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-133

2015

................................................................................................................................................................. 5
........................................................................................................................... 7
1 .................... 8
1.1 .................................................................................................................................. 8
1.1.1 , ......................................................... 8

1.1.2 ,
.............................................................. 8

1.1.3 , ........................... 8
1.1.4 .......................................................................................................................... 8
1.2 ..................................................................................... 8
1.2.1 , 1 , 2 , 3 ................................................................ 9
1.2.2 , 1 , 2 , 3 ............................................................. 9
1.2.3 , 1 , 2 , 3 ................................. 9
1.2.4 , 1 , 2 , 3 ................. 9
2 ............... 10
2.1 .......................................................................................................... 10
2.2 ................................................................... 10
2.2.1 []1 []2 .............. 10
2.2.2 []1 []2 .............. 10
3 ............................................................... 11
3.1 , 2 ..................................... 11
3.2 , 1 , 2 ........................................................................ 11
3.3 , .................................................. 11
3.4 , ....................................................................................... 11
3.5 , ........................................................................................ 11
3.6 , 1 , 2 ............................................................................................. 12
3.7 , ..................................................... 12
3.8 , 1 , 2 ...................................................................... 12
3.9 .......................... 12
3.9.1 , 1 , 2 .................................................. 12
3.9.2 , 1 , 2 ............................................ 12
3.9.3 , 1 , 2 ............................................... 12
3.9.4 , 1 , 2 ....................................................... 12
3.10 , ........................................................................ 12
3.10.1 , 1 , 2 ................................................................................................ 13
3.10.2 , 1 , 2 ............................................................................................. 13
3.10.3 , 1 , 2 .................................................................................. 13

. .
.
.

000000 03 01

2
36
UTM
. -133

3.11 ......................................................................... 13
3.11.1 , []2 .......................................... 13
3.11.2 , []2 ......... 13
4 , .............................. 14
4.1 ................................................................................................................................... 14
4.1.1 ............................................................................................................ 14
4.1.2 ............................................................................................................ 14
4.2 ...................................................................................................................................... 15
4.3 ................................................................................................................ 16
4.4 ............................................................................................................. 16
5 ........................................................................................................................ 19
5.1 ............................................................................................................ 19
5.1.1 , (), , .................... 19
5.1.2 , (), , ................. 19
5.1.3 (),
.......................... 20
5.1.4 (),
...................... 20
5.1.5 ,
.............................................................. 21
5.1.6 ,
............................................................. 21
5.1.7 ,
............................................................................. 21
5.2 ............................................................................................................ 21
5.2.1 , (), , .................... 23
5.2.2 , (), , ................ 23
5.2.3 (),
.......................... 24
5.2.4 (),
...................... 24
5.2.5 ,
.............................................................. 24
5.2.6 ,

............................................................. 25
5.2.7 ,
............................................................................. 25
6 ........................................................................................................ 25
6.1 .................................................................................... 27
6.1.1 , , .......................... 27
6.1.2 , , ................................................... 27

6.1.3 ..................................................................................................... 27

6.1.4 , , ................................ 27
6.1.5 , .................................................................. 27

6.1.6 ,

.............................. 27

6.2 .................................................................................... 28

000000 03 01

6.2.1 , , .......................... 28
6.2.2 , , ................................................... 28

6.2.3 ..................................................................................................... 28

6.2.4 , , ................................ 28
6.2.5 , .................................................................. 28

6.2.6 ,

............................. 28

7 ................................................................................................................ 30
7.1 ................................................................................................................................................. 30
7.2 ........................................................................................................................... 30
7.3 ....................................................................................................... 30
8 .................................................................................................... 32
8.1 ........................................................................................................................................... 32
8.2 ( ) ........................................................................ 32
8.3 ........................................................................................................................... 32
9 ........................................... 33
9.1 ................................................... 33
9.2 . ........................................... 33
......................................................................................................................................................... 35
............................................................................................................ 36

000000 03 01


, .
( ).
:
,
(.1);

(.2);
:
;
;
;
.

.
( ),
, , ..
.
,
: -, , , . .
,
.
, , - , ,
-, -
, .
, - -, .
. , ,
, .
. , .

