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Lectures On

Fibre Bundles and Differential Geometry


By

J.L. Koszul

Notes by

S. Ramanan

No part of this book may be reproduced in any


form by print, microfilm or any other means
without written permission from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Apollo Pier Road,
Bombay-1

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,


Bombay
1960

Contents
1 Differential Calculus
1.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2 Derivation laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3 Derivation laws in associated modules . . . .
1.4 The Lie derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5 Lie derivation and exterior product . . . . . .
1.6 Exterior differentiation . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.7 Explicit formula for exterior differentiation .
1.8 Exterior differentiation and exterior product .
1.9 The curvature form . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.10 Relations between different derivation laws .
1.11 Derivation law in C . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.12 Connections in pseudo-Riemannian manifolds
1.13 Formulae in local coordinates . . . . . . . . .

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1
1
2
4
6
8
8
10
11
12
16
17
18
19

2 Differentiable Bundles
2.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2 Homomorphisms of bundles . . . . . . . . . .
2.3 Trivial bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4 Induced bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6 Associated bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.7 Vector fields on manifolds . . . . . . . . . . .
2.8 Vector fields on differentiable principal bundles
2.9 Projections vector fields . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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21
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26
29
30
31

iii

Contents

iv
3

Connections on Principal Bundles


3.1
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Horizontal vector fields . . . .
3.3 Connection form . . . . . . .
3.4 Connection on Induced bundles
3.5 Maurer-Cartan equations . . .
3.6 Curvature forms . . . . . . . .
3.7 Examples . . . . . . . . . . .

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35
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43
46

Holonomy Groups
4.1 Integral paths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Displacement along paths . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Holonomy group . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Holonomy groups at points of the bundle .
4.5 Holonomy groups for induced connections
4.6 Structure of holonomy groups . . . . . .
4.7 Reduction of the structure group . . . . .
4.8 Curvature and the holonomy group . . . .

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57

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Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws


5.1
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5.2 Homomorphisms of vector bundles . . . . . . .
5.3 Induced vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4 Locally free sheaves and vector bundles . . . .
5.5 Sheaf of invariant vector fields . . . . . . . . .
5.6 Connections and derivation laws . . . . . . . .
5.7 Parallelism in vector bundles . . . . . . . . . .
5.8 Differential forms with values in vector bundles
5.9 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.10 Linear connections and geodesics . . . . . . .
5.11 Geodesic vector field in local coordinates . . .
5.12 Geodesic paths and geodesic vector field . . . .

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Holomorphic Connections
81
6.1 Complex vector bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.2 Almost complex manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

Contents
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.7
6.8

v
Derivation law in the complex case . . . . . .
Connections and almost complex structures .
Connections in holomorphic bundles . . . . .
Atiyah obstruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Line bundles over compact Kahler manifolds

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83
85
88
91
93

Chapter 1
Differential Calculus
1.1
Let k be a commutative ring with unit and A a commutative and asso- 1
ciative algebra over k having 1 as its element. In Applications, k will
usually be the real number field and A the algebra of differentiable functions on a manifold.
Definition 1. A derivation X is a map X : A A such that
i) X Homk (A, A), and
ii) X(ab) = (Xa)b + a(Xb) for every a, b A.
If no non-zero element in k annihilates A, k can be identified with a
subalgebra of A and with this identification we have X x = 0 for every
x k. In fact, we have only to take a = b = 1 in (ii) to get X1 = 0 and
consequently X x = xX(1) = 0.
We shall denote the set of derivations by C. Then C is obviously an
A-module with the following operations:
(X + Y)(a) = Xa + Ya
(aX)(b) = a(Xb) for a, b A and X, Y C.
We have actually something more: If X, Y, C, then [X, Y] C.
1

1. Differential Calculus

This bracket product has the following properties:


[X1 + X2 , Y] = [X1 , Y] + [X2 , Y]

2

[X, Y] = [Y, X]
 
 

X, [Y, Z] + Y, [Z, X] + Z, [X, Y] = 0,

for X, Y, Z C. The bracket is not bilinear over A, but only over k. We


have
[X, aY](b) = {X(aY) (aY)(X)} (b)

= (Xa)(Yb) + a[X, Y](b)

so that [X, aY] = (Xa)Y + a[X, Y] for X, Y C, a A. The skew commutativity of the bracket gives
[aX, Y] = (Ya)X + a[X, Y].
When A is the algebra of differentiable functions on a manifold, C
is the space of differentiable vector fields.

1.2 Derivation laws


Definition 2. A derivation law in a unitary A-module M is a map D :
C Homk (M, M) such that, if DX denotes the image of X C under
this map, we have
i) DX+Y = DX + DY
DaX = aDX for a A, X, Y C.
i.e.,
3

D HomA (C, Homk (M, M)).

ii) DX (au) = (Xa)u + aDX u for a A, u M.


In practice, M will be the module of differentiable sections of a vector bundle over a manifold V. A derivation law enables one thus to
differentiate sections of the bundle in specified directions.

1.2. Derivation laws

If we consider A as an A-module, then D defined by DX a = Xa is a


derivation law in A. This will hereafter be referred to as the canonical
derivation in A. Moreover,
if V is any module over k, we may define
N
V, a derivation law by setting DX (a v) = Xa
on the A-module A
k

v and extendingN
by linearity. This shall also be termed the canonical
V.
derivation in A
k

There exist modules which do not admit any derivation law. For
instance, let A be the algebra k[t] of polynomial in one variable t over k;
then C is easily seen to be the free A-module generated by P = /t . Let
M be the A-module A/N where N is the ideal of polynomials without
constant term. If there were a derivation law is this module, denoting by
e the identity coset of A/N , we have
0 = D p (te) = (P.t)e + t.D p e = e,
which is a contradiction.
However, the situation becomes better if we confine overselves to
free A-modules.
Theorem 1. Let M be a free A-module, (ei )iI being a basis. Given any 4
system (i )iI of elements in HomA (C, M), there exists one and only one
derivation law D in M such that DX ei = i (X) for every i I.
Let u be an arbitrary element of M. Then u can be expressed in the
P
term u = i ei . If the conditions of the theorem have to be satisfied,
P
P
we have to define DX u = (Xi )ei + i i (X). It is easy to verify that
this is a derivation law.
We shall now see that the knowledge of one derivation law is enough
to compute all the possible derivation laws. In fact, if D, D are two
such laws, then (DX DX )(au) = a(DX DX )(u). Since D, D
HomA (C, Homk (M, M)), it follows that D D HomA (C, HomA
(M, M)). Conversely, if D is a derivation law and h any element of
HomA (C, HomA (M, M)), then D = D + h is a derivation law as can be
easily verified.

1. Differential Calculus

1.3 Derivation laws in associated modules


Given module Mi with derivation laws Di , we proceed to assign in a
canonical way derivation laws to module which are obtained from the
Mi by the usual operations.
Firstly, if M is the direct sum of the modules Mi, then DX (m) =
P i
DX (mi ) where m = mi , gives a derivation law inN
M. N

M p by setSince DiX are k-linear, we may define D in M1


k
k
P
ting DX (u1 , u p ) = u1 DiX ui u p . Now, it is easy to see
that this leaves invariant the ideal generated by elements of the form

u1 aui u p u1 au j u p with a A.
N N

M p into
This therefore induces a k-linear map DX of M1
A

itself, where

DX (u1 u p ) =
where u1 u p M1

N
A

u1 DiX ui u p

M p.

It is easily seen that D is a derivation law.


We will be particularly interested in the case when M1 = M2 = =
M p = M. In this case, we denote M1 M p by T p (M). Since we
have such a law in each T p (M) (for T 0 (M) = A, we take the canonical
derivation law) we may define a derivation law in the tensor algebra
T (M) of M. If t, t are two tensors, we still have
DX (t t ) = DX t t + t DX t .
Now let N be the ideal generated in T (M) by elements of the form
u v v u with u, v M. It follows from the above equality that
DX N N. Consequently D induces a derivation law in T (M)/N, which
is the symmetric algebra over M. Again, if N is the ideal in T (M)
whose generators are of the form u u, u M, then it is immediate
that DX N N . Thus we obtain a derivation law in exterior algebra
T (M)/N of M.

1.3. Derivation laws in associated modules

Let M, L be two A-modules with derivation laws D M , DL respectively. We define a derivation law D in HomA (L, M) by setting (DX h) =
DXM h hDLX for every h HomA (L, M) and X C.
In fact

DX (ah) = DXM (ah) (ah)DLX .

DX (ah)(l) = DXM (ah)(l) (ah)DLX (l)

= DXM (a.h(l)) a.h(DLX (l))

= (Xa)(h(l)) + aDLM (h(l)) a.h(DLX (l))

= {(Xa)h}(l) + (aDX h) for every I L.


In particular, if L = M with DL = D M , then we have
h
i
DX h = DLX , h for every h HomA (L, L).

Moreover, this leads to a derivation law in the dual L of L by taking


M = A with the canonical derivation law. The corresponding law is
(DX f )(u) = X( f (u)) f (DLX (u)) for every f L and u L.
Now let L, M be modules with derivation laws DL , D M respectively.
We may then define a derivation law in the A-module F p (M, L) of multilinear forms on M of degree p with values in L in the following way:
(DX )(u1 , . . . , u p ) =

DLX (u1 , . . . , u p )

p
X

(u1 , . . . , DXM ur , . . . u p ).

r=1

If U p (M, L) is the submodule of F p (M, L) consisting of alternate


forms , then it is easy to see that D U p (M, L) U p (M, L). This leads
to a derivation law in the A-modules F p (M, A), U p (M, A), if we take 7
L = A with the canonical derivation law.
Let M1 , M2 , M3 be three modules with a bilinear product M1 M2
M3 , denoted (u, v) uv. If D1 , D2 , D3 are the respective derivation
laws, we say that the product is compatible with the derivation laws if
D3X (uv) = (D1X u)v + u(D2X v) for X C, u M1 and v M2 .
This was the case the we took M1 = M2 = M3 = A with the canonical derivation law and the algebra-product. Again, we seen that the

1. Differential Calculus

above condition is satisfied by M1 = M2 = M3 = T (M) with the associated derivation laws and the usual multiplication. Moreover, it will be
noted that if M is an A-module with derivation law D, the condition
DX (au) = (Xa)u + aDX u for every a A, u M
expresses the fact that the map A M M defining the module structure is compatible with the derivation laws in A and M. If we denote
p
p
q
U p (L, Mi ) by Ui (i = 1, 2, 3), we may define for U1 U2 ,
by setting
X
( )(a1 , . . . , a p+q ) =
(a(1) , . . . , a(p) )(a(p+1) , . . . , a(p+q) )

where the summation extends over all permutations of (1, 2, . . . , p+q)


such that (1) < (2) < < (p) and (p + 1) < (p + 2) < <
(p + q) and is its signature. If the derivation laws are compatible
with the product, we have
D3X ( ) = (D1X ) + (D2X ) for every X C.

1.4 The Lie derivative


8

Let V be a manifold, U the algebra of differentiable functions on V and


C the module of derivations of U (viz. differentiable vector fields on V.
Any one-parameter group of differentiable automorphisms on V generates a differentiable vector field on V. Conversely, every differentiable
vector field X gives rise to a local one-parameter group s(t) of local automorphisms of V. If is a p-co variant tensor, i.e., if F p (C , U ),
then we may define differentiation of with respect to X as follows:
X = lim
to

s (t)
,
t

where s (t) stands for the k-transpose of the differential map lifted to
F p (C , U ). This is known as the Lie derivative of with respect to X
and can be calculated to be
X (u1 , . . . , u p ) = X(u1 , . . . , u p )

p
X
i=1

(u1 , . . . [X, ui ], . . . u p ).

1.4. The Lie derivative

It will be noted if a U , then aX , a(X ) if p > 0. At a point


V, the Lie derivative X , unlike the derivation law, does not depend
only on the value of the vector field x at .
Lemma 1. Let D be a derivation law in the A-module M and a
multilinear form on C of degree p with values in M. Then the map
: C P M defined by
(Z1 , . . . , Z p ) = DX (Z1 , . . . , Z p )

p
X

(Z1 , . . . [X, Zi ], . . . , Z p )

i=1

is multilinear.

In fact, (Z1 , . . . Zi +Zi , . . . Z p ) = (Z1 , . . . Zi , . . . Z p )+(Z1 , . . . Zi , . . . Z p )


and
(Z1 , . . . aZi , . . . Z p ) = (Xa)(Z1 , . . . Z p ) + a(DX (Z1 , . . . Z p ))
p
X

a(Z1 , . . . [X, Z j ], . . . Z p ) (Z1 , . . . (Xa)Zi , . . . Z p )


j=1

= a(Z1 , . . . Z p ) for every Z1 , . . . Z p C, a A.


Definition 3. The map X X of C into Homk (F p (C, M)F p (C, M))
Pp
defined by (X )(Z1 , . . . , Z p ) = DX (Z1 , . . . Z p ) i=1 (Z1 , . . . [X, Zi ]
Z p ) is called the Lie derivation in the A-module F p (C, M) and X
is defined to be the Lie derivative of with respect to X.
The Lie derivation satisfies the following
X ( + ) = X + X
X (a) = (Xa) + a(X )
X+Y () = X + Y
X () = (X ()
for every X, Y C, F p (C, M) and k.
Thus looks very much like a derivation law, but aX , aX in gen- 10
eral. From the definition, it follows that if is alternate (resp. symmetric), so is X .

1. Differential Calculus

1.5 Lie derivation and exterior product


As in ch.1.3, let M1 , M2 , M3 be A-module with derivations D1 , D2 , D3
respectively. Let there be given a bilinear product M1 M2 M3 with
reference to which an exterior product (, ) of U p (C, M1 )
U q (C, M2 ) U p+q (C, M3 ) is defined. If the product is compatible
with the derivation laws, we have, on direct verification,
X ( ) = X + X

for U p (C, M1 ), U q (C, M2 ) and X C.

1.6 Exterior differentiation


We shall introduce an inner product in the A-module F p (C, M). For
every X C, the inner product is the homomorphism lX of F p (C, M)
into F p1 (C, M) defined by
(lX )(Z, . . . Z p1 ) = (X, Z1 , . . . , Z p1 )
for every F p (C, M), Z1 , . . . Z p1 C. If is alternate it is obvious
that l x is also alternate. When is of degree 0, lX = 0. The inner
product satisfies the following
1. laX = alX
lX+Y = lX + lY , for a A, X, Y C.
2. If X is the Lie derivation,
11

X lY lY X = l[X,Y] for X, Y, C.
3. If is alternate, lX lX = 0.
4. Let M1 , M2 , M3 be three A-modules with a bilinear product compatible with their laws D1 , D2 , D3 . Then we have, for U p
(C, M1 ), U q (C, M2 )
lX ( ) = (lX ) + (1) p lX .

1.6. Exterior differentiation

in fact, let Z1 , . . . , Z p+q1 C. Then


lX ( )(Z1 , . . . , Z p+q1 ) = ( )(X, Z1 , . . . , Z p+q1 )
X
=
(X, Z(1) , . . . , z(p1) )(Z(p) , . . . Z(p+q1) )

(X(1) , . . . X(p) )(X, Z(p+1) , . . . Z(p+q1) )

where runs through all permutations of [1, p + q 1] such that


(1) < < (p 1) and (p) < < (p + q 1), while runs
through those which satisfy (1) < < (p) and (p+ 1) < <
(p + q 1). The first sum is equal to (lX ) and the second to
(1) p (lX ).
Theorem 2. Let D be a derivation law in an A-module M. Then there
exists one and only one family of k-linear maps d : U p (C, M)
U p+1 (C, M)(p = 0, 1, 2, . . .) such that (X) = dlX + lX d for every X C.
We call this map the exterior differentiation in the module of alternate forms on C.
First of all, assuming that there exists such a map d, we shall prove 12
that it is unique. If d is another such map, we have
(d d )lX + lX (d d ) = 0
Hence lX (d d ) = (d d)lX for every U p (C, M). We shall
prove that d = d for every U p (C, M) by induction on p. When
is of degree 0, we have (d d)l x = 0 = lX (d d ). This being
true for every X C, d = d . If the theorem were for p = q 1, then
(d d)lX = 0 = lX (d d ). Again, since X is arbitrary, d = d
which proves the uniqueness of the exterior differentiation.
The existence is also proved by induction. Let U o (C, M) = M.
Then we wish to define do such that lX d = (d)(X) = X (since
lX = 0) = DX . Hence we can set (d()(X) = DX for every X C.
This is obviously A-linear since DX is A-linear in X. Let us suppose that
d has been defined on U p (C, M) for p = 0, 1, . . . (q 1) such that the
formula is true. We shall define d for U p (C, M) by setting
(d(Z1 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = (Z1 )(Z2 , . . . Zq+1 ) (dlZ1 )(Z2 , . . . Zq+1 )

1. Differential Calculus

10

We have of course to show that the d thus defined is an alternate


form. That it is linear in Z2 , . . . Zq+1 follows from the induction assumption and the multilinearity of Z1 . We shall now prove that it is alternate. That means:
(d)(Z1 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = 0 whenever Zi = Z j with i , j.
13

Using the alternate nature of Z1 and dlZ1 , we see that it suffices


to prove that
(Z1 )(Z2 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = (dlZ1 )(Z2 , . . . , Zq+1 ) when Z1 = Z2
Now

(Z2 )(Z2 , . . . , Zq+1 ) = (lZ2 Z2 )(Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 )


= (Z2 lZ2 )(Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 ) by (2) o f Ch.1.6
= (dlZ2 lZ2 + lZ2 dlZ2 ) (Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 )
= (dlZ2 )(Z2 , Z3 , . . . , Zq+1 ).

Since (d) is alternate, linearity in Z1 follows from that in the other


variables and additivity in Z1 . This completes the proof of the theorem.
Remark. If we take A to be the algebra of differentiable functions on a
manifold V, and M to be A itself then the exterior differentiation defined
above coincides with the usual exterior differentiation.

1.7 Explicit formula for exterior differentiation


Lemma 2. The exterior differentiation defined above is given by
p+1
X
(d)(Z1 , . . . , Z p+1 ) =
(1)i+1 DZi (Z1 , . . . Zi , . . . Z p+1 )

i=1
X
+
(1)i+ j ([Zi , Z j ], Z1 , . . . Z i , . . . Z j , . . . Z p+1 )
i< j

14

where the symbol over a letter indicates that the corresponding elements is omitted.

