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Anhang

A.5 Phase Current-Transformer Requirements

A.5

Phase Current-Transformer Requirements


The protection functions require current transformers that are dimension properly. This chapter describes the
characteristics required for the dimensioning of the current transformer. The specified rules pertaining to the
dimensioning apply the definition of protection current transformer found in IEC61869-2 Edition 1.0 (previously IEC 60044-1 and IEC 44-6). Dimension according to ANSI C57.13 is also described.
Settings

Description

ALF

Rated accuracy limit factor

ALF'

Operation accuracy limit factor

ALF'
Ipn (Ipr)

Primary rated current of the transformer

Isn (Isr)

Secondary rated current of the transformer

Rb

Ohmic rated burden

Rba

Connected ohmic operating burden

Srated

Dimensioning output rating

Rct

Secondary winding resistance

KSSC

Symmetric dimensioning over-current factor = Ipsc/Ipr

Ktd

Transient dimensioning factor

ISC A

Fault current during near fault; according to dimensioning factora

ISC B

Fault current during error at limit of zone Z1; according to dimensioning factor b

ISC Int

Maximum internal fault current for differential protection

ISC Ext

Maximum external (flow through) fault current for differential protection

Tp

Primary power system time constant L/R

Distance protection factor Ktd for near fault

Distance protection factor Ktd for errors at limit of zone Z1

Vta

Current terminal voltage with 20-fold rated current and connected burden Rba (ANSI
C57.13)

Ek

Knee-point voltage

The requirements for the dimensioning of the current transformer are shown in an example by applying the
IEC and ANSI characteristics.
Definition of the Requirements for the Dimensioning of the Current Transformer
Verify the current transformer requirements for the main protection function Distance protection and Line
differential protection.
Table A-2

Requirements According to IEC 60044-6 for Transformer Type, Class TPX and TPY

Function

Require a product Ktd KSSC


Near Fault

Fault on Limit of Zone Z1

Internal fault

External fault

21 Distance protection

87L-Line differential
protection

SIPROTEC 5, Distance and Line Differential Protection, Breaker Management for 1-Pole and 3-Pole Tripping, Manual
C53000-G5040-C011-8, Edition 06.2016

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A.5 Phase Current-Transformer Requirements

Table A-3

Requirements According to IEC61869-2 for Transformer Type, Class 5P/10P and 5PR/10PR

Function

Required ALF'
Near Fault

Fault on Limit of Zone Z1

Internal Fault

External Fault

21 Distance protection

87L-Line differential
protection
Table A-4

Requirements According to IEC61869-2 for Transformer Type, Class PX or IEC 60044-6 Class
TPS

Function

Required Knee-Point Voltage Ek


Near Fault

Fault on Limit of Zone Z1

Internal Fault

External Fault

21 Distance protection

87L-Line differential
protection

Table A-5

Requirements According to ANSI C57.13 for Transformer Type, Class C

Function

Required Transformer Terminal Voltage Vta


Near Fault

Fault on Limit of Zone Z1

Internal Fault

External Fault

21 Distance protection

87L-Line differential
protection
The diagram below shows the dimensioning factors for the distance protection:

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SIPROTEC 5, Distance and Line Differential Protection, Breaker Management for 1-Pole and 3-Pole Tripping, Manual
C53000-G5040-C011-8, Edition 06.2016

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A.5 Phase Current-Transformer Requirements

[lo_Dimensioning-fact-for-dist-prot, 1, en_US]

Figure A-11

Dimensioning Factors for the Distance Protection

The parameters a and b were determined based on tests and theoretical analyses.
Remanence
Remanence leads to a premature saturation which, in general, is critical for the differential protection. For new
plants, Siemens recommends anti-remanence cores in the classes 5PR, and TPY. In case of the high direct
current components to be expected, Siemens recommends the class TPZ, so that an overfunction with
external errors is avoided. If the current transformers use a closed iron core, the possible remanence must be
considered. Use the calculation method according to IEC61869 in the section 'Retripping procedure with remanence in transformer cores'. For this purpose, use the values of 12 ms (50 Hz) and 11ms (60 Hz) must be set
for tal .
EXAMPLE:
The line shown in the diagram below uses the protection device 7SL87. The functions Line differential
protection and Distance protection are instantiated as redundant main protection function. Verifying the
dimensioning of the current transformer is mandatory.