000000 03 01

1
2, 3
4
1

2, 3, 4

1, 2

-
-

2, 3

1, 2, 3

2, 3, 4

2, 3, 4

2, 3, 4

()





:
- ;
- ( );
- .



( )

000000 03 01

= 1,2
= 0,8
= 200
= 7

. 1

1
2
3
4
5
6

000000 03 01

1

1.1
1.1.1 ,

=
= 1,2 [] ;
= 0,8 [] ;
= 1,2 0,8 = 0,96 []

1.1.2 ,

2.1 . 11

... ;

=

= 0,96 ... ;
= 0,96 ... ;
= 0,99 ... ;
= 0,98 ... ;
= 3 ( );
2.1 . 12

=
= 0,96 0,96 0,993 0,98 = 0,88

0,96

= =
= 1,091 []

0,88

1.1.3 ,
=

60103

60103 0,8
3,14200

= 76,43 []

1.1.4
. :
3000 , 1500 , 1000 , 750 . 750
, 3000
- ,
1000 1500 , 3, .162.
1,091 , , ,
. 1,1
.
3



48063
48043
1000
1500
1 = 920
2 = 1420
1

920
2 1420
1
2
=
=
= 12,03 =
=
= 18,58

76,43

76,43
1 = 12 23 = 12,03
1 = 12 23 = 18,58
= 23 = 3,15
1
12,03
2 18,58
112 =
=
= 3,82
212 =
=
= 5,89
23
3,15
23
3,15
,
2 4, ,
3,82 .

000000 03 01

= 1,1

48063

= 920

1.2
1.2.1 , 1 , 2 , 3
1 = = 920 []

920

2 = 1 = 3,82 = 240,83 []
12

240,83
3.15

3 = 2 =
23

= 76,45 []

1.2.2 , 1 , 2 , 3
1 =

1
30

3,14920
30

2 =

2
30

3,14240,83
30

3 =

3
30

3,1476,45
30

= 96,29 []
= 25,2 []

= 8 []

1.2.3 , 1 , 2 , 3
3 =

0,96

= 0,980,99 = 0,989 []

2 =

1 = 2

0,989
0,960,99

= 1,041 []

= 0,960,99 = 1,095 []

1.2.4 , 1 , 2 , 3
1 =

1 103
1

1,095103
96,29

= 11,37 [ ]

2 =

2 103
2

1,041103
25,2

= 41,31 [ ]

3 =

3 103
3

0,989103
8

= 123,68 [ ]
5

,
240,83
76,45

,
1,041
0,989

,
25,2
8

,
41,31
123,68

= 3,15

000000 03 01

2

2.1
.
.
: (), , . : 350
> 350 . . ,
.
1 = 2 + 25 50
3.3 . 19.
.40 , .
2 = 192
1 = 192 + 35 = 227

2.2
2.2.1 []1 []2
[]1 = 1,8 1 + 67 = 1,8 227 + 67 = 475,6 [2 ]

[]2 = 1,8 2 + 67 = 1,8 192 + 67 = 412,6 [2 ]

2.2.2 []1 []2


[]1 = 1,03 1 = 1,03 227 = 233,81 [2 ]

[]2 = 1,03 2 = 1,03 192 = 197,76 [2 ]


, 25%
[]1 = 0,75 233,81 = 175,36 [2 ]
[]2 = 0,75 192 = 148,32 [2 ]

000000 03 01

10

3
: 2 , , 1 . . ,
( ),
.

3.1 , 2
4.17 .32
3

2 = 165

3 3,15 123,68 103


2 103

=
165

1 = 217,44 []

1 412,62
[]22

= 3,15 ;
2 = 123,68 [ ] ;
[]2 = 412,6 [2 ] ;
= 1,0 ,
350;
= 1,0 ;
2 = 220 []

3.2 , 1 , 2
2 = arctg( ) = arctg(3,15) = 72,39
1 = 90 2 = 90 72,39 = 17,61

3.3 ,
4.20 .32
2
=

2sin(2 )

220
2 sin(72,39)

= 115,41 []