1.8. Exterior differentiation and exterior product

11

If d is defined as above and U p (C, M), it is easy to see that


(lZ1 d + dlZ1 ) = Z1 for every Z1 C.
By the uniqueness of exterior differentiation , we see that the above
gives the formula for the exterior differentiation.
We shall use this explicit formula only when the degree of 2.
Then we have the formula:
1. (d)(X) = DX for U 0 (C, M), X C.
2. (d)(X, Y) = DX (Y) DY (X) ([X, Y]) for U 1 (C, M),
X, Y C.
P
3. (d)(X, Y, Z) = {DX (Y, Z) ([X, Y], Z)} for U 2 (C, M),
X, Y, Z C
where the summation extends over all cyclic permutations of (X, Y, Z).

1.8 Exterior differentiation and exterior product


We now investigate the behaviours of d with regard to the exterior product. Let M1 , M2 , M3 be three modules with derivation laws D1 , D2 , D3
and let M1 M2 M3 be a linear product compatible with the derivation laws. Then we have, for U p (C, M1 ), U q (C, M2 )
d( ) = d + (1) p d.
Again, we prove this by induction, but this on p+q. When p+q = 0,
the above formula just expresses the compatibility of the product with 15
the derivation laws. Let us assume the theorem proved for p + q = r 1.
We have
d( )(Z1 , . . . , Z p+q+1 ) = (lZ1 d( ))(Z2 , . . . , Z p+q+1 )
But,

lZ1 d( ) = Z1 ( ) d(lZ1 ( ))

= Z1 + Z1 d(lZ1 + (1) p lZ1 )

1. Differential Calculus

12

by(3) of Ch. 1.6


= Z1 + Z1 dlZ1 () p1 lZ1

d (1)P d lZ1 dlZ1

by induction assumption

= lZ1 d (1) d lZ1 + lZ1 d

(1) p1 lZ1 d

= lZ1 (d ) + (1) p lZ1 ( d)


= lZ1 ((d ) + (1) p ( d)),

which proves our assertion.

16

Remark. If we take M2 = M3 = M and M1 = A with the product


A M M defining the module structure, then, by the above formula,
we obtain

d(a) = (da) + a d
for a U (C, A) = A

and U p (C, M).


= da + a.d
Thus the exterior differentiation is not A-linear.

1.9 The curvature form


It is well-know that the exterior differentiation in the algebra of differential forms on a manifold satisfies dd = 0. Let us compute in our general
case value of dd for U 0 (C, M) = M. Then one has
dd(X, Y) = DX (d)(Y) DY (d)(X) (d)([X, Y])
= DX DY DY DX D[X,Y]

Let K(X, Y) = DX DY DY DX D[X,Y] . Then it is obvious that


K(X, Y) is a k-endomorphism of M. But, it actually follows on trivial
verification that it is an A- endomorphism. On the other hand, we have
i) K(X, Y) = K(Y, X)

1.9. The curvature form

13

ii) K(X + X , Y) = K(X, Y) + K(X , Y), and


iii) K(aX, Y) = aK(X, Y) for every M.
i) and ii) are trivial and we shall verify only iii).
K(aX, Y) = DaX DY DY DaX D[aX,Y]

= aDX DY DY (aDX ) Da[X,Y] (Ya)X

= aDX DY (Ya)DX aDY DX aD[X,Y] + (Ya)DX


= aK(X, Y).

We have therefore proved that K is an alternate form of degree 2 17


over C with values in the module HomA (M, M).
Definition 4. The element K of U 2 (C, HomA (M, M)) as defined above
i.e.,
K(X, Y) = DX DY DY DX [X,Y]
is called the curvature form of the derivation law D.
Examples. 1) Take the simplest case when M = A, with the canonical
derivation law. Then
K(X, Y)u = XYu Y Xu [X, Y]u = 0
i.e., the curvature form is identically zero.
2) However, there are examples in which the curvature form is nonzero.
Let A = k[x, y] with x, y transcendental
! over k. It! is easy to see that

,Q =
as base.
C is the free module over A with P =
x
y
We take M to be A itself but with a derivation law different from the
canonical one. By Th.1, Ch. 1.2, if we choose 1 M and take
HomA (C, A), then there exists a derivation law D such that DX 1 = (X).
We shall define by requiring that (P) = y and (Q) = 1. Then it
follows that DP (1) = y, DQ (1) = 1.
K(P, Q)(1) = DP DQ (1) DQ DP (1) D[P,Q](1)

1. Differential Calculus

14

= y (Qy).1 y(DQ (1))


= 1.

18

We now prove two lemmas which give the relation between Lie
derivatives in two directions and the relation of Lie derivative to the
exterior differentiation in terms of the curvature form.
Lemma 3. X Y Y X = [X,Y] + K(X, Y)() for every U
(C, M).

In fact, when is of degree 0, the formula is just the definition of


the curvature form. In the general case, this follows on straight forward
verification.
Lemma 4. X d dX = (lX K) for every U p (C, M).
It will be noted that K U 2 (C, HomA (M, M)) and hence lX K has
values in HomA (M, M). Taking M1 = HomA (M, M), M2 = M, M3 = M
in our standard notation, one has a bilinear product M1 M2 M3
defined by (h, u) . The symbol used in the enunciation of the lemma
is with reference to this bilinear product.
Proof. As usual, we prove this by induction on p, the degree of . When
is of degree 0, the formula reduces to

i.e.,
19



DX (d(u)) d( X, u ) (dDX )(u) = (lX K )(u) for u C.
DX Du D[X,u] Du DX = (lX K ()(u)

which is but the definition of K. Assuming the truth of the lemma for
forms of degree < p, we have
lY X d lY dX lY ((lX K) )

= X lY d l[X,Y] d + dlY X Y X

(lY lX K) + (lX K) (lY )

= X dlY + X Y l[X,Y] d + dX lY dl[X,Y] Y X


(lY lX K) + (lX K) (lY )

= X dlY + dX lY + X Y Y X

1.9. The curvature form

15
[X,Y] (lY lX K) + (lX K) (lY )

= X dlY + dX lY + (lX K) (lY ) by lemma 3, Ch. 1.9

= 0 by induction assumption.


Remark. The maps X , lX , d are of degrees 0, 1, 1 respectively conP
sidered as homomorphisms of the graded module U (C, M) = U p
p

(C, M). If is a map U (C, M) U (C, M) of degree p, and another of degree q, we define the commutator [, ] = (1) pq .
We have, in this notation, the following formulae :
i) [X , lY ] = l[X,Y]
by (2) of Ch.1.6
ii) [d, lX ] = X
by Th. 2, Ch. 1.6
for derivation laws of zero curvature
iii) [X , Y ] = [X,Y]
iv) [X , d] = 0
by lemma 3 and 4, Ch.1.9
v) [lX , lY ] = 0
by (3) of Ch.1.6


The operators X and lX have been generalised ( see [ 15 ] to the 20


case M = A by replacing X by an alternate form on C with values
in C. This generalisation has applications in the study of variations of
complex structures on a manifold.
A general formula for d2 is given by
Lemma 5. In our usual notation, d2 = K .
The meaning of has to be interpreted as in Lemma 4, Ch.1.9 . The
proof is again by induction on the degree of . If is of degree 0, M
and we have to show that dd(X, Y) = K(X, Y).Assuming the lemma
verified for forms of degree < p, we get
lX dd = X d dlX d

= dX + (lX K) dX + ddlX by Lemma 4, Ch. 1.9


= (lX K) + K lX by induction assumption
= lX (K ).

Since X is arbitrary, dd = K and the lemma is proved.

1. Differential Calculus

16
Lemma 6.

dK = 0
X
dK(X, Y, Z) =
{(DX K)(Y, Z) K([X, Y], z)} by (3) of Ch. 1.7
X
=
{DX K(Y, Z) K(Y, Z)DX K([X, Y], Z)}
X
DX DY DZ DX DZ DY DX D[Y,Z] DY DZ DX +
=

DZ DY DX + D[Y,Z] DX D[X,Y] DZ + DZ D[X,Y] + D[[X,Y]Z]

=0
21

using Jacobis identity where the summations extend over cyclic permutations of X, Y, Z.

1.10 Relations between different derivation laws


We shall now investigate the relations between the exterior differentiations, curvature forms etc. corresponding to two derivation laws in
the same module M. It has already been shown (Ch.1.2) that if D, D
are two such derivation laws, then there exists h HomA (M, M)) such
that DX = DX + hX . We denote the exterior differential operator, curvature form etc. Corresponding to D by d , K etc. Then d is given
by d = d + h . ( Here also, the Lambda-sign has to be interpreted as in lemma 4, Ch. 1.9 ). In fact, by definition, it follows that
X = X + hX . Hence
dlX + h lX + lX d + lX (h ) = X .
22

From Th. 2, Ch. 1.6 on the uniqueness of exterior differentiation, our


assertion follows.
With regard to the curvature form, we have the following formula:
K = K + h h + dh.
For
K (X, Y) = (DX + hX )(DY + hY ) (DY + hY )(DX + hY ) D[X,Y] h[X,Y]

1.11. Derivation law in C

17

= K(X, Y) + hX hY hY hX + (DX hY ) (DY hY ) h[X,Y]

= K(X, Y) + hX hY hY hX + dh(X, Y)

= K(X, Y) + (h h)(X, Y) + dh(X, Y).

The classical notation for (hh) defined by (hh)(X, Y) = h(X)h(Y)


h(Y)h(X) is [ h, h ]. In that notation, we have
K = K + [h, h] + dh.

1.11 Derivation law in C


When A is the algebra of differentiable functions on a manifold V, any
derivation law in the A-module C of differentiable vector fields on V is
called a linear connection on the manifold.
Let A be an algebra over k, D a derivation law in the A- module C of
derivations of A. Let : C C be the identity mapping. Then exterior
defferential of is given by
(d)(X, Y) = DX (Y) DY (x) ([X, Y])

= DX Y DY X [X, Y] for X, Y C.

The alternate linear form d = T is called the torsion form of the 23


derivation law in C.
Regarding the action of d on T , we have the Bianchis identity
P
(dT )(X, Y, Z) = K(X, Y)Z, where the summation extends over all
cyclic permutations of (X, .Y, Z).
This is immediate from Lemma 5, Ch. 1.9
Let D be a derivation law in C. Then we can define a derivation law
in the module of multilinear forms on C with values in an A- module M
with derivation law D. For F p (C, M), we define
(DX )(Z1 , . . . , Z p ) = DX (Z1 , . . . , Z p )

p
X

(Z1 , . . . , DX Zi , . . . , Z p ).

i=1

Moreover, we define for every F p (C, M)


(DX )(Z1 , . . . , Z p+1 ) = DZ1 (Z1 , . . . , Z p )

p
X
i=2

(Z2 , . . . , DZ1 Zi , . . . , Z p+1 )

1. Differential Calculus

18

Obviously D F p+1 (C, M). However, this operator D does not take
alternate forms into alternate forms. We therefore set, for U p (C, M)
p+1
X
d=
(1)i+1 (D)(Zi , Z1 , . . . , Z i , . . . , Z p+1 ).

i=1

It is easy to see that d U


24

p+1 (C,

M).

Theorem 3. If the torsion form is zero, then d and the exterior defferential coincide.
In fact, it is easy to verify that lX d + d lX = X and the theorem then
follows from Th.2, Ch.1.6
In particular, let K be the curvature form of the derivation law in
C; since dK = 0, we have d K = 0. It is easily seen that dK =
P
(DX K)(Y, Z). where the summation extends over cyclic permutations
of X, Y, Z. Hence we have the Second Bianchi Identity :
P
If the torsion of the derivation law in C is 0, then (DX K)(Y, Z) = 0
where the summation is over all cyclic permutations of X, Y, Z.

1.12 Connections in pseudo-Riemannian manifolds


A differentiable manifold V together with a symmetric bilinear form is
said to be Riemannian if the form is positive definite at all points. If the
above form is only non-degenerate ( not necessarily positive definite )
at each point, the manifold is pseudo-Riemannian. Such a form defines
a natural isomorphism of the module of vector fields on V onto its dual.
Accordingly, in our algebraic set-up, we define a pseudo Riemannian form on C to be a symmetric bilinear form on C with values in A
such that the induced map C C is bijective.
Theorem 4. If g is a pseudo-Riemannian form on C then there exists
one and only one derivation law D on C such that
25

1) the torsion form of D is zero,


2) DX g = 0 for every X.

1.13. Formulae in local coordinates

19

Explicitly, 1) means that Xg(Y, Z) g(DX Y, Z) g(Y, DX Z) = 0 for


every Y, Z C.
In fact, by straight forward computation, it can be found that if there
exists one such derivation law D, it must satisfy the equation
2g(DX Y, Z) = Xg(Y, Z) Zg(Y, X) + Yg(Z, X)

g(Y, [X, Z]) + g([Z, Y], X) g(Z, [Y, X]).

Since the map C C induced from g is bijective, this equation determines D uniquely and conversely if we define D by this equation, it can
be easily verified that D is a derivative law in C and that it satisfies the
conditions of the theorem

1.13 Formulae in local coordinates


Finally we translate some of our formulae in the case of a differentiable
manifold in terms of local coordinates. As far as local coordinates are
concerned, we may restrict ourselves to an open subset V of Rn . Let U
denote the algebra of differentiable functions on V and C the U -module
of vector fields on V. Let (x1 , x2 , . . .n ) be a system of coordinates. The

partial derivatives Pi = i have the following properties:


x
1) (Pi )i=1,2,...n is a base of C over U .
2) Pi x j = i j
3) [Pi , P j ] = 0 for any i, j.

26

Also (dx1 , . . . dxn ) form a base for C over U dual to (Pi ) i.e. (dxi )
(P j ) = i j . Since the U -module C is free over U , all the associated modules such as T p (C ), U p (C , U ) are all free over U . Thus
U p (C , U ) has a basis consisting of elements dx(1) dx(p) , S
where S where S is the set of all maps : [1, p] [1, n] such that
(1) < (2) < < (p). If M is an U -module, any alternate form
P
dx (1)dx (2)dx (p)
U p (C , M)) can be written in the form
S

1. Differential Calculus

20

with M. ( The exterior product is with respect to the bilinear


product M A M defining the structure of U -module ).
Let M be a free U -module of finite rank with a derivation law D.
Let e ( = 1, 2, . . . m) be a base of M. We set
X

DPi e =
i e , i U

The functions i completely determine the derivation law. Con


versely, given i U , we may define, for
u=

m
X

l , U .

=1
X
X
D Pi u =
(pi )e +
i e

27

and extend D to the whole of by linearity. It is easy to see that is a


derivation law. The above becomes in the classical notation
X
X

D Pi u =
i, e
e
+

i
x

,
From this we get if u M, then
X
du =
dxi (DPi u)
i

Let U p (C, M). We have seen that


X
=
dx (1) dx (p) with M.
S

Using the fact that Pi ( ) = (Pi ) + (Pi ), in order to


compute X , it is enough to compute Pi and Pi dx j . But Pi =
DPi which we have fond out earlier. On the other hand,
(Pi dx j (Pk ) = Pi ((dx j )(Pk )) dx j ([Pi , Pk ])
= 0.

Chapter 2
Differentiable Bundles
2.1
We give in this chapter, mostly without proofs, certain definitions and 28
results on fibre bundles which we require in the sequel.
Definition 1. A differentiable principal fibre bundle is a manifold P on
which a Lie group G acts differentiable to the right, together with a
differentiable map p of P onto a differentiable manifold X such that
P.B. for every x0 X, there exist an open neighbourhood U of x0
in X and a diffeomorphism of U G p1 (U) ( which is an open
submanifold of P) satisfying p(x, s) = x, (x, st) = (x, s)t for x U
and s, t G.
X shall be called the base , p the projection and P the bundle. For
any x X, p1 (x) shall be called the fibre over x and for P, the fibre
over p is the fibre through .
The following properties follow immediately from the definition:
a) Each fibre is stable under the action of G, and G acts with out fixed
points on P, i.e. if s = for some P and s G, then s = e;
b) G acts transitively on each fibre, i.e. if , are such that p = p, 29
then there exists s G such that = ;
c) For every x0 X, there exist an open neighbourhood V of x0 and
21

2. Differentiable Bundles

22

a differentiable map : V P such that p(x) = x for every


x V. We have only to choose for V the neighbourhood U of condition (P.B), and define for x V, (x) = (x, e). A continuous
(resp. differentiable) map : V P such that p(x) = x for every
x V is called a cross-section resp. differentiable cross-section )
over V.
d) For every x0 X, there exist an open neighbourhood V of x0 and
a differentiable map of p1 (V) into G such that (s) = ()s for
every p1 (V) and s G. Choose for V as before the neighbourhood U of (P.B.). If is the canonical projection U G G, the
map = 1 of p1 (V) into G satisfies the required condition. It
is also obvious that is bijective when restricted to any fibre.
Conversely we have the following
Proposition 1. Let G be a Lie group acting differentiably to the right
on a differentiable manifold P. Let X be another differentiable manifold
and p a differentiable map P X. If conditions (b), (c), (d) are fulfilled,
then P with p : P X is a principal bundle over X.

30

For every x0 X, we can find an open neighbourhood V of x0 , a


differential map : V P and a homomorphism : p1 (V) G
such that p(x) = x, (s) = ()s and moreover (x) = e for every
x V, p1 (V). We define : U G P by setting (x, s) =
(x)s for x V, s G. If is the map p1 (V) V G defined by
: (p, ) it is easy to verify that = = Identity, using the
fact that (x) = e for every x U. Both and being differentiable,
our assertion is proved.

2.2 Homomorphisms of bundles


Definition 2. A homomorphism h of a differentiable principal bundle P
into another bundle P ( with the same group G) is a differentiable map
h : P P such that h(s) = h()s for every P, s G.

2.3. Trivial bundles

23

It is obvious that points on the same fibre are taken by h into points
of P on the same fibre. Thus the homomorphism h induces a map h :
X X such that the diagram
P

// P





// X

is commutative. The map h : X X is easily seen to be differentiable.


