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You are on page 1of 105

By

J.L. Koszul

Notes by

S. Ramanan

form by print, microfilm or any other means

without written permission from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Apollo Pier Road,

Bombay-1

Bombay

1960

Contents

1 Differential Calculus

1.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2 Derivation laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.3 Derivation laws in associated modules . . . .

1.4 The Lie derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.5 Lie derivation and exterior product . . . . . .

1.6 Exterior differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.7 Explicit formula for exterior differentiation .

1.8 Exterior differentiation and exterior product .

1.9 The curvature form . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.10 Relations between different derivation laws .

1.11 Derivation law in C . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.12 Connections in pseudo-Riemannian manifolds

1.13 Formulae in local coordinates . . . . . . . . .

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1

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16

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19

2 Differentiable Bundles

2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2 Homomorphisms of bundles . . . . . . . . . .

2.3 Trivial bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4 Induced bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.6 Associated bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.7 Vector fields on manifolds . . . . . . . . . . .

2.8 Vector fields on differentiable principal bundles

2.9 Projections vector fields . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21

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29

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31

iii

Contents

iv

3

3.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.2 Horizontal vector fields . . . .

3.3 Connection form . . . . . . .

3.4 Connection on Induced bundles

3.5 Maurer-Cartan equations . . .

3.6 Curvature forms . . . . . . . .

3.7 Examples . . . . . . . . . . .

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35

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39

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46

Holonomy Groups

4.1 Integral paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.2 Displacement along paths . . . . . . . . .

4.3 Holonomy group . . . . . . . . . . . . .

4.4 Holonomy groups at points of the bundle .

4.5 Holonomy groups for induced connections

4.6 Structure of holonomy groups . . . . . .

4.7 Reduction of the structure group . . . . .

4.8 Curvature and the holonomy group . . . .

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5.1

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5.2 Homomorphisms of vector bundles . . . . . . .

5.3 Induced vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.4 Locally free sheaves and vector bundles . . . .

5.5 Sheaf of invariant vector fields . . . . . . . . .

5.6 Connections and derivation laws . . . . . . . .

5.7 Parallelism in vector bundles . . . . . . . . . .

5.8 Differential forms with values in vector bundles

5.9 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5.10 Linear connections and geodesics . . . . . . .

5.11 Geodesic vector field in local coordinates . . .

5.12 Geodesic paths and geodesic vector field . . . .

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Holomorphic Connections

81

6.1 Complex vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6.2 Almost complex manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Contents

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.7

6.8

v

Derivation law in the complex case . . . . . .

Connections and almost complex structures .

Connections in holomorphic bundles . . . . .

Atiyah obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Line bundles over compact Kahler manifolds

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83

85

88

91

93

Chapter 1

Differential Calculus

1.1

Let k be a commutative ring with unit and A a commutative and asso- 1

ciative algebra over k having 1 as its element. In Applications, k will

usually be the real number field and A the algebra of differentiable functions on a manifold.

Definition 1. A derivation X is a map X : A A such that

i) X Homk (A, A), and

ii) X(ab) = (Xa)b + a(Xb) for every a, b A.

If no non-zero element in k annihilates A, k can be identified with a

subalgebra of A and with this identification we have X x = 0 for every

x k. In fact, we have only to take a = b = 1 in (ii) to get X1 = 0 and

consequently X x = xX(1) = 0.

We shall denote the set of derivations by C. Then C is obviously an

A-module with the following operations:

(X + Y)(a) = Xa + Ya

(aX)(b) = a(Xb) for a, b A and X, Y C.

We have actually something more: If X, Y, C, then [X, Y] C.

1

1. Differential Calculus

[X1 + X2 , Y] = [X1 , Y] + [X2 , Y]

2

[X, Y] = [Y, X]

X, [Y, Z] + Y, [Z, X] + Z, [X, Y] = 0,

have

[X, aY](b) = {X(aY) (aY)(X)} (b)

so that [X, aY] = (Xa)Y + a[X, Y] for X, Y C, a A. The skew commutativity of the bracket gives

[aX, Y] = (Ya)X + a[X, Y].

When A is the algebra of differentiable functions on a manifold, C

is the space of differentiable vector fields.

Definition 2. A derivation law in a unitary A-module M is a map D :

C Homk (M, M) such that, if DX denotes the image of X C under

this map, we have

i) DX+Y = DX + DY

DaX = aDX for a A, X, Y C.

i.e.,

3

In practice, M will be the module of differentiable sections of a vector bundle over a manifold V. A derivation law enables one thus to

differentiate sections of the bundle in specified directions.

derivation law in A. This will hereafter be referred to as the canonical

derivation in A. Moreover,

if V is any module over k, we may define

N

V, a derivation law by setting DX (a v) = Xa

on the A-module A

k

v and extendingN

by linearity. This shall also be termed the canonical

V.

derivation in A

k

There exist modules which do not admit any derivation law. For

instance, let A be the algebra k[t] of polynomial in one variable t over k;

then C is easily seen to be the free A-module generated by P = /t . Let

M be the A-module A/N where N is the ideal of polynomials without

constant term. If there were a derivation law is this module, denoting by

e the identity coset of A/N , we have

0 = D p (te) = (P.t)e + t.D p e = e,

which is a contradiction.

However, the situation becomes better if we confine overselves to

free A-modules.

Theorem 1. Let M be a free A-module, (ei )iI being a basis. Given any 4

system (i )iI of elements in HomA (C, M), there exists one and only one

derivation law D in M such that DX ei = i (X) for every i I.

Let u be an arbitrary element of M. Then u can be expressed in the

P

term u = i ei . If the conditions of the theorem have to be satisfied,

P

P

we have to define DX u = (Xi )ei + i i (X). It is easy to verify that

this is a derivation law.

We shall now see that the knowledge of one derivation law is enough

to compute all the possible derivation laws. In fact, if D, D are two

such laws, then (DX DX )(au) = a(DX DX )(u). Since D, D

HomA (C, Homk (M, M)), it follows that D D HomA (C, HomA

(M, M)). Conversely, if D is a derivation law and h any element of

HomA (C, HomA (M, M)), then D = D + h is a derivation law as can be

easily verified.

1. Differential Calculus

Given module Mi with derivation laws Di , we proceed to assign in a

canonical way derivation laws to module which are obtained from the

Mi by the usual operations.

Firstly, if M is the direct sum of the modules Mi, then DX (m) =

P i

DX (mi ) where m = mi , gives a derivation law inN

M. N

k

k

P

ting DX (u1 , u p ) = u1 DiX ui u p . Now, it is easy to see

that this leaves invariant the ideal generated by elements of the form

u1 aui u p u1 au j u p with a A.

N N

M p into

This therefore induces a k-linear map DX of M1

A

itself, where

DX (u1 u p ) =

where u1 u p M1

N

A

u1 DiX ui u p

M p.

We will be particularly interested in the case when M1 = M2 = =

M p = M. In this case, we denote M1 M p by T p (M). Since we

have such a law in each T p (M) (for T 0 (M) = A, we take the canonical

derivation law) we may define a derivation law in the tensor algebra

T (M) of M. If t, t are two tensors, we still have

DX (t t ) = DX t t + t DX t .

Now let N be the ideal generated in T (M) by elements of the form

u v v u with u, v M. It follows from the above equality that

DX N N. Consequently D induces a derivation law in T (M)/N, which

is the symmetric algebra over M. Again, if N is the ideal in T (M)

whose generators are of the form u u, u M, then it is immediate

that DX N N . Thus we obtain a derivation law in exterior algebra

T (M)/N of M.

Let M, L be two A-modules with derivation laws D M , DL respectively. We define a derivation law D in HomA (L, M) by setting (DX h) =

DXM h hDLX for every h HomA (L, M) and X C.

In fact

In particular, if L = M with DL = D M , then we have

h

i

DX h = DLX , h for every h HomA (L, L).

M = A with the canonical derivation law. The corresponding law is

(DX f )(u) = X( f (u)) f (DLX (u)) for every f L and u L.

Now let L, M be modules with derivation laws DL , D M respectively.

We may then define a derivation law in the A-module F p (M, L) of multilinear forms on M of degree p with values in L in the following way:

(DX )(u1 , . . . , u p ) =

DLX (u1 , . . . , u p )

p

X

(u1 , . . . , DXM ur , . . . u p ).

r=1

forms , then it is easy to see that D U p (M, L) U p (M, L). This leads

to a derivation law in the A-modules F p (M, A), U p (M, A), if we take 7

L = A with the canonical derivation law.

Let M1 , M2 , M3 be three modules with a bilinear product M1 M2

M3 , denoted (u, v) uv. If D1 , D2 , D3 are the respective derivation

laws, we say that the product is compatible with the derivation laws if

D3X (uv) = (D1X u)v + u(D2X v) for X C, u M1 and v M2 .

This was the case the we took M1 = M2 = M3 = A with the canonical derivation law and the algebra-product. Again, we seen that the

1. Differential Calculus

above condition is satisfied by M1 = M2 = M3 = T (M) with the associated derivation laws and the usual multiplication. Moreover, it will be

noted that if M is an A-module with derivation law D, the condition

DX (au) = (Xa)u + aDX u for every a A, u M

expresses the fact that the map A M M defining the module structure is compatible with the derivation laws in A and M. If we denote

p

p

q

U p (L, Mi ) by Ui (i = 1, 2, 3), we may define for U1 U2 ,

by setting

X

( )(a1 , . . . , a p+q ) =

(a(1) , . . . , a(p) )(a(p+1) , . . . , a(p+q) )

such that (1) < (2) < < (p) and (p + 1) < (p + 2) < <

(p + q) and is its signature. If the derivation laws are compatible

with the product, we have

D3X ( ) = (D1X ) + (D2X ) for every X C.

8

C the module of derivations of U (viz. differentiable vector fields on V.

Any one-parameter group of differentiable automorphisms on V generates a differentiable vector field on V. Conversely, every differentiable

vector field X gives rise to a local one-parameter group s(t) of local automorphisms of V. If is a p-co variant tensor, i.e., if F p (C , U ),

then we may define differentiation of with respect to X as follows:

X = lim

to

s (t)

,

t

where s (t) stands for the k-transpose of the differential map lifted to

F p (C , U ). This is known as the Lie derivative of with respect to X

and can be calculated to be

X (u1 , . . . , u p ) = X(u1 , . . . , u p )

p

X

i=1

(u1 , . . . [X, ui ], . . . u p ).

V, the Lie derivative X , unlike the derivation law, does not depend

only on the value of the vector field x at .

Lemma 1. Let D be a derivation law in the A-module M and a

multilinear form on C of degree p with values in M. Then the map

: C P M defined by

(Z1 , . . . , Z p ) = DX (Z1 , . . . , Z p )

p

X

(Z1 , . . . [X, Zi ], . . . , Z p )

i=1

is multilinear.

and

(Z1 , . . . aZi , . . . Z p ) = (Xa)(Z1 , . . . Z p ) + a(DX (Z1 , . . . Z p ))

p

X

j=1

Definition 3. The map X X of C into Homk (F p (C, M)F p (C, M))

Pp

defined by (X )(Z1 , . . . , Z p ) = DX (Z1 , . . . Z p ) i=1 (Z1 , . . . [X, Zi ]

Z p ) is called the Lie derivation in the A-module F p (C, M) and X

is defined to be the Lie derivative of with respect to X.

The Lie derivation satisfies the following

X ( + ) = X + X

X (a) = (Xa) + a(X )

X+Y () = X + Y

X () = (X ()

for every X, Y C, F p (C, M) and k.

Thus looks very much like a derivation law, but aX , aX in gen- 10

eral. From the definition, it follows that if is alternate (resp. symmetric), so is X .

1. Differential Calculus

As in ch.1.3, let M1 , M2 , M3 be A-module with derivations D1 , D2 , D3

respectively. Let there be given a bilinear product M1 M2 M3 with

reference to which an exterior product (, ) of U p (C, M1 )

U q (C, M2 ) U p+q (C, M3 ) is defined. If the product is compatible

with the derivation laws, we have, on direct verification,

X ( ) = X + X

We shall introduce an inner product in the A-module F p (C, M). For

every X C, the inner product is the homomorphism lX of F p (C, M)

into F p1 (C, M) defined by

(lX )(Z, . . . Z p1 ) = (X, Z1 , . . . , Z p1 )

for every F p (C, M), Z1 , . . . Z p1 C. If is alternate it is obvious

that l x is also alternate. When is of degree 0, lX = 0. The inner

product satisfies the following

1. laX = alX

lX+Y = lX + lY , for a A, X, Y C.

2. If X is the Lie derivation,

11

X lY lY X = l[X,Y] for X, Y, C.

3. If is alternate, lX lX = 0.

4. Let M1 , M2 , M3 be three A-modules with a bilinear product compatible with their laws D1 , D2 , D3 . Then we have, for U p

(C, M1 ), U q (C, M2 )

lX ( ) = (lX ) + (1) p lX .

lX ( )(Z1 , . . . , Z p+q1 ) = ( )(X, Z1 , . . . , Z p+q1 )

X

=

(X, Z(1) , . . . , z(p1) )(Z(p) , . . . Z(p+q1) )

(1) < < (p 1) and (p) < < (p + q 1), while runs

through those which satisfy (1) < < (p) and (p+ 1) < <

(p + q 1). The first sum is equal to (lX ) and the second to

(1) p (lX ).

Theorem 2. Let D be a derivation law in an A-module M. Then there

exists one and only one family of k-linear maps d : U p (C, M)

U p+1 (C, M)(p = 0, 1, 2, . . .) such that (X) = dlX + lX d for every X C.

We call this map the exterior differentiation in the module of alternate forms on C.

First of all, assuming that there exists such a map d, we shall prove 12

that it is unique. If d is another such map, we have

(d d )lX + lX (d d ) = 0

Hence lX (d d ) = (d d)lX for every U p (C, M). We shall

prove that d = d for every U p (C, M) by induction on p. When

is of degree 0, we have (d d)l x = 0 = lX (d d ). This being

true for every X C, d = d . If the theorem were for p = q 1, then

(d d)lX = 0 = lX (d d ). Again, since X is arbitrary, d = d

which proves the uniqueness of the exterior differentiation.

The existence is also proved by induction. Let U o (C, M) = M.

Then we wish to define do such that lX d = (d)(X) = X (since

lX = 0) = DX . Hence we can set (d()(X) = DX for every X C.

This is obviously A-linear since DX is A-linear in X. Let us suppose that

d has been defined on U p (C, M) for p = 0, 1, . . . (q 1) such that the

formula is true. We shall define d for U p (C, M) by setting

(d(Z1 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = (Z1 )(Z2 , . . . Zq+1 ) (dlZ1 )(Z2 , . . . Zq+1 )

1. Differential Calculus

10

form. That it is linear in Z2 , . . . Zq+1 follows from the induction assumption and the multilinearity of Z1 . We shall now prove that it is alternate. That means:

(d)(Z1 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = 0 whenever Zi = Z j with i , j.

13

to prove that

(Z1 )(Z2 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = (dlZ1 )(Z2 , . . . , Zq+1 ) when Z1 = Z2

Now

= (Z2 lZ2 )(Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 ) by (2) o f Ch.1.6

= (dlZ2 lZ2 + lZ2 dlZ2 ) (Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 )

= (dlZ2 )(Z2 , Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 ).

variables and additivity in Z1 . This completes the proof of the theorem.

Remark. If we take A to be the algebra of differentiable functions on a

manifold V, and M to be A itself then the exterior differentiation defined

above coincides with the usual exterior differentiation.

Lemma 2. The exterior differentiation defined above is given by

p+1

X

(d)(Z1 , . . . , Z p+1 ) =

(1)i+1 DZi (Z1 , . . . Zi , . . . Z p+1 )

i=1

X

+

(1)i+ j ([Zi , Z j ], Z1 , . . . Z i , . . . Z j , . . . Z p+1 )

i< j

14

where the symbol over a letter indicates that the corresponding elements is omitted.

11

(lZ1 d + dlZ1 ) = Z1 for every Z1 C.

By the uniqueness of exterior differentiation , we see that the above

gives the formula for the exterior differentiation.

We shall use this explicit formula only when the degree of 2.

Then we have the formula:

1. (d)(X) = DX for U 0 (C, M), X C.

2. (d)(X, Y) = DX (Y) DY (X) ([X, Y]) for U 1 (C, M),

X, Y C.

