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Que:: Material balance for solution gas drive reservoirs.

The material balance technique mathematically models the reservoir as a tank. This method uses
limiting assumptions and attempts to equilibrate changes in reservoir volume as a result of
production. Aquifer support and gas cap expansion can be accounted for by using this method.
The MBE, when properly applied, can be used to:
Estimate initial hydrocarbon volumes in place
Predict future reservoir performance
Predict ultimate hydrocarbon recovery under various types of primary driving mechanisms
Material balance estimation for oil
General material balance equation is

Since oil, gas, and water are present in petroleum reservoirs, the material balance equation can be
expressed for the total fluids or for any one of the fluids present.

where


due
to gas produced, evolved, and encroached from a gas cap
, due to
connate water volume change, encroached water, and produced water
where

Bg = formation volume factor of free gas

Bgi = formation volume factor of free gas at initial conditions

cf = formation (rock) compressibility (psi1)

cw = water compressibility (psi1)

N = OOIP (STB)

Np = cumulative oil produced (STB); from production history data

P = Change in reservoir pressure due to production, that is, initial pressure minus current
pressure; taken from field pressure surveys

Rp = cumulative gas-oil ratio, or total produced gas (in SCF)/ total produced oil (in STB);
from production history data

Rsi = inital solution gas-oil ratio (SCF/STB)

Swi = initial connate water saturation (decimal)

We = cumulative amount of water encroachment; from map and field data

Wp = cumulative water produced; from production history data

Another general equation is

where

Bt = total (two-phase) formation volume factor

Bti = total formation volume factor at initial conditions

M = gas cap size expressed as a fraction of initial reservoir oil volume; from map data

This equation assumes thermodynamic equilibrium between oil and gas, a uniform pressure
distribution, and a uniform saturation distribution in the reservoir. Additional equations can be
derived from the general material balance equation for specific reservoir types.
A simplified equation can be used for a quick estimate of initial oil in place. This equation
assumes a closed reservoir system (no active water drive), no initial gas cap, and initial reservoir
pressure close to the bubblepoint:

where
5.61 = conversion factor from volume/volume to ft3/bbl
Bob = formation volume factor for oil at the bubblepoint; determined for specific separator
conditions
R = gas-oil ratio, or GOR, equal to produced gas (in SCF)/produced oil (in STB); from
production history data
Rs = solution gas-oil ratio (SCF/STB) or gas solubility in oil
Vi = initial volume of oil plus liberated gas as a function of pressure measured at reservoir
temperature
Vt = volume of oil plus liberated gas as a function of pressure measured at reservoir
temperature; determined under flash liberation conditions

Material balance estimation for gas


The material balance technique for calculating gas reserves, like material balance for oil,
attempts to mathematically equilibrate changes in reservoir volume as a result of production. The
basic equation is

The equations used to calculate OGIP are


Gas reservoir with active water drive:

Gas reservoir with no water drive (We = 0):

where

G = OGIP (SCF)

Gp = cumulative gas produced (SCF)

These equations can also be used to predict Gp (recoverable reserves) assuming G is


determined by an independent method and the production conditions remain
constant.