This is called the projection of h.
Definition 3. A homomorphism h : P P is said to be an isomorphism
if there exists a homomorphism h : P P such that hoh l h oh are
identities on P , P respectively.
Proposition 2. If P and P are differentiable principal bundles with the 31
same base X and group G, then every homomorphism h : P P whose
projection h is a diffeomorphism of X onto X, is an isomorphism.
In the case when P and P have the same base X, an isomorphism
h : P P for which h is identity will be called an isomorphism overX.

2.3 Trivial bundles


If G is a Lie group and X a differentiable manifold, G acts on the manifold X G by the rule (x, s)t = (x, st). X G together with the natural
projection X G X is a principal bundle. Any bundle isomorphic to
the above is called trivial principal bundle.
Proposition 3. Let P be a principal bundle over X with group G. Then
the following statements are equivalent:
1) P is a trivial bundle.
2) There exists a differentiable section of P over X.
3) There exists a differentiable map : P G such that (s) = ()s
for every P, s G.

2. Differentiable Bundles

24

2.4 Induced bundles

32

Let P be a principal bundle over X with group G. Let q be a differentiable map of a differentiable manifold Y into X. The subset Pq of Y P
consisting of points (y, ) such that q(y) = p() is a closed submanifold.
There is also a canonical map pq : Pq Y defined by Pq (y, ) = y. The
group G acts on Pq with the law (y, )s = (y, s). It is easy to see that
Pq together with pq is a principal bundle with base Y and group G. This
is called the bundle induced from P by the map q. There then exists
clearly a canonical homomorphism h : Pq P such that
h

// P

h=q



Pq
pq



// X

is commutative. h is defined by h(y, ) = . By proposition (3). Ch.2.3,


the principal bundle Pq is trivial if and only if there exists a differentiable
cross section for Pq over Y. This is equivalent to saying that there exists
a differentiable map : Y P such that p = p , i.e., the diagram is
commutative.
P
??


 p


Y q // X

33

We now assume that q is surjective and everywhere of rank = dim X.


If Pq is trivial we shall say that P is trivialised by the map q.
Let q be a differentiable map Y X which trivialises P. Consider
the subset Yq of Y Y consisting of points (y, y ) such that q(y) = q(y ).
This is the graph of an equivalence relation in Y. Since q is of rank =
dim X, Yq is a closed submanifold of Y Y.
Let be a map Y P such that q = p . If (y, y ) Yq , then
(y), (y ) are in the same fibre and hence there exists m(y, y ) G
such that (y ) = (y)m(y, y ). Thus we have a map m : Yq G
such that for (y, y ) Yq , we have (y ) = (y)m(y, y ). This map is

2.5. Examples

25

easily seen to be differentiable. Obviously we have, for (y, y ), (y , y )


Yq , m(y, y )m(y , y ) = m(y, y ).
Definition 4. Let Y be differentiable manifold and q a differentiable map
of Y onto X everywhere of rank = dim X. The manifold Yq is defined as
above. Any differentiable map m : Yq G is said to be a multiplicator
with value in G if it satisfies
m(y, y ) m(y , y ) = m(y, y ) for (y, y ), (y .y ) Yq .
We have seen that to every trivialisation of P by q corresponds a
multiplicator with values in G. However, this depends upon the particular lifting of q. If is another such lifting with multiplicator n,
there exists a differentiable map : Y G such that m(y , y)(y) =
(y )n(y , y) for every (y, y )eYq . Accordingly, we define an equivalence
relation in the set of multiplicators in the following way:
The multiplicators m, n are equivalent if there exists a differentiable
map : Y G such that m(y, y )(y ) = (y)n(y, y ) for every (y, y )
Yq . Hence to every principal bundle P trivialised by q corresponds a
class of multiplicators m(P). It can be proved that if m(P) = m(P ),
then P and P are isomorphic over X. Finally, given a multiplicator
m, there exists bundle a P trivialised by q for which m(P) = m. In
fact, in the space Y G, introduce an equivalence relation R by defining 34
(y, s) (y , s ) if (y, y ) Yq and s = m(y , y)s. Then the quotient
(Y G)/R can be provided with the structure of a differentiable principal
bundle over X trivialised by q. The multiplicator corresponding to the
map : Y (Y G)/R defined by y (y, e) is obviously m.

2.5 Examples
1) Given a principal bundle P over X, we may take Y = P and q = p.
Then =Identity is a lifting of q to P. The corresponding multiplicator m is such that y = y m(y, y ) where p(y) = p(y )
2) Let (Ui )iI be an open cover of X such that there exists a cross section
i of P over each Ui . Take for Y the open submanifold of X I (with

2. Differentiable Bundles

26

35

I discrete) consisting of elements (x, i) such that x ui . Define


q(x, i) = x. This is obviously surjective and everywhere of rank
= dim X. Then P is trivialised by q, since the map (x, i) = i (x)
of Y P is a lifting of q. The manifold Yq may be identified with
the submanifold of X I I consisting of elements x, i, j such that
x i j . If m is the corresponding multiplicator, we have (x, i) =
(x, j)m(x, j, i). This can be written as i (x) = j (x)m ji (x) where
the multiplicator m is looked upon as a family of maps m ji : U j
Ui G such that m ji mik (x) = m jk (x) for every x Ui U j Uk .
Such a family of maps is called a set of transition functions. Two
sets of transition functions {mi j }, {ni j } are equivalent if and only if
there exists a family of differentiable maps i : Ui G such that
m ji (x)i (x) = j (x)n ji (x) for every x Ui U j . Conversely, given a
set of transition functions {mi j } with respect to a covering Ui of V, we
can construct a bundle P over V such that P is trivial over each Ui and
there exists cross - sections i over Ui satisfying i (x) = j (x)mi j (x)
for every x Ui U j
Let G be the sheaf of germs of differentiable functions on X with
values in G. The compatibility relations among transition functions
viz .m ji (x)mik (x) = m jk (x) for every x Ui U j Uk
only state that a set of transition functions is a 1cocycle of the covering
(Ui )iI with values in the sheaf G. Two such cocycles are equivalent (in
the sense of multiplicators) if and only if they differ by a coboundary.
In other words, the set of equivalent classes of transition functions for
the covering (Ui )iI is in one-one correspondence with H 1 ((Ui )iI , G). It
will be noted that there is no group structure in H 1 ((Ui )iI , G) in general. It can be proved by passing to the direct limit that there is a oneon correspondence between classes of isomorphic bundles over X and
elements of H 1 (X, G).

2.6 Associated bundles


36

Let P be a differentiable principal fibre bundle over X with group G. Let

2.6. Associated bundles

27

F be a differentiable manifold on which G acts differentiably to the right.


Then G also acts on the manifold P F by the rule (, u)s = (s, us) for
every s G.
Definition 5. A differentiable bundle with fibre type F associated to
P is a differentiable manifold E together with a differentiable map q :
P F E such that (P F, q) is a principal fibre bundle over E with
group G.
Let G act on a differentiable manifold F to the right. Then we can
construct a differentiable bundle associated to P with fibre F. We have
(P F)
under the action of G defined as above and q
only to take E =
G
to be the canonical projection P F E. The differentiable structure in
E is determined by the condition: (P F, q) is a differentiable principal
bundle over E.
Now let E be a differentiable bundle associated to P with fibre type
F and group G. Then there exists a canonical map pE : E X such
that pE q(, u) = p for (, u) P F where p, q are respectively the
projections P X and P F E. X is therefore called the base
manifold of E and pE the projection of E. For every x X, p1
E (x) is
called the fibre over x. Let U be an open subset of X. A continuous (
resp. differentiable ) map : U E such that pE (x) = x for every
x U is called a section (resp differentiable section) of E over U.
Let be a differentiable section of P over an open subset of U of
X. This gives rise to a diffeomorphism of U F onto p1
E (U) defined 37
by (x, v) = q((x), v) for x U, v F. On the other hand, we also
have pE (x, v) = x. In particular , if P is trivial, there exists a global
cross-section (Prop.3, Ch. 2.3) and hence is a diffeomorphism of
U F onto E.
We finally prove that all fibres in E are diffeomorphic with F. In
fact for every z P. the map F E (which again we denote by z)
defined by z(v) = q(z, v) is a diffeomorphism of F Onto p1
E (p(z)). Such
a map z : F E is called a frame at the point x = p(z). Corresponding
to two different frames z, z at the same point x, we have two different

diffeomorphisms z, z of F with p1
E (x). If s G such that z s = z, then

2. Differentiable Bundles

28
the we have z(v) = z (vs1 ).

Examples. (1) Let V be a connected differentiable manifold and P the


universal covering manifold of V. Let p : P V be a covering
map. Then the fundamental group 1 of V acts on P and makes of
P a principal bundle over V with group 1 . Moreover, any covering
manifold is a bundle over V associated to the universal covering
manifold of V with discrete fibre. On the other hand, any Galois
covering of V may be regarded as a principal bundle over V with a
quotient of 1 as group.

38

(2) Let B be a closed subgroup of a Lie group G. Then B is itself a Lie


group and it acts to the right on G according to the following rule:
G B G defined by (s, t) st. Consider the quotient space
V = G/B under the above action. There exists one and only one
structure of a differentiable manifold on V such that G is a differentiable bundle over V with group B ([29]). It is moreover easy to see
that left translations of G by elements of G are bundle homomorphisms of G into itself. The projections of these automorphisms to
the base space are precisely the translations of the left coset space
G/B by elements of G.
(3) Let G be a Lie group and B a closed subgroup. Let H be a closed
subgroup of B. As in (2), B/H has the structure of a differentiable
manifold and B acts on B/H to the right according to the rule:
q(b)b = b1 q(b) = q(b1 b),
where b, b B and q is the canonical projection B B/H. We
define a map r : G B/H G/H by setting r(s, bH) = sbH. It
G
is easy to see that this makes G B/H a principal bundle over .
H
In other words, G/H is a bundle associated to G with base G/B and
fibre B/H.

2.7. Vector fields on manifolds

29

2.7 Vector fields on manifolds


Let V be a differentiable manifold and U (V) the algebra of differentiable functions on V. At any point V, a tangent vector U is a map
U : U (V) R satisfying U( f + g) = U f + Ug; U f = 0 when f is
constant; and U( f g) = (U f )g() + f ()(Ug) for every f, g U (V). The
tangent vectors U at a point form a vector space T . A vector field X is
an assignment to each in V of a tangent vector X at . A vector field X
may also be regarded as a map of U (V) into the algebra of real valued
functions on V by setting (X f )() = X f . A vector field X is a said to be
differentiable if XU (V) U (V). Hence the set of differentiable vector 39
fields on V is the module C (V) of derivations of U (V).
If p is a differentiable map from a differentiable manifold V into
another manifold V , we define a map p : U (V ) U (V) by setting
p f = f op. Furthermore, if V, then a linear map of T into T p
(which is again denoted by p) is defined by (pU)g = U(p g).
Now let G be a Lie group acting differentiably to the right on a
manifold V. As usual, the action is denoted (, s) s. For every
(, s) V G, there are two inclusion maps
V V G defined by (, s); and

G V G defined by t (, t)

These induce injective maps T T (,s) , T s T (,s) respectively.


The image of d T in T (,s) is denoted by (d, s). The image of
ds T s in T (,s) is denoted by (, ds). We set (d, ds) = (d, s) + (, ds).
The image of d T by the map s of V into Vwill be denoted by
ds. Similarly, the image of vector ds T s by the map t t will be
denoted ds. Therefore the image of the vector (d, ds) T (,s) by the
map (, s) s is ds + ds. In particular, the group G acts on itself
and such expressions as dst and tds will be used in the above sense. The
following formulae are easy to verify:
1) (ds)t = (d)(st)
2) (ds)t = (dst)

40

2. Differentiable Bundles

30
3) (t)ds = (tds) for V and s, t G.

Let G be a Lie group with unit element e. The space T e of vectors


at e will be denoted by Y . A vector field X on G is said to be left
invariant if sXt = X st for every s, t G. Every left invariant vector field
is differentiable and is completely determined by its value at e. Given
a Y , we define a left invariant vector field Ia by setting (Ia ) s = sa.
This gives a natural isomorphism of Y onto the vector space of left
invariant vector fields on V. There is also a similar isomorphisms of Y
onto the space of right invariant vector fields. In the same way, when G
acts on a manifold V to the right, for every a Y , we define a vector
field Za on V, by setting (Za ) = a for V. Thus Y defines a vector
space of vector fields on V.

2.8 Vector fields on differentiable principal bundles

41

Let P be a differentiable principal over a manifold V with group G.


Then the projection p : P V gives rise to a homomorphism p :
U (V) U (P). Since p is onto , p is injective. This defines on
every U (P)- module a structure of an U (V)module. It is clear that any
element h p U (V) is invariant with respect to the action of G on P.
Conversely, if h U (P), whenever h is invariant with respect to G then
h p U (V). In fact if f U (V) is defined by setting f (x) = h(z) where
z is any element in p1 (x), then f coincides locally with the composite of
a differentiable cross- section and h, and is consequently differentiable.
For every P, there exists a natural linear map of Y into T taking
a Y onto a T . It is easy to verify that the sequence of linear maps
(0) Y T T p() (0)
is exact. The image of Y in T , i.e. the space of vectors a with a Y
is the space of vectors tangential to the fibre G and will be denoted
by N .
Definition 6. A vector field X on P is said to be tangential to the fibres
if for every x P, p(X ) = 0.

2.9. Projections vector fields

31

A vector field X is tangential to the fibres if and only if X N for


every P. It is immediate than an equivalent condition for a vector
field X to be tangential to the fibres is that X(p U (V)) = (0). We denote
the set of vector fields tangential to the fibres by N. Then N is an U (P)submodule of C (P). We have the following
Proposition 4. If a1 , . . . , ar is a base for Y , then Zal , . . . Zar is a basis
for N over U (P).
In fact, for every a Y , (Za ) = a N , i.e., Za N. Moreover,
r
r
P
P
if f1 , . . . , fr U (P) are such that
fi Zai = 0, then
fi ()(ai ) = 0
i=1

i=1

for every P. Since {ai }ri=1 form a bias for N , fi () = 0 for i =


1, 2, . . . , r and Zai , . . . Zar are linearly independent. On the other hand, 42
r
P
if X N, at each point P, we can write X =
fi ()()ai , and

hence X =

r
P

i=1
g1 , . . . , gr

i=1

fi Zai where the fi are scalar functions on P. Let P

and
U (P) such that (Zai ) g j = i j for every i. j; then the
functions fi are solutions of the system of linear equations:
Xg j =

r
X

f1 (Zai g j ).

i=1

Since the coefficient are differentiable and the determinant |Zai g j | ,


0 in a neighbourhood of , fi are differentiable at .

2.9 Projections vector fields


Let P be a principal bundle over V and X a vector field on P. It is in
general not possible to define the image vector field pX on V. This is
however possible if we assume that for all in the same fibre , the image
pX in the same. This yields the following.
Definition 7. A vector field X on P is said to be projectable if p(X ) =
43
p(Xs ) for every P, s G.

2. Differentiable Bundles

32

Proposition 5. A vector field X on P is projectable if and only if X p U


(V) p U (V).
This follows from the fact that
X (p f ) = p(X ) f = p(Xs ) f = Xs (p f )
for every f U (V).
Proposition 6. A vector field X is projectable if and only if X s X is
tangential to the fibre, ie. X s X N for every s G.
In fact, if X is projectable , we have
p(X s X) = p(Xs1 s X )

= p(Xs1 ) p(X )
= 0.

Hence (X s X) N() for every P.


The converse is also obvious from the above.
Definition 8. The projection pX of a projectable vector field X is defined
by (pX) p = pX for every P.
Since p {(pX) f } = X(p f ) for every f U (V) we see that pX is a
differentiable vector field on V. We shall denote the space of projectable
vector field by . It is easy to see that if X, Y , then X + Y and
p(X + Y) = pX + pY. Moreover is a submodule of C (P) regarded
as an U (V)-module (but not an U (P)-submodule). For f U (V) and
X , we have p((p f )X) = f (pX). Thus p : C (V) is an U (V)homomorphism and the kernel is just the module N of vector fields on
P tangential to the fibre. Furthermore, for every X, Y , we have
[X, Y] and p[X, Y] = [pX, pY].
44

Proposition 7. If V is paracompact, every vector field on V is the image


of a projectable vector field on P. i.e., C (V) is surjective.
Let x V and U a neighbourhood of x over which P is trivial. It is
clear that any vector field X in U is the projection of a vector field X in

2.9. Projections vector fields

33

p1 (U). Using the fact that V is paracompact we obtain that there exists
a locally finite cover (Ui )iI of V and a family of projectable vector fields
Xi such that pXi = Xi on Ui where Xi coincides on Ui with a given
vector field X on V. Let (i )iI be a differentiable partition of unity for
P
V with respect to the above cover. Then X = (p i )Xi is well-defined
iI
P
and is in with projection pX = i pXi = X.
iI

Example. Let G be a Lie group acting differentiably to the right on a


differentiable manifold V. The action of G on V is given by the map
p : V G V. Consider the manifold V G with the above projection
onto V. G acts to the right on V G by the rule
(x, s)t = (xt, t1 s) for every x V, s, t G.
The map : V G V G defined by (x, s) = (xs, s1 ) for
x V, s G is a diffeormorphism. We also have
(x, st) = (x, s)t

This show that V G is a trivial principal bundle over V with group


G and projection p. A global cross -section is given by : x (x, e).
Let Y = T e be the space of vectors at e and Ia the left invariant 45
vector field on G whose value at e is a. Let (0, Ia ) be the vector field on
V G whose value at (x, s) is (x, sa). Then for every a Y , (0, Ia ) is
projectable; as a matter of fact , it is even right invariant. For,
(O, Ia )(x,s) t = (x, sa)t
= (x, t1 sa)
= (0, Ia )(x,t)t1 s
= (0, Ia )(x,s)t
We moreover see that p(0, Ia ) = Za since we have p(x, sa) = xsa =
(Za ) xs .
We define a bracket operation [a, b] in Y by setting [Ia , Ib ] = I[a,b] .
Then we have in the above situation
[(0, Ia ), (0, Ib )] = (0, I[a,b] ).