P

3. (d)(X, Y, Z) = {DX (Y, Z) ([X, Y], Z)} for U 2 (C, M),

X, Y, Z C

where the summation extends over all cyclic permutations of (X, Y, Z).

We now investigate the behaviours of d with regard to the exterior product. Let M1 , M2 , M3 be three modules with derivation laws D1 , D2 , D3

and let M1 M2 M3 be a linear product compatible with the derivation laws. Then we have, for U p (C, M1 ), U q (C, M2 )

d( ) = d + (1) p d.

Again, we prove this by induction, but this on p+q. When p+q = 0,

the above formula just expresses the compatibility of the product with 15

the derivation laws. Let us assume the theorem proved for p + q = r 1.

We have

d( )(Z1 , . . . , Z p+q+1 ) = (lZ1 d( ))(Z2 , . . . , Z p+q+1 )

But,

lZ1 d( ) = Z1 ( ) d(lZ1 ( ))

1. Differential Calculus

12

= Z1 + Z1 dlZ1 () p1 lZ1

by induction assumption

(1) p1 lZ1 d

= lZ1 ((d ) + (1) p ( d)),

16

A M M defining the module structure, then, by the above formula,

we obtain

d(a) = (da) + a d

for a U (C, A) = A

= da + a.d

Thus the exterior differentiation is not A-linear.

It is well-know that the exterior differentiation in the algebra of differential forms on a manifold satisfies dd = 0. Let us compute in our general

case value of dd for U 0 (C, M) = M. Then one has

dd(X, Y) = DX (d)(Y) DY (d)(X) (d)([X, Y])

= DX DY DY DX D[X,Y]

K(X, Y) is a k-endomorphism of M. But, it actually follows on trivial

verification that it is an A- endomorphism. On the other hand, we have

i) K(X, Y) = K(Y, X)

13

iii) K(aX, Y) = aK(X, Y) for every M.

i) and ii) are trivial and we shall verify only iii).

K(aX, Y) = DaX DY DY DaX D[aX,Y]

= aK(X, Y).

over C with values in the module HomA (M, M).

Definition 4. The element K of U 2 (C, HomA (M, M)) as defined above

i.e.,

K(X, Y) = DX DY DY DX [X,Y]

is called the curvature form of the derivation law D.

Examples. 1) Take the simplest case when M = A, with the canonical

derivation law. Then

K(X, Y)u = XYu Y Xu [X, Y]u = 0

i.e., the curvature form is identically zero.

2) However, there are examples in which the curvature form is nonzero.

Let A = k[x, y] with x, y transcendental

! over k. It! is easy to see that

,Q =

as base.

C is the free module over A with P =

x

y

We take M to be A itself but with a derivation law different from the

canonical one. By Th.1, Ch. 1.2, if we choose 1 M and take

HomA (C, A), then there exists a derivation law D such that DX 1 = (X).

We shall define by requiring that (P) = y and (Q) = 1. Then it

follows that DP (1) = y, DQ (1) = 1.

K(P, Q)(1) = DP DQ (1) DQ DP (1) D[P,Q](1)

1. Differential Calculus

14

= 1.

18

We now prove two lemmas which give the relation between Lie

derivatives in two directions and the relation of Lie derivative to the

exterior differentiation in terms of the curvature form.

Lemma 3. X Y Y X = [X,Y] + K(X, Y)() for every U

(C, M).

the curvature form. In the general case, this follows on straight forward

verification.

Lemma 4. X d dX = (lX K) for every U p (C, M).

It will be noted that K U 2 (C, HomA (M, M)) and hence lX K has

values in HomA (M, M). Taking M1 = HomA (M, M), M2 = M, M3 = M

in our standard notation, one has a bilinear product M1 M2 M3

defined by (h, u) . The symbol used in the enunciation of the lemma

is with reference to this bilinear product.

Proof. As usual, we prove this by induction on p, the degree of . When

is of degree 0, the formula reduces to

i.e.,

19

DX (d(u)) d( X, u ) (dDX )(u) = (lX K )(u) for u C.

DX Du D[X,u] Du DX = (lX K ()(u)

which is but the definition of K. Assuming the truth of the lemma for

forms of degree < p, we have

lY X d lY dX lY ((lX K) )

= X lY d l[X,Y] d + dlY X Y X

(lY lX K) + (lX K) (lY )

= X dlY + dX lY + X Y Y X

15

[X,Y] (lY lX K) + (lX K) (lY )

= 0 by induction assumption.

Remark. The maps X , lX , d are of degrees 0, 1, 1 respectively conP

sidered as homomorphisms of the graded module U (C, M) = U p

p

(C, M). If is a map U (C, M) U (C, M) of degree p, and another of degree q, we define the commutator [, ] = (1) pq .

We have, in this notation, the following formulae :

i) [X , lY ] = l[X,Y]

by (2) of Ch.1.6

ii) [d, lX ] = X

by Th. 2, Ch. 1.6

for derivation laws of zero curvature

iii) [X , Y ] = [X,Y]

iv) [X , d] = 0

by lemma 3 and 4, Ch.1.9

v) [lX , lY ] = 0

by (3) of Ch.1.6

case M = A by replacing X by an alternate form on C with values

in C. This generalisation has applications in the study of variations of

complex structures on a manifold.

A general formula for d2 is given by

Lemma 5. In our usual notation, d2 = K .

The meaning of has to be interpreted as in Lemma 4, Ch.1.9 . The

proof is again by induction on the degree of . If is of degree 0, M

and we have to show that dd(X, Y) = K(X, Y).Assuming the lemma

verified for forms of degree < p, we get

lX dd = X d dlX d

= (lX K) + K lX by induction assumption

= lX (K ).

1. Differential Calculus

16

Lemma 6.

dK = 0

X

dK(X, Y, Z) =

{(DX K)(Y, Z) K([X, Y], z)} by (3) of Ch. 1.7

X

=

{DX K(Y, Z) K(Y, Z)DX K([X, Y], Z)}

X

DX DY DZ DX DZ DY DX D[Y,Z] DY DZ DX +

=

=0

21

using Jacobis identity where the summations extend over cyclic permutations of X, Y, Z.

We shall now investigate the relations between the exterior differentiations, curvature forms etc. corresponding to two derivation laws in

the same module M. It has already been shown (Ch.1.2) that if D, D

are two such derivation laws, then there exists h HomA (M, M)) such

that DX = DX + hX . We denote the exterior differential operator, curvature form etc. Corresponding to D by d , K etc. Then d is given

by d = d + h . ( Here also, the Lambda-sign has to be interpreted as in lemma 4, Ch. 1.9 ). In fact, by definition, it follows that

X = X + hX . Hence

dlX + h lX + lX d + lX (h ) = X .

22

assertion follows.

With regard to the curvature form, we have the following formula:

K = K + h h + dh.

For

K (X, Y) = (DX + hX )(DY + hY ) (DY + hY )(DX + hY ) D[X,Y] h[X,Y]

17

= K(X, Y) + hX hY hY hX + dh(X, Y)

h(Y)h(X) is [ h, h ]. In that notation, we have

K = K + [h, h] + dh.

When A is the algebra of differentiable functions on a manifold V, any

derivation law in the A-module C of differentiable vector fields on V is

called a linear connection on the manifold.

Let A be an algebra over k, D a derivation law in the A- module C of

derivations of A. Let : C C be the identity mapping. Then exterior

defferential of is given by

(d)(X, Y) = DX (Y) DY (x) ([X, Y])

= DX Y DY X [X, Y] for X, Y C.

derivation law in C.

Regarding the action of d on T , we have the Bianchis identity

P

(dT )(X, Y, Z) = K(X, Y)Z, where the summation extends over all

cyclic permutations of (X, .Y, Z).

This is immediate from Lemma 5, Ch. 1.9

Let D be a derivation law in C. Then we can define a derivation law

in the module of multilinear forms on C with values in an A- module M

with derivation law D. For F p (C, M), we define

(DX )(Z1 , . . . , Z p ) = DX (Z1 , . . . , Z p )

p

X

(Z1 , . . . , DX Zi , . . . , Z p ).

i=1

(DX )(Z1 , . . . , Z p+1 ) = DZ1 (Z1 , . . . , Z p )

p

X

i=2

1. Differential Calculus

18

Obviously D F p+1 (C, M). However, this operator D does not take

alternate forms into alternate forms. We therefore set, for U p (C, M)

p+1

X

d=

(1)i+1 (D)(Zi , Z1 , . . . , Z i , . . . , Z p+1 ).

i=1

24

p+1 (C,

M).

Theorem 3. If the torsion form is zero, then d and the exterior defferential coincide.

In fact, it is easy to verify that lX d + d lX = X and the theorem then

follows from Th.2, Ch.1.6

In particular, let K be the curvature form of the derivation law in

C; since dK = 0, we have d K = 0. It is easily seen that dK =

P

(DX K)(Y, Z). where the summation extends over cyclic permutations

of X, Y, Z. Hence we have the Second Bianchi Identity :

P

If the torsion of the derivation law in C is 0, then (DX K)(Y, Z) = 0

where the summation is over all cyclic permutations of X, Y, Z.

A differentiable manifold V together with a symmetric bilinear form is

said to be Riemannian if the form is positive definite at all points. If the

above form is only non-degenerate ( not necessarily positive definite )

at each point, the manifold is pseudo-Riemannian. Such a form defines

a natural isomorphism of the module of vector fields on V onto its dual.

Accordingly, in our algebraic set-up, we define a pseudo Riemannian form on C to be a symmetric bilinear form on C with values in A

such that the induced map C C is bijective.

Theorem 4. If g is a pseudo-Riemannian form on C then there exists

one and only one derivation law D on C such that

25

2) DX g = 0 for every X.

19

every Y, Z C.

In fact, by straight forward computation, it can be found that if there

exists one such derivation law D, it must satisfy the equation

2g(DX Y, Z) = Xg(Y, Z) Zg(Y, X) + Yg(Z, X)

Since the map C C induced from g is bijective, this equation determines D uniquely and conversely if we define D by this equation, it can

be easily verified that D is a derivative law in C and that it satisfies the

conditions of the theorem

Finally we translate some of our formulae in the case of a differentiable

manifold in terms of local coordinates. As far as local coordinates are

concerned, we may restrict ourselves to an open subset V of Rn . Let U

denote the algebra of differentiable functions on V and C the U -module

of vector fields on V. Let (x1 , x2 , . . .n ) be a system of coordinates. The

x

1) (Pi )i=1,2,...n is a base of C over U .

2) Pi x j = i j

3) [Pi , P j ] = 0 for any i, j.

26

Also (dx1 , . . . dxn ) form a base for C over U dual to (Pi ) i.e. (dxi )

(P j ) = i j . Since the U -module C is free over U , all the associated modules such as T p (C ), U p (C , U ) are all free over U . Thus

U p (C , U ) has a basis consisting of elements dx(1) dx(p) , S

where S where S is the set of all maps : [1, p] [1, n] such that

(1) < (2) < < (p). If M is an U -module, any alternate form

P

dx (1)dx (2)dx (p)

U p (C , M)) can be written in the form

S

1. Differential Calculus

20

product M A M defining the structure of U -module ).

Let M be a free U -module of finite rank with a derivation law D.

Let e ( = 1, 2, . . . m) be a base of M. We set

X

DPi e =

i e , i U

versely, given i U , we may define, for

u=

m

X

l , U .

=1

X

X

D Pi u =

(pi )e +

i e

27

derivation law. The above becomes in the classical notation

X

X

D Pi u =

i, e

e

+

i

x

,

From this we get if u M, then

X

du =

dxi (DPi u)

i

X

=

dx (1) dx (p) with M.

S

compute X , it is enough to compute Pi and Pi dx j . But Pi =

DPi which we have fond out earlier. On the other hand,

(Pi dx j (Pk ) = Pi ((dx j )(Pk )) dx j ([Pi , Pk ])

= 0.

Chapter 2

Differentiable Bundles

2.1

We give in this chapter, mostly without proofs, certain definitions and 28

results on fibre bundles which we require in the sequel.

Definition 1. A differentiable principal fibre bundle is a manifold P on

which a Lie group G acts differentiable to the right, together with a

differentiable map p of P onto a differentiable manifold X such that

P.B. for every x0 X, there exist an open neighbourhood U of x0

in X and a diffeomorphism of U G p1 (U) ( which is an open

submanifold of P) satisfying p(x, s) = x, (x, st) = (x, s)t for x U

and s, t G.

X shall be called the base , p the projection and P the bundle. For

any x X, p1 (x) shall be called the fibre over x and for P, the fibre

over p is the fibre through .

The following properties follow immediately from the definition:

a) Each fibre is stable under the action of G, and G acts with out fixed

points on P, i.e. if s = for some P and s G, then s = e;

b) G acts transitively on each fibre, i.e. if , are such that p = p, 29

then there exists s G such that = ;

c) For every x0 X, there exist an open neighbourhood V of x0 and

21

2. Differentiable Bundles

22

x V. We have only to choose for V the neighbourhood U of condition (P.B), and define for x V, (x) = (x, e). A continuous

(resp. differentiable) map : V P such that p(x) = x for every

x V is called a cross-section resp. differentiable cross-section )

over V.

d) For every x0 X, there exist an open neighbourhood V of x0 and

a differentiable map of p1 (V) into G such that (s) = ()s for

every p1 (V) and s G. Choose for V as before the neighbourhood U of (P.B.). If is the canonical projection U G G, the

map = 1 of p1 (V) into G satisfies the required condition. It

is also obvious that is bijective when restricted to any fibre.

Conversely we have the following

Proposition 1. Let G be a Lie group acting differentiably to the right

on a differentiable manifold P. Let X be another differentiable manifold

and p a differentiable map P X. If conditions (b), (c), (d) are fulfilled,

then P with p : P X is a principal bundle over X.

30

differential map : V P and a homomorphism : p1 (V) G

such that p(x) = x, (s) = ()s and moreover (x) = e for every

x V, p1 (V). We define : U G P by setting (x, s) =

(x)s for x V, s G. If is the map p1 (V) V G defined by

: (p, ) it is easy to verify that = = Identity, using the

fact that (x) = e for every x U. Both and being differentiable,

our assertion is proved.

Definition 2. A homomorphism h of a differentiable principal bundle P

into another bundle P ( with the same group G) is a differentiable map

h : P P such that h(s) = h()s for every P, s G.

23

It is obvious that points on the same fibre are taken by h into points

of P on the same fibre. Thus the homomorphism h induces a map h :

X X such that the diagram

P

// P

// X

This is called the projection of h.

Definition 3. A homomorphism h : P P is said to be an isomorphism

if there exists a homomorphism h : P P such that hoh l h oh are

identities on P , P respectively.

Proposition 2. If P and P are differentiable principal bundles with the 31

same base X and group G, then every homomorphism h : P P whose

projection h is a diffeomorphism of X onto X, is an isomorphism.

In the case when P and P have the same base X, an isomorphism

h : P P for which h is identity will be called an isomorphism overX.

If G is a Lie group and X a differentiable manifold, G acts on the manifold X G by the rule (x, s)t = (x, st). X G together with the natural

projection X G X is a principal bundle. Any bundle isomorphic to

the above is called trivial principal bundle.

Proposition 3. Let P be a principal bundle over X with group G. Then

the following statements are equivalent:

1) P is a trivial bundle.

2) There exists a differentiable section of P over X.

3) There exists a differentiable map : P G such that (s) = ()s

for every P, s G.

2. Differentiable Bundles

24

32

Let P be a principal bundle over X with group G. Let q be a differentiable map of a differentiable manifold Y into X. The subset Pq of Y P

consisting of points (y, ) such that q(y) = p() is a closed submanifold.

There is also a canonical map pq : Pq Y defined by Pq (y, ) = y. The

group G acts on Pq with the law (y, )s = (y, s). It is easy to see that

Pq together with pq is a principal bundle with base Y and group G. This

is called the bundle induced from P by the map q. There then exists

clearly a canonical homomorphism h : Pq P such that

h

// P

h=q

Pq

pq

// X

the principal bundle Pq is trivial if and only if there exists a differentiable

cross section for Pq over Y. This is equivalent to saying that there exists

a differentiable map : Y P such that p = p , i.e., the diagram is

commutative.

P

??

p

Y q // X

33

If Pq is trivial we shall say that P is trivialised by the map q.

Let q be a differentiable map Y X which trivialises P. Consider

the subset Yq of Y Y consisting of points (y, y ) such that q(y) = q(y ).