3.4 ,

4.21 .33
=
= 0,285
;
= = 0,285 115,41 = 32,89 []
S1 . 151. = 32 []

3.5 ,

4.22 .33
14 2 103
14 123,68 103
=
=
1 = 1,95 []
2 []2
0,85 220 32 148,32
= 1,0 ;
2 = 123,68 [ ] ;
= 0,85 ;
[]2 = 148,32 [2 ] ;
2 = 220 [] ;
= 32 [] ;
4.1 .23 = 2 []

000000 03 01

11

3.6 , 1 , 2
2 =
1 =

2
220
= 2 = 110

2
110
= 3,15 = 34,92

1 = 35 2 = 110

3.7 ,

110
=
35
| |

= 2 =
1

3,14

100% =

|3,143,15|

3,15

100% 0,32% 4%

3.8 , 1 , 2
2 = ( ) = (3,14) = 72,33
1 = 90 2 = 90 72,33 = 17,67

3.9
4.9 .34 4.29 4.30 .35

dfe1

dae1
de1

Re

dfe2
de2
dae2
.2

3.9.1 , 1 , 2
1 = 1 = 2 35 = 70 []
2 = 2 = 2 110 = 220 []

3.9.2 , 1 , 2

1 = 1 + 2 cos(1 ) = 70 + 2 2 cos(17,67) = 73,811 []


2 = 2 + 2 cos(2 ) = 220 + 2 2 cos(72,33) = 211,214 []

3.9.3 , 1 , 2
1 = 1 2,4 cos(1 ) = 70 2,4 2 cos(17,67) = 65,426 []
2 = 2 2,4 cos(2 ) = 220 2,4 2 cos(72,33) = 218,543 []

3.9.4 , 1 , 2
1 = 0,857 1 = 0,857 70 = 59,99 []
2 = 0,857 2 = 0,857 220 = 188,54 []

000000 03 01

12

3.10 ,
3.10.1 , 1 , 2
1 = 2 =

22 103
2

2123,68103
188,5

= 1312 []

3.10.2 , 1 , 2

1 = 0,36 1 cos(1 ) = 0,36 1312,3 cos(17,67) = 450 []


2 = 1 = 143 []

3.10.3 , 1 , 2

1 = 0,36 1 sin(1 ) = 0,36 1312,3 sin(17,33) = 143 []


2 = 1 = 450 []

3.11
3.11.1 , []2 4.31
. 36
2 +1

2 = 470

[]2 = 470

13123,14 2 +1

122032

1 1 1,1 =

= 386 [2 ] < 412,6[2 ]

= 1 ;
= 1 ;
, ;
2 =

2 2
2103

8220

= 2103 = 0,88 [2 ]

4.4 .28 = 1,05


2 = 1312,3 [] ;
= 1 ;
2 = 220 [] ;
= 32 [] ;

3.11.2 , []
4.32, 4.33 .37
2 = 2

1 = 2

[]2

[]1

= 2 ;
= 32 [] ;
= 1 ;
= 1 ;
= 1,28 ,
; 2 = 0,88 [2 ] , 4.4 .28 =
1,13
1 , 2 , c ,
4.7 .30 1 , 2
1
35
2
110
1 = cos(
= cos(17,67) = 36,73
2 = cos(
= cos(72,33) = 362,4
)
)

1 = 3,70 , 2 = 3,63

1312

2 = 3,63 1322 1 1 1,13 = 84,1 [2 ] < 148,32[2 ]


1

1 = 2

3,7

= 84,1 3,63 = 85,7 [2 ]

000000 03 01

13

4 ,

,
( ).
. , Mt
.

4.1
4.1.1
,
.