2. Differentiable Bundles

34
Then it follows that

[Za , Zb ] = [p(0, Ia ), p(0, Ib )]


= p[(0, Ia ), (o, Ib )]
= Z[a,b] .

Chapter 3
Connections on Principal
Bundles
3.1
A connection in a principal bundle P is, geometrically speaking, an as- 46
signment to each point of P of a tangent subspace at which is supplementary to the space N . This distribution should be differentiable
and invariant under the action of G. More precisely,
Definition 1. A connection on the principal bundle P is a differentiable
tensor field of type (1, 1) such that
1) (X) N for every X C (P)
2) (X) = X for every X N
3) (X) = (X)s for every s G.
Thus, at each point , is a projection of T onto N . Condition 3)
is equivalent to (d)s = (ds) for every P, d T and s G.
Examples. 1) If G is a discrete group, the submodule N of U (P) is (0).
Thus any projection of C (P) onto N has to be 0. Hence the only
connection on a Galois covering manifold is the (0) tensor.
35

3. Connections on Principal Bundles

36

2) Let V be a differentiable manifold and G a Lie group. Consider the


trivial principal bundle V G over V. The tensor defined by
(dx, ds) = (x, ds)
is easily seen to be a connection.
47

3) Let P be a Lie group and G a closed subgroup. Consider the principal


bundle P over P/G. Let be the tangent space at e to P, and Y that
at e to G. Then Y can be identified with a subspace of . For a Y ,
the vector field Za is the left invariant vector field Ia on P. We shall
now assume that in , there exists a subspace M such that
1) = Y M

2) for every s G, s1 Ms M.
(M is only a subspace supplementary to Y , which is invariant under
the adjoint representation of G in . Such a space always exists if
we assume that G is compact or semisimple).
Under the above conditions, there exists a connection and only one
on P such that (M) = (0) and (tb) = t(b) for every b and t G.
The kernel of is the submodule of C (P) generated by the left invariant
vector field Ia on P with a M. Moreover, is left invariant under the
action of G. Conversely, every left invariant connection corresponds to
such an invariant subspace M supplementary to Y in .
Theorem 1. If V is paracompact, for every differentiable principal bundle P over V, there exists a connection on P.

48

We have seen that there exists a connection on a trivial bundle. Using the paracompactness of V, we can find a locally finite open cover
(Ui )iI of V such that P is trivial over each Ui and such that there exist tensor fields i of type (1, 1) on P whose restrictions to P1 (Ui ) are
connections. Set i j = i j for every i, j I. Then the i j satisfy the
following equations:
i j d N , i j ( a) = 0, and i j (ds) = (i j d)s

3.2. Horizontal vector fields

37

for every p1 (Ui U j ), d T , a Y , s G.


Now, let (i )iI be a partition of unity with respect to the above covP
ering, i.e., support of i Ui and i = 1. Denote p i by i . Then
i is a partition of unity with respect to the covering p1 (Ui ). k ik is a
tensor on P for every k and hence
X
i =
k ik
k

is a tensor having the following properties:


i d N , i a = 0 and i (ds) = (i d)s.
The tensor i i is easily seen to be a connection on p1 (Ui ). Since
k is a partition of unity, it follows that i i , j j coincide on p1 (Ui
U j ) for every i, j I. Therefore the tensor field on P defined by
= i i on p1 (Ui ) is a connection on P.

3.2 Horizontal vector fields


Let be a connection on P. By definition, is a map C (P) N. The
kernel J of this map is called the module of horizontal vector fields. It
is clear that maps into itself. Hence we have = N ( J). It
is easily seen that the vector fields belonging to the U (V)-module
are invariant under the action of G. We have defined the projection p of 49
onto C (V). The kernel of this projection is N since the restriction of
p to J is bijective.
We shall now see that the module C (F) of all vector fields on P is
generated by projectable vector fields.
Theorem 2. Let V be a paracompact manifold and P a principal bundle
P
over V. Then the map : U (P) J J defined by ( fs X s ) =
U
(V)
P
f s X s is bijective.
The proof rests on the following

Lemma 1. C (V) is a module of finite type over U (V).

3. Connections on Principal Bundles

38

50

In fact, by Whitneys imbedding theorem ([28]) there exists a regular, proper imbedding of each connected component of V in R2n+1
where n = dim V. This gives us a map f : V R2n+1 defined by
y ( f, (y), . . . , f2n+1 (y)) which is of maximal rank. Let (U j ) jJ be
an open covering of V such that on every U j , (d fi )i=1,2,...2n+1 contains a
base for the module of differential forms of degree 1 on U j . Let S be
the set of maps : [1, n] [1, 2n + 1] such that (i + 1) < (i) for
i = 1, 2, . . . (n 1). We shall denote by U the union of the open sets
of the above covering in which d f1 . . . d fn are linearly independent.
Thus we arrive at a finite cover (U )C having the above property. Using a partition of unity for this cover, any form on V can be written
as a linear combination of the d fi . Using the map f , we can introduce a
Riemannian metric on V which gives an isomorphism of C (V) onto the
module of differential forms of degree 1. This completes the proof of
the lemma.
Proof of the theorem. Let X1 , . . . X2n+1 be a set of generators for the
module C (V) and (U )S a finite covering such that for every
, X(1) , . . . X(n) form a base for the module of vector fields on U . We
shall now prove that the map is injective.
Let ( )S be a partition of unity for this covering and X s be vector
n
P
fields such that pX s = X s . Then X s =
gi,s X(i) , with
gi,s U (V) and hence X s =
U (V)-module on C (P). If u =

n
P

i=1
2n+1
P

i=1

gi,s X(i) using the structure of

f s X s with f s U (P) is such


P
that (u) = 0, then ( u) = 0 for every . Therefore
f gi,s = 0 on
s
P
fs gi, X(i) ; it follows that
U and consequently on V. But u =
s,i
P
u = u = 0. The proof that is surjective is similar.
s=1

Corollary. If V is paracompact, the module of horizontal vector fields


on P is generated over U (P) by the projectable and horizontal vector
fields.

3.3. Connection form

39

3.3 Connection form


Le P be a principal bundle over V and a connection on P. If d T ,
then d N and a a is an isomorphism of Y onto N . We define
a differential form on P with values in Y by setting (d) = a where 51
(d) = a. In order to prove that is differentiable, it is enough to
prove that takes differentiable vector fields into differentiable functions with values in Y . We have (Za ) = a for every a Y and
(X) = 0 for every X J. Since the module C (P) is generated by J and
the vector fields Za , (X) is differentiable for every differentiable vector
field X on P. Thus corresponding to every connection on P, there exists one and only one form with values in Y such that (d) = (d)
for every d T . It is easily seen that satisfies
1) (a) = a for every P and a Y
2) (ds) = s1 (d)s for d T and s G.
A Y - valued form on P satisfying 1) and 2) is called a connection
form. Given a connection form on P, it is easy to see that there exists
one and only one connection for which is the associated form, i.e.,
(d) = (d) for every d T .

3.4 Connection on Induced bundles


Let P, P be two principal bundles over V, V respectively. Let h be a
homomorphism of P into P. If is a connection form on P, the form
h on P obviously satisfies conditions (1) and (2) and is therefore a
connection form on P .
In particular, if P is the bundle induced by a map q : V V, then
induces a connection on P .
Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over V, and q a map 52
Y V which trivialises P, being a lifting of q to P with m as the
multiplicator. As in Chapter 2.4, we denote by Yq the subset of Y Y
consisting of points (y, y ) such that q(y) = q(y ). Now = is a differential form on Y. We have (y ) = (y) m(y, y ) for every (y, y ) Yq .

3. Connections on Principal Bundles

40

Differentiating we obtain for every vector (dy, dy ) at (y, y ) Yq


(dy ) = (dy)m(y, y ) + (y)m(dy, dy )
Since (dy ) = (dy ) we have
(dy ) = m(y, y )1 (dy)m(y, y ) + ((y)m(y, y )m(y, y )1 m(dy, dy ))
= m(y, y )1 (dy)m(y, y ) + m(y, y )1 m(dy, dy )
Hence m(dy, dy ) = m(y, y )(dy ) (dy)m(y, y ).
Conversely if is a differential form on Y satisfying
m(dy, dy ) = m(y, y )(dy ) (dy)m(y, y )

53

for every (y, y ) Yq , then there exists one and only one connection form
on P such that = .
In particular, when the trivialisation of P is in terms of a covering
(Ui )iI of V with differentiable sections i (Ch.2.5), the connection form
on P gives rise to a family of differential forms i = i on Ui . From
the equations i (x) = j (x)m ji (x) defining the transition functions m ji ,
we obtain on differentiation,

i.e.,

i (dx) = m ji (x)1 j (dx)m ji (x) + m ji (x)1 m ji (dx) for x Ui ,


m ji (dx) = m ji (x)i (dx) j (dx)m ji (x).

Conversely given a family of differentiable forms i on the open


sets of a covering (Ui )iI of V satisfying the above, there exists one and
only one connection form on P such that i = i for every i.

3.5 Maurer-Cartan equations


To every differentiable map f of a differentiable manifold V into a Lie
group G, we can make correspond a differential form of degree 1 on V
with values in the Lie algebra Y of G defined by ()(d) = f ()1 f (d)
for V and d T . We shall denote this form by f 1 d f . This is
easily seen to be differentiable.

3.5. Maurer-Cartan equations

41

If we take f : G G to be the identity map, then we obtain a


canonical differential form on G with values in Y . Thus we have
(ds) = s1 ds Y . Also (tds) = (ds) for every vector ds of
G. That is, is a left invariant differential form. Moreover, it is easy
to see that any scalar left invariant differential form on G is obtained by
composing with elements of the algebraic dual of Y . In what follows,
we shall provide A Y with the canonical derivation law (Ch.1.2).
Proposition 1 (Maurer-Cartan). The canonical form on G satisfies
d + [, ] = 0.
54
We recall that the form [, ] has been defined by [, ](X, Y) =
[(X), (Y)] for every vector fields X, Y C (G). Since the module of
vector fields over G is generated by left invariant vector fields, it suffices
to prove the formula for left invariant vector fields X = Ia , Y = Ib a, b
Y . We have
d()(Ia , Ib ) = Ia (Ib ) Ib (Ia ) ([Ia , Ib ])
But [Ia , Ib ] = I[a,b] and [Ia , Ib ] = (I[a,b] ) = [a, b] = [(Ia ), (Ib )]
since (Ia ) = a, (Ib ) = b.
Corollary. If f is a differentiable map V G, then the form = f 1 d f
satisfies d + [, ] = 0.
In fact, (d) = f 1 () f (d) = ( f (d)) = ( f )(d) and hence
= f . The above property of is then an immediate consequence of
that of .
Conversely, we have the following
Theorem 3. If is a differential form of degree 1 on a manifold V with
values in the Lie algebra Y of a Lie group G satisfying d + [, ] = 0,
then for every o V and a differentiable map f : U G such that
f 1 () f (d) = (d) for every vector d of U.
Consider the form = p1 p2 on V G where p1 : V G V 55
and p2 : V G G arc the two projections and the canonical left
invariant form on G. If is expressed in terms of a basis {a1 , . . . ar } of

3. Connections on Principal Bundles

42

Y , the component scalar differential forms i are everywhere linearly


independent. This follows from the fact that on each p1
1 (), reduces
to p2 . We shall now define a differentiable and involutive distribution
on the manifold V G. Consider the module M of vector fields X on
V G such that i (X) = 0 for every i . We have now to show that
X, Y M [X, Y] M. But this is an immediate consequence of the
relations d = [, ] and d = [, ].
By Frobenius theorem (see [11]) there exists an integral submanifold W (of dim = dim V) of V G in a neighbourhood of (o , e). Since
for every vector (o , a) , 0 tangent to p1
1 o , (o , a) = a , 0 there exist
a neighbourhood U of o and a differentiable section into V G over
U such that (U) W. Define f () = p2 (). By definition of W, it
follows that (d) = 0. This means that

i.e.,

p1 (d) p2 (d) = 0

(d) = (p2 (d)) = ( f )d = f 1 () f (d).

Remark. When we take G = additive group of real numbers, the above


theorem reduces to the Poincares theorem for 1-forms. Concerning the
uniqueness of such maps f , we have the

56

Proposition 2. If f1 , f2 are two differentiable maps of a connected manifold V into a Lie group G such that f11 d f1 = f21 d f2 , then there exists
an element s G such that f1 = f2 s.
Define a differentiable function s : V G by setting
s() = f1 () f21 () for every V.
Differentiating this, we get
s(d) f2 () + s() f2 (d) = f1 (d).
Hence s(d) = 0. Therefore s is locally a constant and since V is
connected s is everywhere a constant.
Regarding the existence of a map f in the large, we have the following

3.6. Curvature forms

43

Theorem 4. If is a differential form of degree 1 on a simply connected


manifold V with values in the Lie algebra Y of a Lie group G, such that
d + [, ] = 0, then there exists a differentiable map f of V into G such
that f 1 d f = .
The proof rests on the following
Lemma 2. Let mi j be a set of transition functions with group G of a
simply connected manifold V with respect to a covering (Ui ). If each mi j
is locally a constant, then there exists locally constant maps i : Ui G
such that mi j (x) = i (x)1 j (x) for every x Ui U j .
In fact, there exists a principal bundle P over V with group G considered as a discrete group and with transition functions mi j (Ch.2.5).
P is then a covering manifold over V and hence trivial. Therefore the 57
maps i : Ui G exist satisfying the conditions of the lemma (Ch.2.5).
Proof of the theorem. Let (Ui )iI be a covering of V such that on each
Ui , there exists a differentiable function fi satisfying fi (x)1 fi (dx) =
(dx) for every x Ui . We set mi j (x) = fi (x) f j (x)1 . It is obvious that
the mi j form a set of locally constant transition functions. Let i be the
maps Ui G of the lemma. Then i (x) fi (x) = j (x) f j (x) for every
x Ui U j . The map f : V G which coincides with i fi on each Ui
is such that f 1 d f = .

3.6 Curvature forms


Definition 2. Let be a connection form on a principal bundle P over
V. Then the alternate form of degree 2 with values in the Lie algebra
Y of the structure group G defined by K = d + [, ] is said to be the
curvature form of . A connection on P is said to be flat if the form
K 0.
Theorem 5. The following statements are equivalent:
a) The connection is flat i.e., d + [, ] = 0.
b) If X, Y are two horizontal vector fields on p, so is [X, Y].

44

3. Connections on Principal Bundles

c) For every xo V, there exists an open neighbourhood U of xo and a


differentiable section on U such that = 0.
Proof. a) b) is obvious from the definition.
b) c)
58

P
Let a1 , a2 , . . . an be a basis of Y and let = i ai where i are
scalar differential forms. Since i (Za j ) = i j , it follows that {1 , . . . r }
form a set of differential forms of maximal rank r. From b), it follows
that the module J of horizontal vector fields is stable under the bracket
operation. Hence J forms a distribution on P which is differentiable and
involutive. Let o P such that p(o ) = Xo and let W be an integral
manifold W of dim = dim V in a neighbourhood of o . As in Th.3,
Ch.3.5, W is locally the image of a differentiable section over an open
neighbourhood of xo . Since all the tangent vectors of W are horizontal,
we have (dx) = 0 for every vector dx on U.
c) a)
Let be a differentiable section over an open subset U of V such
that = 0. For every p1 (U), define a differentiable function
: p1 (U) G by the condition = (p())(). Differentiating this,
we obtain
d = p(d)() + p()(d)
Hence (d) = 1 ()(p(d))() + ()1 (d) by conditions (1)
and (2) for connection forms. i.e. (d) = ()1 (d) and a) follows
from cor. to prop.1, Ch.3.5.

59

Theorem 6. If there exists a flat connection on a principal bundle P over


a simply connected manifold V, then P is a trivial bundle. Moreover, a
differentiable cross-section can be found over V such that = 0.
By T h.4, Ch.3.5, there exists an open covering (Ui )iI and cross sections i : Ui P such that i = 0. Let i (x)mi j (x) = j (x) where the
corresponding transition functions are mi j . Then we have
(i (dx)mi j (x) + i (x)mi j (dx)) = j (dx).

3.6. Curvature forms

45

Therefore, mi j (dx) = 0, i.e. the mi j are locally constant. Lemma 2,


Ch.3.5 then gives a family i of locally constant maps Ui G such that
mi j = 1
i j
It is easily seen that i 1
= j 1
i
j on U i U j . Define a cross
1
section on V by setting = i i on every Ui . Then we have
((dx)) = (i (dx)1
i (x))
= i (x)(i (dx))1
i (x)
= 0 for x Ui .
Hence the bundle is trivial and = 0.
Proposition 3. If X is a vector field on P tangential to the fibre, then 60
K(X, Y) = 0 for every vector field Y on P.
In fact, since = J N and generates C (P), it is enough to
prove the assertion for Y N and Y . In the first case X = Za and
Y = Zb , we have
K(Za , Zb ) = (d + [, ])(Za , Zb )
= Za (Zb ) Zb (Za ) [Za , Zb ] + [(Za ), (Zb )]

= (Z[a,b] ) + [a, b]

=0

In the second case, Y is invariant under G and it is easy to see that


[Za , Y] = 0. Since (Y) = 0, we have
K(Za , Y) = (d + [, ])(Za , Y)
= Za (Y) Y(Za ) [Za , Y] + [(Za ), (Y)]
= 0.

Proposition 4.
K(d1 s, d2 s) = s1 K(d1 , d2 )s for P, d1 , d T and s G.

3. Connections on Principal Bundles

46

By Prop.3, Ch.3.6, it is enough to consider the case when d1 , d2


J . Extend d1 , d2 to horizontal vector fields X1 , X2 respectively. Then
we have
K(d1 s, d2 s) = K(X1 s, X2 s)()
= [X1 s, X2 s]()

= ([X1 , X2 ]s)()
= ([X1 , X2 ] s)

= s1 ([X1 , X2 ] )s
= s1 K(X1 , X2 )()s

= s1 (d1 , d2 )s for every s G.


61

3.7 Examples
1. Let dim V = 1. Then C (V) is a face module generated by a single
vector field.N
But C (V) is U (V)-isomorphic to J and hence
J = U (P)
J is also U (P) - free, and of rank 1. Since K
U (V)

is alternate, K 0. In other words, if the base manifold of P is a


curve, any connection is flat.