This is the graph of an equivalence relation in Y. Since q is of rank =

dim X, Yq is a closed submanifold of Y Y.

Let be a map Y P such that q = p . If (y, y ) Yq , then

(y), (y ) are in the same fibre and hence there exists m(y, y ) G

such that (y ) = (y)m(y, y ). Thus we have a map m : Yq G

such that for (y, y ) Yq , we have (y ) = (y)m(y, y ). This map is

2.5. Examples

25

Yq , m(y, y )m(y , y ) = m(y, y ).

Definition 4. Let Y be differentiable manifold and q a differentiable map

of Y onto X everywhere of rank = dim X. The manifold Yq is defined as

above. Any differentiable map m : Yq G is said to be a multiplicator

with value in G if it satisfies

m(y, y ) m(y , y ) = m(y, y ) for (y, y ), (y .y ) Yq .

We have seen that to every trivialisation of P by q corresponds a

multiplicator with values in G. However, this depends upon the particular lifting of q. If is another such lifting with multiplicator n,

there exists a differentiable map : Y G such that m(y , y)(y) =

(y )n(y , y) for every (y, y )eYq . Accordingly, we define an equivalence

relation in the set of multiplicators in the following way:

The multiplicators m, n are equivalent if there exists a differentiable

map : Y G such that m(y, y )(y ) = (y)n(y, y ) for every (y, y )

Yq . Hence to every principal bundle P trivialised by q corresponds a

class of multiplicators m(P). It can be proved that if m(P) = m(P ),

then P and P are isomorphic over X. Finally, given a multiplicator

m, there exists bundle a P trivialised by q for which m(P) = m. In

fact, in the space Y G, introduce an equivalence relation R by defining 34

(y, s) (y , s ) if (y, y ) Yq and s = m(y , y)s. Then the quotient

(Y G)/R can be provided with the structure of a differentiable principal

bundle over X trivialised by q. The multiplicator corresponding to the

map : Y (Y G)/R defined by y (y, e) is obviously m.

2.5 Examples

1) Given a principal bundle P over X, we may take Y = P and q = p.

Then =Identity is a lifting of q to P. The corresponding multiplicator m is such that y = y m(y, y ) where p(y) = p(y )

2) Let (Ui )iI be an open cover of X such that there exists a cross section

i of P over each Ui . Take for Y the open submanifold of X I (with

2. Differentiable Bundles

26

35

q(x, i) = x. This is obviously surjective and everywhere of rank

= dim X. Then P is trivialised by q, since the map (x, i) = i (x)

of Y P is a lifting of q. The manifold Yq may be identified with

the submanifold of X I I consisting of elements x, i, j such that

x i j . If m is the corresponding multiplicator, we have (x, i) =

(x, j)m(x, j, i). This can be written as i (x) = j (x)m ji (x) where

the multiplicator m is looked upon as a family of maps m ji : U j

Ui G such that m ji mik (x) = m jk (x) for every x Ui U j Uk .

Such a family of maps is called a set of transition functions. Two

sets of transition functions {mi j }, {ni j } are equivalent if and only if

there exists a family of differentiable maps i : Ui G such that

m ji (x)i (x) = j (x)n ji (x) for every x Ui U j . Conversely, given a

set of transition functions {mi j } with respect to a covering Ui of V, we

can construct a bundle P over V such that P is trivial over each Ui and

there exists cross - sections i over Ui satisfying i (x) = j (x)mi j (x)

for every x Ui U j

Let G be the sheaf of germs of differentiable functions on X with

values in G. The compatibility relations among transition functions

viz .m ji (x)mik (x) = m jk (x) for every x Ui U j Uk

only state that a set of transition functions is a 1cocycle of the covering

(Ui )iI with values in the sheaf G. Two such cocycles are equivalent (in

the sense of multiplicators) if and only if they differ by a coboundary.

In other words, the set of equivalent classes of transition functions for

the covering (Ui )iI is in one-one correspondence with H 1 ((Ui )iI , G). It

will be noted that there is no group structure in H 1 ((Ui )iI , G) in general. It can be proved by passing to the direct limit that there is a oneon correspondence between classes of isomorphic bundles over X and

elements of H 1 (X, G).

36

27

Then G also acts on the manifold P F by the rule (, u)s = (s, us) for

every s G.

Definition 5. A differentiable bundle with fibre type F associated to

P is a differentiable manifold E together with a differentiable map q :

P F E such that (P F, q) is a principal fibre bundle over E with

group G.

Let G act on a differentiable manifold F to the right. Then we can

construct a differentiable bundle associated to P with fibre F. We have

(P F)

under the action of G defined as above and q

only to take E =

G

to be the canonical projection P F E. The differentiable structure in

E is determined by the condition: (P F, q) is a differentiable principal

bundle over E.

Now let E be a differentiable bundle associated to P with fibre type

F and group G. Then there exists a canonical map pE : E X such

that pE q(, u) = p for (, u) P F where p, q are respectively the

projections P X and P F E. X is therefore called the base

manifold of E and pE the projection of E. For every x X, p1

E (x) is

called the fibre over x. Let U be an open subset of X. A continuous (

resp. differentiable ) map : U E such that pE (x) = x for every

x U is called a section (resp differentiable section) of E over U.

Let be a differentiable section of P over an open subset of U of

X. This gives rise to a diffeomorphism of U F onto p1

E (U) defined 37

by (x, v) = q((x), v) for x U, v F. On the other hand, we also

have pE (x, v) = x. In particular , if P is trivial, there exists a global

cross-section (Prop.3, Ch. 2.3) and hence is a diffeomorphism of

U F onto E.

We finally prove that all fibres in E are diffeomorphic with F. In

fact for every z P. the map F E (which again we denote by z)

defined by z(v) = q(z, v) is a diffeomorphism of F Onto p1

E (p(z)). Such

a map z : F E is called a frame at the point x = p(z). Corresponding

to two different frames z, z at the same point x, we have two different

diffeomorphisms z, z of F with p1

E (x). If s G such that z s = z, then

2. Differentiable Bundles

28

the we have z(v) = z (vs1 ).

universal covering manifold of V. Let p : P V be a covering

map. Then the fundamental group 1 of V acts on P and makes of

P a principal bundle over V with group 1 . Moreover, any covering

manifold is a bundle over V associated to the universal covering

manifold of V with discrete fibre. On the other hand, any Galois

covering of V may be regarded as a principal bundle over V with a

quotient of 1 as group.

38

group and it acts to the right on G according to the following rule:

G B G defined by (s, t) st. Consider the quotient space

V = G/B under the above action. There exists one and only one

structure of a differentiable manifold on V such that G is a differentiable bundle over V with group B ([29]). It is moreover easy to see

that left translations of G by elements of G are bundle homomorphisms of G into itself. The projections of these automorphisms to

the base space are precisely the translations of the left coset space

G/B by elements of G.

(3) Let G be a Lie group and B a closed subgroup. Let H be a closed

subgroup of B. As in (2), B/H has the structure of a differentiable

manifold and B acts on B/H to the right according to the rule:

q(b)b = b1 q(b) = q(b1 b),

where b, b B and q is the canonical projection B B/H. We

define a map r : G B/H G/H by setting r(s, bH) = sbH. It

G

is easy to see that this makes G B/H a principal bundle over .

H

In other words, G/H is a bundle associated to G with base G/B and

fibre B/H.

29

Let V be a differentiable manifold and U (V) the algebra of differentiable functions on V. At any point V, a tangent vector U is a map

U : U (V) R satisfying U( f + g) = U f + Ug; U f = 0 when f is

constant; and U( f g) = (U f )g() + f ()(Ug) for every f, g U (V). The

tangent vectors U at a point form a vector space T . A vector field X is

an assignment to each in V of a tangent vector X at . A vector field X

may also be regarded as a map of U (V) into the algebra of real valued

functions on V by setting (X f )() = X f . A vector field X is a said to be

differentiable if XU (V) U (V). Hence the set of differentiable vector 39

fields on V is the module C (V) of derivations of U (V).

If p is a differentiable map from a differentiable manifold V into

another manifold V , we define a map p : U (V ) U (V) by setting

p f = f op. Furthermore, if V, then a linear map of T into T p

(which is again denoted by p) is defined by (pU)g = U(p g).

Now let G be a Lie group acting differentiably to the right on a

manifold V. As usual, the action is denoted (, s) s. For every

(, s) V G, there are two inclusion maps

V V G defined by (, s); and

G V G defined by t (, t)

The image of d T in T (,s) is denoted by (d, s). The image of

ds T s in T (,s) is denoted by (, ds). We set (d, ds) = (d, s) + (, ds).

The image of d T by the map s of V into Vwill be denoted by

ds. Similarly, the image of vector ds T s by the map t t will be

denoted ds. Therefore the image of the vector (d, ds) T (,s) by the

map (, s) s is ds + ds. In particular, the group G acts on itself

and such expressions as dst and tds will be used in the above sense. The

following formulae are easy to verify:

1) (ds)t = (d)(st)

2) (ds)t = (dst)

40

2. Differentiable Bundles

30

3) (t)ds = (tds) for V and s, t G.

at e will be denoted by Y . A vector field X on G is said to be left

invariant if sXt = X st for every s, t G. Every left invariant vector field

is differentiable and is completely determined by its value at e. Given

a Y , we define a left invariant vector field Ia by setting (Ia ) s = sa.

This gives a natural isomorphism of Y onto the vector space of left

invariant vector fields on V. There is also a similar isomorphisms of Y

onto the space of right invariant vector fields. In the same way, when G

acts on a manifold V to the right, for every a Y , we define a vector

field Za on V, by setting (Za ) = a for V. Thus Y defines a vector

space of vector fields on V.

41

Then the projection p : P V gives rise to a homomorphism p :

U (V) U (P). Since p is onto , p is injective. This defines on

every U (P)- module a structure of an U (V)module. It is clear that any

element h p U (V) is invariant with respect to the action of G on P.

Conversely, if h U (P), whenever h is invariant with respect to G then

h p U (V). In fact if f U (V) is defined by setting f (x) = h(z) where

z is any element in p1 (x), then f coincides locally with the composite of

a differentiable cross- section and h, and is consequently differentiable.

For every P, there exists a natural linear map of Y into T taking

a Y onto a T . It is easy to verify that the sequence of linear maps

(0) Y T T p() (0)

is exact. The image of Y in T , i.e. the space of vectors a with a Y

is the space of vectors tangential to the fibre G and will be denoted

by N .

Definition 6. A vector field X on P is said to be tangential to the fibres

if for every x P, p(X ) = 0.

31

every P. It is immediate than an equivalent condition for a vector

field X to be tangential to the fibres is that X(p U (V)) = (0). We denote

the set of vector fields tangential to the fibres by N. Then N is an U (P)submodule of C (P). We have the following

Proposition 4. If a1 , . . . , ar is a base for Y , then Zal , . . . Zar is a basis

for N over U (P).

In fact, for every a Y , (Za ) = a N , i.e., Za N. Moreover,

r

r

P

P

if f1 , . . . , fr U (P) are such that

fi Zai = 0, then

fi ()(ai ) = 0

i=1

i=1

1, 2, . . . , r and Zai , . . . Zar are linearly independent. On the other hand, 42

r

P

if X N, at each point P, we can write X =

fi ()()ai , and

hence X =

r

P

i=1

g1 , . . . , gr

i=1

and

U (P) such that (Zai ) g j = i j for every i. j; then the

functions fi are solutions of the system of linear equations:

Xg j =

r

X

f1 (Zai g j ).

i=1

0 in a neighbourhood of , fi are differentiable at .

Let P be a principal bundle over V and X a vector field on P. It is in

general not possible to define the image vector field pX on V. This is

however possible if we assume that for all in the same fibre , the image

pX in the same. This yields the following.

Definition 7. A vector field X on P is said to be projectable if p(X ) =

43

p(Xs ) for every P, s G.

2. Differentiable Bundles

32

(V) p U (V).

This follows from the fact that

X (p f ) = p(X ) f = p(Xs ) f = Xs (p f )

for every f U (V).

Proposition 6. A vector field X is projectable if and only if X s X is

tangential to the fibre, ie. X s X N for every s G.

In fact, if X is projectable , we have

p(X s X) = p(Xs1 s X )

= p(Xs1 ) p(X )

= 0.

The converse is also obvious from the above.

Definition 8. The projection pX of a projectable vector field X is defined

by (pX) p = pX for every P.

Since p {(pX) f } = X(p f ) for every f U (V) we see that pX is a

differentiable vector field on V. We shall denote the space of projectable

vector field by . It is easy to see that if X, Y , then X + Y and

p(X + Y) = pX + pY. Moreover is a submodule of C (P) regarded

as an U (V)-module (but not an U (P)-submodule). For f U (V) and

X , we have p((p f )X) = f (pX). Thus p : C (V) is an U (V)homomorphism and the kernel is just the module N of vector fields on

P tangential to the fibre. Furthermore, for every X, Y , we have

[X, Y] and p[X, Y] = [pX, pY].

44

of a projectable vector field on P. i.e., C (V) is surjective.

Let x V and U a neighbourhood of x over which P is trivial. It is

clear that any vector field X in U is the projection of a vector field X in

33

p1 (U). Using the fact that V is paracompact we obtain that there exists

a locally finite cover (Ui )iI of V and a family of projectable vector fields

Xi such that pXi = Xi on Ui where Xi coincides on Ui with a given

vector field X on V. Let (i )iI be a differentiable partition of unity for

P

V with respect to the above cover. Then X = (p i )Xi is well-defined

iI

P

and is in with projection pX = i pXi = X.

iI

differentiable manifold V. The action of G on V is given by the map

p : V G V. Consider the manifold V G with the above projection

onto V. G acts to the right on V G by the rule

(x, s)t = (xt, t1 s) for every x V, s, t G.

The map : V G V G defined by (x, s) = (xs, s1 ) for

x V, s G is a diffeormorphism. We also have

(x, st) = (x, s)t

G and projection p. A global cross -section is given by : x (x, e).

Let Y = T e be the space of vectors at e and Ia the left invariant 45

vector field on G whose value at e is a. Let (0, Ia ) be the vector field on

V G whose value at (x, s) is (x, sa). Then for every a Y , (0, Ia ) is

projectable; as a matter of fact , it is even right invariant. For,

(O, Ia )(x,s) t = (x, sa)t

= (x, t1 sa)

= (0, Ia )(x,t)t1 s

= (0, Ia )(x,s)t

We moreover see that p(0, Ia ) = Za since we have p(x, sa) = xsa =

(Za ) xs .

We define a bracket operation [a, b] in Y by setting [Ia , Ib ] = I[a,b] .

Then we have in the above situation

[(0, Ia ), (0, Ib )] = (0, I[a,b] ).

2. Differentiable Bundles

34

Then it follows that

= p[(0, Ia ), (o, Ib )]

= Z[a,b] .

Chapter 3

Connections on Principal

Bundles

3.1

A connection in a principal bundle P is, geometrically speaking, an as- 46

signment to each point of P of a tangent subspace at which is supplementary to the space N . This distribution should be differentiable

and invariant under the action of G. More precisely,

Definition 1. A connection on the principal bundle P is a differentiable

tensor field of type (1, 1) such that

1) (X) N for every X C (P)

2) (X) = X for every X N

3) (X) = (X)s for every s G.

Thus, at each point , is a projection of T onto N . Condition 3)

is equivalent to (d)s = (ds) for every P, d T and s G.

Examples. 1) If G is a discrete group, the submodule N of U (P) is (0).

Thus any projection of C (P) onto N has to be 0. Hence the only

connection on a Galois covering manifold is the (0) tensor.

35

36

trivial principal bundle V G over V. The tensor defined by

(dx, ds) = (x, ds)

is easily seen to be a connection.

47

bundle P over P/G. Let be the tangent space at e to P, and Y that

at e to G. Then Y can be identified with a subspace of . For a Y ,

the vector field Za is the left invariant vector field Ia on P. We shall

now assume that in , there exists a subspace M such that

1) = Y M

2) for every s G, s1 Ms M.

(M is only a subspace supplementary to Y , which is invariant under

the adjoint representation of G in . Such a space always exists if

we assume that G is compact or semisimple).

Under the above conditions, there exists a connection and only one

on P such that (M) = (0) and (tb) = t(b) for every b and t G.

The kernel of is the submodule of C (P) generated by the left invariant

vector field Ia on P with a M. Moreover, is left invariant under the

action of G. Conversely, every left invariant connection corresponds to

such an invariant subspace M supplementary to Y in .

