2

=

Pc

2 EI

eff

12

Column 3 (Both

ends pinned)

iii.

Effective Length

leff

= l/2

=

Pc

2 EI

eff

Precautions:

i.

ii.

Mark the points of inflection on the graph very carefully.

Results:

Effective Length

S.

End Conditions

No.

Theoretical Experimental

1 Column 1 (Both ends fixed)

Column 2 (one end fixed

2

and other end pinned)

Column 3 (Both ends

3

pinned)

Comments:

13

Buckling Load

Theoretical Experimental

14

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To determine the elastic displacement of the curved members experimentally and verify

the same with the analytical results.

Apparatus:

Curved beam apparatus with four different types of configurations, weights, scale,

dial gauges and Vernier Caliper.

Theory:

The elastic displacements of a curved member can be determined using Castiglianos first

theorem which states that The partial derivative of the strain energy with respect to any force

gives the displacement of the point of its application in the direction of the force.

The total strain energy of any structure is determined in terms of the entire load with their

actual values and a fictitious load P applied at the point at which the deflection is required and it

is acting in the same direction in which the deflection is required. In case no external load is

acting at the joint in the direction desired, a fictitious load is applied in that direction and forces

in all the members are worked out. After partial differentiation with respect to P, zero is

substituted for the fictitious load P (or if P is not fictitious its actual value is substituted). Thus

the result is the required deflection.

a. Quadrant of a circle

The curved beam is fixed at the point A and is free at point B. The concentrated load, P is

applied at the free end.

VB

where, R

E

PR3

4 EI

= Youngs modulus of the material of the beam

= 2105 N/mm2

I

=

bd 3

12

HB

PR3

2 EI

The member is a quadrant from point A to B and then straight line from B to C

P

VC

PR y

R

EI

HC

PR

2 EI

B

y

2 R2

y 8 4 yR

VB )

VC

Py 3 PR 2 y 2

R

3EI EI

2

B

R

HC

R 2

PR 2

EI

P

C

A

P

d. Circle

Vertical displacement at point C along the line of action of the load ( VB )

VB

PR

B

R

21EI

A

Procedure:

i.

Place a load of 0.5 kg on the hanger to activate the member and treat this as the initial

position for measuring deflection.

ii.

Fix the dial gauges for measuring horizontal and vertical deflections.

iii.

Place the additional loads at an increment of 0.5 kg and tabulate the dial gauge readings

against the applied loads.

16

Observation:

a. Quadrant

S.

No

Load

kg

1

2

3

4

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

VB

Initial Final Actual

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

HB

Initial Final Actual

S.

No

Load

kg

1

2

3

4

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

VB

Initial Final Actual

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

HB

Initial Final Actual

S.

No

Load

kg

1

2

3

4

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

VB

Initial Final Actual

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

HB

Initial Final Actual

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

VB

Initial Final Actual

Dial Gauge reading

Theoretical

HB

Initial Final Actual

d. Circle

S.

No

Load

kg

1

2

3

4

1

2

3

4

S.

No

1

2

3

Configuration

Main Scale

Vernier Scale

Total

Radius

Arm/leg

length

Quadrant

Quadrant with

straight leg

Semicircle with

straight arm

Circle

17

Calculation:

Precautions:

i.

ii.

Results:

1. Plot the graph between load and deflection for each case to show that the structure remains

within the elastic limit.

2. Vertical deflection in mm, VB

S.

No

1

2

3

4

Case (a)

Exp.

Calc.

Case (b)

Exp.

Calc.

Case (c)

Exp.

Calc.

Case (d)

Exp.

Calc.

Case (b)

Exp.

Calc.

Case (c)

Exp.

Calc.

Case (d)

Exp.

Calc.

3. Horizontal deflection, HB

S.

No

1

2

3

4

Case (a)

Exp.

Calc.

Comments:

18

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To find the slopes and deflection of a simply supported beam experimentally and

compare it with the theoretical results to verify moment area theorem.

Apparatus:

M.S beam with graduation, knife edge supports, dial gauge, magnetic base stands and

weights, Vernier Caliper.

Theory:

Moment area theorem is otherwise called Mohrs theorem. It has the following two

theorems:

I.

The change of slope between the two points on an elastic line is equal to the area of

M

diagram between these points

EI

II.

The tangential deviation of a point A from a tangent to the elastic curve at a point C

is equal to the static moment of area of the area of the

M

diagram between A and C

EI

a

P

a

P

B

b

M/EI

y2

Slope at point B

M

curve between C and B

EI

B C = Area of

= Area of

M

curve between C and B

EI

=

Displacement at B

M

curve between C and B

EI

Procedure:

i.

Measure the thickness (t), width (w), overhangs (a), distance of loading (b) and centre

span (l) of the beam.

ii.

Place the hanger at equal distance from the supports A and B and load them with equal

loads (P).

iii.