.3

6.1 .55

103

1 1
0,2[]

1 = 41,31 [ ] ;
[] = 12 20 [2 ] ;
[] = 14 [2 ]
1 , ;
3

103

1
1 0,2[]
=

41,31103
0,214

= 24,52 []


S10 . 159
1 = 25 []
2 = 1 + 2 = 25 + 2 2,0 = 29 []
= 2 9.5 .100;
2 - ;
S23 . 169
2 = 30 []
= 2 + 2 = 30 + 2 2,5 = 35 []
= 2,5 9.5 .100;
- , S7 . 156
= 36 M361,5
3 = + 2 = 36 + 2 2,5 = 41[]

3 , ;

S10 . 159 3 = 40 []

000000 03 01

14

4 = 3 + 2 = 35 + 2 2,5 = 45 []
4 , ;

4.1.2

.3


1
6.1 .55
3

103

1 0,2[]

2 = 123,68 [ ] ;
[] = 12 20 [2 ] ;
[] = 19 [2 ]

1 , ;
3

103

1 0,2[] =

123,68103
0,219

= 31,928 []


1 = 32 []

+
2
= 32 + 2 2,5 = 37 []
2
1

2 []- ;
= 2,5 9.5 .100;
S23 . 169

2 = 38 []

+
2
= 38 + 2 2,5 = 43 []
3
2

, ;
3

S10 . 159
3 = 45 []

+
2
=
45
+
2

2,5
= 50[]
4
3

4 , ;

5 , ,

5 = 60 []

4.2
S6 . 155,
.
3

7208
7209

40
45

80
85

20
21

18
19

16
16

1,5
1,5

0
58,3
40
62,7
50

0,38
0,41

000000 03 01

1,56
1,45

15

.4 - 27365-87

4.3
S

b0

f=0,5me

S0

1..2mm

dae2

R1

lbut
1...3mm

f x45

d1

dbut

R1

.5
9.3 .91
, 120 .
2 = 211,2 > 120 [], :
1 =
4 = 50 []
1,551 = 1,55 50 = 77,5 []
= 78[]
1,3
4 = 1,3 50 = 65 []
2,5 + 2 = 2,5 2 + 2 = 7 []
0 1,2 = 1,2 2 = 2,4 []
0 = 0,6 = 0,6 32 = 19,2 []
= (0,3 0,4) = 0,344 32 = 11 []
1 []

000000 03 01

16

1 6 []
7
2 ;
;
1 ;
;
;
0 ;
0 ;
;
, 1 ;
;

4.4
c1

c2

x=(8..10)mm

d1a

Re

l1p

d1p

x
aa l1a

aa

l2a
La

.6
, . 58-65. , []
+

= 0,5 ( + 3 )
, , 3

40+80

= 0,5 (20 + 3 0,38) = 17,6 []


= 18 []
45+85

= 0,5 (21 + 3 0,41) = 19,38[]


= 20 []
.5 , :
C1 = C2 = cos(2 ) + 2 = 115,79 cos(72,33) + 2 10 = 55,14 []
C1 = C2 = 56 []

32
= 2 = 115,79 2 = 99,79[]
= 100 []
= (1,5 2) = 2 20 = 40 []
= 2 ( + ) = 2 (56 + 21) = 154 []

000000 03 01

17

, :
:
1 = sin(2 ) = 32 sin(72,33) = 30,49 []
1 = 30 []
2 = + 2 = 40 + 2 18 = 76 []
:

154
2 = 2 + cos(2 ) = 2 + 100 cos(72,33) 20 = 87,35 []
2 = 87[]
1 = 2 2 = 154 2 20 87 = 27 []

000000 03 01

18

5
, .

5.1

V
B

Fa

O
A

FT
Fr

V
A

O
B

. 7
:

1 = 1312 [];
1 = 450 [];
1 = 143 [];
1 = 60 [];
1 = 30 [];
2 = 76 [];

5.1.1 , (), ,

V
B

Fa

Fr

V
A

. 8
() = 0
=

1 + 1 1 1

1 11 1
2

() = 0
=

60
143 45030
2

76

1
2

=0

= 121,2 []

2 + 1 (1 + 2 ) 1

1 11 (1 +2 )
2

60
143 450(30+76)
2

76

1
2

=0

= 571,2 []

: = 0
+ 1 = 0
(571,2) + (121,2) 450 = 0

000000 03 01

19

5.1.2 , (), ,

O
A

FT
R

O
B

. 9
() = 0
=

1 1
2

2 + 1 1 = 0

131230
76

= 517,9 []