Theorem 1. If V is paracompact, for every differentiable principal bundle P over V, there exists a connection on P.

48

We have seen that there exists a connection on a trivial bundle. Using the paracompactness of V, we can find a locally finite open cover

(Ui )iI of V such that P is trivial over each Ui and such that there exist tensor fields i of type (1, 1) on P whose restrictions to P1 (Ui ) are

connections. Set i j = i j for every i, j I. Then the i j satisfy the

following equations:

i j d N , i j ( a) = 0, and i j (ds) = (i j d)s

37

Now, let (i )iI be a partition of unity with respect to the above covP

ering, i.e., support of i Ui and i = 1. Denote p i by i . Then

i is a partition of unity with respect to the covering p1 (Ui ). k ik is a

tensor on P for every k and hence

X

i =

k ik

k

i d N , i a = 0 and i (ds) = (i d)s.

The tensor i i is easily seen to be a connection on p1 (Ui ). Since

k is a partition of unity, it follows that i i , j j coincide on p1 (Ui

U j ) for every i, j I. Therefore the tensor field on P defined by

= i i on p1 (Ui ) is a connection on P.

Let be a connection on P. By definition, is a map C (P) N. The

kernel J of this map is called the module of horizontal vector fields. It

is clear that maps into itself. Hence we have = N ( J). It

is easily seen that the vector fields belonging to the U (V)-module

are invariant under the action of G. We have defined the projection p of 49

onto C (V). The kernel of this projection is N since the restriction of

p to J is bijective.

We shall now see that the module C (F) of all vector fields on P is

generated by projectable vector fields.

Theorem 2. Let V be a paracompact manifold and P a principal bundle

P

over V. Then the map : U (P) J J defined by ( fs X s ) =

U

(V)

P

f s X s is bijective.

The proof rests on the following

38

50

In fact, by Whitneys imbedding theorem ([28]) there exists a regular, proper imbedding of each connected component of V in R2n+1

where n = dim V. This gives us a map f : V R2n+1 defined by

y ( f, (y), . . . , f2n+1 (y)) which is of maximal rank. Let (U j ) jJ be

an open covering of V such that on every U j , (d fi )i=1,2,...2n+1 contains a

base for the module of differential forms of degree 1 on U j . Let S be

the set of maps : [1, n] [1, 2n + 1] such that (i + 1) < (i) for

i = 1, 2, . . . (n 1). We shall denote by U the union of the open sets

of the above covering in which d f1 . . . d fn are linearly independent.

Thus we arrive at a finite cover (U )C having the above property. Using a partition of unity for this cover, any form on V can be written

as a linear combination of the d fi . Using the map f , we can introduce a

Riemannian metric on V which gives an isomorphism of C (V) onto the

module of differential forms of degree 1. This completes the proof of

the lemma.

Proof of the theorem. Let X1 , . . . X2n+1 be a set of generators for the

module C (V) and (U )S a finite covering such that for every

, X(1) , . . . X(n) form a base for the module of vector fields on U . We

shall now prove that the map is injective.

Let ( )S be a partition of unity for this covering and X s be vector

n

P

fields such that pX s = X s . Then X s =

gi,s X(i) , with

gi,s U (V) and hence X s =

U (V)-module on C (P). If u =

n

P

i=1

2n+1

P

i=1

P

that (u) = 0, then ( u) = 0 for every . Therefore

f gi,s = 0 on

s

P

fs gi, X(i) ; it follows that

U and consequently on V. But u =

s,i

P

u = u = 0. The proof that is surjective is similar.

s=1

on P is generated over U (P) by the projectable and horizontal vector

fields.

39

Le P be a principal bundle over V and a connection on P. If d T ,

then d N and a a is an isomorphism of Y onto N . We define

a differential form on P with values in Y by setting (d) = a where 51

(d) = a. In order to prove that is differentiable, it is enough to

prove that takes differentiable vector fields into differentiable functions with values in Y . We have (Za ) = a for every a Y and

(X) = 0 for every X J. Since the module C (P) is generated by J and

the vector fields Za , (X) is differentiable for every differentiable vector

field X on P. Thus corresponding to every connection on P, there exists one and only one form with values in Y such that (d) = (d)

for every d T . It is easily seen that satisfies

1) (a) = a for every P and a Y

2) (ds) = s1 (d)s for d T and s G.

A Y - valued form on P satisfying 1) and 2) is called a connection

form. Given a connection form on P, it is easy to see that there exists

one and only one connection for which is the associated form, i.e.,

(d) = (d) for every d T .

Let P, P be two principal bundles over V, V respectively. Let h be a

homomorphism of P into P. If is a connection form on P, the form

h on P obviously satisfies conditions (1) and (2) and is therefore a

connection form on P .

In particular, if P is the bundle induced by a map q : V V, then

induces a connection on P .

Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over V, and q a map 52

Y V which trivialises P, being a lifting of q to P with m as the

multiplicator. As in Chapter 2.4, we denote by Yq the subset of Y Y

consisting of points (y, y ) such that q(y) = q(y ). Now = is a differential form on Y. We have (y ) = (y) m(y, y ) for every (y, y ) Yq .

40

(dy ) = (dy)m(y, y ) + (y)m(dy, dy )

Since (dy ) = (dy ) we have

(dy ) = m(y, y )1 (dy)m(y, y ) + ((y)m(y, y )m(y, y )1 m(dy, dy ))

= m(y, y )1 (dy)m(y, y ) + m(y, y )1 m(dy, dy )

Hence m(dy, dy ) = m(y, y )(dy ) (dy)m(y, y ).

Conversely if is a differential form on Y satisfying

m(dy, dy ) = m(y, y )(dy ) (dy)m(y, y )

53

for every (y, y ) Yq , then there exists one and only one connection form

on P such that = .

In particular, when the trivialisation of P is in terms of a covering

(Ui )iI of V with differentiable sections i (Ch.2.5), the connection form

on P gives rise to a family of differential forms i = i on Ui . From

the equations i (x) = j (x)m ji (x) defining the transition functions m ji ,

we obtain on differentiation,

i.e.,

m ji (dx) = m ji (x)i (dx) j (dx)m ji (x).

sets of a covering (Ui )iI of V satisfying the above, there exists one and

only one connection form on P such that i = i for every i.

To every differentiable map f of a differentiable manifold V into a Lie

group G, we can make correspond a differential form of degree 1 on V

with values in the Lie algebra Y of G defined by ()(d) = f ()1 f (d)

for V and d T . We shall denote this form by f 1 d f . This is

easily seen to be differentiable.

41

canonical differential form on G with values in Y . Thus we have

(ds) = s1 ds Y . Also (tds) = (ds) for every vector ds of

G. That is, is a left invariant differential form. Moreover, it is easy

to see that any scalar left invariant differential form on G is obtained by

composing with elements of the algebraic dual of Y . In what follows,

we shall provide A Y with the canonical derivation law (Ch.1.2).

Proposition 1 (Maurer-Cartan). The canonical form on G satisfies

d + [, ] = 0.

54

We recall that the form [, ] has been defined by [, ](X, Y) =

[(X), (Y)] for every vector fields X, Y C (G). Since the module of

vector fields over G is generated by left invariant vector fields, it suffices

to prove the formula for left invariant vector fields X = Ia , Y = Ib a, b

Y . We have

d()(Ia , Ib ) = Ia (Ib ) Ib (Ia ) ([Ia , Ib ])

But [Ia , Ib ] = I[a,b] and [Ia , Ib ] = (I[a,b] ) = [a, b] = [(Ia ), (Ib )]

since (Ia ) = a, (Ib ) = b.

Corollary. If f is a differentiable map V G, then the form = f 1 d f

satisfies d + [, ] = 0.

In fact, (d) = f 1 () f (d) = ( f (d)) = ( f )(d) and hence

= f . The above property of is then an immediate consequence of

that of .

Conversely, we have the following

Theorem 3. If is a differential form of degree 1 on a manifold V with

values in the Lie algebra Y of a Lie group G satisfying d + [, ] = 0,

then for every o V and a differentiable map f : U G such that

f 1 () f (d) = (d) for every vector d of U.

Consider the form = p1 p2 on V G where p1 : V G V 55

and p2 : V G G arc the two projections and the canonical left

invariant form on G. If is expressed in terms of a basis {a1 , . . . ar } of

42

independent. This follows from the fact that on each p1

1 (), reduces

to p2 . We shall now define a differentiable and involutive distribution

on the manifold V G. Consider the module M of vector fields X on

V G such that i (X) = 0 for every i . We have now to show that

X, Y M [X, Y] M. But this is an immediate consequence of the

relations d = [, ] and d = [, ].

By Frobenius theorem (see [11]) there exists an integral submanifold W (of dim = dim V) of V G in a neighbourhood of (o , e). Since

for every vector (o , a) , 0 tangent to p1

1 o , (o , a) = a , 0 there exist

a neighbourhood U of o and a differentiable section into V G over

U such that (U) W. Define f () = p2 (). By definition of W, it

follows that (d) = 0. This means that

i.e.,

p1 (d) p2 (d) = 0

theorem reduces to the Poincares theorem for 1-forms. Concerning the

uniqueness of such maps f , we have the

56

Proposition 2. If f1 , f2 are two differentiable maps of a connected manifold V into a Lie group G such that f11 d f1 = f21 d f2 , then there exists

an element s G such that f1 = f2 s.

Define a differentiable function s : V G by setting

s() = f1 () f21 () for every V.

Differentiating this, we get

s(d) f2 () + s() f2 (d) = f1 (d).

Hence s(d) = 0. Therefore s is locally a constant and since V is

connected s is everywhere a constant.

Regarding the existence of a map f in the large, we have the following

43

manifold V with values in the Lie algebra Y of a Lie group G, such that

d + [, ] = 0, then there exists a differentiable map f of V into G such

that f 1 d f = .

The proof rests on the following

Lemma 2. Let mi j be a set of transition functions with group G of a

simply connected manifold V with respect to a covering (Ui ). If each mi j

is locally a constant, then there exists locally constant maps i : Ui G

such that mi j (x) = i (x)1 j (x) for every x Ui U j .

In fact, there exists a principal bundle P over V with group G considered as a discrete group and with transition functions mi j (Ch.2.5).

P is then a covering manifold over V and hence trivial. Therefore the 57

maps i : Ui G exist satisfying the conditions of the lemma (Ch.2.5).

Proof of the theorem. Let (Ui )iI be a covering of V such that on each

Ui , there exists a differentiable function fi satisfying fi (x)1 fi (dx) =

(dx) for every x Ui . We set mi j (x) = fi (x) f j (x)1 . It is obvious that

the mi j form a set of locally constant transition functions. Let i be the

maps Ui G of the lemma. Then i (x) fi (x) = j (x) f j (x) for every

x Ui U j . The map f : V G which coincides with i fi on each Ui

is such that f 1 d f = .

Definition 2. Let be a connection form on a principal bundle P over

V. Then the alternate form of degree 2 with values in the Lie algebra

Y of the structure group G defined by K = d + [, ] is said to be the

curvature form of . A connection on P is said to be flat if the form

K 0.

Theorem 5. The following statements are equivalent:

a) The connection is flat i.e., d + [, ] = 0.

b) If X, Y are two horizontal vector fields on p, so is [X, Y].

44

differentiable section on U such that = 0.

Proof. a) b) is obvious from the definition.

b) c)

58

P

Let a1 , a2 , . . . an be a basis of Y and let = i ai where i are

scalar differential forms. Since i (Za j ) = i j , it follows that {1 , . . . r }

form a set of differential forms of maximal rank r. From b), it follows

that the module J of horizontal vector fields is stable under the bracket

operation. Hence J forms a distribution on P which is differentiable and

involutive. Let o P such that p(o ) = Xo and let W be an integral

manifold W of dim = dim V in a neighbourhood of o . As in Th.3,

Ch.3.5, W is locally the image of a differentiable section over an open

neighbourhood of xo . Since all the tangent vectors of W are horizontal,

we have (dx) = 0 for every vector dx on U.

c) a)

Let be a differentiable section over an open subset U of V such

that = 0. For every p1 (U), define a differentiable function

: p1 (U) G by the condition = (p())(). Differentiating this,

we obtain

d = p(d)() + p()(d)

Hence (d) = 1 ()(p(d))() + ()1 (d) by conditions (1)

and (2) for connection forms. i.e. (d) = ()1 (d) and a) follows

from cor. to prop.1, Ch.3.5.

59

a simply connected manifold V, then P is a trivial bundle. Moreover, a

differentiable cross-section can be found over V such that = 0.

By T h.4, Ch.3.5, there exists an open covering (Ui )iI and cross sections i : Ui P such that i = 0. Let i (x)mi j (x) = j (x) where the

corresponding transition functions are mi j . Then we have

(i (dx)mi j (x) + i (x)mi j (dx)) = j (dx).

45

Ch.3.5 then gives a family i of locally constant maps Ui G such that

mi j = 1

i j

It is easily seen that i 1

= j 1

i

j on U i U j . Define a cross

1

section on V by setting = i i on every Ui . Then we have

((dx)) = (i (dx)1

i (x))

= i (x)(i (dx))1

i (x)

= 0 for x Ui .

Hence the bundle is trivial and = 0.

Proposition 3. If X is a vector field on P tangential to the fibre, then 60

K(X, Y) = 0 for every vector field Y on P.

In fact, since = J N and generates C (P), it is enough to

prove the assertion for Y N and Y . In the first case X = Za and

Y = Zb , we have

K(Za , Zb ) = (d + [, ])(Za , Zb )

= Za (Zb ) Zb (Za ) [Za , Zb ] + [(Za ), (Zb )]

= (Z[a,b] ) + [a, b]

=0

[Za , Y] = 0. Since (Y) = 0, we have

K(Za , Y) = (d + [, ])(Za , Y)

= Za (Y) Y(Za ) [Za , Y] + [(Za ), (Y)]

= 0.

Proposition 4.

K(d1 s, d2 s) = s1 K(d1 , d2 )s for P, d1 , d T and s G.

46

J . Extend d1 , d2 to horizontal vector fields X1 , X2 respectively. Then

we have

K(d1 s, d2 s) = K(X1 s, X2 s)()

= [X1 s, X2 s]()

= ([X1 , X2 ]s)()

= ([X1 , X2 ] s)

= s1 ([X1 , X2 ] )s

= s1 K(X1 , X2 )()s

61

3.7 Examples

1. Let dim V = 1. Then C (V) is a face module generated by a single

vector field.N

But C (V) is U (V)-isomorphic to J and hence

J = U (P)

J is also U (P) - free, and of rank 1. Since K

U (V)

curve, any connection is flat.

respective LIe algebras. We have seen that (Example 3, Ch.3.1)

if M is a subspace of F such that F = M Y and s1 Ms M

for every s G, then the projection : F M gives rise to a

connection which is left invariant by element of G. Denoting by

Ia the left invariant vector fields on H whose values at e is a F ,

we obtain

K(Ia , Ib ) = ([Ia , Ib ]) + [(Ia ), (Ib )]

= I[a,b] + [e a, e b]

3.7. Examples

62

47

and only if e is a homomorphism of J onto U . This again is true if

and only if M is an ideal in J .

Chapter 4

Holonomy Groups

4.1 Integral paths

We shall consider in this chapter only connected base manifolds.

63

unit interval I = [0, 1] into W. A path is said to be differentiable if

can be extended to a differentiable map of an open neighbourhood of I

into W. (0) is called the origin and (1) the extremity, of the path. The

path t (1 t) is denoted by 1 . If is a connection on a principal

bundle P over X, then a differentiable path in P is said to be integral

if = 0. If is integral, so is 1 .

Let be a path in X. A path in P such that po = is called a

where

lift of . It is easy to see that if is an integral lift of , so is s,

is defined by s(t)

s

= (t)s.

If is an integral lift of , then 1 is an

integral lift of 1 .

Theorem 1. If is a differentiable path in V with origin at x V, then

for every P such that p() = x, there exists one and only one integral

lift of with origin .

Let I be an open interval containing I to which can be extended. 64

The map : I V defines an induced bundle P with base I and a

49

4. Holonomy Groups

50

P

// P

// V

on P . Since I is a curve, by Ex.1 of Ch.3.7 and Th.5 of Ch.3.6, there

exists a section such that the inverse image by of h is zero. i.e.

h = 0. Define : I P by setting = h on I . Then it is

then s

is an integral lift of with origin .

