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Field Trip Report to Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) Sdn. Bhd, Putrajaya

Sewage Treatment Plant, Indah Water Konsortium (IWK), Putrajaya

Company History

Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) is a company owned by Minister of Finance Incorporated. IWK is Malaysia's national sewerage company in developing and maintaining a modern and efficient sewerage system for all the Malaysians. Indah Water has taken the sewerage services from local authorities in all areas except the states of Sabah, Sarawak, Kelantan and the Majlis Perbandaran Johor Bahru, Majlis Perbandaran Pasir Gudang, Ketengah and Kejora. An efficient sewerage system is vital for the country to ensure that wastewater is treated before being discharged into our rivers to help preserve the country's waste resources, protect public health and provide a cleaner and safer environment.

Introduction

Sewage pollution is defined as ‘Loadings’ to the environment which exceeds the prescribed upper limits. Sewage pollution used two most important parameters, they are Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Suspended Solid (SS). BOD is defined as a measure of the amount of oxygen that sewage consumes over a given time. High BOD, more rapidly sewage will consume all the naturally-dissolved oxygen in streams, rivers and lakes, thus killing off all aquatic life. Furthermore, SS is a measure of the undissolved material in sewage. Higher SS leads to sludge deposits in the waterways, thus causing significant environmental deterioration.

Main causes of deterioration of river water quality are discharges of sewage and domestic wastewater, discharges from restaurants, wet markets and foodcourts, animal farming, land clearing and earthworks, sand mining as well as agricultural and manufacturing activities. Sources of sewage pollution are effluent from public sewage treatment plants (STP) , effluent from private STPs, effluent from individual septic tanks, discharge of raw sewage, sewage from primitive systems and wet markets.

Putrajaya Sewage Treatment Plant (STP 1) is designed to treat an average sewage flow of 22,500 m 3 per day. Sewage is characterized in terms of its chemical, physical and biological composition. The main physical, chemical and biological constituents of domestic sewage summarized as follows; physical properties such as colour, odor, solids, temperature. Chemical constituents such as organic (carbohydrates, fats, oil, grease, proteins, and surfactants), inorganic (pH, chlorides, citrogen, phosphorus, sulphur) and gases (hydrogen sulphide, methane, oxygen). Developments of sewage treatment systems are mainly concerned with the removal of suspended and floatable materials, the treatment of biodegradable organic and elimination of pathogenic organisms.

On the other hand, domestic sewage treatment is designed to produce an effluent low in solids and organic. Other treatments, which remove the nutrients alter the pH depending on the receiving environment for the effluent. Two standards (A and B) have been established for the quality of effluent that discharged from treatment plants to receiving waters. Effluents from treatment plants are tested in laboratories to ensure that these standards are being met and that treatment plants are being operated correctly. The pollutants in sewage are measured to better understand and thus facilitate the treatment of sewage as well as to examine the effects of effluent or treated sewage on the environment.

Besides that, effluent from all public sewage treatment plants is sampled at regular intervals to ensure that it meets the required standards. Standard A, should be meet by effluent that is discharged upstream of a water supply intake, while effluent that is discharged downstream has to meet Standard B.

Parameters

Standard A

Standard B

pH value

6.0 9.0

5.5 9.0

Temperature ( o C)

40

40

BOD (mg/L)

20

50

SS (mg/L)

50

100

COD (mg/L)

50

100

Therefore, IWK is now well-positioned to undertake the vital task of ensuring that Malaysians today and in the future will be able to enjoy a clean and healthy environment through a proper and well-maintained sewerage system. The field trip allow students to explore their interest in improving the performance of the sewage treatment plant by learning more about the science and exploring career options.

Objectives

To understand the behaviour of bio-chemical products in sewage treatment process.

To study and understand the effectiveness of biochemical products in the treatment plant through :

- Quality of effluent before, during and after application

- Sludge minimisation

- Maintenance efficiency

To ensure the best possible performance of the sewage systems to keep the environment clean as well as explore new opportunities.

To be highly committed to providing efficient sewage services to all customers towards a sustainable and friendly environment.

Methodological

On the 18 th of November 2013, Malaysian University of Science and Technology (MUST) had conducted a field trip to Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) Sdn. Bhd, Putrajaya. Attendees inclusive of sixteen students from Environmental Biotechnology (BNV 3043) course and headed by the lectures, Ms. Sherina Binti Kamal, Dr. Tang Sui Yan, Dr. Yan Yi Wei, Miss Yap Pooi Yan and Miss Akalpita Tendulkar. The list of attendees is available in Appendix A. We arrived at IWK Putrajaya around 2.30pm. It began with a shorty and informative briefing about IWK Putrajaya.

Various methods of sewage treatment systems have been developed to protect public health and the environment. There are two sewage treatment system at IWK, they are individual septic tank and connected sewage system. Individual septic tank is a settlement tank which only provides partial treatment of the sewage and waste water that are discharged into it and needs to be desludged regurlarly. This is mainly to prevent sewage from being released into the waterways and pollute the environment. While, connected sewerage systems consists of a network of underground sewer pipes, pump stations, sewage treatment plants and sludge treatment facilities which operated by gravity. As a result, sewage treatment plants are located at drainage catchment outlets so that they can capture all the sewage easily without requiring high cost for pumping.