() = 0
2 + 1 (1 + 2 ) = 0
1 (1 + 2 ) 1312 (30 + 76)
=
=
= 1829,9 []
2
76
: = 0
1 + = 0
1312 1829,9 + 517,9 = 0
2

= + = 1829,92 + (571,2)2 = 1917 []


= + = 517,92 + (121,2)2 = 531,9 []

5.1.3 (),

.
I

Fa

MV(I)Z
Fr
()

x
= 1 +

1 21

={

=0

() = 143

60
2

= 4290 [ ]

= 1 = 30 () = 450 30 + 143

60
2

= 9210 [ ]

II

V
B

MV(II)
Z
x
, B
=0
() = 0[ ]
() = = {
= 2 = 76 () = 121,2 76 = 9210 [ ]

000000 03 01

20

5.1.4 (),

.
I

MO(I)Z
FT

=0
() = 0 [ ]
() = 2 = {
= 1 = 30 () = 1312 30 = 39360 [ ]
II

MO(II)
Z
x

V
B

, B
=0
() = 0 [ ]
() = = {
= 2 = 76 () = 517,9 76 = 39360 [ ]

5.1.5 ,

= +

1 = 42902 + 02 = 4290[ ]
2 = (9210)2 + (39360)2 = 40423 [ ]
3 = (9210)2 + (39360)2 = 40423 [ ]
4 = (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 [ ]

5.1.6 ,

= 1 = 41,31[ ] = 41310 [ ]

5.1.7 ,

, , . : = 0,752 + 2
1

= 0,75(41310)2 + (4290)2 = 36031 [ ]


2

= 0,75(41310)2 + (40423)2 = 53980 [ ]


3
= 0,75(41310)2 + (40423)2 = 53980 [ ]
4

= 0,75(41310)2 + 02 = 35776 [ ]

2
3

=
=
= 53980 [ ] = 53,98 [ ]
6.3 c. 76
3

103

0,1[]

[] = 40 [2 ]

000000 03 01

21

S2 . 161

= 53,98 [ ]

3 = 40 [] ,
3

40

53,98103
0,140

= 23,8

Fa

V
B

FT
Fr

V
A

l1p=30

l2p=76

O
B

M
Z
[]
4290
0

MZ

[]

-9210
0

MZ

-39360

[]

40423
4290

MT

[]

41310
0

53980

[]

36031

35776

. 10 ,

000000 03 01

22

5.2

V
C

O
C

V
D

Fa
FT

O
D

Fr
. 11

:
2 = 1312 [];
2 = 143 [];
2 = 450 [];
2 = 188,5 [];
1 = 27 [];
2 = 87 [];

5.2.1 , (), ,

V
C

V
D

Fa
Fr
. 12
() = 0
=

(1 + 2 ) 2 1 +

2 1 2 2
2

1 +2

() = 0
=

188,5
14327450
2

27+87

2
2

=0

= 338,17 []

(1 + 2 ) + 2 2 + 2

2 2 +2 2
2

1 +2

: = 0

188,5
14387+450
2

27+87

2
2

=0

= 481,17 []

+ 2 = 0

5.2.2 , (), ,

O
C

O
D

FT
.13

000000 03 01

23

() = 0
(1 + 2 ) 2 1 = 0

131227
= 2+1 = 27+87 = 310,7 []
1

() = 0
(1 + 2 ) 2 2 = 0

131287
2
2
= + = 27+87 = 1001,3 []
: = 0
2 + + = 0
1312 + 1001,3 + 310,7 = 0
2

= + = 1001,32 + 481,72 = 1111 []


= + = 310,72 + (338,17)2 = 459 []

5.2.3 (),

.
I

V
C

MV(I)Z
x
() = = {

=0
() = 0 [ ]
= 1 = 27 () = 481,17 27 = 12992 [ ]

II

V
D

MV(II)
Z
x
, -
()
=0
= 0[ ]
() = = {
()
= 2 = 87 = 338,17 87 = 29420 [ ]

5.2.4 (),

.
I

O
C

MO(I)Z
x

000000 03 01

24

=0
() = 0 [ ]
() = = {
= 1 = 27 () = 1001,3 27 = 27035 [ ]
II

O
D

MO(II)
Z
x
, -
=0
() = 0 [ ]
() = = {
()
= 2 = 87 = 310,7 87 = 27035 [ ]