If ,

are two such lifts, then we may define a map s : I G such

that

= (t)s(t)

(t)

for every t I.

Since ,

are differentiable, it can be proved that s is also differentiable using the local triviality of the bundle. Differentiation of the

= (dt)s(t)

+ (t)s(dt).

Hence

((dt)s(t))

+ ((t)s(dt))

= 0.

65

= (0),

the theorem is completely

proved.

Let P x be the fibre at x and a path with origin x and extremity y. For

every P x , there exists one and only one integral lift of whose

origin is . The extremity of is an element of the fibre at Py . We

shall denote this by . Then is said to be a displacement along

. Any displacement along the path commutes with the operations

of G in the sense that (s) = ( )s for every P x ; therefore is

51

( )1 = 1 . It is also obvious that the displacement is independent of

the parameter, i.e., if is a differentiable map of I into I such that

1) (0) = 0, (1) = 1;

2) =

then =

Given a differentiable path , we may define a new path by suitably changing the parameter so that has all derivatives zero at origin

and extremity. By the above remark, we have 1 = .

Definition 2. A chain of paths in V is a finite sequence of paths { p ,

. . . , 1 } where i is a path such that i+1 (0) = (1) for i p 1.

We define the origin and extremity of the chain to be respectively 66

1 (0) and p (1). Given two chains

= { p , p1 , . . . 1 }, = {q , q1 , . . . 1 } such that origin of =

extremity of , we define = { p , . . . 1 , q , . . . 1 }. 1 is defined to

1 = 1 1 .

1

be {1

1

1 , . . . q } and it is easily seen that ()

A displacement along a chain = { p , . . . 1 } in the base manifold V of a principal bundle P is defined by = p , . . . 1 .

Let x, y V. Define (x, y) to be the displacements where is

a chain with (0) = x, (1) = y. It can be proved, by a suitable change

of parameters of the paths i (ch. 4.2), that there exists a differentiable

path such that = . The following properties are immediate consequences of the definition:

1) (x, y) = 1 (y, x).

2) (x, y), (y, z) = (x, y).

3) (x, y) is non empty since V is connected.

52

67

4. Holonomy Groups

group of automorphisms of P x commuting with operations of G. This is

called the holonomy group at x with respect to the given connection on

the principal bundle P. If we restrict ourselves to all chains homotopic

to zero at x, then we get a subgroup r (x) of (x), viz., the subgroup of

displacements where is a closed chain at x homotopic to zero. This

is called the restricted holonomy group at X. This is actually a normal

subgroup of (x), for if is homotopic to 0 and any continuous path

1 is again homotopic to zero.

Proposition 1. For every x V, there exists a natural homomorphism

Q

of the fundamental group 1 (V, x) onto (x)/r (x).

homotopic to . We map on the coset of r (x) containing 1 . If

and are homotopic, so are and i.e. 1 is homotopic to

zero. Then 1 = , 1

r . Thus we obtain a canonical map

Q

: 1 (V, x) (x)/r (x) which is easily seen to be a homomorphism

of groups. That this is surjective is immediate.

In general, will not be injective. As the fundamental group of

manifolds which are countable at is itself countable, so is(x)/r (x).

Hence from the point of view of structure theory, a study of r (x) is in

most cases sufficient.

68

If x, y are two points of the connected manifold V and a path joining x and y, then there exists an isomorphism (y) (x) defined by

1 for every path closed at y. The image of r (y) under

this isomorphism is contained in r (x). However, this isomorphism is

not canonical depending as it does on the path . The situation can be

improved by association to each point of the bundle P a holonomy group

which is a subgroup of G.

Let A x be the group of automorphisms of P x commuting with operations of G. Let P x , Then we define an isomorphism : A x G

by requiring = () for every A x . That is a homomorphism

53

()

to be (p). Similarly the restricted holonomy group r () at

is r (p).

Theorem 2.

For any two points , P, (), () are conjugate subgroups of

G. Moreover, if , lie on an integral path, then () = ().

If , are on the same integral path, then = for some path

with origin p = x and extremity p = y. It is sufficient to prove that

() (). Let be a closed chain at x. Then

( ) =

= 1

= 1

where =

= 1

( ( ))

= ( )

Hence ( ) = ( ) () and our assertion is proved.

Finally, if , are arbitrary, we may join p, p by a path . Let

be an integral lift of through and its extremity. Then there exists

s G such that = s. We have already proved that () = (s). 69

Now

(s)(s ()) = (s)

= ( ())s

Hence () = s1 ()s, which completes the proof of theorem 2.

Let h be a homomorphism of a principal bundle P over V into a principal bundle P over V. Let h be the projection of h. Let be a connection

form on P and h the induced connection on P . If P and

h( ) = , then ( ) (). Moreover, ( ) is the set of (h )

4. Holonomy Groups

54

to the closed chain at x . Then s = .

s = h( )

=

where

= h

= ( ).

70

to ( ).

In particular, let V be the universal covering manifold of V, h the

covering map, P a principal bundle over V and h a homomorphism

P P whose projection is h. Then for P , ( ) is the set of

where is the image under h of a closed chain at p . But V

being simply connected, is any closed chain at homotopic to zero

and hence ( ) = r ().

Theorem 3.

For every P, r () is an arcwise connected subgroup of G.

If is a closed path at x V which is homotopic to zero, then it can

be shown that there exists a differentiable map : I I V(I being

a neighbourhood of I) such that (t, 0) = (t) and (t, 1) = x for every

t I. This can be lifted into a map : I I P such that

1) p(t,

) = (t, ) for every t, I;

2) For every I, t (t,

) is an integral path;

3) (0,

) = with p() = x.

In fact, : I I V induces a bundle P over I I . Let be the

induced connection on P . For every I , the path t (t, ) in I I

can be lifted to an integral path

in P with origin at ((0, ), ) P .

The origin depends differentiably on and therefore the map of I I

55

conditions 1), 2) and 3).

Now we define a function s : I G by requiring that s() =

(1,

). Obviously s(1) = e and s(0) is the element of the restricted 71

holonomy group at corresponding to the path . It is also easy to verify

that s() is a differentiable function of using the local triviality of P.

Therefore any point of r () can be connected to e by a differentiable

arc.

Corollary. r () is a Lie subgroup of G.

This follows from the fact that any arcwise connected subgroup of a

Lie group is itself a Lie group [31].

Theorem 4.

The structure group of P can be reduced to () for any P.

For this we need the following

Lemma 1. Let M() be the set of points of P which are extremities of

integral paths emanating from . There exists an open covering (Ui )iI

of V and cross-sections i over Ui such that i (x) M() for every

x Ui .

Let x = p and x0 V. Consider the path connecting x and x0 .

Then the integral lift of with origin has extremity 0 with p0 =

x0 . Let U be a neighbourhood of x0 in which are defined n linearly

independent vector fields X1 , . . . Xn where n = dim V. Let X1 , X2 , . . . Xn

be horizontal vector fields on p1 (U) such that pXi = Xi for every i.

By the theorem on the existence of solution for differential equations,

there exists a neighbourhood of (0, 0, . . .) in R Rn in which is defined

a differentiable map having the properties

1) (0, a) = 0

P

2) (t, a) = tai (Xi )(t,a) .

72

4. Holonomy Groups

56

From the uniqueness of such solutions, we get

(t, a) = (t, a)

for sufficiently small values of , t and a. Thus there exists a differentiable map having the properties 1) and 2) above on [0, 2] W where

W is a neighbourhood of (0, . . .) in Rn . Since the Xi are horizontal,

(t, a) M(). Now consider the differentiable map g : W P defined

by g(a) = (1, a). The map p.g is of maximal rank. Moreover since

dim V = n, this is locally invertible. In other words, in a neighbourhood

U of X0 we have a differentiable map f : U W such that p g f =

Identity, i.e., gof is a cross section over U, and

( gof ) (y) = (1, f (y)) M() for every y U .

Proof of theorem 4. We have only to take for transition functions the

functions mi j such that

i (x) = j (x)m ji (x) for every x Ui U j

where the i have the properties mentioned in the lemma. Then it is

obvious that mi j (x) (i (x0 )) = () by theorem 2, Ch. 4.3.

73

is a Lie subgroup of G, it follows [11] that the m ji are differentiable

functions as maps: Ui U j () also. If i are the diffeomorphisms

Ui G p1 (Ui ) defined by i (, s) = i ()s for Ui , s G.

Consider the set Wi consisting of i (, s) with Ui , s (). It is

clear that Wi p1 (U j ) = W j p1 (Ui ). Moreover if we provide each

Wi with the structure of a differentiable manifold by requiring that the

i be a diffeomorphism, then the differentiable structures on Wi W j

S

agree. In other words, M() = Wi has a differentiable structure (with

iI

right and makes of it a principal bundle over V with projection p. We

denote the inclusion map M() P by f .

and Y () the Lie subalgebra of Y corresponding to (), then ( f d)

Y ().

57

consider the case when f d is tangential to the fibre, i.e. is of the form

sa with a Y (), s (). In this case (sa) = a Y () which proves

the assertion.

If we define (d) = ( f d) for every vector d of M() then is

again a connection form on the principal bundle M(). For every point

M(), the holonomy group corresponding to is ().

Theorem 5.

For P, r () = (e) if and only if the curvature form is identically 74

zero.

Consider the universal covering manifold V of V with covering map

h. Let P = Ph be the induced bundle with h as the homomorphism

P P. Let P such that h = . Then by Ch.4.5., the holonomy

with respect to the induced connection = h on P is

group ()

is the image of a cross-section

r (). Therefore, if r () = (e), M()

Hence

of P over V. By prop. 4, Ch.3.6, (d

x) = 0 for every x V.

by th.5, Ch.3.6 the curvature is 0. Since V is locally diffeomorphic with

V the curvature form of is 0. Conversely, if K = 0, K = 0 and by

th.6, ch.3.6, there exists a section

of P over V such that

= 0 and

such that (

x) = . Hence the holonomy group at reduces to {e}, i.e.,

r () = {e}.

Theorem 6 (Ambrose-Singer; [1]).

The Lie algebra of the restricted holonomy group r () at P is

the subspace of the Lie algebra G of G generated by the values K(d1 ,

d2 ) of the curvature form with d1 , d2 T , f M(). We may

assume that V is simply connected in which case () = r (), the

general case being an easy consequence. Moreover, since it is enough to

take d1 , d2 to be horizontal, we may consider the values of K on the

manifold M(). We may therefore restrict ourselves to the case when

r () = G, and M() = P. Let I be the subalgebra of G generated by

4. Holonomy Groups

58

75

the values of K. Let L be the set of vector fields X on P such that (X)

is a function with values in I . This is an U (P)- submodule. It is easily

seen that L has everywhere rank = dim V + dim I , using the fact that

(Za ) = a I for a I . Moreover,

([X, Y]) = K(X, Y) X(Y) + Y(X) + [(X), (Y)]

I for every X, Y L and P.

76

By Frobenius theorem, there exists an integral manifold for the distribution given by L . Let L be the maximal integral manifold for L

containing . Since the integral paths for with origin at are integral

with respect to L we must have L = P. Hence dim I = dim G , or

I = G.

Finally it remains to prove that the subspace M of U generated by

the values of K is itself a Lie subalgebra.

Since K(d1 s, d2 s) = s1 K(d1 , d2 )s I , it follows that s1 Ns

N for every s G. Therefore for every X I , [X, N] N. In particular,

[M , M ] M .

We now give a geometric interpretation of K(d1 , d2 ) for P.

Firstly, we may assume d1 , d2 to be both horizontal vectors (Prop. 3,

Ch.3.6). Let x = p, d1 x = pd1 and d2 x = pd2 . Extend d1 x, d2 x

to vector fields X1 and X2 on V such that [X1 , X2 ] = 0. Let X1 , X2 be

the corresponding projectable, horizontal vector fields on P. Let

Fi (, t) be the automorphism of parameter t defined on a neighbourhood

of by the vector field Xi (i = 1, 2). We set 1 () = F1 (, ), 2 () =

F2 (, 1 ()), 3 () = F2 (, 2 ()) and 4 () = F1 (, 3 ()). The chain

of paths F1 (t/, ), F2 (t/, 1 ()), F1 (t/, 2 ()), F2 (t/, 3 ()) is not

closed in general though its projection on V is closed (since [X1 , X2 ] =

0). Let s(2 ) be the element of G. such that 4 () = s(2 ). Then

[X1 , X2 ] = s (0) and we have

[X1 , X2 ] = ([X1 , X2 ] )

= K(X1 , X2 )

= K(d1 , d2 ).

59

Chapter 5

Vector Bundles and

Derivation Laws

5.1

Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over a manifold V with group 77

G. Consider a vector space L of finite dimension over the field R of

real numbers. Let s sL be a linear representation of G in L.G acts

differentiably on L (regarded as a manifold ) to the right by the rule

vs = s1

L v.

Let E be a fibre bundle associated to P with fibre L and q the map

P L E. For every P, the map v q(, v) is a bijection of L onto

the fibre of E at p, or a frame of L. On each fibre E x at x V of the

associated bundle E, we may introduce the structure of a vector space

by requiring that the frame defined by any point p1 (x) be linear. It

is clear that such a structure does exist and is unique. Let U be an open

subset of V over which P is trivial and a diffeomorphism U L

p1 (U) defined by (x, v) = q((x), v) where is a differentiable cross

section of P over U. Then we have

1) p (x, y) = x

2) (x, v + v ) = (x, v) + (x, v )

3) (x, v) = (x, v)

61

62

78

Conversely, let E be a differentiable manifold and p : E Va

differentiable map. Assume each p1 (x) = E x to be a vector space over

R. The manifold E (together with p) is called a differentiable vector

bundle (or simply a vector bundle ) over V if the following condition is

satisfied. For every x0 V, there exist an open neighbourhood V of x0

and a differentiable isomorphism of U Rn onto p1 (U) such that

1) p(x, v) = x

2) (x, v + v ) = (x, v) + (x, v )

3) (x, v) = (x, v)

for every x V, v, v L and R.

Proposition 1. Every vector bundle of dimension n over V is associated

to a principal bundle over V with group GL(n, R).

In fact, let E be a vector bundle of dimension n over V and q :

E V the projection of E. For every x V, define P x to be the set

S

P x . The group

of all linear isomorphisms of Rn onto E x and P =

xV

Define p : P V by p(P x ) = x. By definition of vector bundles,

there exist an open covering U V and a family of diffeomorphisms

: U Rn q1 (U ) satisfying conditions 1), 2) and 3). For every

, the map : U G p1 (U ) defined by (x, s)v = (x, sv)

for x U , s G is bijective. We put on P a differentiable structure

by requiring that all be diffeomorphisms. It is easy to see that on the

overlaps the differentiable structures agree. Moreover,

(x, st)v = (x, (st)v)

= (x, s(tv))

= (x, s)(tv)

79

group G. Let q be the map of P Rn onto E defined by q (, v) = v for

P, v Rn . It is easy to see that P Rn is a principal bundle over E

with projection q . Hence E is an associated bundle of P.

63

Definition 1. Let V and V be two differentiable manifolds, E a vector

bundle over V and E a vector bundle over V . A homomorphism h of

E into E is a differentiable map h : E E such that such that, for

every x V, p h(E x ) reduces to a point x V and the restriction hx of

h to E x is a linear map of E x into E x .

The map h : V V defined by the condition p h = hp is differentiable and is called the projection of h. If V = V , by a homomorphism

of E into E , we shall mean hereafter a homomorphism having the identity map V V as projection. In that case, h : E E is injective

or surjective according as all the maps hx : E x E x are injective or

surjective.

A vector bundle of dimension n over V is said to be trivial if it is

isomorphic to the bundle VRn (with the natural projection VRn V).

Let P be a principal bundle over V to which the vector bundle E is 80

associated. If P is trivial, so is E and every section of P defines an

isomorphism of V L onto E.

Let E, E , E be vector bundles over V. Then a sequence of homomorphisms

h

E

E

E

is said to be exact if, for every x V, the sequence

hx

kx

E x E x E x

is exact

Let E be a vector bundle over a manifold V and q a differentiable map of

a manifold Y into V. Let Eq be the subset of the product Y E consisting

of elements (y, ) such that q(y) = p(). Define p : Eq Y by setting

p (y, ) = y. If p (y, ) = p (y , ), then y = y and p1 (y)(y Y) by

64

setting

(y, ) + (y, ) = (y, + )

(y, ) = (y, )

81

vector bundle over Y. This is called the bundle over Y induced by q.