[lo_example-dist_diff-prot, 1, en_US]

Figure A-12

Example

For this example, the following data apply:

SIPROTEC 5, Distance and Line Differential Protection, Breaker Management for 1-Pole and 3-Pole Tripping, Manual
C53000-G5040-C011-8, Edition 06.2016

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A.5 Phase Current-Transformer Requirements

Table A-6

Data for the Sample Calculation

Settings

Value

Description

Vrated

110 kV

Rated Voltage

frated

50 Hz

Power frequency

Radius zone 1

80 %

Radius of zone Z1

Power system time


constant (Tp)

90 ms

Primary power system time constant L/R of feed

ICable

51 m

Length of the secondary current transformer supply


lines

ACable

4 mm2

Core cross section of the current transformer supply


lines

ISC A

15 kA

Cu

0,0213

Sdevice

0.1 VA

Short circuit current at fault location A


mm2/m

Specific resistance of copper table at 75C


Rated burden of protection device at rated current

Calculation of the Connected Burden


The burden Rba that is connected to the terminal of the current transformer derives from the double supply
line resistance (supply and return line) and the device burden.

[fo_r_cable_totalconnected_ct_burden, 1, en_US]

[fo_r_relay_totalconnected_ct_burden, 1, en_US]

[fo_rba_totalconnected_ct_burden, 1, en_US]

Distance Protection: Recalculation of the Fault Current at the Zone Limit ISC_B
In order to dimension the current transformer, the fault current on the zone limit is required. Calculate the
fault current using the loop resistance ZSC_B as follows:

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_Z_source, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_r_source, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_x_source, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_RL, 1, en_US]

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A.5 Phase Current-Transformer Requirements

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_XL, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_Rscb, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_Xscb, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_Zscb, 1, en_US]

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_Iscb, 1, en_US]

Distance Protection: Primary System Time Constant Tp_B at the Zone Limit
For the definition of the dimensioning factor, according to Figure A-11 , the primary system time constant at
fault location B must be calculated as follows:

[fo_dis_z1_iscb_Tpb, 1, en_US]

Differential Protection: Calculation of the Flow Fault Current ISC_ext


In order to calculate the differential protection, the maximum short circuit current at an external fault must be
used. Use the values RInfeed and XInfeed that were calculated for the distance protection.

[fo_diff_Rsc_ext, 1, en_US]

[fo_diff_Xsc_ext, 1, en_US]

[fo_diff_Zsc_ext, 1, en_US]

[fo_diff_Isc_ext, 1, en_US]

Minimum Requirements for the Current Transformer


Based on the previous calculations and the parameters in Table A-6 , the following minimum requirements for
the dimensioning of the current transformer apply:
Distance protection: Near fault (Isc_A):

SIPROTEC 5, Distance and Line Differential Protection, Breaker Management for 1-Pole and 3-Pole Tripping, Manual
C53000-G5040-C011-8, Edition 06.2016

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A.5 Phase Current-Transformer Requirements

The primary system time constant for the near fault is 90 ms. Use the distance protection from Figure A-11 to
determine the dimensioning factor for near fault (a).
Isc_A = 15 kA a = 4
Distance protection: Fault at the zone limit (Isc_B):
The primary system time constant at the zone limit was calculated using Tp_B = 54.6 ms. Use the distance
protection from Figure A-11 to determine the dimensioning factor for the fault at the zone limit (b).
Isc_B = 6.31 kA b = 5
Function

Require a Product Ktd KSSC


Near Fault

Fault on Limit of Zone Z1

21 Distance protection

In case of a near fault, the highest requirement on the product of Ktd KSSC is a value of 60. Use this value to
dimension the current transformer.
Differential protection
Maximum current during an internal fault: Isc_int = 15 kA
Maximum current during an external fault: Isc_ext = 5.51 kA
Function

Require a Product Ktd KSSC


Internal Fault

External Fault

87L-Differential
protection

In case of a near fault, the highest requirement on the product of Ktd KSSC is a value of 7.5. Use this value to
dimension the current transformer.
If combining the functions distance protection and differential protection, in case of a near fault, the highest
requirement on the product of Ktd KSSC is a value of 60. Use this value to dimension the current transformer.
Check the Current Transformer Dimensioning for Various Transformer Classes
The previous calculated minimum requirements for the current transformer will be checked below.
Classes TPX and TPY:
transformer classes are specified with KSSC, Ktd and Rb. In this example, the current transformer uses the
following parameters:
KSSC = 20
Ktd = 5
Rb = 1
The required minimum for KSSC is determined by the maximum fault current:

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SIPROTEC 5, Distance and Line Differential Protection, Breaker Management for 1-Pole and 3-Pole Tripping, Manual
C53000-G5040-C011-8, Edition 06.2016

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