5.2.5 ,

= +
1
2
3
4

= 02 + 02 = 0 [ ]
= 129922 + 27035 2 = 29994 [ ]
= (29420)2 + 27035 2 = 39955 [ ]
= (0)2 + (0)2 = 0 [ ]

5.2.6 ,

= 2 = 123,68[ ] = 123680 [ ]
2

= 2 = 0 [ ] = 0 [ ]

5.2.7 ,

, , . : = 0,752 + 2
1

= 0,75(123680)2 + 02 = 107110 [ ]
2

= 0,75(123680)2 + (29994)2 = 111223 [ ]


3

= 0,75(123680)2 + (39955)2 = 114320 [ ]


4

= 0,75(0)2 + 02 = 0 [ ]

3

=
= 114320 [ ] = 114,32[ ]
6.3 c. 76
3

103

0,1[]

[] = 40 2 , S2 . 161
3 = 45 ,

= 114,32[ ]-

000000 03 01

25

40

V
C

O
C

114,32103
0,145

= 30,57

V
D

Fa

l =27

FT

Fr

O
D

l =87
2a

1a

MZ
[]
12992
0

0
o

MZ
[]

-29420
27035
0

MZ

[]

29994

39955
0

MT

[]

123680
0

[]

107110

111223

114320
0

0
. 14 ,

000000 03 01

26

6
, 4 . :

6.1
:
1 = 450,1 []
1 = 143,4 []
= = 1917 []
= = 531,9 []
0 = 40 []
= 58,3 []
= = 0,38
= 7

6.1.1 , ,
= 0,83 = 0,83 0,38 1917 = 604,6 []
= 0,83 = 0,83 0,38 531,9 = 167,8 []

6.1.2 , ,
7.4 . 95
>
604,6 > 167,8
= = 604,6 []
= + 1 = 604,6 + 143,4 = 748 []

6.1.3

= 1 ;

604,6
11917

748
1531,9

= 0,3154 0,37

= 1,406 0,37

, = 0 = 1, ,
S6 . 155 = 0,4
0,3073 < 0,37 = 0 = 1
1,274 > 0,37 = 1,56 = 0,4

6.1.4 , ,

= ( + ) = (1 1 1917 + 0 604,6) 1 1,2 = 2300,4 []


= ( + ) = (0,4 1 531,9 + 1,56 748)1 1,2 = 1655,6 []
= 1,2 ;
= 1 ;

6.1.5 ,

=
= 365 = 365 0,7 = 255,5
= 24 = 24 0,33 = 7,92
= 0,7 ;

000000 03 01

27

= 0,33 ;
= 7 255,5 7,92 = 14165 []

6.1.6 ,

= 573 1 106

1 = 25,2 [] ;
= 3,33 ;
= 2300,4

3.33

573 25,2

14165
106

= 11351[] < 58300 []

6.2
:
2 = 143,4 []
2 = 450,1 []
= = 1111 []
= = 459 []
0 = 50 []
= 62,7 []
= = 0,41
= 7

6.2.1 , ,
= 0,83 = 0,83 0,41 1111 = 378,1 []
= 0,83 = 0,83 0,41 459 = 156,2 []

6.2.2 , ,
7.4 . 95
>
378,1 > 156,2
= = 378,1 []
= + 2 = 378,1 + 450,1 = 828,2[]

6.2.3

= 1 ;

378,1
11111

828,2
1459

= 0,3403 0,41

= 1,8043 0,37

, = 0 = 1, ,
S6 . 155 = 0,4
0,3403 < 0,38 = 0 = 1
1,8043 > 0,37 = 1,45 = 0,4

6.2.4 , ,

= ( + ) = (1 1 1111 + 0 378,1) 1 1,2 = 1333,2 []


= ( + ) = (0,4 1 459 + 1,45 828,2) 1 1,2 = 1661,4 []
= 1,2 ;
= 1 ;

6.2.5 ,
=
= 365 = 365 0,7 = 255,5
= 24 = 24 0,33 = 7,92

000000 03 01

28

= 0,7 ;
= 0,33 ; ;
= 7 255,5 7,92 = 14165 []

6.2.6 ,

= 573 2 106

1 = 8 [] ;
= 3,33 ;
= 1661

3.33

573 8

14165
106

= 5809 [] < 50000 []

000000 03 01

29

7
, S9
. , . ( ) , ,
.