Let P be a principal bundle over X and E a vector bundle associated to

P. If Pq is the principal bundle over Y induced by q (Ch. 2.4) then Eq is

associated to Pq .

Let M be a differentiable manifold and a sheaf over M. If V U are

two open sets in M, VU denotes the restriction map (U) (V) and

for every x U, xU denotes the canonical map of (U) into the stalk x

at x.

Let U be the sheaf of differentiable real valued functions on M. For

every open set U M, (U) is the algebra of real valued differentiable

functions on U. A sheaf over M is called a sheaf of U - modules

if, for every open set U M, U (U) is an U (U)-module and if the

restriction maps satisfy the condition:

Vu ( f ) = (VU f )(VU )

whenever V U are open sets in M, f U (U) and (U).,

Let and be two sheaves of U -modules over M.A homomorphism h of into is a family of maps hU : HomU (U) ((U), (U))(U

open subset of M) such that if V U are two open sets in M, VU hU =

hV VU .

Let E be a differentiable vector bundle over M. The sheaf of differentiable sections of E is a sheaf of U -modules over M; for every

open set U M, (U) is the U (U)- module of differentiable sections of

E over U.

82

n if is isomorphic to the sheaf U n of differentiable maps M Rn .

65

every point x M has a neighbourhood U such that restricted to U is

a free sheaf of rank n.

For every vector bundle E over M, the sheaf of differentiable sections of E is locally free of rank= dimension of E.

Proposition 2. A sheaf of U -modules over M is locally free of rank

n if and only if for every x M, there exists a neighbourhood U of x

and elements 1 , 2 , . . . n (U) such that for every open set V U,

(VU 1 , VU 2 , . . . VU n ) is a base of (V) over U (V).

That a locally free sheaf has such a property is an immediate consequence of the definition. Conversely, if such elements 1 , 2 , . . . n

over U exist, then, for every open set V U,the map hV of U (V)n into

(V) defined by hV ( f1 , f2 , . . . fn ) = f1 1 + f2 2 + . . . fn n is bijective

and the maps hV define an isomorphism of the sheaf U n of differentiable

maps U Rn onto the sheaf restricted to U.

Let E and E be two vector bundles over M. To every homomorphism h : E E there corresponds in an obvious way a homomorphism h : and the assignment E of locally free sheaves to

vector bundles is a functor T from the category of vector bundles over

M into the category of locally free sheaves over M.

Moreover, if

h

k

0 E

E

E 0

is an exact sequence, then the sequence

h

0 T E T e T E 0

is also exact (in the first sequence, 0 denotes the vector bundle of dimension 0 over M).

We shall now define a functor from the category of locally free

sheaves into the category of vector bundles over M. Let be a locally

free sheaf over M. Let U x be the stalk at x M for the sheaf U and m x

the ideal of germs of f U x such that f (x) = 0. Then we have the exact

sequence

0 m x x R 0.

83

66

exact sequence

0 m x x x x /m x x 0.

Let E x = x /m x x , E =

84

xM

(U) satisfying the condition of prop.2. Then, for every x U, xU 1 ,

xU 2 , . . . xU n is a basis of x over U x . Let i (x) be the image of

xU i in the quotient space E x . Then 1 (x), 2 (x), . . . n (x) also is a

base of E X over R. The map U : U Rn p1 (U) E defined by

P

(x, a1 , a2 , . . . an ) = ai i (x) is obviously a bijection. There exists on

E one and only one differentiable structure such that every map U is a

diffeomorphism. With this structure, E is a differentiable vector bundle

T over M. Let , be two locally free sheaves of U modules over

M. To every homomorphism h : corresponds in an obvious way

a homomorphism T h : T T and the assignment T is a

functor T from the category of locally free sheaves to the category of

vector bundles over M. Moreover, if

0 0

is an exact sequence of locally free sheaves, then

0 T T T 0

is an exact sequence of vector bundles.

Proposition 3. For every vector bundle E over M, there exists a canonical isomorphism of E onto T T E. For every locally free sheaf of U

modules over M, there exists a canonical isomorphism of onto T T .

(We shall later identify E with T T E and E with T T E means of these

isomorphisms.)

For instance, if = T E and E = T , the isomorphism E E

maps u E x into (x) where is a differentiable section over an

open neighbourhood of x such that (x) = u. In particular T defines a

67

the set of classes of isomorphic locally free sheaves of U modules over

M.

Many vector bundles are defined in differential geometry from a lo- 85

cally free sheaf, using the functor T . For instance the tangent bundle

for a manifold M corresponds the sheaf C over M such that C (U) is the

module of differentiable vector fields over the open set U M,

Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over a manifold V with group

G. Let J be the sheaf over V such that for every open set U V, J(U) is

the spec of invariant differentiable vector fields on p1 (U) P. Clearly

each J(U) is a module over the algebra U (U) of differentiable functions on U and J is sheaf of U -modules.

Let U be an open subset of V such that P is trivial over U and such

that the module C (U) of vector fields on U is a free module over U (U).

Let X1 .X2 , . . . Xm be a base of C (U) over U (U). Let I1 , I2 , . . . In be

a base of right invariant vector fields on G. Then ((Xi , 0), (0, I j )) for

i = 1, 2, . . . m, j = 1, 2, . . . n is a base of the U (U)-module of vector

fields on U G invariant under G acting to the right. This base satisfies

the condition of Prop.2. Therefore the sheaf of invariant vector fields

on U G is a free sheaf of rank = m + n over the sheaf U , restricted

to U. Hence,J is a locally free sheaf of U modules of rank equal to

dim V + dim G.

By Chap.5.4, there exists a vector bundle j = T J of dimension =

dim V + dim G canonically associated to J. Any point in the fibre Jx of 86

J at x V may be interpreted as a family of vectors L along the fibre P x

satisfying the condition

Ls = L()s for P x , s G.

Let K be the sheaf of U -modulo over V such that, for every open

subset U V, K (U) is the sub-module of J(U) consisting of invariant

vector fields tangential to the fibres. Then K is locally free of rank

= dim G and there exists a canonical injection K J. The vector

68

= dim G over V. Any point in the fibre K x of K at x V may be

regarded as a vector field of the manifold P x invariant under the action

of G.

For every open set U V, any X J(U) is projectable and the

projection defines a homomorphism PU HomU (U) (J(U), C (U)). The

family of homomorphisms pU gives rise to a homomorphism p : J

C . Since pU is surjective when U is paracompact, p : J C is

surjective. On the other hand, since the kernel of pU is K (U), the kernel

of p is the image of K J. Therefore we have the exact sequence of

locally free sheaves over V:

0 K J C 0.

This gives rise to an exact sequence of vector bundles over V:

0K JC0

87

Theorem 1. The vector bundle K is a vector bundle associated to P

with typical fibre Y , the action of G on Y being given by the adjoint

representation.

Let E = (P Y )/G the vector bundle over V canonically associated

to P and q the map PY E. We shall define a canonical isomorphism

of E onto K. Let U be an open subset of V and (U) a differentiable

section of E on U. We define a differentiable map

of p1 (U) into Y

1

by the condition q(, )

= (p) for every p (U). Then (s)

=

1

1

s ()s

belongs to K (U). It is easy to

X on p1 (U) defined by X = ()

verify that the map X is an isomorphism U of the U (U)-module

(U) onto the U (U)-module K (U). The family U (U open in V) is an

isomorphism of the sheaf of differentiable sections of E onto the sheaf

K . Hence (U ) defines an isomorphism of E onto K. Let (, a)

P Y . Then q(, a) = xU X where U is an open neighbourhood of x

and X K (U) a vector field satisfying the condition X = a.

69

(P Y )/G with K. The vector bundle K is called the adjoint bundle of

P.

Definition 3. Let

88

h

0E

E

E 0

be an exact sequence of vector bundles over the manifold V. A splitting

E

E

of this exact sequence is an exact sequence 0 E

homomorphism (resp ) of E into E (resp of E into E) such that h

(resp k) is the identity determines a splitting. We shall now interpret

the splitting of the exact sequence

(S)

0 K J C 0.

For every open set U V, the module J(U) (resp. K (U)) will be

identified with the module of differentiable sections of J (resp. . K) over

U.

Theorem 2. There exists one and only one bijection of the set of connections on P onto the set of splittings J K of (S ) such that, if is a

connection on P,

(X) = () X

If is a connection on P, then, for every open set U V, the restriction of the tensor to U = p1 (U) is a projection of the module C (U )

of vector fields on U onto the module N(U ) of vector fields on U tan- 89

gential to the fibres which is invariant under the action of G and induces

a projection U : J(U) K (U). The family (U ) is a homomorphism of the sheaf J onto the sheaf K and defines a homomorphism

: J K which is a splitting of (S ). For every invariant vector field

X on P, we have () X = V (X) = (X). Since two homomorphisms

, : J K such that X = X for every differentiable section

X of J coincide, the map is completely determined by the condition

(X) = () X. Moreover, since two connections and such that

(X) = (X) for every invariant vector field X coincide, is injective. It

70

open set U V, Let U be the projection of J(U) onto K (U) defined

by setting U X = X for every X J(U). Assume P to be trivial

N C (U ) defines

J(U) onto C (U ).

U (U)

The injection KN

(U) N(U ) defines an isomorphism of the U (U )

module U (U )

K (U) onto N(U ). Therefore U is the restriction

U (U)

is invariant under the action of G. Hence V is the restriction to J(V)

of a projection : C (P) N(P) which is a connection on P. For every

invariant vector field X on P, (X) = V x = X. Therefore = .

90

Remark. Let 0 K

J

C 0 be the splitting of (S ) corresponding to a connection on P. For every vector field X on the base

manifold, regarded as a section of C, the invariant vector field X

is the horizontal vector field on P (for the connection ), having X as

projection (cf. Atiyah [2]).

Let V and V be two differentiable manifolds, and E, E two differentiable vector bundles of dimension n over V and V respectively. Let h

be a homomorphism of E into E with projection h : V V. Assume

the map h : E x Eh(x ) to be bijective for every x V . If is a

section of E over V, then exists one and only one section of E over

V such that h = h. If is differentiable, so is . Since h is a

differentiable map of V into V, any module over the algebra U (V ) of

differentiable functions over V can be regarded as a module over the

algebra U (V) of differentiable functions over V. Then the map

is a homomorphism of (V) into (V ) regarded as U (V)-modules.

In particular, let P be a principal differentiable bundle with group G

over V and let p : P V be the projection. Let s sL be a linear

representation of G in a vector space L. Assume E to be a vector bundle

associated to P with typical fibre L and q to be the map P L E.

71

the section is defined by q () = p() for P. Let L (P) be 91

the space of differentiable maps of P into L. Since to any section of

E = P L corresponds a map

L (P) such that () = (, ()),

we obtain a homomorphism :

of the U (V)-module (V) into

L (P) such that

q(, )

= p ()

for every P.

Definition 4. A differentiable function on P with values in the vector

space L is said to be a G-function if f (s) = s1

L f () for every P, s

G.

We shall denote the space of G-functions P L by LG (P).

Proposition 4. The homomorphism : (V) L (P) is injective and

(V) = LG (P).

If (V) and = 0, then () = 0 for every P. Therefore

= 0 since p is surjective. On other hand, if (V) and

= ,

we have q(s, (s))

= q(s, s1

())

for

L

every P and s G. Hence

LG (P). Conversely, let f LG (P).

The map q(, f ) maps each fibre into a point of E X and therefore

can be written p , with (V). We have f = .

We shall now show how a connection on P gives rise to a derivation

law in the module of sections of the vector bundle E over V. By means

of the map (V) L (P), the derivation law in the U (V)-module (V)

will be deduced from a derivation law in the U (P)-module L (P).

92

To the representation s sL of G in L corresponds a representation

in L of the Lie algebra Y of left invariant vector fields on G. For every

a Y , define aL by setting aL v = av v for every v L, the vectors

at 0 of L being identified with elements of L. Then it is easy to see that

[a, b]L = aL bL bL aL . Hence a aL is a linear representation of Y in

L.

Let Y (P) be the space of differentiable functions on P with values in Y . The linear map a aL of Y into homR (L, L) defines an

72

(L f )() = ()L f () for P, Y (P) and f L (P).

We have already seen (Ch. 1) that there are canonical derivation laws

in the modules Y (P) and L (P) and hence in homU (P) (L (P), L (P))

also. It is easy then to see that

(X)L f = X(L f ) L (X f )

for every Y (P) and f L (P). We now define in L (P) a new

derivation law in terms of a given connection form on the bundle by

setting

DX f = X f + (X)L f

93

for every X C (P) and f L (P). This differs from the canonical derivation law in L (P) by the map : X (X)L of C (P) into

homU (P) (L (P), L (P)). The curvatures form the canonical derivation

law has been shown to be zero in Ch.1.9. Hence if K is the curvature

form of the derivation law and K the curvature form of the connection

from , we have

K(X, Y) = DX DY DY DX D[X.Y]

= K(X, Y)L

only one derivation law D in the module of sections on the vector bundle

E on V such that for every section and every projectable vector field

X on P, we have

DpX = X

+ (X)L

Lemma 1. If X is a vector field on P tangential to the fibres and f

L (P), then DX f = 0.

73

DZa f = Za f + ((Za ))L f = Za f + aL f

Hence

94

If g(s) = f (s) = s1 f (), then (a) f = ag = aL f (). Therefore

DZa f = 0 and the lemma is proved since the module of vector fields

tangential to the fibres is generated by the vector fields Za (a Y ).

Lemma 2. If X is projectable and f LG (P), then DX f LG (P).

By lemma 1, it is enough to consider the case when X is a horizontal

projectable vector field. Then (X) = 0 and hence we have

(DX f )(s) = (X f )(s) = Xs f = (X s) f = X h,

where h() = f (s) = s1 f . Therefore

(DX f )(s) = s1 (X f ) = s1 (DX f )()

for s G, i.e., DX f LG (P).

The converse cannot be expected to be true in general. For, if E is

a trivial vector bundle over V with group reduced to {e}, it is clear that

we can have only the trivial connections in P, whereas there are nonzero

derivation laws in V. However, we have the

Theorem 4. Let G be the group of automorphisms of a vector space

L, P a principal differentiable bundle with group G over a manifold V 95

and E a differentiable vector bundle over V associated to P with typical

fibre L. Let p be the projection of P onto V. For every derivation law

D in the U (V)-module (V) of differentiable sections of E, there exists

one and one connections form on P such that

(C)

DpX = X

+ (X)L

74

(V) and every vector dx at a point x V, let Ddx be the value (DX )(x),

where X is any vector field on V such that Xx = dx. Let d be a vector

with origin at P x . We define a map r(d) of (V) into the fibre E x

by setting

r(d) = D pd q(, d )

96

U (V) and every (V), r(d) depends only upon (x) or upon ().

q(, ())

of L, there exists an element (d) in the Lie algebra Y of G such that

r(d) = q(, (d)L ())

degree 1 on P with values in y satisfying the condition (C). From (C)

we deduce that (X) is differentiable whenever X is a differentiable projectable vector field on P. Therefore is differentiable. It is the easy

to verify that is a connection form on P. Any connection form on P

satisfying the condition (C) coincides with since the representation of

Y in L is faithful and since a form on P is determined by its values on

projectable vector fields.

Let E be a vector bundle over V associated to the principal bundle P with

typical fibre L, a connection form on P, D the corresponding derivation

law in the module of sections (V) of E, q the usual map P L E,

a differentiable path in V with origin at x V, and an integral lift of

in P with respect to . For every y E x , there exists v L such that

q((0),

v) = y.

Then it is easy to see that the path q((t),

v) in E depends only on

y and . The path q((t),

v) is called the integral lift of with origin y.

The vectors q((t), v) are sometimes said to be parallel vectors along .

Let be a section of the bundle E and dx a vector at x V. We

would like to define the derivation of with respect to dx in terms of

parallelism. Let be a differentiable path with origin x and (0) = dx

75

(t))

so that q((t),

v(t)) =

((t)). Define y(t) = q((0),

1

Ddx = lim {y(t) y(0)}.

t0 t

In fact, if

97

= (0)

(

)

1

1

lim (y(t) y(0)) = q((0),

t0 t

t0 t

1

= q((0),

lim {(

(t)

(

(0))})

t0 t

= q((0),

d )

= q((0),

d

+ (d)L )

= Ddx .