2. Let G be a closed subgroup of a Lie group H and let Y , F be their


respective LIe algebras. We have seen that (Example 3, Ch.3.1)
if M is a subspace of F such that F = M Y and s1 Ms M
for every s G, then the projection : F M gives rise to a
connection which is left invariant by element of G. Denoting by
Ia the left invariant vector fields on H whose values at e is a F ,
we obtain
K(Ia , Ib ) = ([Ia , Ib ]) + [(Ia ), (Ib )]
= I[a,b] + [e a, e b]

= e ([a, b]) + [e (a), e (b)].

3.7. Examples
62

47

Thus K is also left invariant for elements of G. Moreover is flat if


and only if e is a homomorphism of J onto U . This again is true if
and only if M is an ideal in J .

Chapter 4
Holonomy Groups
4.1 Integral paths
We shall consider in this chapter only connected base manifolds.

63

Definition 1. A path in a manifold W is a continuous map of the


unit interval I = [0, 1] into W. A path is said to be differentiable if
can be extended to a differentiable map of an open neighbourhood of I
into W. (0) is called the origin and (1) the extremity, of the path. The
path t (1 t) is denoted by 1 . If is a connection on a principal
bundle P over X, then a differentiable path in P is said to be integral
if = 0. If is integral, so is 1 .
Let be a path in X. A path in P such that po = is called a
where
lift of . It is easy to see that if is an integral lift of , so is s,
is defined by s(t)

s
= (t)s.
If is an integral lift of , then 1 is an
integral lift of 1 .
Theorem 1. If is a differentiable path in V with origin at x V, then
for every P such that p() = x, there exists one and only one integral
lift of with origin .
Let I be an open interval containing I to which can be extended. 64
The map : I V defines an induced bundle P with base I and a
49

4. Holonomy Groups

50

canonical homomorphism h of P into P such that the diagram


P

// P




// V

is commutative. The connection on P also induces a connection h


on P . Since I is a curve, by Ex.1 of Ch.3.7 and Th.5 of Ch.3.6, there
exists a section such that the inverse image by of h is zero. i.e.
h = 0. Define : I P by setting = h on I . Then it is

obviously an integral lift of . If s G is such that = (0)s,


then s
is an integral lift of with origin .
If ,
are two such lifts, then we may define a map s : I G such
that
= (t)s(t)
(t)

for every t I.
Since ,
are differentiable, it can be proved that s is also differentiable using the local triviality of the bundle. Differentiation of the

above yields (dt)


= (dt)s(t)

+ (t)s(dt).

Hence
((dt)s(t))

+ ((t)s(dt))

= 0.

65

Using conditions (1) and (2) of connection form, we get s(dt) = 0.

Hence s is a constant. Since (0)

= (0),
the theorem is completely
proved.

4.2 Displacement along paths


Let P x be the fibre at x and a path with origin x and extremity y. For
every P x , there exists one and only one integral lift of whose
origin is . The extremity of is an element of the fibre at Py . We
shall denote this by . Then is said to be a displacement along
. Any displacement along the path commutes with the operations
of G in the sense that (s) = ( )s for every P x ; therefore is

4.3. Holonomy group

51

differentiable and is easily seen to be a bijective map P x Py . Trivially,


( )1 = 1 . It is also obvious that the displacement is independent of
the parameter, i.e., if is a differentiable map of I into I such that
1) (0) = 0, (1) = 1;
2) =
then =
Given a differentiable path , we may define a new path by suitably changing the parameter so that has all derivatives zero at origin
and extremity. By the above remark, we have 1 = .

4.3 Holonomy group


Definition 2. A chain of paths in V is a finite sequence of paths { p ,
. . . , 1 } where i is a path such that i+1 (0) = (1) for i p 1.
We define the origin and extremity of the chain to be respectively 66
1 (0) and p (1). Given two chains
= { p , p1 , . . . 1 }, = {q , q1 , . . . 1 } such that origin of =
extremity of , we define = { p , . . . 1 , q , . . . 1 }. 1 is defined to
1 = 1 1 .
1
be {1
1
1 , . . . q } and it is easily seen that ()
A displacement along a chain = { p , . . . 1 } in the base manifold V of a principal bundle P is defined by = p , . . . 1 .
Let x, y V. Define (x, y) to be the displacements where is
a chain with (0) = x, (1) = y. It can be proved, by a suitable change
of parameters of the paths i (ch. 4.2), that there exists a differentiable
path such that = . The following properties are immediate consequences of the definition:
1) (x, y) = 1 (y, x).
2) (x, y), (y, z) = (x, y).
3) (x, y) is non empty since V is connected.

52

67

4. Holonomy Groups

We shall denote (x, x) by (x). (x) is then a subgroup of the


group of automorphisms of P x commuting with operations of G. This is
called the holonomy group at x with respect to the given connection on
the principal bundle P. If we restrict ourselves to all chains homotopic
to zero at x, then we get a subgroup r (x) of (x), viz., the subgroup of
displacements where is a closed chain at x homotopic to zero. This
is called the restricted holonomy group at X. This is actually a normal
subgroup of (x), for if is homotopic to 0 and any continuous path
1 is again homotopic to zero.
Proposition 1. For every x V, there exists a natural homomorphism
Q
of the fundamental group 1 (V, x) onto (x)/r (x).

Let be a closed path at x. Then there exists a differentiable path


homotopic to . We map on the coset of r (x) containing 1 . If
and are homotopic, so are and i.e. 1 is homotopic to
zero. Then 1 = , 1
r . Thus we obtain a canonical map
Q
: 1 (V, x) (x)/r (x) which is easily seen to be a homomorphism
of groups. That this is surjective is immediate.
In general, will not be injective. As the fundamental group of
manifolds which are countable at is itself countable, so is(x)/r (x).
Hence from the point of view of structure theory, a study of r (x) is in
most cases sufficient.

4.4 Holonomy groups at points of the bundle

68

If x, y are two points of the connected manifold V and a path joining x and y, then there exists an isomorphism (y) (x) defined by
1 for every path closed at y. The image of r (y) under
this isomorphism is contained in r (x). However, this isomorphism is
not canonical depending as it does on the path . The situation can be
improved by association to each point of the bundle P a holonomy group
which is a subgroup of G.
Let A x be the group of automorphisms of P x commuting with operations of G. Let P x , Then we define an isomorphism : A x G
by requiring = () for every A x . That is a homomorphism

4.5. Holonomy groups for induced connections

53

and is bijective is trivial. At every P, we define the holonomy group


()
to be (p). Similarly the restricted holonomy group r () at
is r (p).
Theorem 2.
For any two points , P, (), () are conjugate subgroups of
G. Moreover, if , lie on an integral path, then () = ().
If , are on the same integral path, then = for some path
with origin p = x and extremity p = y. It is sufficient to prove that
() (). Let be a closed chain at x. Then
( ) =
= 1

= 1
where =

= 1
( ( ))
= ( )
Hence ( ) = ( ) () and our assertion is proved.
Finally, if , are arbitrary, we may join p, p by a path . Let
be an integral lift of through and its extremity. Then there exists
s G such that = s. We have already proved that () = (s). 69
Now
(s)(s ()) = (s)
= ( ())s
Hence () = s1 ()s, which completes the proof of theorem 2.

4.5 Holonomy groups for induced connections


Let h be a homomorphism of a principal bundle P over V into a principal bundle P over V. Let h be the projection of h. Let be a connection
form on P and h the induced connection on P . If P and
h( ) = , then ( ) (). Moreover, ( ) is the set of (h )

4. Holonomy Groups

54

where is a closed chain at p = x . For, let s ( ) corresponding


to the closed chain at x . Then s = .
s = h( )
=

where

= h

= ( ).

70

Therefore s = ( ) and it is obvious that any such ( ) belongs


to ( ).
In particular, let V be the universal covering manifold of V, h the
covering map, P a principal bundle over V and h a homomorphism
P P whose projection is h. Then for P , ( ) is the set of
where is the image under h of a closed chain at p . But V
being simply connected, is any closed chain at homotopic to zero
and hence ( ) = r ().

4.6 Structure of holonomy groups


Theorem 3.
For every P, r () is an arcwise connected subgroup of G.
If is a closed path at x V which is homotopic to zero, then it can
be shown that there exists a differentiable map : I I V(I being
a neighbourhood of I) such that (t, 0) = (t) and (t, 1) = x for every
t I. This can be lifted into a map : I I P such that
1) p(t,
) = (t, ) for every t, I;
2) For every I, t (t,
) is an integral path;
3) (0,
) = with p() = x.
In fact, : I I V induces a bundle P over I I . Let be the
induced connection on P . For every I , the path t (t, ) in I I
can be lifted to an integral path
in P with origin at ((0, ), ) P .
The origin depends differentiably on and therefore the map of I I

4.7. Reduction of the structure group

55

defined by (t, ) = (t) is differentiable. Hence = satisfies the


conditions 1), 2) and 3).
Now we define a function s : I G by requiring that s() =
(1,
). Obviously s(1) = e and s(0) is the element of the restricted 71
holonomy group at corresponding to the path . It is also easy to verify
that s() is a differentiable function of using the local triviality of P.
Therefore any point of r () can be connected to e by a differentiable
arc.
Corollary. r () is a Lie subgroup of G.
This follows from the fact that any arcwise connected subgroup of a
Lie group is itself a Lie group [31].

4.7 Reduction of the structure group


Theorem 4.
The structure group of P can be reduced to () for any P.
For this we need the following
Lemma 1. Let M() be the set of points of P which are extremities of
integral paths emanating from . There exists an open covering (Ui )iI
of V and cross-sections i over Ui such that i (x) M() for every
x Ui .
Let x = p and x0 V. Consider the path connecting x and x0 .
Then the integral lift of with origin has extremity 0 with p0 =
x0 . Let U be a neighbourhood of x0 in which are defined n linearly
independent vector fields X1 , . . . Xn where n = dim V. Let X1 , X2 , . . . Xn
be horizontal vector fields on p1 (U) such that pXi = Xi for every i.
By the theorem on the existence of solution for differential equations,
there exists a neighbourhood of (0, 0, . . .) in R Rn in which is defined
a differentiable map having the properties
1) (0, a) = 0
P
2) (t, a) = tai (Xi )(t,a) .

72

4. Holonomy Groups

56
From the uniqueness of such solutions, we get
(t, a) = (t, a)

for sufficiently small values of , t and a. Thus there exists a differentiable map having the properties 1) and 2) above on [0, 2] W where
W is a neighbourhood of (0, . . .) in Rn . Since the Xi are horizontal,
(t, a) M(). Now consider the differentiable map g : W P defined
by g(a) = (1, a). The map p.g is of maximal rank. Moreover since
dim V = n, this is locally invertible. In other words, in a neighbourhood
U of X0 we have a differentiable map f : U W such that p g f =
Identity, i.e., gof is a cross section over U, and
( gof ) (y) = (1, f (y)) M() for every y U .
Proof of theorem 4. We have only to take for transition functions the
functions mi j such that
i (x) = j (x)m ji (x) for every x Ui U j
where the i have the properties mentioned in the lemma. Then it is
obvious that mi j (x) (i (x0 )) = () by theorem 2, Ch. 4.3.
73

Now let V be simply connected. Then () = r (). Since ()


is a Lie subgroup of G, it follows [11] that the m ji are differentiable
functions as maps: Ui U j () also. If i are the diffeomorphisms
Ui G p1 (Ui ) defined by i (, s) = i ()s for Ui , s G.
Consider the set Wi consisting of i (, s) with Ui , s (). It is
clear that Wi p1 (U j ) = W j p1 (Ui ). Moreover if we provide each
Wi with the structure of a differentiable manifold by requiring that the
i be a diffeomorphism, then the differentiable structures on Wi W j
S
agree. In other words, M() = Wi has a differentiable structure (with
iI

which it is a submanifold of P). () acts on M() differentiably to the


right and makes of it a principal bundle over V with projection p. We
denote the inclusion map M() P by f .

Proposition 2. Let d be a vector at the point of the manifold M()


and Y () the Lie subalgebra of Y corresponding to (), then ( f d)
Y ().

4.8. Curvature and the holonomy group

57

Since the connection form is 0 on horizontal vectors, it is enough to


consider the case when f d is tangential to the fibre, i.e. is of the form
sa with a Y (), s (). In this case (sa) = a Y () which proves
the assertion.
If we define (d) = ( f d) for every vector d of M() then is
again a connection form on the principal bundle M(). For every point
M(), the holonomy group corresponding to is ().

4.8 Curvature and the holonomy group


Theorem 5.
For P, r () = (e) if and only if the curvature form is identically 74
zero.
Consider the universal covering manifold V of V with covering map
h. Let P = Ph be the induced bundle with h as the homomorphism
P P. Let P such that h = . Then by Ch.4.5., the holonomy
with respect to the induced connection = h on P is
group ()
is the image of a cross-section
r (). Therefore, if r () = (e), M()

Hence
of P over V. By prop. 4, Ch.3.6, (d
x) = 0 for every x V.
by th.5, Ch.3.6 the curvature is 0. Since V is locally diffeomorphic with
V the curvature form of is 0. Conversely, if K = 0, K = 0 and by
th.6, ch.3.6, there exists a section
of P over V such that
= 0 and

such that (
x) = . Hence the holonomy group at reduces to {e}, i.e.,
r () = {e}.
Theorem 6 (Ambrose-Singer; [1]).
The Lie algebra of the restricted holonomy group r () at P is
the subspace of the Lie algebra G of G generated by the values K(d1 ,
d2 ) of the curvature form with d1 , d2 T , f M(). We may
assume that V is simply connected in which case () = r (), the
general case being an easy consequence. Moreover, since it is enough to
take d1 , d2 to be horizontal, we may consider the values of K on the
manifold M(). We may therefore restrict ourselves to the case when
r () = G, and M() = P. Let I be the subalgebra of G generated by

4. Holonomy Groups

58

75

the values of K. Let L be the set of vector fields X on P such that (X)
is a function with values in I . This is an U (P)- submodule. It is easily
seen that L has everywhere rank = dim V + dim I , using the fact that
(Za ) = a I for a I . Moreover,
([X, Y]) = K(X, Y) X(Y) + Y(X) + [(X), (Y)]
I for every X, Y L and P.

76

By Frobenius theorem, there exists an integral manifold for the distribution given by L . Let L be the maximal integral manifold for L
containing . Since the integral paths for with origin at are integral
with respect to L we must have L = P. Hence dim I = dim G , or
I = G.
Finally it remains to prove that the subspace M of U generated by
the values of K is itself a Lie subalgebra.
Since K(d1 s, d2 s) = s1 K(d1 , d2 )s I , it follows that s1 Ns
N for every s G. Therefore for every X I , [X, N] N. In particular,
[M , M ] M .
We now give a geometric interpretation of K(d1 , d2 ) for P.
Firstly, we may assume d1 , d2 to be both horizontal vectors (Prop. 3,
Ch.3.6). Let x = p, d1 x = pd1 and d2 x = pd2 . Extend d1 x, d2 x
to vector fields X1 and X2 on V such that [X1 , X2 ] = 0. Let X1 , X2 be
the corresponding projectable, horizontal vector fields on P. Let
Fi (, t) be the automorphism of parameter t defined on a neighbourhood
of by the vector field Xi (i = 1, 2). We set 1 () = F1 (, ), 2 () =
F2 (, 1 ()), 3 () = F2 (, 2 ()) and 4 () = F1 (, 3 ()). The chain
of paths F1 (t/, ), F2 (t/, 1 ()), F1 (t/, 2 ()), F2 (t/, 3 ()) is not
closed in general though its projection on V is closed (since [X1 , X2 ] =
0). Let s(2 ) be the element of G. such that 4 () = s(2 ). Then
[X1 , X2 ] = s (0) and we have
[X1 , X2 ] = ([X1 , X2 ] )
= K(X1 , X2 )

= K(d1 , d2 ).

4.8. Curvature and the holonomy group

59

Chapter 5
Vector Bundles and
Derivation Laws
5.1
Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over a manifold V with group 77
G. Consider a vector space L of finite dimension over the field R of
real numbers. Let s sL be a linear representation of G in L.G acts
differentiably on L (regarded as a manifold ) to the right by the rule
vs = s1
L v.
Let E be a fibre bundle associated to P with fibre L and q the map
P L E. For every P, the map v q(, v) is a bijection of L onto
the fibre of E at p, or a frame of L. On each fibre E x at x V of the
associated bundle E, we may introduce the structure of a vector space
by requiring that the frame defined by any point p1 (x) be linear. It
is clear that such a structure does exist and is unique. Let U be an open
subset of V over which P is trivial and a diffeomorphism U L
p1 (U) defined by (x, v) = q((x), v) where is a differentiable cross
section of P over U. Then we have
1) p (x, y) = x
2) (x, v + v ) = (x, v) + (x, v )
3) (x, v) = (x, v)
61

62

78

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

for every x U, v, v L and R.


Conversely, let E be a differentiable manifold and p : E Va
differentiable map. Assume each p1 (x) = E x to be a vector space over
R. The manifold E (together with p) is called a differentiable vector
bundle (or simply a vector bundle ) over V if the following condition is
satisfied. For every x0 V, there exist an open neighbourhood V of x0
and a differentiable isomorphism of U Rn onto p1 (U) such that
1) p(x, v) = x
2) (x, v + v ) = (x, v) + (x, v )
3) (x, v) = (x, v)
for every x V, v, v L and R.
Proposition 1. Every vector bundle of dimension n over V is associated
to a principal bundle over V with group GL(n, R).
In fact, let E be a vector bundle of dimension n over V and q :
E V the projection of E. For every x V, define P x to be the set
S
P x . The group
of all linear isomorphisms of Rn onto E x and P =
xV

G = GL(n, R) acts on P by the rule (s)v = (sv) for every v Rn .


Define p : P V by p(P x ) = x. By definition of vector bundles,
there exist an open covering U V and a family of diffeomorphisms
: U Rn q1 (U ) satisfying conditions 1), 2) and 3). For every
, the map : U G p1 (U ) defined by (x, s)v = (x, sv)
for x U , s G is bijective. We put on P a differentiable structure
by requiring that all be diffeomorphisms. It is easy to see that on the
overlaps the differentiable structures agree. Moreover,
(x, st)v = (x, (st)v)
= (x, s(tv))
= (x, s)(tv)
79

for x U , s, t G and v Rn . Thus P is a principal bundle over V with


group G. Let q be the map of P Rn onto E defined by q (, v) = v for
P, v Rn . It is easy to see that P Rn is a principal bundle over E
with projection q . Hence E is an associated bundle of P.