Measure the deflection by dial gauges at the overhang end (y2) and at the centre, C (y1).

iv.

Observation:

Thickness of the beam (t)

Centre span of the beam (L) =

Youngs Modulus (E)

S.

No.

Load,

P

kg

Deflection

at free end,

y2

mm

= 2.1105 N/mm2

Slope at B

Experimental

y2 b

Calculated

1

2

3

4

5

20

Deflection at C

Experimental,

y1

Calculated

Calculation:

wt 3

Moment of inertia, I =

12

Precautions:

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Check the accuracy and least count of dial gauges used for measuring deflections.

Results:

Comments:

21

22

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To study the behaviour of a three hinged arch experimentally for the horizontal and

vertical displacement of the roller end for a given system of loading and to compare the same

with the results obtained by analytical calculations.

Apparatus:

Three hinged arch apparatus, weights, scale, dial gauge, etc.

Theory:

A three hinged arch is a determinate structure with the axial thrust assisting in

maintaining the stability. The horizontal thrust H in the arch for a number of loads can be

obtained as follows

W2

W3

W1

W4

W1 L a1 W2 L a2 W3 L a3 W4 L a4

VA

L

W a W2a2 W3a3 W4a4

VB 1 1

L

HA HB 0

VA VB W1 W2 W3 W4

Take Moment about the hinge C

1 L

L

VB W3 a3

h 2

2

Procedure:

i. Use lubricating oil at the roller end of the arch so as to have a free movement of the roller

end.

ii. Balance the self-weight of the arch by placing load on hanger for horizontal thrust until the

equilibrium conditions is obtained. Under this condition, the roller end of the arch has a

tendency to move inside on tapping the table. Note down the load in kg.

iii. Place a few loads on the arch in any chosen positions. Balance these by placing additional

weights on the hanger for horizontal thrust. The additional weights on the thrust hanger give

the experimental value of the horizontal thrust.

Observation:

Span of the arch,

Central rise,

S.

No.

Load Applied

on Hanger

kg

W1

W2

W3

Distance from

Left hand

Support

cm

a1

a2

a3

Additional load

on thrust hanger

W4

W1

a1

W2

a2

W3

a3

W4

Calculation:

24

Calculated value

of H

Precautions:

i.

ii.

Measure the distance of loaded points from left hand support accurately. Perform the

experiment away from vibration and other disturbances.

Results:

i.

Find the horizontal thrust for a given set of load experimentally and theoretically.

Experimental value of horizontal thrust, H exp

Comments:

25

26

Name

Roll No.

Group No.

Date

Marks

Facultys Signature

Aim:

To study the behaviour redundant frame subjected to coplanar force experimentally and

to verify the horizontal and vertical displacements obtained from the experiment with the

analytical results.

Apparatus:

Three bar suspension system, weights, scale, dial gauge, etc.

Theory:

The diagram of the apparatus is shown in the figure below.

The horizontal (U) and the vertical (V) displacements of the point D is calculated as follows

U

N1a N 2b

W

N1a 2 N 2b 2

W

V 2

L3 N1 N 2 a b 2 N3 n1a 2 n2b 2

where,

N1

A1E1 1

L1 L12

N2

A2 E2 1

2

L2

L2

N2

A3 E3 1

2

L3

L3

L1

L2

L2

a

b

W

= Distance between A and B

= Applied load at D

T1

T2

L3V aU A1E1

L12

L3V bU A2 E2

T3

L22

L3V A3 E3

L23

where,

T1

T2

T3

The expression

AE

represents the axial stiffness of the structure. It denotes the force required to

L

produce unit deformation. This value can be calculated by finding the slope from load vs.

deflection graph plotted for each spring.

Procedure:

1. Isolate each spring, apply load and measure the deflection and tabulate it.

2. Draw a graph between load (y - axis) and deflection (x - axis) for each spring and find the

slope. The value of the slope corresponds to the stiffness of each spring.

3. Connect the lower end of the spring to make a redundant frame.

28

4. Apply load at increments and note down the horizontal and vertical displacements and the

reading in each spring.

5. Calculate the tension force in each spring, horizontal and vertical displacement of point D

and compare with the experimental results.

Observation:

Length of member AD

Length of member BD

Length of member CD

Distance a

Distance b

Youngs Modulus, E

Load, kg

Deflection in member, mm

AD

BD

CD

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Load, kg

Horizontal, U

Vertical, V

Deflection, mm

Spring AD

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Calculation:

29

Spring BD

Spring CD

Precaution:

i.

ii.

iii.

Measure the distances AD, BD, CD, a and b accurately.

Tap the dial gauges before taking a reading for vertical and horizontal displacements.

Results:

Experimental

Load,

kg

Deflection, mm

U

Analytical

Force, N

T1

T2

Deflection, mm

T3

1.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

Comments:

30

Force, N

T1

T2

T3

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