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TITLE PAGE

MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT AND UTILIZATION IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES:

A CASE STUDY OF THE STAFF OF THE UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO THE

DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT,

UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA, NSUKKA.

IN FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF SCIENCE (M.SC)DEGREE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND LOCAL

GOVERNMENT.

BY

OZIOKO, OGUGUA CHIZOBA

PG/M.SC/09/50751

SUPERVISOR: DR. (MRS) M.A.O. OBI

MARCH 2012

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APPROVAL PAGE

This project work has been examined and approved for the Department of Public

Administration and Local Government, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in fulfillment of the

requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Science in Public Administration

(Human Resource Management)

Dr. (Mrs.) M.A.O Obi (Supervisor)

Dean, School of Postgraduate Studies

Prof. F.O Onah (Head of Department, PALG)

External Examiner

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OZIOKO,

Ogugua

Chizoba

CERTIFICATION

a

postgraduate

student

in

the

Department

of

Public

Administration and Local Government, with registration number PG/M.SC/09/50751 has

satisfactorily completed the requirements for course and research work for the award of the

Degree

of

Master

of

Science

(M.SC)

in

Public

Administration

(Human

Resource

Management). The work embodied in this project, except where duly acknowledged, is

original and has not been submitted in part or in full for any Diploma or Degree of this or any

other University.

OZIOKO, OGUGUA CHIZOBA (STUDENT)

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DEDICATION

To my beloved parents and my siblings: Ginika, Emenike, Nkem, Amaka and Ebuka

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

My unreserved gratitude goes to the Almighty God for spearing my life and given me

the needed knowledge and understanding throughout my M.Sc programme.

I thank my supervisor, Dr (Mrs) M.A.O. Obi for her patience in reading my work and

motherly affections. I also appreciate the intellectual impact of all my lecturers in my life,

especially Dr. O.U Nnadozie.

My appreciation also goes to Mr Atugwu, Mr Ozoanya and Oluchi in the Personnel

Department University of Nigeria, Nsukka and other members of that department for their

support especially the material I got from the department my project. My immense gratitude

goes also to Mr Sylvester Onah my in-law in the Registry Department University of Nigeria,

Nsukka for his contributions to the project.

I cannot thank you enough Mr Nnamani, Desmond for your role and contributions in

this work, may God bless you. I remember in especial way Mr Kyamru James, Henry, Macel,

Junior and other roommates who made the room conducive and also who as a result of

existed understanding allowed me to make use of the room for this task. My people you are

all wonderful! May God continue to be with you in your endeavours. I also thank Mr.Igodo,

who was also a wonderful friend, we were always together in the struggle.

To

my

wonderful

respondents

during

administration

of

questionnaire

your

information were well utilized and were helpful, I thank you all for your wonderful

contributions.

Finally, I ask for God s blessing upon my parents for their moral and financial

backups which led to my being a Master degree holder.

Ozioko, Ogugua C PALG UNN

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

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i

Approval Page .

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ii

Certification

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iii

Dedication

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iv

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v

Acknowledgment Table of Contents

List of Tables and Figures

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vi

vii

Abstract

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x

Chapter One:

Introduction

 

1.1 Background to the Study

 

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1

1.2 Statement of the Problems

 

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3

1.3 Objective of the Study

 

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1.4 Significance of the Study

 

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1.5 Scope and Limitation of the Study

 

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Chapter Two:

Literature Review and Research Methodology

2.1

Literature Review

 

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9

2.1.1

Historical Background of Manpower Development and Utilization in Nigeria

9

2.1.2

The Concept of Manpower Development

 

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13

2.1.3

The Concept of Manpower Utilization

 

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26

2.2

Hypotheses .

 

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35

2.3

Operationalization of the Key Concepts

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35

2.4

Methods of Data Collection and Analysis

 

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36

2.4.1

Method of Study

 

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36

2.4.2

Research Design

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37

2.4.3

Methods of Data Collection

 

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37

2.4.4.