For every Y E x , let (, v) P L such that q(, v) = Y. Then

q(d, v) T Y . This gives in particular, a map of the space of horizontal vectors with origin at into T Y , which is clearly injective. If we

compose this with the projection, we obtain the bijection p : T x .

We define a vector at Y in E to be horizontal if it is of the form q(d, v)

with q(, v) = Y and d S . It is easy to see that this definition does

not depend on the particular pair (, v). With this definition, for every

integral in P and every u L, the path Y(t) = q((t),

v) has horizontal

agents at all points. The space of horizontal vectors at Y is a subspace of

T Y supplementary to the subspace of vectors T Y tangents to the fibres

through Y.

Theorem 5. Let be a section of E over V. Then (dx) is horizontal if 98

and only if Ddx = 0.

Let d be a horizontal tangent vector at p1 (x) whose projection

is dx. Then we have

Ddx = q(, d

+ (d))

= q(, d ).

76

But

has been defined by

q(, ())

= (p).

Hence q(, (d))

+ q(d, ())

horizontal, so is q(, (d)).

= x, i.e., (d)

=

().

Since d

= (d)

(),

it follows that d

= 0. Therefore

q(, d )

= 0. The converse is also immediate.

This theorem enables us to define integral paths in E with respect to

a given derivation law in (V).

99

V. A differential form of degree n on V with values in the vector bundle

E is an n-form on the module C (V) of differentiable vector fields on V

with values in the module (V) of differentiable sections of the bundle

E.

For every n-tuple d1 x, d2 x, . . . dn x of vectors at x V, the value

(d1 x, d2 x, . . . dn x) of belongs to E x . The U (V)-module of forms of

degree n on V with values in E will be denoted by n (V).

Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over V, with group G and

projection p. Assume E to be associated to P, with typical fibre L and

let q be the map P L E. For every integer n 0, we shall define

an isomorphism of n (V) into the space L n (P) of differential forms of

degree n on P with values in the vector space L. For n = 0, has been

defined in 5.6. Assume n > 0. For every n (V), we define a form

= on P with values in L by the condition

q(, (d

1 , d2 , . . . dn )) = (pd1 , pd2 , . . . pdn )

100

are n projectable vector fields on P, then

()(X1 , X2 , . . . Xn ) = ((pX1 , pX2 , . . . pXn ))

5.9. Examples

77

Therefore, is differentiable and belongs to L n (P). It is immediately seen that is an injective homomorphism of n (V) into L n (P)

regarded as U (V)-modules. Moreover, if belongs to the image of in

L n (P), then :

1) (d

1 s, d2 s, . . . dn s) = s1 (d

1 , d2 , . . . dn )s

for every sequence di of n vectors with origin at P and every

s G,

2)

(d

1 , d2 , . . . dn ) = 0

for every sequence di of n vectors with origin at P such that one

of the di has projection 0.

said to be a G- form of degree n on P with values in L.

Let LGn (P) be the set of G-forms of degree n. It is easy to see that

LGn (P) is a submodule of L (P) over U (V). Moreover LGn (P) is the

image of the homomorphism : n (V) L n (P).

5.9 Examples

1. Let , be two connection forms on the principal bundle P over

V. Let = . Then we have (d s) = s1 (d)s; and

(d) = (d) (d) = 0 if pd = 0. In other words, LG1 (P)

with respect to the adjoint representation of G in Y . Hence =

where is a differential form of degree 1 on V with values in

the adjoint bundle of P which is a vector bundle associated to P

with typical fibre Y . This gives a method of finding all connection forms from a given one. This is particularly useful when G is

abelian, in which case the adjoint representation of G in Y is trivial and consequently may be considered as a differential form

on V with values in Y

2. Let K be the curvature form of the connection form on a princi- 101

pal bundle P. Then

78

K(d1 s, d2 s) = s1 K(d1 , d2 )s

and

K(d1 , d2 ) = 0 if either d1 or d2 N

in Y and corresponds to a form of degree 2 on V with values in the

associated adjoint bundle.

Let C be the vector bundle of tangent vectors on V. We consider C as

a vector bundle associated to the principal bundle P of tangent frames

on V with typical fibre Rn . There exists an one-one correspondence

between connections on P (which are called linear connections on V)

and derivations laws in the module C (V) of vector fields on V. The

torsion form is an alternate form of degree 2 with values in the tangent

bundle C.

Given any linear connection on V, we have the notion of geodesics

on V. (In Ch.5.10 to Ch.5.12, we consider paths with arbitrary intervals

of definition). In fact, if is a differentiable path in V, then there exists

a canonical lift of in C defined by t (t). We shall denote this lift

by .

102

is integral. (In other words, the vector (t) at (t) C should be

horizontal for the given linear connection).

Lemma 3. Let be a path in V and an integral lift of in P. Then

is a geodesic if and only if there exists v Rn such that q((t),

v) = (t)

for every t I.

The proof is trivial.

It will be noted that the notion of a geodesic depends essentially on

the parametrisation of the path. However, a geodesic remains a geodesic

for linear change of parameters.

Let Y C be a vector at a point x V and Y the horizontal vector at

Y whose projection is Y. Then is a vector field on C called the geodesic

79

following computation of in local coordinates.

Let C be the tangent bundle of a manifold V with a derivation law D.

Let p be the projection C V. If Y is a vector at x = pY V and

U a neighbourhood of pY wherein a coordinate system (x1 , . . . xn ) is

x

j

a family of differential forms on U dual to Pi , i.e., y j (Pi ) = i . The

y j may also be regarded as scalar functions on p1 (U) C. Thus for

Y P, (y1 , y2 , . . . yn , x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) form a coordinate system in p1 (U).

Set Qi = /yi . Then we assert that the geodesic vector field is given

in p1 (U) by

X

X

=

yi Pi

ki, j yi y j QK

i

i, j,k

D Pi P j =

103

ki, j Pk .

In fact, using Th.5, Ch.5.7, we see that the value of the differential

P

j

forms dy j + yk i,k (x)dxi on the vector is zero. It is easy to observe

P k i j

P i,k

that Y = yi (Pi )Y

i, j y y Qk is horizontal and that pY = Y. This

i

i, j,k

Proposition 5. is geodesic path in V if and only if the canonical lift

of is integral for , i.e., (t) = (t) for every t.

In fact, if is a geodesic, then we have p (t) = (t) and p (t) =

(t) for every t I. Hence (t) = (t) . The converse is trivial in as

much every path integral for is also integral for the connection.

80

(t) = (t)

By assumption (t) = (t) and if (t) = p(t), we have (t) =

= p(t) , i.e., is the canonical lift of and is integral.

The geodesic vector field on C generates a local one-parameter

group of local automorphisms of C. We say that the linear connection

on V is complete if generates a one-parameter group of global automorphisms of V. It is known that in a compact manifold, any vector

field generates such a one-parameter group of automorphisms. On other

hand, if the local one-parameter group generated by in C is represented

locally by 2n functions i (y1 , . . . yn , x1 , . . . xn , t) of (2n + 1) variables,

then it is easy to observe that the first n of these functions are linear

in y1 , . . . , yn . From this it is immediate that any linear connection on a

compact manifolds is complete.

The nomenclature complete is due to the fact that a Riemannian

connection is complete if and only if the Riemannian metric is complete

([27]).

Let be a complete linear connection and the geodesic vector

field. Let t be the automorphism of C corresponding to the parameter

t in the one-parameter group generated by . Paths which are integral

for are of the form t t Y (i.e., the orbit of Y under t ). Given any

vector Y at a point x on the manifold V, (t) = p(t Y) is the geodesic

curve defined by Y. For every x V, the map : C x V defined by

setting (Y) = p(1 Y) is a differentiable map of maximal rank at 0x and

therefore defines a diffeomorphism of an open neighbourhood of 0 in

the vector space C x onto an open neighbourhood of x in V([26]).

p (t)

104

Chapter 6

Holomorphic Connections

6.1 Complex vector bundles

Definition 1. A complex vector bundle is a differentiable vector bundle 105

E over a manifold V with a differentiable automorphism J : E E

such that

1) JE x E x for every x V;

2) J 2 Y = Y for every Y E.

Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over V with group G. Let

us assume given a left representation s sL of G in a complex vector

space L, such that each sL is a complex automorphism of L. Then a

vector bundle E associated to P with typical fibreL can be made into a

complex vector bundle by setting Jq (, v) = q(, 1v) for every P

and v L, q being the usual projection P L E. Conversely any

complex vector bundle E can be obtained in the above way. In fact, for

x V we define P x to bethe vector space of all linear isomorphisms

: Cn E x such that ( 1v) = J(v) for v Cn . Then as in Ch. 4,

one can provide P = P x with the structure true of a principal bundle

over V with group GL(n, C).E is easily seen to be a complex bundle

associated to P with fibre Cn with respect to the obvious representation

of GL(n, C) in Cn .

If E is a complex vector bundle, the U (V) module (V) of differ- 106

81

82

6. Holomorphic Connections

module UC (V) being the algebra of complex-valued differentiable functions on V) by setting ( f +ig) = f + Jg for f, g U (V). Conversely

if I is an endomorphism of the U (V) module of sections of a differentiable vector bundle E over V such that I 2 = for every section

, then there exists one and only one automorphism J of E such that

J(x) = (I)x (for every section and x V) and J makes of E a

complex vector bundle.

Definition 2. An almost complex manifold is a differentiable manifold

V for which the tangent bundle has the structure of a complex vector

bundle, i.e., there exists an U (V) endomorphism I of C (V) such that

I 2 = (Identity).

The UC (V)- module CC (V) of complex vector fields (defined as formal sums X1 + iX2 , X1 , X2 C (V)) can be identified with the module

of derivations of UC (V) over C. The U (V) endomorphism I of C (V)

can then be extended to an UC (V)- endo-morphism of CC (V) by setting

I(X1 + iX2 ) = IX1 + iIX2 for X1 , X2 C (V).

Definition 3. A vector field X CC (V) is said to be of type (1, 0) (resp. .

of type (0, 1)) if IX iX (resp. . IX = iX).

107

We shall denote by C(1,0) (V), C(0,1) (V) the UC (V)- modules of vector

fields of type (1, 0) and type (0, 1) respectively.

Clearly one has CC (V) = C(1,0) (V) C(0,1) (V). Moreover, any vector

field X of type (1, 0) can be expressed in the form X1 iIX1 with X1

C (V). On the other hand, X iI x is of type (1, 0) for every X CC (V).

Similarly every vector field of type (0, 1) can be expressed in the form

X1 + iIX1 with X1 C (V) and X + iIX is of type (0, 1) for every X

UC (V).

Let V be an almost complex manifold and E a complex vector bundle over V. A complex form of degree p on V with values in E is a

multilinear form of degree p on the UC (V) - module CC (V) with values

83

in (V). Any real form can be extended in one and only one way to a

complex form. On the other hand, every complex form is an extension

of a real form.

Every holomorphic manifold V carries with it a canonical almost

complex structure. With reference to this a vector field on V is of type

(1, 0) if and only if its expression in terms of any system (Z1 , . . . , Zn ) of

,...,

. Hence it follows that

local coordinates does not involve

Z 1

Zn

[C(1,0) (V), C(1,0) (V)] C(1,0) (V). Conversely an almost complex structure on V comes from a holomorphic structure on V if [C(1,0) (V), C(1,0)

(V)] C(1,0) (V) cf. Newlander and Nirendberg, Annals of Math. 1957.

Let X, Y CC (V). Then X iIX, Y iIY C(1,0) (V) and the above

condition requires that [X iIX, Y iIY] C(1,0) (V). In other words,

[X, Y] [IX, IY] = I[IX, Y] I[X, IY].

108

An almost complex structure on V is induced by a holomorphic

structure if and only if F(X, Y) = 0 for every X, Y CC (V).

We wish to study derivation laws in the module of sections of a complex

vector bundle over an almost complex manifold (mostly holomorphic

manifold). This can be done in the algebraic set-up of Ch.1.

Let A be a commutative algebra over the field of real numbers and

AC its complexification. Let C be the AC module of derivations of AC .

We assume given on C and AC - endomorphism I such that I 2 =

= X a for a A, then we also

(Identity). If we define X C by Xa

X C is said to be of type (1, 0) (resp. .

assume that I satisfies I X = IX.

type (0, 1)) if IX = iX (resp. . IX = iX). Let M be an A- module. A

multilinear form of degree p on C with values in M is said to be of

type (r, s) if r + s = p and (X1 , . . . X p ) = 0 whenever either more than

rXi s are of type (1, 0) or more than sXi s are of type (0, 1). We shall

denote the submodule of F p (C, M) consisting of all forms of type (r, s)

6. Holomorphic Connections

84

109

r+s=p

the sum being direct. Let us denote the module of alternate forms of

type (r, s) on C with values in M by U r,s (C, M). Let M1 , M2 , M3 be

three AC - modules with a bilinear product M1 M2 M3 . It is then

easy to see that if U r,s (C, M1 ), U r ,s (C, M2 ), then

We shall now make the additional assumption that F[X, Y] = [X, Y]+

I[IX, Y] + I[X, IY] [IX, IY] = 0 for every X, Y C. (This corresponds

to the case when the base manifold V is holomorphic). A derivation law

D in an AC module M gives rise to an exterior derivation d in U p (C, M).

Using the explicit formula for d (Ch.1.7) and the fact that F 0, it is

easily proved that for U r,s (C, M), d is the sum of a form d of

type (r + 1, s) and a form d of type (r, s + 1). The curvature form

K U 2 (C, HomAC (M, M) is a sum of three components K 2,0 , K 1,1 and

K 0,1 . For U p,q (C.M) we have d2 = K (Lemma 5, Ch. 1.9) and

calculating the components of type (p, q + 2) we obtain

d2 = K 0,2 .

d2

P

= 0. For every integer p, form the sum U p,q (C, M) = T p . Then

q

we have a complex

U

110

p,0

(C, M) U

p,1

(C, M) U

p,q

(C, M)

D be another derivation law in M. Then D = D + where

HomC (C, HomAC (M, M)) (see Ch. 1.10). We shall say that two derivation laws D, D are equivalent if is of type (1, 0). The boundary op

erator d in the complex S p remains the same when D is replaced by

For, if D = D + , we have (Ch.1.10)

an equivalent derivation law D.

p,q

= d + for U (C, M). Hence on computing the compod

nents of type (p, q+1), one obtains d = d . Thus we have associated

to every equivalence class of derivation laws, a complex T p (for every

integer p).

85

(M, M) = End M(Ch.1.3). Then it is easy to see that

K(X, Y) = K(X, Y) K(X, Y)

for X, Y C, end M. Hence if K 0,2 = 0, K 0,2 is also = 0. Moreover,

Hence to an equivalence class of

if D, D are equivalent, so are D, D.

derivation laws in M corresponds a complex T p (for every integer p):

U

p,o

(C, End M) U

p,1

(C, End M) U

p,q

(C, End M)

(Lemma 6, Ch.1.9) and K 0,2 = 0, we get d K 1,1 = 0, i.e., K 1,1 is a

cocycle of the complex T . If D is replaced by an equivalent derivation

we have (Ch.1.10) K = K + d + where D = D + . 111

law D,

But U 1,0 (C, EndM). Hence K 1,1 = K 1,1 + d . In other word, the

cohomology class of K 1,1 in the above complex T 1 is uniquely fixed.

Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over an almost complex manifold V with complex Lie group G. Let Y be the Lie algebra of G 112

identified with the space of real tangent vectors at e. We denote by IG

the endomorphism Y Y given by the complex structure of G and by

I the almost complex structure of V. Obviously we have

s(IG a)1 s = IG (sas1 ) for s G, a Y .

Let P and p = x V. Then we have the exact sequence

0 N T T x 0

where N is the space of vectors at tangential to the fibre. If a connection is given on P, then we may define as almost complex structure on

P by carrying over the complex structure on T x to S (the space of horizontal vectors at ) and that of Y to N (by virtue of the isomorphism

a a). This is easily seen to define an almost complex structure on P

so that we have the

6. Holomorphic Connections

86

bundle P over an almost complex manifold V with complex Lie group

G. Then there exists one and only one almost complex structure on the

manifold P such that

1) (I p d) = IG (d)

2) pI p d = I pd for P.