5.2. Homomorphisms of vector bundles

63

5.2 Homomorphisms of vector bundles


Definition 1. Let V and V be two differentiable manifolds, E a vector
bundle over V and E a vector bundle over V . A homomorphism h of
E into E is a differentiable map h : E E such that such that, for
every x V, p h(E x ) reduces to a point x V and the restriction hx of
h to E x is a linear map of E x into E x .
The map h : V V defined by the condition p h = hp is differentiable and is called the projection of h. If V = V , by a homomorphism
of E into E , we shall mean hereafter a homomorphism having the identity map V V as projection. In that case, h : E E is injective
or surjective according as all the maps hx : E x E x are injective or
surjective.
A vector bundle of dimension n over V is said to be trivial if it is
isomorphic to the bundle VRn (with the natural projection VRn V).
Let P be a principal bundle over V to which the vector bundle E is 80
associated. If P is trivial, so is E and every section of P defines an
isomorphism of V L onto E.
Let E, E , E be vector bundles over V. Then a sequence of homomorphisms
h

E
E
E
is said to be exact if, for every x V, the sequence
hx

kx

E x E x E x
is exact

5.3 Induced vector bundles


Let E be a vector bundle over a manifold V and q a differentiable map of
a manifold Y into V. Let Eq be the subset of the product Y E consisting
of elements (y, ) such that q(y) = p(). Define p : Eq Y by setting
p (y, ) = y. If p (y, ) = p (y , ), then y = y and p1 (y)(y Y) by

64

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

setting
(y, ) + (y, ) = (y, + )
(y, ) = (y, )

81

for , E and R. It is clear that this makes of Eq a differentiable


vector bundle over Y. This is called the bundle over Y induced by q.
Let P be a principal bundle over X and E a vector bundle associated to
P. If Pq is the principal bundle over Y induced by q (Ch. 2.4) then Eq is
associated to Pq .

5.4 Locally free sheaves and vector bundles


Let M be a differentiable manifold and a sheaf over M. If V U are
two open sets in M, VU denotes the restriction map (U) (V) and
for every x U, xU denotes the canonical map of (U) into the stalk x
at x.
Let U be the sheaf of differentiable real valued functions on M. For
every open set U M, (U) is the algebra of real valued differentiable
functions on U. A sheaf over M is called a sheaf of U - modules
if, for every open set U M, U (U) is an U (U)-module and if the
restriction maps satisfy the condition:
Vu ( f ) = (VU f )(VU )
whenever V U are open sets in M, f U (U) and (U).,
Let and be two sheaves of U -modules over M.A homomorphism h of into is a family of maps hU : HomU (U) ((U), (U))(U
open subset of M) such that if V U are two open sets in M, VU hU =
hV VU .
Let E be a differentiable vector bundle over M. The sheaf of differentiable sections of E is a sheaf of U -modules over M; for every
open set U M, (U) is the U (U)- module of differentiable sections of
E over U.

82

Definition 2. A sheaf of U -modules over M is said to be free of rank


n if is isomorphic to the sheaf U n of differentiable maps M Rn .

5.4. Locally free sheaves and vector bundles

65

A sheaf of U -modules over M is said to be locally free of rank n if


every point x M has a neighbourhood U such that restricted to U is
a free sheaf of rank n.
For every vector bundle E over M, the sheaf of differentiable sections of E is locally free of rank= dimension of E.
Proposition 2. A sheaf of U -modules over M is locally free of rank
n if and only if for every x M, there exists a neighbourhood U of x
and elements 1 , 2 , . . . n (U) such that for every open set V U,
(VU 1 , VU 2 , . . . VU n ) is a base of (V) over U (V).
That a locally free sheaf has such a property is an immediate consequence of the definition. Conversely, if such elements 1 , 2 , . . . n
over U exist, then, for every open set V U,the map hV of U (V)n into
(V) defined by hV ( f1 , f2 , . . . fn ) = f1 1 + f2 2 + . . . fn n is bijective
and the maps hV define an isomorphism of the sheaf U n of differentiable
maps U Rn onto the sheaf restricted to U.
Let E and E be two vector bundles over M. To every homomorphism h : E E there corresponds in an obvious way a homomorphism h : and the assignment E of locally free sheaves to
vector bundles is a functor T from the category of vector bundles over
M into the category of locally free sheaves over M.
Moreover, if
h
k
0 E
E
E 0
is an exact sequence, then the sequence
h

0 T E T e T E 0
is also exact (in the first sequence, 0 denotes the vector bundle of dimension 0 over M).
We shall now define a functor from the category of locally free
sheaves into the category of vector bundles over M. Let be a locally
free sheaf over M. Let U x be the stalk at x M for the sheaf U and m x
the ideal of germs of f U x such that f (x) = 0. Then we have the exact
sequence
0 m x x R 0.

83

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

66

If x is the stalk at x for the sheaf , then we have correspondingly the


exact sequence
0 m x x x x /m x x 0.
Let E x = x /m x x , E =

84

xM

E x and define p : E M by the con-

dition p(E x ) = (x). Let U be an open subset of M and 1 , 2 , . . . n


(U) satisfying the condition of prop.2. Then, for every x U, xU 1 ,
xU 2 , . . . xU n is a basis of x over U x . Let i (x) be the image of
xU i in the quotient space E x . Then 1 (x), 2 (x), . . . n (x) also is a
base of E X over R. The map U : U Rn p1 (U) E defined by
P
(x, a1 , a2 , . . . an ) = ai i (x) is obviously a bijection. There exists on
E one and only one differentiable structure such that every map U is a
diffeomorphism. With this structure, E is a differentiable vector bundle
T over M. Let , be two locally free sheaves of U modules over
M. To every homomorphism h : corresponds in an obvious way
a homomorphism T h : T T and the assignment T is a
functor T from the category of locally free sheaves to the category of
vector bundles over M. Moreover, if
0 0
is an exact sequence of locally free sheaves, then
0 T T T 0
is an exact sequence of vector bundles.
Proposition 3. For every vector bundle E over M, there exists a canonical isomorphism of E onto T T E. For every locally free sheaf of U
modules over M, there exists a canonical isomorphism of onto T T .
(We shall later identify E with T T E and E with T T E means of these
isomorphisms.)
For instance, if = T E and E = T , the isomorphism E E
maps u E x into (x) where is a differentiable section over an
open neighbourhood of x such that (x) = u. In particular T defines a

5.5. Sheaf of invariant vector fields

67

bijection of the set of classes of isomorphic vector bundles over M onto


the set of classes of isomorphic locally free sheaves of U modules over
M.
Many vector bundles are defined in differential geometry from a lo- 85
cally free sheaf, using the functor T . For instance the tangent bundle
for a manifold M corresponds the sheaf C over M such that C (U) is the
module of differentiable vector fields over the open set U M,

5.5 Sheaf of invariant vector fields


Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over a manifold V with group
G. Let J be the sheaf over V such that for every open set U V, J(U) is
the spec of invariant differentiable vector fields on p1 (U) P. Clearly
each J(U) is a module over the algebra U (U) of differentiable functions on U and J is sheaf of U -modules.
Let U be an open subset of V such that P is trivial over U and such
that the module C (U) of vector fields on U is a free module over U (U).
Let X1 .X2 , . . . Xm be a base of C (U) over U (U). Let I1 , I2 , . . . In be
a base of right invariant vector fields on G. Then ((Xi , 0), (0, I j )) for
i = 1, 2, . . . m, j = 1, 2, . . . n is a base of the U (U)-module of vector
fields on U G invariant under G acting to the right. This base satisfies
the condition of Prop.2. Therefore the sheaf of invariant vector fields
on U G is a free sheaf of rank = m + n over the sheaf U , restricted
to U. Hence,J is a locally free sheaf of U modules of rank equal to
dim V + dim G.
By Chap.5.4, there exists a vector bundle j = T J of dimension =
dim V + dim G canonically associated to J. Any point in the fibre Jx of 86
J at x V may be interpreted as a family of vectors L along the fibre P x
satisfying the condition
Ls = L()s for P x , s G.
Let K be the sheaf of U -modulo over V such that, for every open
subset U V, K (U) is the sub-module of J(U) consisting of invariant
vector fields tangential to the fibres. Then K is locally free of rank
= dim G and there exists a canonical injection K J. The vector

68

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

bundle K = T K associated to K is a vector bundle of dimension


= dim G over V. Any point in the fibre K x of K at x V may be
regarded as a vector field of the manifold P x invariant under the action
of G.
For every open set U V, any X J(U) is projectable and the
projection defines a homomorphism PU HomU (U) (J(U), C (U)). The
family of homomorphisms pU gives rise to a homomorphism p : J
C . Since pU is surjective when U is paracompact, p : J C is
surjective. On the other hand, since the kernel of pU is K (U), the kernel
of p is the image of K J. Therefore we have the exact sequence of
locally free sheaves over V:
0 K J C 0.
This gives rise to an exact sequence of vector bundles over V:
0K JC0
87

where C denotes the tangent bundle of V.


Theorem 1. The vector bundle K is a vector bundle associated to P
with typical fibre Y , the action of G on Y being given by the adjoint
representation.
Let E = (P Y )/G the vector bundle over V canonically associated
to P and q the map PY E. We shall define a canonical isomorphism
of E onto K. Let U be an open subset of V and (U) a differentiable
section of E on U. We define a differentiable map
of p1 (U) into Y
1
by the condition q(, )
= (p) for every p (U). Then (s)

=
1
1
s ()s

for every s G and p (U). Therefore the vector field


belongs to K (U). It is easy to
X on p1 (U) defined by X = ()
verify that the map X is an isomorphism U of the U (U)-module
(U) onto the U (U)-module K (U). The family U (U open in V) is an
isomorphism of the sheaf of differentiable sections of E onto the sheaf
K . Hence (U ) defines an isomorphism of E onto K. Let (, a)
P Y . Then q(, a) = xU X where U is an open neighbourhood of x
and X K (U) a vector field satisfying the condition X = a.

5.5. Sheaf of invariant vector fields

69

The isomorphism will be used later to identify the bundle E =


(P Y )/G with K. The vector bundle K is called the adjoint bundle of
P.
Definition 3. Let

88
h

0E
E
E 0
be an exact sequence of vector bundles over the manifold V. A splitting

E
E
of this exact sequence is an exact sequence 0 E

0, such that h is the identity on E and k the identity on E . Any


homomorphism (resp ) of E into E (resp of E into E) such that h
(resp k) is the identity determines a splitting. We shall now interpret
the splitting of the exact sequence
(S)

0 K J C 0.

For every open set U V, the module J(U) (resp. K (U)) will be
identified with the module of differentiable sections of J (resp. . K) over
U.
Theorem 2. There exists one and only one bijection of the set of connections on P onto the set of splittings J K of (S ) such that, if is a
connection on P,
(X) = () X
If is a connection on P, then, for every open set U V, the restriction of the tensor to U = p1 (U) is a projection of the module C (U )
of vector fields on U onto the module N(U ) of vector fields on U tan- 89
gential to the fibres which is invariant under the action of G and induces
a projection U : J(U) K (U). The family (U ) is a homomorphism of the sheaf J onto the sheaf K and defines a homomorphism
: J K which is a splitting of (S ). For every invariant vector field
X on P, we have () X = V (X) = (X). Since two homomorphisms
, : J K such that X = X for every differentiable section
X of J coincide, the map is completely determined by the condition
(X) = () X. Moreover, since two connections and such that
(X) = (X) for every invariant vector field X coincide, is injective. It

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

70

remains to prove that is surjective. Let be a splitting of (S ). For every


open set U V, Let U be the projection of J(U) onto K (U) defined
by setting U X = X for every X J(U). Assume P to be trivial

over U and let U = p1 (U). The injection J)(U)


N C (U ) defines

an isomorphism of the U (U )-module U (U )


J(U) onto C (U ).
U (U)

The injection KN
(U) N(U ) defines an isomorphism of the U (U )
module U (U )
K (U) onto N(U ). Therefore U is the restriction
U (U)

of a projection of C (U ) onto N(U ) which, regarded as tensor over U


is invariant under the action of G. Hence V is the restriction to J(V)
of a projection : C (P) N(P) which is a connection on P. For every
invariant vector field X on P, (X) = V x = X. Therefore = .

90

Remark. Let 0 K
J
C 0 be the splitting of (S ) corresponding to a connection on P. For every vector field X on the base
manifold, regarded as a section of C, the invariant vector field X
is the horizontal vector field on P (for the connection ), having X as
projection (cf. Atiyah [2]).

5.6 Connections and derivation laws


Let V and V be two differentiable manifolds, and E, E two differentiable vector bundles of dimension n over V and V respectively. Let h
be a homomorphism of E into E with projection h : V V. Assume
the map h : E x Eh(x ) to be bijective for every x V . If is a
section of E over V, then exists one and only one section of E over
V such that h = h. If is differentiable, so is . Since h is a
differentiable map of V into V, any module over the algebra U (V ) of
differentiable functions over V can be regarded as a module over the
algebra U (V) of differentiable functions over V. Then the map
is a homomorphism of (V) into (V ) regarded as U (V)-modules.
In particular, let P be a principal differentiable bundle with group G
over V and let p : P V be the projection. Let s sL be a linear
representation of G in a vector space L. Assume E to be a vector bundle
associated to P with typical fibre L and q to be the map P L E.

5.6. Connections and derivation laws

71

Taking V = P, E = P L, h = q, h = p, for every section of E


the section is defined by q () = p() for P. Let L (P) be 91
the space of differentiable maps of P into L. Since to any section of
E = P L corresponds a map
L (P) such that () = (, ()),

we obtain a homomorphism :
of the U (V)-module (V) into
L (P) such that
q(, )
= p ()
for every P.
Definition 4. A differentiable function on P with values in the vector
space L is said to be a G-function if f (s) = s1
L f () for every P, s
G.
We shall denote the space of G-functions P L by LG (P).
Proposition 4. The homomorphism : (V) L (P) is injective and
(V) = LG (P).
If (V) and = 0, then () = 0 for every P. Therefore
= 0 since p is surjective. On other hand, if (V) and
= ,
we have q(s, (s))

= p(s) = p() = q(, )


= q(s, s1
())

for
L
every P and s G. Hence
LG (P). Conversely, let f LG (P).
The map q(, f ) maps each fibre into a point of E X and therefore
can be written p , with (V). We have f = .
We shall now show how a connection on P gives rise to a derivation
law in the module of sections of the vector bundle E over V. By means
of the map (V) L (P), the derivation law in the U (V)-module (V)
will be deduced from a derivation law in the U (P)-module L (P).
92
To the representation s sL of G in L corresponds a representation
in L of the Lie algebra Y of left invariant vector fields on G. For every
a Y , define aL by setting aL v = av v for every v L, the vectors
at 0 of L being identified with elements of L. Then it is easy to see that
[a, b]L = aL bL bL aL . Hence a aL is a linear representation of Y in
L.
Let Y (P) be the space of differentiable functions on P with values in Y . The linear map a aL of Y into homR (L, L) defines an

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

72

U (P)-linear map L of Y (P) into homU (P) (L (P), L (P)) where


(L f )() = ()L f () for P, Y (P) and f L (P).
We have already seen (Ch. 1) that there are canonical derivation laws
in the modules Y (P) and L (P) and hence in homU (P) (L (P), L (P))
also. It is easy then to see that
(X)L f = X(L f ) L (X f )
for every Y (P) and f L (P). We now define in L (P) a new
derivation law in terms of a given connection form on the bundle by
setting
DX f = X f + (X)L f

93

for every X C (P) and f L (P). This differs from the canonical derivation law in L (P) by the map : X (X)L of C (P) into
homU (P) (L (P), L (P)). The curvatures form the canonical derivation
law has been shown to be zero in Ch.1.9. Hence if K is the curvature
form of the derivation law and K the curvature form of the connection
from , we have
K(X, Y) = DX DY DY DX D[X.Y]

= X(Y)L Y(X)L ([X, Y])L + [(X)L , (Y)L ]

= X(Y)L Y(X)L ([X, Y])L + [(X), (Y)]L

= (d(X, Y))L + [(X), (Y)]L


= K(X, Y)L

Theorem 3. For a given connection form on P, there exists one and


only one derivation law D in the module of sections on the vector bundle
E on V such that for every section and every projectable vector field
X on P, we have
DpX = X
+ (X)L

The proof is an immediate consequence of the two succeeding lemmas


Lemma 1. If X is a vector field on P tangential to the fibres and f
L (P), then DX f = 0.

5.6. Connections and derivation laws

73

In fact, if X = Za where a Y , we have


DZa f = Za f + ((Za ))L f = Za f + aL f
Hence

94

DZa f () = (a) f + aL f ().


If g(s) = f (s) = s1 f (), then (a) f = ag = aL f (). Therefore
DZa f = 0 and the lemma is proved since the module of vector fields
tangential to the fibres is generated by the vector fields Za (a Y ).
Lemma 2. If X is projectable and f LG (P), then DX f LG (P).
By lemma 1, it is enough to consider the case when X is a horizontal
projectable vector field. Then (X) = 0 and hence we have
(DX f )(s) = (X f )(s) = Xs f = (X s) f = X h,
where h() = f (s) = s1 f . Therefore
(DX f )(s) = s1 (X f ) = s1 (DX f )()
for s G, i.e., DX f LG (P).
The converse cannot be expected to be true in general. For, if E is
a trivial vector bundle over V with group reduced to {e}, it is clear that
we can have only the trivial connections in P, whereas there are nonzero
derivation laws in V. However, we have the
Theorem 4. Let G be the group of automorphisms of a vector space
L, P a principal differentiable bundle with group G over a manifold V 95
and E a differentiable vector bundle over V associated to P with typical
fibre L. Let p be the projection of P onto V. For every derivation law
D in the U (V)-module (V) of differentiable sections of E, there exists
one and one connections form on P such that
(C)

DpX = X
+ (X)L

for every (V) and every projectable vector field X on P.