Population of Study

 

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37

2.4.5

Sample and Sampling Techniques

 

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38

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2.4.6

Data Gathering Instrument

 

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38

2.4.7

Validation of Instrument

 

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39

2.4.8

Reliability of the Instrument

 

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39

2.4.9

Methods of Data Analysis

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40

2.5

Theoretical Framework

 

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41

2.5.1

Application of the Theory to the Study

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43

Chapter Three:

 

Background Information on the Case Study

 

3.1 Brief Historical Background of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

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46

3.2 Location of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka .

 

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56

3.3 Structure and Organization of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

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57

Chapter Four:

 

Data Presentation and Analysis

 

4.1

Data Presentation and Analysis

 

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58

4.1.1

Test of Hypotheses

 

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73

4.2

Results and Findings .

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82

4.3

Implications of the Findings

 

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86

Chapter Five:

 

Summary, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Summary

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89

5.2 Recommendations

 

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90

5.3 Conclusion

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92

Bibliography

Appendices

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES

Table 4.1: Return Rate of Questionnaire

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58

Table 4.2: Staff Category

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59

Table 4.3: Educational Qualification

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59

Table 4.4: Length of Service

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59

Table 4.5: Manpower Development Programmes in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

60

Table

4.6:

Attention

of

the

University

of

Nigeria,

Nsukka

to

Staff

Training

and

Development

 

.

.

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.

.

61

Table 4.7: Consistency in the Training and Development Programme in the University of

Nigeria, Nsukka .

.

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61

Table 4.8: The Training Programmes in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka

.

62

Table 4.9: The Training and Development based on Needs and Objectives.

.

63

Table 4.10: The Criteria used in selecting or recommending Staff for Training in the

University of Nigeria, Nsukka

 

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.

63

Table 4.11: Staff Specialty

Table 4.12: Encouragement and Opportunities for Higher Training

and

.

Career

.

.

Prospects

.

.

.

.

in

their

64

65

Table 4.13: Approval of Study Leave with Pay for Staff

 

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65

Table 4.14: Staff Further Studies and Research Abroad

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66

Table 4.15: Job Satisfaction partly because of Practicing the Skill acquired on Training

67

Table 4.16: Challenges due to Additional Responsibilities after Training

.

.

67

Table 4.17: Effect of inadequate Training and Skill Development

.

.

68

Table 4.18: Staff

Frustration due

to

Lack of

Opportunity to

Practice

Skill

acquired

 

Optimally

.

.

.

.

.

69

Table

4.19:

Staff

Performance after Training .

.

.

.

69

Table 4.20: Staff Utilization

 

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.

70

Table 4.21: The Effect of under Utilization of Staff to the University and the Trained

Staff

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71

Table 4.22: The Evaluating System of the University

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.

72

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Table 4.24: Contingency Table from the Analysis of Question 3

Table 4.23: Rate of Impact .

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.

72

74

Table 4.25: Computations of Expected Frequency (e) and Chi-square

.

.

75

Table 4.26: Contingency Table from the Analysis of Question 16

.

.

77

Table 4.27: Computations of Expected Frequency (e) and Chi-square

.

.

78

Table 4.28: Contingency Table from the Analysis of Question 19

.

.

80

Table 4.29: Computations of Expected Frequency (e) and Chi-square

.

.

81

List of Figures Figure 1: Manpower Development Methods

.

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21

Figure 2: The System Components (Easton System Model) .

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41

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ABSTRACT

Training, development and utilization of personnel in organization is a very important personnel management venture in any organization for improved work performance, efficient and effective service delivery, and staff skill update and quality production. The vital nature of this motivated this study. This study examined manpower development and utilization in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. In the development the study looked at the nature of training in the University and the utilization of trained staff. This work was divided into five chapters in order to deal with the problem extensively. Chapter one introduced the topic, portraying the background, statement of the problems that actually instigated this research with the questions that the research is meant to answer; the posed three null hypothetical statement on the topic; purpose or objectives of the study; the significant of the study to the society; and the scope and limitations of the study. The second chapter reviewed already existing literatures from other scholars on the topic and discussed the method of research. Third chapter discussed extensively on the background of the study area-University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Chapter four, analyzed and presented data gotten from the questionnaire administered using simple percentage and the hypotheses were tested with chi-square. It also enshrined the result and findings; and implication of the findings. Finally, the study in chapter five summarized the research; proffered recommendation and concluded the study.