The starting point where it all started, we went down the steps to ground floor to begin our tour. The tour began at the sump pump, where we could hear gushing sewage sound come rushing in from the whole town of Putrajaya. The IWK’s staff explained the processes from the septic tank to the sewerage plant. We kept looking for gross stuffs and gross smells. Furthermore, we were told how the sump pump works. We did not get the chance to have a closer look at the pipes. Sump pump are monitered 24 hours by plant operator. In addition, from the sump pump, sewage water will be filtered off paper, hairs, bags and others through the screen chamber before processing the waste. At last, we were told throwing rubbish in the toilet clog up the system.

After that, domestic waste water pump directed to screen chamber from sump pump. The raw sewage is distribured between two screen channel for primary and secondary screening. Screen chamber use conveyor to collects rubbish that people throw in the toilet or drain such as tissue papers, stocking, pampers and others. Here, we started to feel such a strong bad smell. Next, the sewage flows through grits channels for further removal of sand and heavy particles. This grit removal will removes large particles by air lift system and transferred to grit classifier for separation and storage. Next, we walk in between the yellow lines.

After grit channels, the sewage overflow to aeration tank. In the aeration tanks, organic material are oxidized by microorganisms into non-harmful material such as carbon dioxide, water and other inert materials. Microorganisms are suspended with uplift bubbles and the organic subtances are oxidized to reduce biological oxygen demand (BOD). Besides, oxygen and air being pumped into the waste to allow the aerobic bacteria to break down the waste.

Clarifier tank are component of secondary clarifier. The treated water is flowed to clarificaton, where microorganism cells are settled and separated from treated water. The treated effluent is overflowed through weir plates and discharged to the nearby river. We observed that the sludge which contain mircroorganism cells settles at the bottom of clarififier, then pump to sludge to sludge dewatering area where the sludge is flocculated with polymer. Later, it collected by mechanical scrapper and pumped back to the aerated tank for continuous operation. Sludge dewatering and drying is an area where the sludge processing takes place. The dewatering sludge that produced is 12-18 % dried. Thus, the dewatered sludge then further dried for 92% dry solids by dryer and ready for disposal. Finally, one of the end products are produced, biosolid. It is a great natural fertilizer.

Finally, we end up our trip around 4.30pm. We were told that if all the processes were completed properly, there should not be any smell. We found the trip very educational. We learnt a lot by asking much questions. So, wastewater treatment is not an easy and expensive process.

Conclusion

As a conclusion, the trip to Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) Sdn. Bhd had given us wide exposure in various methods of sewage treatment systems and its processes. The briefing conducted by IWK’s staff was educational and beneficial. Waste sludge is an end process of all aerobic treatment, being it sludge from waste water plant or from drinking water treatment plant. Proper operation and maintenance including charging and periodical monitoring is required for sustainable management of decentralised domestic wastewater treatment system. Therefore, the process flow of sewage treatment plant (STP 1) can be summarized as follow :

Influent

plant (STP 1) can be summarized as follow : Influent Sump pump Screen chamber Grit chamber

Sump pump

(STP 1) can be summarized as follow : Influent Sump pump Screen chamber Grit chamber tank

Screen chamber

be summarized as follow : Influent Sump pump Screen chamber Grit chamber tank Clarifier tank Influent

Grit chamber

tank Clarifier tank Influent : BOD : 250mg/l SS : 300mg/l
tank
Clarifier tank
Influent :
BOD : 250mg/l
SS : 300mg/l

Treated effluent discharged to nearby river.

Effluent :

BOD : not more than that 10mg/l SS : 50mg/l

APPENDIX A

: BOD : not more than that 10mg/l SS : 50mg/l APPENDIX A Aeration   Name

Aeration

 

Name of Attendees

Matrix No.

1.

Susan Silvarajoo

112415012

2. Nuramelia Syahirah bt Kushaini

 

112415011

3. Nur Halimah Hamizah binti Hamdan

B10090051

4. Nick Othman Abdullah

 

B12090007

Attachments

Attachments Figure 1 Figure 1 show incoming channel of sump pump. Figure 2 Figure 2 show
Attachments Figure 1 Figure 1 show incoming channel of sump pump. Figure 2 Figure 2 show

Figure 1

Figure 1 show incoming channel of sump pump.

Figure 1 Figure 1 show incoming channel of sump pump. Figure 2 Figure 2 show four

Figure 2

Figure 2 show four inlet pump, where the incoming sewer pumped by four duty into primary and secondary screen chamber.

Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 3 and 4 shows four mechanical screen chambers which control

Figure 3

Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 3 and 4 shows four mechanical screen chambers which control by

Figure 4

Figure 3 and 4 shows four mechanical screen chambers which control by timer to remove rubbish.

screen chambers which control by timer to remove rubbish. Figure 5 Figure 5 show grit removal

Figure 5

Figure 5 show grit removal to removal sand and heavy particles.