7.1
S9 . 158 : 1 , 1 , 4
4

1
1
4

25
32
50

8
10
16

7
8
10

1
4
5
6

2
3,3
3,3
3,3

.15

7.2
(1 , 1 ) S10 .159

. 16
1 = 42 []
2 = 58 []
3 8.1 . 97
3 = (5 10)

= 65 []
3 = (5 10) = 65 7 = 58 []

7.3
=

[ ]

000000 03 01

30

= (0,94 1 )
=



1

= 1 1 = 42 8 = 34 []
2

= 2 2 = 58 10 = 48 []
3
= 3 3 = 58 16 = 42 []
1
1 = (0,94 1 11 )
= (0,94 7 4) 34 = 87,72 [2 ]
2
2 = (0,94 2 12 )
= (0,94 8 5) 48 = 120,96 [2 ]
3
3
3
= (0,94 3 1 ) = (0,94 10 6) 42 = 142,8 [2 ]

2
413102
1

= 1 = 1 =
= 3305 []
1
1
25
2
2 2
1236802
= = = 32 = 7730 []
2
1

2
1236802
3

= 2 = 2 = 50 = 4947 []
3
2
1

3305
1
= 1 =
= 37,67 [2 ]

87,72
2
7730
2

=
=
= 63,91 [2 ]
2
120,96
3
4947
3

=
=
= 34,64 [2 ]
3
142,8
2

[ ] = 120 [2 ] , .

000000 03 01

31

8
(, ). .
,
,
.

8.1
9.16 .125
= 0,88 , 2 = 386 [2 ]
---68

8.2 ( )
= 0,6 = 1,041 0,6 = 0,625 []
= 1,041 []-

8.3
0,252
2 0,25 220

= 0,252 = 0,25 210 = 55 []

= = 2 []

000000 03 01

32

9
9.1
K

. 17
= 1,12 2 6 [] 6 [];
= 1,12 4123,68 = 3,7 []
= 6 []
= 0,9 ;
= 0,9 6 = 5,4 []
= 1,5 ;
= 1,5 6 = 9 []
= 1,3 ;
= 1,3 6 = 7,8 []
= 2 ;
= 2 6 = 12 []
= 0,6 ;
= 0,6 6 = 3,6 []
= 1,25 32 10 [] 10 [];
= 1,25 3123,68 = 6,22 = 10 []
= 1,25 ;
= 1,25 10 = 12,5 []
= 2,7 ;
= 2,7 10 = 27 []
4

9.2 .
= 6 []
= 8 []
= 6

000000 03 01

33

. 18
:
= + 4,2 = 80 + 4,2 8 = 113,6 []
= 114 []
1 = 1,2 = 1,2 6 = 7,2 []

;
1 ;
:
= + 4,2 = 80 + 4,2 8 = 113,6 []
= 114 []
= 2 + 1 = 2 + 10 = 12 []
1 = 1,2 = 1,2 6 = 7,2 []

;
1 ;
= 58[] , S23 .169;
;
1 = 10 , S23 .169;
:
= + 2 + 4,2 = 80 + 2 8 + 4,2 8 = 129,6 []
= 130 []
= 2 + 1 = 2 + 10 = 12 []
1 = 1,2 = 1,2 6 = 7,2 []

;
1 ;
= 8 ,
9.9 .103;
= 58[] , S23 .169;
;
1 = 10 , S23 .16

000000 03 01

34


, ,
.
, 90.

.

. , ,
, , .
, , ,
, .
, , ,
, , , ..
1, .
. ,
, .
.

000000 03 01

35


1 V. Dulgheru,R. Ciuperc, I. Bodnariuc, I. Dicusar; ref.t. : I. Bostan. Mecan-ica aplicat: ndrumar de
proiectare ; Univ. Teh.a Moldovei.

000000 03 01

36