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Introduction

CHAPTER ONE

1.1 Background to the Study

Organization is established to provide for the needs, yearnings, interest and desire of

the employees within the work place or environment, to earn loyalty, dedication, involvement

and commitment necessary to compete favourably and effectively to maintain and retain its

innumerable staff and patronizers. Therefore, for any organization or institution such as

University, some factors have to come into play through their availability and reliability. The

factors in this context include manpower development and utilization, which would be

extensively discussed in this study.

It will not be out of context to say that manpower is the strong pillar of private or

public organization, just like Harbison (1973) aptly observed;

Human resources, not capital, income or material resources, constitute the ultimate basis for the wealth of nations. Capital and natural resources are passive factors of production. Human beings are the agent who accumulate capital, exploit natural resources, build social, economic and political organization and carry out national development.

The above score made it clear that as the world even turns to a global village, one cannot but

attribute its possibility to the dexterity and intuitive nature of human thinking and ability.

Another conviction of human ability and input in the work is the computer. What is computer

if not the human brain since computer is garbage in garbage out . It becomes imperative to

realize that one cannot do without manpower in an organization.

In fact, the evolution of manpower in Nigeria can be traced back to the era of

industrial revolution when the slave trade was abolished in favour of buying and selling of

goods and services, establishment of industries and schools. It is at this period that the

importance of development and utilization of human skills is felt in an organization. This

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view was supported by Adesua (1988), Fafunwa (1974) and Yesufu (2000) who opted that

investment on human resources in Nigeria started in 1843, when different missionaries from

European countries started with funding of schools introduced by them. Human resources

from this ambit have been recognized as the most critical resources of the factors of

productions, without it an effective utilization of all other factors of production remains

untapped. Manpower has to be developed effectively and efficiently, to enhance and harness

other resources for the actualization of organizational goals. In collaboration with the above

contemporary global arrangement, human resources is prelude to long term investment by

both the state and individuals for the continued existence, preservation of cultural values and

improvement of the society.

Concept

of

important

current

manpower

development

according

to

Abegeze

(1994)

issue

in

African

manpower

development

planning,

He

tackled

asserts

an

that

manpower development is the building and enhancement of human resources through formal

education and training. He emphasizes the important prerequisite for national development;

African countries have expanded a significant part of their meager resources in planning

development and utilization of manpower resources. Similarly, Omole (2004:76) asserts that

human resources development is concerned with providing

learning and

development

opportunities making training intervention and planning, conducting and evaluating training

programmes. He further disclosed that the aim of manpower development programme is to

see that the organization has the best and quality workforce it needs to attain its goals for

improved performance. Therefore, manpower development

is defined

as

a process of

extensive education, planning, training and evaluation of training programmes on the

employees in order to boost their performance in an organization.

Manpower

development

requires

an

integral

approach

that

addresses

multidimensional aspect of employees, ranging from enhancing technical and interpersonal

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skills to creative thinking and leadership. Organization with high productivity have no doubt

made manpower development an integral part of their business culture.

However, in the Nigerian context, at times in the university environment, staff may be

trained but may not be effectively utilized to give out their best on job. Therefore Kiggundu

(1989:157) states that human resources utilization is the extent to which available human

resources are effectively deployed for maximum achievement of the organizational goals and

objectives. In this study, manpower utilization will be defined as the deployment and

placement of staff in the right place, position and time for the actualization of organizational

goals. An organization may be endowed with sumptuous manpower but may not actually

develop and utilize them well. Therefore, in this premise, this study seeks to assess

manpower development

and

utilization

in

the

University of Nigeria, Nsukka staff.