In virtue of the general procedure given in Ch.6.2, is defined on

complex vector fields by setting (iX) = IG (X) for X C (P). The

connection form is obviously of type (1, 0) with respect to the induced

almost complex structure on P. Moreover, the P G P given by the

action of G on P is almost complex. We shall call a principal bundle P

over an almost complex manifold V with complex Lie group G an almost

complex principal bundle if P has an almost complex structure such that

the projection p and the map (, s) s of P G P are both almost

complex (i.e., compatible with the almost complex structure). We have

seen above that P with the almost complex structure induced by a connection form on P is an almost complex principal bundle. Conversely,

let P be an almost complex principal bundle. If = 1,0 + 0,1 is a

connection form on P then 1,0 is again a connection form. In fact,

1

1,0 (a) = 1,0 ((a + iI p a) + (a iI p a))

2

1

= (a iI p a)

2

1

1

= (a IG (IP a)) = (a IG (IG a))

2

2

=a

113

we have

1 1,0

(IP d + id + IP d id)

2

1

= (IP d + id)

2

1,0 (IP d) =

87

= IG 1,0 (d).

On the other hand, pIP d = I p d by assumption. Hence by prop.1,

Ch.6.4, 1,0 induces the given almost complex structure on P.

Let , be two connection forms on an almost complex principal

bundle P. Then is a G-form (Ch.5) of degree 1 on P with values

in Y . It may be identified with a differential form of degree 1 on V with

values in the adjoint bundle. Using the fact that every vector field on

V of type (1,0) is the projection of a vector field on P of type (1,0) it

is easy to see that this identification is type-preserving. In other words,

the type of G-forms on P with values in Y depends only on the almost

complex structure on V. We say that , are equivalent if is of

type (1,0). The following proposition in then immediate.

Proposition 2. Two connections , on P induce the same almost complex structure on P if and only if and are equivalent.

On the other hand we have seen that every almost complex structure

on P which makes of it an almost complex principal bundle is induced 114

by a connection of type (1, 0). We have thus set up one-one correspondence between almost complex bundle structure on P and equivalence

classes of connections.

We will hereafter assume that the base manifold V is holomorphic

and investigate when a connection form induces a holomorphic structure on P. Then curvature form K of is a G-form of degree 2 with

values in Y . Let K = K 2,0 + K 1,1 + K 0,2 be its decomposition.

Proposition 3. A connection form on P induces a holomorphic structure on P if and only if K 0,2 = 0.

In fact, if induces a holomorphic structure on P, then d = 0.

Since K = d + [, ] and is of type (1, 0) for the induced complex

structure, K 0,2 = 0. Conversely, let K 0,2 = 0. We have then to show that

F P (X, Y) = [X, Y] + IP [P X, Y] + IP [X, IP Y] [IP X, IP Y] = 0

for any two vector fields X, Y on P. Since F P is a tensor, it is sufficient to

prove that F P (X, Y) = 0 for projectable vector fields X, Y. Then IP X, IP Y

6. Holomorphic Connections

88

is holomorphic. On the other hand,

(F(X, Y)) = ([X, Y] [IP X, IP Y]) + IG ([IP X, Y] + [X, IP Y])

= ([X, Y] [IP X, IP Y] + [iIP X, Y] + [X, iIP Y])

= ([X + iIP X, Y + iIP Y]).

115

i.e., (X + iIP X)(Y + iIP Y) (Y + iIP Y)(X + iIP X) ([X + iIP X, Y +

iIP Y]) = 0.

Since is of type (1, 0), we obtain (F(X, Y)) = 0 which gives

F(X, Y) = 0.

Definition 4. A differentiable principal bundle P over a holomorphic

manifold V with a complex Lie group G is said to be a holomorphic

principal bundle if P is a holomorphic manifold such that the projection

p : P V and the map (, s) s of PG P are holomorphic.

If a connection form exists on P with K 0,2 = 0, then the induced

almost complex structure on P is holomorphic and its is obvious that

this makes of P a holomorphic principal bundles.

116

definitions of holomorphic vector bundles with respect to a holomorphic

representation of G in a complex vector space L are given in analogy

with the differentiable case.

All the results of Chapter 2 can be carried over to holomorphic bundles with obvious modifications. Let 0(U) be the algebra of holomorphic functions on an open subset U of V and 0 the sheaf of holomorphic

functions on V. The notion of a sheaf of 0- modules is defined as in

Chapter 4. Moreover, there exists a functor from the category of holomorphic vector bundles over V to the category of locally free sheaves

of 0 modules which takes exact sequences to exact sequences, and vice

versa.

89

with group G over a holomorphic manifold V, and E a holomorphic

vector bundle over V associated to P with typical fibre L. Any connection form on P defines a derivation law in the module of sections of E

(Ch.5).

Proposition 4. If the connection form is of type (1, 0), then a differentiable section of E over an open subset U of V is holomorphic if and

only if d = 0.

If

is the G-function on P with values in L corresponding to

under our usual isomorphism, it is easy to prove (as in the differentiable

case) that is holomorphic if and only if

is holomorphic. But this is

= 0 for the canonical derivation law in the

UC (P) module of L-valued functions on P. Since the derivation law D

induced by in L (P) was defined by DX f = X f + (X)L f (in the usual

notation) and is of type (1, 0), the d for D and the canonical derivation

law are the same. Since the isomorphism is type-preserving, we

have (d )

= d where d corresponds to the derivation law D in

LG (P). Hence d

= 0.

Let U be an open subset of V over which E is trivial and let 1 , . . .,

n be holomorphic sections on U which form a basis for the U (U)

P

module (U) of sections of E over U. Then for any section = fi i 117

over U we have

X

X

d =

(d fi ) i +

fi d i (Ch.1.8)

X

=

d fi i Prop. 4; Ch. 6.5

X

=

(d fi )i

In other words, d depends only on the manifold V and not on the

principal bundle P. Moreover it is obvious that d2 = 0.

However, this can be proved algebraically. In fact, if , are of

type (1, 0), so is = . From this it follows that that induced

derivation laws are equivalent and the corresponding d are the same

(Ch. 6.3). Furthermore, since K 0,2 = 0 (which is a consequence of prop.

6. Holomorphic Connections

90

have therefore a complex

d

for every open subset U of V, where p,q (U) is the module of differential

forms of type (p, q) on U with values in E. This defines a complex

S P (E) of sheaves over V:

d

118

with values in the vector bundle E. Let U p,q be the sheaf of complex

valued differentiable functions of type (p, q) on V, 0 the sheaf of holomorphic functions on V, h the sheaf of holomorphic sections of E. Then

p,q is isomorphic to the sheaf U p,q h and therefore is a fine sheaf.

0

the sequence

d

0 0 p h p,0 p,1

0

resolution of the sheaf 0 p h and if S p () is the complex of sections

0

Then

H q (S p ()) H q (C, 0 p h )

for every pair of integers p, q > 0.

Now assume E to be the adjoint bundle ad (P) to P. We shall construct a canonical cohomology class in H 1 (S 1 (ad(P))). Let be a connection form of type (1, 0) on P and K = K 2,0 + K 1,1 its curvature form.

As a G-form on P with values in the Lie algebra Y , K corresponds to an

alternate form of degree 2 on V with values in ad(P). Since d K 1,1 = 0

119

91

complex S 1 (ad(P)).

Moreover if is another connection of type (1, 0), 1,1 differs from

1,1

by a coboundary of the complex S 1 (ad(P)). We have therefore associated a unique 1-cohomology class in S 1 (ad(P)) to the holomorphic

bundle P. To the cohomology class of 1,1 corresponds an element of

H 1 (V, 01 (ad(P))h ). This will be referred to as the Atiyah class of the

0

principal bundle P.

Regarding the existence of a holomorphic connection on the bundle

P (i.e., a connection such that is a holomorphic form) , we have the

Theorem 1. There exists a holomorphic connection in a holomorphic

bundle P if and only if the Atiyah class a(P) of the bundle is zero.

if and only if d = 0. Since K 0,2 = 0, we see that d = K 1,1 = 0 and

hence 1,1 = 0.

Conversely, if a(P) = 0 and a connection form of type (1, 0) on

P, we have 1,1 0. Hence there exists a form (adP)1,0 (V) such

that d = 1,1 . Then = is a connection form on P such that

d = 0.

Corollary. There always exists a holomorphic connection on a holomorphic bundle P over a Stein manifold V.

In fact, the sheaf 01 (adG )n is a coherent sheaf and therefore

0

holomorphic connection on P.

Let 0 F 1 F F 0 be an exact sequence of locally free 120

sheaves of 0 modules over a holomorphic manifold V. Since F is

locally free, the corresponding sequence

0 Hom0 (F , F ) Hom0 (F , F ) Hom0 (F , F ) 0

6. Holomorphic Connections

92

0 H o (V, Hom0 (F , F )) H o (V, Hom0 F , F ))

H 1 (V, Hom0 (F , F )

(F , F ). The image of the identity section of Hom0 (F F ) is called

the obstruction to the splitting of the given sequence.

Let Kh , Th , Ch be the sheaves of holomorphic vector fields on P

tangential to the fibres, of all holomorphic invariant vector fields on P

and of all holomorphic vector fields on V respectively. Then we have

the exact sequence

0 Kh Th Cn 0

Let b(P) be the obstruction to the splitting of this exact sequence.

b(P) is then a class in H 1 (V, Hom0 (Ch , Kh )). We shall call this the

Atiyah obstruction class.

121

connection to exist on P is that b(P) = 0.

In fact, b(P) = 0 if and only if the above sequence splits and the rest

of the proof is exactly as for the differentiable case.

Theorem 3. There exists a canonical isomorphism of the sheaf R =

01 (adP)h onto Hom0 (Ch , Kh ) such that a(P) = b(P).

0

open subset U of V. Every R(U) is a differential form on U with

values i the adjoint bundle and

is a G-form on p1 (U) with values in

Y . For every X Ch (U) and p1 (U), we define (U ()(X)) =

1

(X iIG X ). It is easily seen that U is an isomorphism and that

2

it defines an isomorphism

: R Hom0 (Ch , Kh )

93

of which P is holomorphically trivial. We shall compute a(P), b(P) as

cocycles of the above covering with values in the sheaves R, Hom0 (Ch ,

Kh ) with respect to the above covering. Let i be holomorphic connections on p1 (Ui ) and a differentiable connection on P. K 1,1 is the

element d in (adP)1,1 (V). If = i + i over p1 (Ui ) with i

(adP)1,0 (V), then K 1,1 is the d image of i on Ui . For, d = d i =

d i (in our usual notation). Hence a(P) is represented in H 1 (X, R) 122

with respect to the above covering by the cocycle i j = (i j )

on Ui U j .

On the other hand,in the exact sequence

0 Hom0 (Cn , Kh ) Hom0 (Ih , Kh ) Hom0 (Kh , Kh ) 0

the identity section of Hom0 (Kh , Kh ) can be lifted on Ui into the map

1

i Hom0 (Th , Kh ) where i (X) = (i (X ) iIG (X )) for X

2

Th , P. Hence the obstruction class is represented by i j on Ui U j

defined by

1

i, j (pd) = ((i j ) (d) iIG (i j )(d))

2

for every d T . This represents the cocycle of the class b(P) for the

covering {Ui }. Obviously (a(P)) = b(P).

Let P be a holomorphic principal bundle over a manifold V with group

G = C (C = GL(1, C)). We shall compute the Atiyah class a(P) for

such a bundle. Let {Ui } be a covering of V over each of which P is

trivial with holomorphic sections i on Ui and a set of holomorphic

transition functions {mi j }. Since the adjoint representation is trivial, the

adjoint bundle is also trivial and the G-functions and G-forms on P are

respectively functions and forms on P which are constant on each fibre.

Let be a connections form of type (1, 0) on P. It is easy to see that 123

d (

i ) = d . But j i = m1

i j dmi j = d(log mi j ). Thus the

6. Holomorphic Connections

94

forms d(log mi j ) form a cocycle representing the Atiyah class for the

covering {Ui }.

Finally, when the base manifold is compact Kahler H 1 (V, K = 01 )

may be identified ([30]) with a subspace of H 2 (V, C) by Dolbeaults theorem. The sequences

e2i

0 Z 0

0 0

(1)

and

0C0

01 0

(2)

where Z, C are constant sheaves and 0 is the sheaf of nonzero holomorphic functions, can be imbedded in the commutative diagram

0

(3)

0

// Z

// 0

1

2i

// 0

// C

// 0

// 0

d log

// 0

// 0

where j, i are respectively the inclusion and identity maps. We get consequently the commutative diagram

H 1 (V, 0 )

// H 2 (V, Z)

H 1 (V, 0 )

124

// H 2 (V, C)

maps induced by diagram (3), and the injection given by Dolbeaults

theorem ([29]). If {mi j } are the multiplicators for a covering (Ui ) of

1

V, (mi j ) is given by

d log(mi j ). The bundle P may be regarded as

2i

1

class of P and its image by is the Chern class C(P) with complex

coefficients. By the commutativity of the diagram, we have a(P) =

2iC(P).

95

connection in a line bundle over a compact Kahler manifold, then its

Chern class with complex coefficients = 0. It has been proved under

more general assumptions on the group of the bundle that the existence of holomorphic connections implies the vanishing of all its Chern

classes [2].

Bibliography

[1] W. Ambrose and I Singer - A theorem on holonomy - Trans. Amer. 125

Math. Sec. 75(1953) 428 -443

[2] M.F.Atiyah - Complex analytic connections in fibre bundles Trans. Amer. Math. Sec. 85(1957) 181-207

[3] - On the Krull-Schmidt theorem with applications to sheaves Bull. Soc. Math. 84(1956) 307-317

[4] N. Bourbaki - Algebra multilineare

[5] E. Cartan - Les groups d holonomie des espaces generalises- Acta

Methematica 48(1926) 1-42

[6] H. Cartan - La transgression dans un groups de Lie etdans un espace fibre principal - COll. Top. Bruxelle (1950)-57-71

[7] - Notions d algebre differentielle; applications aux groups de

Lie et aux varietes ou opere un groupe de Lie (Espaces fibres ) Coll. Top. Bruxelles (1951) 15 - 27

[8] S.S.Chern - Differential geometry of fibre bundles- Proc. Int.

Cong. Math. (1950) 397 - 411

[9] S.S.Chern - Topics in differential geometry - Institute for Ad- 126

vanced Study, Princeton, 1951

[10] - Notes on differentiable manifolds, Chicago

97

98

BIBLIOGRAPHY

[12] P. Dolbeault - Forms differentielles et cohomologie surune variete

analytique complex I Annals of Math, 64(1956) 83 - 130

[13] C.H. Dowker - Lectures on Sheaf theory, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1956

[14] C.Ehresmann - Sur les arcs analytiques dun espace de Cartain C.R.Acad. Sciences 206(1938) 1433 - 1436

[15] A. Frolicher and A. Nijenhuis - Theory of vector - valued differential forms - Indagations Mathematicae 18(1956) 338 - 359

[16] - Some new cohomolgy invariants for complex manifolds II Indagationes Mathematicas 18 (1956) 553 - 564

[17] R. Godement - Theorie des faisceaux, Paris, 1958

[18] A. Grothendieck - A general theory of fibre spaces with structure

sheaf - University of Kanasa report No. 4, 1955

[19] S. Kobaysashi - Theory of connections, University of Washington,

1955

127

Amer. Math. Soc. 89 (1958) 256 - 267

[21] A. Lichnerowicz - Theorie globale des connexions et des groupes

d holonomie, Paris, 1955

[22] B. Malgrange - Lectures on the theory of several complex variables

- Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1958

[23] S. Murakami - Algebraic study of fundamental characteristic

classes of sphere bundles - Osaka Math. Journal 8(1956) 187 - 224

[24] S. Nakano - On complex analytic vector bundles - Jour. Math. Soc.

Japan 7(1955) 1 - 12

BIBLIOGRAPHY

99

algebraic variety - Mem. Coll. Sci. Kyoto 29(1955) 145 - 149

[26] K. Nomizu - Lie groups and differential geometry Pub, of the

Math. Soc, of Japan, 2, 1956

[27] G. de Rham - Sur la reductibilite dun espace de Riemann- Comm.

Math. Helv. 26(1952) 328-344

[28] - Varietes differentiables, Paris, 1955

[29] N. Steenrod - The topology of fibre bundles, Princeten, 1951 and

1957

[30] A. Weil - Varietes Kahleriennes, Paris, 1958

[31] H.Yamabe - On an arewise connected subgroup of a Lie group Osaka Math. Journal 2(1950) 13 - 14.

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