74

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

We denote as before by q the map of P L onto E. For every


(V) and every vector dx at a point x V, let Ddx be the value (DX )(x),
where X is any vector field on V such that Xx = dx. Let d be a vector
with origin at P x . We define a map r(d) of (V) into the fibre E x
by setting
r(d) = D pd q(, d )

96

for every (V). Since r(d)( f ) = f (x)(r(d)) for every f


U (V) and every (V), r(d) depends only upon (x) or upon ().

Therefore, there exists an endomorphism of L such that r(d) =


q(, ())

for every (V). Since G is the group of automorphisms


of L, there exists an element (d) in the Lie algebra Y of G such that
r(d) = q(, (d)L ())

for every (V), and is clearly a form


degree 1 on P with values in y satisfying the condition (C). From (C)
we deduce that (X) is differentiable whenever X is a differentiable projectable vector field on P. Therefore is differentiable. It is the easy
to verify that is a connection form on P. Any connection form on P
satisfying the condition (C) coincides with since the representation of
Y in L is faithful and since a form on P is determined by its values on
projectable vector fields.

5.7 Parallelism in vector bundles


Let E be a vector bundle over V associated to the principal bundle P with
typical fibre L, a connection form on P, D the corresponding derivation
law in the module of sections (V) of E, q the usual map P L E,
a differentiable path in V with origin at x V, and an integral lift of
in P with respect to . For every y E x , there exists v L such that
q((0),

v) = y.
Then it is easy to see that the path q((t),
v) in E depends only on
y and . The path q((t),
v) is called the integral lift of with origin y.
The vectors q((t), v) are sometimes said to be parallel vectors along .
Let be a section of the bundle E and dx a vector at x V. We
would like to define the derivation of with respect to dx in terms of
parallelism. Let be a differentiable path with origin x and (0) = dx

5.7. Parallelism in vector bundles

75

and an integral lift of in P. Let v(t) = (


(t))

so that q((t),
v(t)) =
((t)). Define y(t) = q((0),

v(t)). Then we have


1
Ddx = lim {y(t) y(0)}.
t0 t
In fact, if

97

= (0)

and d = (0), we have


(
)
1
1
lim (y(t) y(0)) = q((0),

lim {v(t) v(0)})


t0 t
t0 t
1
= q((0),

lim {(
(t)
(
(0))})

t0 t
= q((0),

d )

= q((0),

d
+ (d)L )

= Ddx .
For every Y E x , let (, v) P L such that q(, v) = Y. Then
q(d, v) T Y . This gives in particular, a map of the space of horizontal vectors with origin at into T Y , which is clearly injective. If we
compose this with the projection, we obtain the bijection p : T x .
We define a vector at Y in E to be horizontal if it is of the form q(d, v)
with q(, v) = Y and d S . It is easy to see that this definition does
not depend on the particular pair (, v). With this definition, for every
integral in P and every u L, the path Y(t) = q((t),
v) has horizontal
agents at all points. The space of horizontal vectors at Y is a subspace of
T Y supplementary to the subspace of vectors T Y tangents to the fibres
through Y.
Theorem 5. Let be a section of E over V. Then (dx) is horizontal if 98
and only if Ddx = 0.
Let d be a horizontal tangent vector at p1 (x) whose projection
is dx. Then we have
Ddx = q(, d
+ (d))

= q(, d ).

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

76
But
has been defined by

q(, ())

= (p).
Hence q(, (d))

+ q(d, ())

= (pd) = dx. If (dx) is


horizontal, so is q(, (d)).

But pE .q(, (d))

= x, i.e., (d)

=
().

Since d
= (d)

(),

it follows that d
= 0. Therefore
q(, d )
= 0. The converse is also immediate.
This theorem enables us to define integral paths in E with respect to
a given derivation law in (V).

5.8 Differential forms with values in vector bundles

99

Definition 5. Let E be a differentiable vector-bundle over the manifold


V. A differential form of degree n on V with values in the vector bundle
E is an n-form on the module C (V) of differentiable vector fields on V
with values in the module (V) of differentiable sections of the bundle
E.
For every n-tuple d1 x, d2 x, . . . dn x of vectors at x V, the value
(d1 x, d2 x, . . . dn x) of belongs to E x . The U (V)-module of forms of
degree n on V with values in E will be denoted by n (V).
Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over V, with group G and
projection p. Assume E to be associated to P, with typical fibre L and
let q be the map P L E. For every integer n 0, we shall define
an isomorphism of n (V) into the space L n (P) of differential forms of
degree n on P with values in the vector space L. For n = 0, has been
defined in 5.6. Assume n > 0. For every n (V), we define a form
= on P with values in L by the condition
q(, (d
1 , d2 , . . . dn )) = (pd1 , pd2 , . . . pdn )

100

for every sequence di of n vectors with origin at P. If X1 , X2 , . . . Xn


are n projectable vector fields on P, then
()(X1 , X2 , . . . Xn ) = ((pX1 , pX2 , . . . pXn ))

5.9. Examples

77

Therefore, is differentiable and belongs to L n (P). It is immediately seen that is an injective homomorphism of n (V) into L n (P)
regarded as U (V)-modules. Moreover, if belongs to the image of in
L n (P), then :
1) (d
1 s, d2 s, . . . dn s) = s1 (d
1 , d2 , . . . dn )s
for every sequence di of n vectors with origin at P and every
s G,
2)

(d
1 , d2 , . . . dn ) = 0
for every sequence di of n vectors with origin at P such that one
of the di has projection 0.

Definition 6. A form L n (P) satisfying the conditions 1) and 2) is


said to be a G- form of degree n on P with values in L.
Let LGn (P) be the set of G-forms of degree n. It is easy to see that
LGn (P) is a submodule of L (P) over U (V). Moreover LGn (P) is the
image of the homomorphism : n (V) L n (P).

5.9 Examples
1. Let , be two connection forms on the principal bundle P over
V. Let = . Then we have (d s) = s1 (d)s; and
(d) = (d) (d) = 0 if pd = 0. In other words, LG1 (P)
with respect to the adjoint representation of G in Y . Hence =
where is a differential form of degree 1 on V with values in
the adjoint bundle of P which is a vector bundle associated to P
with typical fibre Y . This gives a method of finding all connection forms from a given one. This is particularly useful when G is
abelian, in which case the adjoint representation of G in Y is trivial and consequently may be considered as a differential form
on V with values in Y
2. Let K be the curvature form of the connection form on a princi- 101
pal bundle P. Then

78

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws


K(d1 s, d2 s) = s1 K(d1 , d2 )s

and

K(d1 , d2 ) = 0 if either d1 or d2 N

Therefore K is an alternate G-form of degree 2 on P with values


in Y and corresponds to a form of degree 2 on V with values in the
associated adjoint bundle.

5.10 Linear connections and geodesics


Let C be the vector bundle of tangent vectors on V. We consider C as
a vector bundle associated to the principal bundle P of tangent frames
on V with typical fibre Rn . There exists an one-one correspondence
between connections on P (which are called linear connections on V)
and derivations laws in the module C (V) of vector fields on V. The
torsion form is an alternate form of degree 2 with values in the tangent
bundle C.
Given any linear connection on V, we have the notion of geodesics
on V. (In Ch.5.10 to Ch.5.12, we consider paths with arbitrary intervals
of definition). In fact, if is a differentiable path in V, then there exists
a canonical lift of in C defined by t (t). We shall denote this lift
by .

102

Definition 7. A path in V is said to be a geodesic if the canonical lift


is integral. (In other words, the vector (t) at (t) C should be
horizontal for the given linear connection).
Lemma 3. Let be a path in V and an integral lift of in P. Then
is a geodesic if and only if there exists v Rn such that q((t),
v) = (t)
for every t I.
The proof is trivial.
It will be noted that the notion of a geodesic depends essentially on
the parametrisation of the path. However, a geodesic remains a geodesic
for linear change of parameters.
Let Y C be a vector at a point x V and Y the horizontal vector at
Y whose projection is Y. Then is a vector field on C called the geodesic

5.11. Geodesic vector field in local coordinates

79

vector field. The geodesic vector field is differentiable according to the


following computation of in local coordinates.

5.11 Geodesic vector field in local coordinates


Let C be the tangent bundle of a manifold V with a derivation law D.
Let p be the projection C V. If Y is a vector at x = pY V and
U a neighbourhood of pY wherein a coordinate system (x1 , . . . xn ) is

defined, we denote the vector fields i on U by Pi . Let yi = dxi be


x
j
a family of differential forms on U dual to Pi , i.e., y j (Pi ) = i . The
y j may also be regarded as scalar functions on p1 (U) C. Thus for
Y P, (y1 , y2 , . . . yn , x1 , x2 , . . . xn ) form a coordinate system in p1 (U).
Set Qi = /yi . Then we assert that the geodesic vector field is given
in p1 (U) by
X
X
=
yi Pi
ki, j yi y j QK
i

i, j,k

where the ki, j are defined by


D Pi P j =

103

ki, j Pk .

In fact, using Th.5, Ch.5.7, we see that the value of the differential
P
j
forms dy j + yk i,k (x)dxi on the vector is zero. It is easy to observe
P k i j
P i,k
that Y = yi (Pi )Y
i, j y y Qk is horizontal and that pY = Y. This
i

i, j,k

shows that as defined above is the geodesic vector field.

5.12 Geodesic paths and geodesic vector field


Proposition 5. is geodesic path in V if and only if the canonical lift
of is integral for , i.e., (t) = (t) for every t.
In fact, if is a geodesic, then we have p (t) = (t) and p (t) =
(t) for every t I. Hence (t) = (t) . The converse is trivial in as
much every path integral for is also integral for the connection.

80

5. Vector Bundles and Derivation Laws

Proposition 6. If is an integral path for then = p is a geodesic


(t) = (t)
By assumption (t) = (t) and if (t) = p(t), we have (t) =
= p(t) , i.e., is the canonical lift of and is integral.
The geodesic vector field on C generates a local one-parameter
group of local automorphisms of C. We say that the linear connection
on V is complete if generates a one-parameter group of global automorphisms of V. It is known that in a compact manifold, any vector
field generates such a one-parameter group of automorphisms. On other
hand, if the local one-parameter group generated by in C is represented
locally by 2n functions i (y1 , . . . yn , x1 , . . . xn , t) of (2n + 1) variables,
then it is easy to observe that the first n of these functions are linear
in y1 , . . . , yn . From this it is immediate that any linear connection on a
compact manifolds is complete.
The nomenclature complete is due to the fact that a Riemannian
connection is complete if and only if the Riemannian metric is complete
([27]).
Let be a complete linear connection and the geodesic vector
field. Let t be the automorphism of C corresponding to the parameter
t in the one-parameter group generated by . Paths which are integral
for are of the form t t Y (i.e., the orbit of Y under t ). Given any
vector Y at a point x on the manifold V, (t) = p(t Y) is the geodesic
curve defined by Y. For every x V, the map : C x V defined by
setting (Y) = p(1 Y) is a differentiable map of maximal rank at 0x and
therefore defines a diffeomorphism of an open neighbourhood of 0 in
the vector space C x onto an open neighbourhood of x in V([26]).
p (t)

104

Chapter 6
Holomorphic Connections
6.1 Complex vector bundles
Definition 1. A complex vector bundle is a differentiable vector bundle 105
E over a manifold V with a differentiable automorphism J : E E
such that
1) JE x E x for every x V;
2) J 2 Y = Y for every Y E.
Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over V with group G. Let
us assume given a left representation s sL of G in a complex vector
space L, such that each sL is a complex automorphism of L. Then a
vector bundle E associated to P with typical fibreL can be made into a
complex vector bundle by setting Jq (, v) = q(, 1v) for every P
and v L, q being the usual projection P L E. Conversely any
complex vector bundle E can be obtained in the above way. In fact, for
x V we define P x to bethe vector space of all linear isomorphisms
: Cn E x such that ( 1v) = J(v) for v Cn . Then as in Ch. 4,
one can provide P = P x with the structure true of a principal bundle
over V with group GL(n, C).E is easily seen to be a complex bundle
associated to P with fibre Cn with respect to the obvious representation
of GL(n, C) in Cn .
If E is a complex vector bundle, the U (V) module (V) of differ- 106
81

82

6. Holomorphic Connections

entiable sections of E can be provided with the structure of an UC (V)


module UC (V) being the algebra of complex-valued differentiable functions on V) by setting ( f +ig) = f + Jg for f, g U (V). Conversely
if I is an endomorphism of the U (V) module of sections of a differentiable vector bundle E over V such that I 2 = for every section
, then there exists one and only one automorphism J of E such that
J(x) = (I)x (for every section and x V) and J makes of E a
complex vector bundle.

6.2 Almost complex manifolds


Definition 2. An almost complex manifold is a differentiable manifold
V for which the tangent bundle has the structure of a complex vector
bundle, i.e., there exists an U (V) endomorphism I of C (V) such that
I 2 = (Identity).
The UC (V)- module CC (V) of complex vector fields (defined as formal sums X1 + iX2 , X1 , X2 C (V)) can be identified with the module
of derivations of UC (V) over C. The U (V) endomorphism I of C (V)
can then be extended to an UC (V)- endo-morphism of CC (V) by setting
I(X1 + iX2 ) = IX1 + iIX2 for X1 , X2 C (V).
Definition 3. A vector field X CC (V) is said to be of type (1, 0) (resp. .
of type (0, 1)) if IX iX (resp. . IX = iX).

107

We shall denote by C(1,0) (V), C(0,1) (V) the UC (V)- modules of vector
fields of type (1, 0) and type (0, 1) respectively.
Clearly one has CC (V) = C(1,0) (V) C(0,1) (V). Moreover, any vector
field X of type (1, 0) can be expressed in the form X1 iIX1 with X1
C (V). On the other hand, X iI x is of type (1, 0) for every X CC (V).
Similarly every vector field of type (0, 1) can be expressed in the form
X1 + iIX1 with X1 C (V) and X + iIX is of type (0, 1) for every X
UC (V).
Let V be an almost complex manifold and E a complex vector bundle over V. A complex form of degree p on V with values in E is a
multilinear form of degree p on the UC (V) - module CC (V) with values

6.3. Derivation law in the complex case

83

in (V). Any real form can be extended in one and only one way to a
complex form. On the other hand, every complex form is an extension
of a real form.
Every holomorphic manifold V carries with it a canonical almost
complex structure. With reference to this a vector field on V is of type
(1, 0) if and only if its expression in terms of any system (Z1 , . . . , Zn ) of

,...,
. Hence it follows that
local coordinates does not involve
Z 1
Zn
[C(1,0) (V), C(1,0) (V)] C(1,0) (V). Conversely an almost complex structure on V comes from a holomorphic structure on V if [C(1,0) (V), C(1,0)
(V)] C(1,0) (V) cf. Newlander and Nirendberg, Annals of Math. 1957.
Let X, Y CC (V). Then X iIX, Y iIY C(1,0) (V) and the above
condition requires that [X iIX, Y iIY] C(1,0) (V). In other words,
[X, Y] [IX, IY] = I[IX, Y] I[X, IY].

F(X, Y) = [X, Y] + I[IX, Y] + I[X, IY] [IX, IY]

is easily seen to be CC (V) bilinear. Hence we have:


108
An almost complex structure on V is induced by a holomorphic
structure if and only if F(X, Y) = 0 for every X, Y CC (V).

6.3 Derivation law in the complex case


We wish to study derivation laws in the module of sections of a complex
vector bundle over an almost complex manifold (mostly holomorphic
manifold). This can be done in the algebraic set-up of Ch.1.
Let A be a commutative algebra over the field of real numbers and
AC its complexification. Let C be the AC module of derivations of AC .
We assume given on C and AC - endomorphism I such that I 2 =
= X a for a A, then we also
(Identity). If we define X C by Xa
X C is said to be of type (1, 0) (resp. .
assume that I satisfies I X = IX.
type (0, 1)) if IX = iX (resp. . IX = iX). Let M be an A- module. A
multilinear form of degree p on C with values in M is said to be of
type (r, s) if r + s = p and (X1 , . . . X p ) = 0 whenever either more than

rXi s are of type (1, 0) or more than sXi s are of type (0, 1). We shall
denote the submodule of F p (C, M) consisting of all forms of type (r, s)

6. Holomorphic Connections

84

by F r,s (C, M). Then it is easy to see that F p (C, M) =

109

r+s=p

F r,s (C, M),

the sum being direct. Let us denote the module of alternate forms of
type (r, s) on C with values in M by U r,s (C, M). Let M1 , M2 , M3 be
three AC - modules with a bilinear product M1 M2 M3 . It is then

easy to see that if U r,s (C, M1 ), U r ,s (C, M2 ), then

U r+r ,s+s (C, M3 ).


We shall now make the additional assumption that F[X, Y] = [X, Y]+
I[IX, Y] + I[X, IY] [IX, IY] = 0 for every X, Y C. (This corresponds
to the case when the base manifold V is holomorphic). A derivation law
D in an AC module M gives rise to an exterior derivation d in U p (C, M).
Using the explicit formula for d (Ch.1.7) and the fact that F 0, it is
easily proved that for U r,s (C, M), d is the sum of a form d of
type (r + 1, s) and a form d of type (r, s + 1). The curvature form
K U 2 (C, HomAC (M, M) is a sum of three components K 2,0 , K 1,1 and
K 0,1 . For U p,q (C.M) we have d2 = K (Lemma 5, Ch. 1.9) and
calculating the components of type (p, q + 2) we obtain
d2 = K 0,2 .
d2

Now we make the further assumption that K 0,2 = 0. It follows that


P
= 0. For every integer p, form the sum U p,q (C, M) = T p . Then
q

we have a complex
U

110

p,0

(C, M) U

p,1

(C, M) U

p,q

(C, M)

The complex T p of course depends on the derivation law D. Let


D be another derivation law in M. Then D = D + where
HomC (C, HomAC (M, M)) (see Ch. 1.10). We shall say that two derivation laws D, D are equivalent if is of type (1, 0). The boundary op
erator d in the complex S p remains the same when D is replaced by
For, if D = D + , we have (Ch.1.10)
an equivalent derivation law D.
p,q
= d + for U (C, M). Hence on computing the compod
nents of type (p, q+1), one obtains d = d . Thus we have associated
to every equivalence class of derivation laws, a complex T p (for every
integer p).

6.4. Connections and almost complex structures

85

A derivation law D in M induces a derivation law D in HomAC


(M, M) = End M(Ch.1.3). Then it is easy to see that
K(X, Y) = K(X, Y) K(X, Y)
for X, Y C, end M. Hence if K 0,2 = 0, K 0,2 is also = 0. Moreover,
Hence to an equivalence class of
if D, D are equivalent, so are D, D.
derivation laws in M corresponds a complex T p (for every integer p):
U

p,o

(C, End M) U

p,1

(C, End M) U

p,q

(C, End M)

Now K 1,1 is an element of U 1,1 (C, EndM). Since we have dK = 0


(Lemma 6, Ch.1.9) and K 0,2 = 0, we get d K 1,1 = 0, i.e., K 1,1 is a
cocycle of the complex T . If D is replaced by an equivalent derivation
we have (Ch.1.10) K = K + d + where D = D + . 111
law D,
But U 1,0 (C, EndM). Hence K 1,1 = K 1,1 + d . In other word, the
cohomology class of K 1,1 in the above complex T 1 is uniquely fixed.

6.4 Connections and almost complex structures


Let P be a differentiable principal bundle over an almost complex manifold V with complex Lie group G. Let Y be the Lie algebra of G 112
identified with the space of real tangent vectors at e. We denote by IG
the endomorphism Y Y given by the complex structure of G and by
I the almost complex structure of V. Obviously we have
s(IG a)1 s = IG (sas1 ) for s G, a Y .
Let P and p = x V. Then we have the exact sequence
0 N T T x 0
where N is the space of vectors at tangential to the fibre. If a connection is given on P, then we may define as almost complex structure on
P by carrying over the complex structure on T x to S (the space of horizontal vectors at ) and that of Y to N (by virtue of the isomorphism
a a). This is easily seen to define an almost complex structure on P
so that we have the

6. Holomorphic Connections

86

Proposition 1. Let be a connection form on a differentiable principal


bundle P over an almost complex manifold V with complex Lie group
G. Then there exists one and only one almost complex structure on the
manifold P such that
1) (I p d) = IG (d)
2) pI p d = I pd for P.
In virtue of the general procedure given in Ch.6.2, is defined on
complex vector fields by setting (iX) = IG (X) for X C (P). The
connection form is obviously of type (1, 0) with respect to the induced
almost complex structure on P. Moreover, the P G P given by the
action of G on P is almost complex. We shall call a principal bundle P
over an almost complex manifold V with complex Lie group G an almost
complex principal bundle if P has an almost complex structure such that
the projection p and the map (, s) s of P G P are both almost
complex (i.e., compatible with the almost complex structure). We have
seen above that P with the almost complex structure induced by a connection form on P is an almost complex principal bundle. Conversely,
let P be an almost complex principal bundle. If = 1,0 + 0,1 is a
connection form on P then 1,0 is again a connection form. In fact,
1
1,0 (a) = 1,0 ((a + iI p a) + (a iI p a))
2
1
= (a iI p a)
2
1
1
= (a IG (IP a)) = (a IG (IG a))
2
2
=a
113

Similarly it may be shown that 1,0 (ds) = s1 1,0 (d)s. Moreover


we have
1 1,0
(IP d + id + IP d id)
2
1
= (IP d + id)
2

1,0 (IP d) =

6.4. Connections and almost complex structures

87

= IG 1,0 (d).
On the other hand, pIP d = I p d by assumption. Hence by prop.1,
Ch.6.4, 1,0 induces the given almost complex structure on P.
Let , be two connection forms on an almost complex principal
bundle P. Then is a G-form (Ch.5) of degree 1 on P with values
in Y . It may be identified with a differential form of degree 1 on V with
values in the adjoint bundle. Using the fact that every vector field on
V of type (1,0) is the projection of a vector field on P of type (1,0) it
is easy to see that this identification is type-preserving. In other words,
the type of G-forms on P with values in Y depends only on the almost
complex structure on V. We say that , are equivalent if is of
type (1,0). The following proposition in then immediate.
Proposition 2. Two connections , on P induce the same almost complex structure on P if and only if and are equivalent.
On the other hand we have seen that every almost complex structure
on P which makes of it an almost complex principal bundle is induced 114
by a connection of type (1, 0). We have thus set up one-one correspondence between almost complex bundle structure on P and equivalence
classes of connections.
We will hereafter assume that the base manifold V is holomorphic
and investigate when a connection form induces a holomorphic structure on P. Then curvature form K of is a G-form of degree 2 with
values in Y . Let K = K 2,0 + K 1,1 + K 0,2 be its decomposition.
Proposition 3. A connection form on P induces a holomorphic structure on P if and only if K 0,2 = 0.
In fact, if induces a holomorphic structure on P, then d = 0.
Since K = d + [, ] and is of type (1, 0) for the induced complex
structure, K 0,2 = 0. Conversely, let K 0,2 = 0. We have then to show that
F P (X, Y) = [X, Y] + IP [P X, Y] + IP [X, IP Y] [IP X, IP Y] = 0
for any two vector fields X, Y on P. Since F P is a tensor, it is sufficient to
prove that F P (X, Y) = 0 for projectable vector fields X, Y. Then IP X, IP Y

6. Holomorphic Connections

88

are also projectable, and we have PF P(X, Y) = FV (PX , PY ) = 0 since V


is holomorphic. On the other hand,
(F(X, Y)) = ([X, Y] [IP X, IP Y]) + IG ([IP X, Y] + [X, IP Y])
= ([X, Y] [IP X, IP Y] + [iIP X, Y] + [X, iIP Y])
= ([X + iIP X, Y + iIP Y]).

115

But since K 0,2 = 0, K(X + iIP X, Y + iIP Y) = 0.


i.e., (X + iIP X)(Y + iIP Y) (Y + iIP Y)(X + iIP X) ([X + iIP X, Y +
iIP Y]) = 0.
Since is of type (1, 0), we obtain (F(X, Y)) = 0 which gives
F(X, Y) = 0.
Definition 4. A differentiable principal bundle P over a holomorphic
manifold V with a complex Lie group G is said to be a holomorphic
principal bundle if P is a holomorphic manifold such that the projection
p : P V and the map (, s) s of PG P are holomorphic.
If a connection form exists on P with K 0,2 = 0, then the induced
almost complex structure on P is holomorphic and its is obvious that
this makes of P a holomorphic principal bundles.

6.5 Connections in holomorphic bundles

116

Let P be a holomorphic principal bundle over V with group G. The


definitions of holomorphic vector bundles with respect to a holomorphic
representation of G in a complex vector space L are given in analogy
with the differentiable case.
All the results of Chapter 2 can be carried over to holomorphic bundles with obvious modifications. Let 0(U) be the algebra of holomorphic functions on an open subset U of V and 0 the sheaf of holomorphic
functions on V. The notion of a sheaf of 0- modules is defined as in
Chapter 4. Moreover, there exists a functor from the category of holomorphic vector bundles over V to the category of locally free sheaves
of 0 modules which takes exact sequences to exact sequences, and vice
versa.

6.5. Connections in holomorphic bundles

89

Let G be a complex Lie group, P a holomorphic principal bundle


with group G over a holomorphic manifold V, and E a holomorphic
vector bundle over V associated to P with typical fibre L. Any connection form on P defines a derivation law in the module of sections of E
(Ch.5).
Proposition 4. If the connection form is of type (1, 0), then a differentiable section of E over an open subset U of V is holomorphic if and
only if d = 0.
If
is the G-function on P with values in L corresponding to
under our usual isomorphism, it is easy to prove (as in the differentiable
case) that is holomorphic if and only if
is holomorphic. But this is

equivalent to saying that d


= 0 for the canonical derivation law in the
UC (P) module of L-valued functions on P. Since the derivation law D
induced by in L (P) was defined by DX f = X f + (X)L f (in the usual
notation) and is of type (1, 0), the d for D and the canonical derivation
law are the same. Since the isomorphism is type-preserving, we
have (d )
= d where d corresponds to the derivation law D in
LG (P). Hence d
= 0.
Let U be an open subset of V over which E is trivial and let 1 , . . .,
n be holomorphic sections on U which form a basis for the U (U)
P
module (U) of sections of E over U. Then for any section = fi i 117
over U we have
X
X
d =
(d fi ) i +
fi d i (Ch.1.8)
X
=
d fi i Prop. 4; Ch. 6.5
X
=
(d fi )i
In other words, d depends only on the manifold V and not on the
principal bundle P. Moreover it is obvious that d2 = 0.
However, this can be proved algebraically. In fact, if , are of
type (1, 0), so is = . From this it follows that that induced
derivation laws are equivalent and the corresponding d are the same
(Ch. 6.3). Furthermore, since K 0,2 = 0 (which is a consequence of prop.

6. Holomorphic Connections

90

3. Ch.6.4 being of type (1, 0)) we have seen d2 = 0 in Ch.6.3. We


have therefore a complex
d

p,0 (U) p,1 (U) p,q (U)


for every open subset U of V, where p,q (U) is the module of differential
forms of type (p, q) on U with values in E. This defines a complex
S P (E) of sheaves over V:
d

p,0 p,1 p,q


118

where p,q denotes the sheaf of differential forms of type (p, q) on V


with values in the vector bundle E. Let U p,q be the sheaf of complex
valued differentiable functions of type (p, q) on V, 0 the sheaf of holomorphic functions on V, h the sheaf of holomorphic sections of E. Then
p,q is isomorphic to the sheaf U p,q h and therefore is a fine sheaf.
0

Moreover if 0 p is the sheaf of holomorphic forms of degree p on V then


the sequence
d

0 0 p h p,0 p,1
0

is exact Dolbeault theorem [12]). Therefore the complex T p () is a fine


resolution of the sheaf 0 p h and if S p () is the complex of sections
0

p,0 (V) p,1 (V) p,q (V)


Then
H q (S p ()) H q (C, 0 p h )
for every pair of integers p, q > 0.
Now assume E to be the adjoint bundle ad (P) to P. We shall construct a canonical cohomology class in H 1 (S 1 (ad(P))). Let be a connection form of type (1, 0) on P and K = K 2,0 + K 1,1 its curvature form.
As a G-form on P with values in the Lie algebra Y , K corresponds to an
alternate form of degree 2 on V with values in ad(P). Since d K 1,1 = 0

6.7. Atiyah obstruction

119

91

(Ch. 6.3), we have d 1,1 = 0. In other words, 1,1 as a 1-cocycle of the


complex S 1 (ad(P)).
Moreover if is another connection of type (1, 0), 1,1 differs from
1,1
by a coboundary of the complex S 1 (ad(P)). We have therefore associated a unique 1-cohomology class in S 1 (ad(P)) to the holomorphic
bundle P. To the cohomology class of 1,1 corresponds an element of
H 1 (V, 01 (ad(P))h ). This will be referred to as the Atiyah class of the
0

principal bundle P.
Regarding the existence of a holomorphic connection on the bundle
P (i.e., a connection such that is a holomorphic form) , we have the
Theorem 1. There exists a holomorphic connection in a holomorphic
bundle P if and only if the Atiyah class a(P) of the bundle is zero.

In fact, if is a connection form on P of type (1, 0), is holomorphic


if and only if d = 0. Since K 0,2 = 0, we see that d = K 1,1 = 0 and
hence 1,1 = 0.
Conversely, if a(P) = 0 and a connection form of type (1, 0) on
P, we have 1,1 0. Hence there exists a form (adP)1,0 (V) such
that d = 1,1 . Then = is a connection form on P such that
d = 0.
Corollary. There always exists a holomorphic connection on a holomorphic bundle P over a Stein manifold V.
In fact, the sheaf 01 (adG )n is a coherent sheaf and therefore
0

a(P) = 0, since V is a Stein manifold. By Theorem 1, there exists a


holomorphic connection on P.

6.7 Atiyah obstruction


Let 0 F 1 F F 0 be an exact sequence of locally free 120
sheaves of 0 modules over a holomorphic manifold V. Since F is
locally free, the corresponding sequence
0 Hom0 (F , F ) Hom0 (F , F ) Hom0 (F , F ) 0

6. Holomorphic Connections

92

is exact. This gives rise to the exact sequence


0 H o (V, Hom0 (F , F )) H o (V, Hom0 F , F ))
H 1 (V, Hom0 (F , F )

H o (V, Hom0 (F , F )) is then the module of sections of the sheaf Hom0


(F , F ). The image of the identity section of Hom0 (F F ) is called
the obstruction to the splitting of the given sequence.
Let Kh , Th , Ch be the sheaves of holomorphic vector fields on P
tangential to the fibres, of all holomorphic invariant vector fields on P
and of all holomorphic vector fields on V respectively. Then we have
the exact sequence
0 Kh Th Cn 0
Let b(P) be the obstruction to the splitting of this exact sequence.
b(P) is then a class in H 1 (V, Hom0 (Ch , Kh )). We shall call this the
Atiyah obstruction class.
121

Theorem 2. The necessary and sufficient condition for a holomorphic


connection to exist on P is that b(P) = 0.
In fact, b(P) = 0 if and only if the above sequence splits and the rest
of the proof is exactly as for the differentiable case.
Theorem 3. There exists a canonical isomorphism of the sheaf R =
01 (adP)h onto Hom0 (Ch , Kh ) such that a(P) = b(P).
0

We shall define U : R(U) Hom0(U) (Ch (U), Kh (U)) for every


open subset U of V. Every R(U) is a differential form on U with
values i the adjoint bundle and
is a G-form on p1 (U) with values in
Y . For every X Ch (U) and p1 (U), we define (U ()(X)) =
1
(X iIG X ). It is easily seen that U is an isomorphism and that
2
it defines an isomorphism
: R Hom0 (Ch , Kh )

6.8. Line bundles over compact Kahler manifolds

93

Let {Ui } be a covering of V by means of open sets Ui , over each


of which P is holomorphically trivial. We shall compute a(P), b(P) as
cocycles of the above covering with values in the sheaves R, Hom0 (Ch ,
Kh ) with respect to the above covering. Let i be holomorphic connections on p1 (Ui ) and a differentiable connection on P. K 1,1 is the
element d in (adP)1,1 (V). If = i + i over p1 (Ui ) with i
(adP)1,0 (V), then K 1,1 is the d image of i on Ui . For, d = d i =
d i (in our usual notation). Hence a(P) is represented in H 1 (X, R) 122
with respect to the above covering by the cocycle i j = (i j )
on Ui U j .
On the other hand,in the exact sequence
0 Hom0 (Cn , Kh ) Hom0 (Ih , Kh ) Hom0 (Kh , Kh ) 0
the identity section of Hom0 (Kh , Kh ) can be lifted on Ui into the map
1
i Hom0 (Th , Kh ) where i (X) = (i (X ) iIG (X )) for X
2
Th , P. Hence the obstruction class is represented by i j on Ui U j
defined by
1
i, j (pd) = ((i j ) (d) iIG (i j )(d))
2
for every d T . This represents the cocycle of the class b(P) for the
covering {Ui }. Obviously (a(P)) = b(P).

6.8 Line bundles over compact Kahler manifolds


Let P be a holomorphic principal bundle over a manifold V with group
G = C (C = GL(1, C)). We shall compute the Atiyah class a(P) for
such a bundle. Let {Ui } be a covering of V over each of which P is
trivial with holomorphic sections i on Ui and a set of holomorphic
transition functions {mi j }. Since the adjoint representation is trivial, the
adjoint bundle is also trivial and the G-functions and G-forms on P are
respectively functions and forms on P which are constant on each fibre.
Let be a connections form of type (1, 0) on P. It is easy to see that 123
d (
i ) = d . But j i = m1
i j dmi j = d(log mi j ). Thus the

6. Holomorphic Connections

94

forms d(log mi j ) form a cocycle representing the Atiyah class for the
covering {Ui }.
Finally, when the base manifold is compact Kahler H 1 (V, K = 01 )
may be identified ([30]) with a subspace of H 2 (V, C) by Dolbeaults theorem. The sequences
e2i

0 Z 0
0 0

(1)
and

0C0
01 0

(2)

where Z, C are constant sheaves and 0 is the sheaf of nonzero holomorphic functions, can be imbedded in the commutative diagram
0
(3)
0

// Z

// 0

1
2i





// 0

// C

// 0

// 0
d log



// 0

// 0

where j, i are respectively the inclusion and identity maps. We get consequently the commutative diagram
H 1 (V, 0 )

// H 2 (V, Z)





H 1 (V, 0 )
124

// H 2 (V, C)

where is the connecting homomorphism of the exact sequence (1), ,


maps induced by diagram (3), and the injection given by Dolbeaults
theorem ([29]). If {mi j } are the multiplicators for a covering (Ui ) of
1
V, (mi j ) is given by
d log(mi j ). The bundle P may be regarded as
2i
1

an element of H (V, 0 ) and its image by is the first integral Chern


class of P and its image by is the Chern class C(P) with complex
coefficients. By the commutativity of the diagram, we have a(P) =
2iC(P).

6.8. Line bundles over compact Kahler manifolds

95

In particular, we obtain the result that if there exists a holomorphic


connection in a line bundle over a compact Kahler manifold, then its
Chern class with complex coefficients = 0. It has been proved under
more general assumptions on the group of the bundle that the existence of holomorphic connections implies the vanishing of all its Chern
classes [2].

Bibliography
[1] W. Ambrose and I Singer - A theorem on holonomy - Trans. Amer. 125
Math. Sec. 75(1953) 428 -443
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[3] - On the Krull-Schmidt theorem with applications to sheaves Bull. Soc. Math. 84(1956) 307-317
[4] N. Bourbaki - Algebra multilineare
[5] E. Cartan - Les groups d holonomie des espaces generalises- Acta
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[6] H. Cartan - La transgression dans un groups de Lie etdans un espace fibre principal - COll. Top. Bruxelle (1950)-57-71
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vanced Study, Princeton, 1951
[10] - Notes on differentiable manifolds, Chicago
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98

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[12] P. Dolbeault - Forms differentielles et cohomologie surune variete
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[20] J.L. Koszul - Multiplicateurs et classes caracteristiques -Trans.


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[23] S. Murakami - Algebraic study of fundamental characteristic
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