1.2 Statement of the Problems

According to Uchendu (1982:57),

Nigerian Universities: a

case

study of

The manpower challenge for Nigeria is not finding the people; it is rather finding the people with the right type of skill at the right time and in the right places.

As Uchendu rightly argues, we often find specialized talent in wrong kinds of activity and

highly capable people in fields, which offers little challenge or incentive. This situation

creates constraints, which sap labour morals, erode productivity and lead to rapid turnover.

Thus the issue of manpower and its utilization becomes germane in an effort to improve

efficiency in service delivery or performance. Human resources both mental and physical are

utilized or invested in an organization in pursuance of its goals.

There has been a meticulous plan in organizations such as the Universities on their

investment in physical and capital resources and those plans are reviewed with utmost, rapt

and undivided attention to the detail while rarely organizations pay attention to human

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resources investment which makes the capital and equipment to be in vein. Not many

Universities consider the necessity for a well defined and sustained training, planning,

performance appraisal,

development and utilization of staff in order to upgrade their

performance or they cannot cope financially with training and development programmes. As

Ubeku (1975:14) regrets this tendency when he notes that

There are many organizations in this country that regards training and development as expensive ventures and avoid them like the plague. What such organizations are interested in are the immediate returns. But in a changing world, of which Nigeria is a part, this attitude can no longer hold good

In organizations where the need for employee training is recognized, it requires a lot

of time and money commitment to training and development, the exercise is inappropriate,

haphazard or premised on a faulty diagnosis of organizational training needs. In other

situation, where training happens to occur, deployment of trained staff may be without regard

to the skill acquired, leading to frustration of personnel trained and also general inefficiency

in the system. Manpower is generally under-tapped, under-utilized and therefore falls short of

its anticipated contributions to the realization of organizational goals.

Nigerian Universities have been consistently chided for using more than 80 percent of

their fiscal allocation for settling wage bills to the detriment of their primary objectives.

Indeed, the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, has been using more than 100 percent of its fiscal

allocations for the payment of salaries and allowances since 1990 (Ikoku, 1992:18).

The

Universities have been engaged in laying-off their staff, especially the non-teaching staff, and

some of them have stopped engaging new staff, like academic staff, for budgetary reasons.

With this trend in our Universities, our problem becomes more apparent (Onah, 2003:123).

In the institutions, where manpower development

is effectively and efficiently

developed and utilized, there is improvement in the skill and ability of employees as well as

development in the workplace. Cases abound in the Nigerian Universities that actually

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carryout this staffing function yet no improvement, the movement of things seems to be

retrogressing, discouraging if not unpromising in such Universities. What could be the cause?

It is in this premise that the researcher deemed to delve into the study on issue of manpower

development and utilization in the Nigerian Universities, using University of Nigeria, Nsukka

as a case study.

Based on the above statement, the researcher came up with the following research

questions which would be answered in the course of the study as follows:

1. What is the perception of staff training and development programmes in University of

Nigeria, Nsukka?

2. How consistent are the development programmes in the University of Nigeria,

Nsukka pursued?

3. Are the staff aware and response to the training opportunities provided by the

University of Nigeria, Nsukka?

4. How well are the trained personnel effectively placed and utilized?

5. Do staff training and development programmes enable the recipients to increase their

proficiency and productivity?

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The general objective of the study is to carry out a thorough study on manpower

development and utilization in the Nigerian universities using the staff of the University of

Nigeria, Nsukka as a case study. The specific objectives of the study are anchored on the

following;

To

examine

the

perception of

staff

training

and

development

programmes

in

University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

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To assess the extent of consistency of the development programmes in the University

Nigeria, Nsukka.

To ascertain the levels of awareness and responses of the staff on the training

opportunities provided for in the University.

To assess the placement and utilization of trained personnel in the University.

To

ascertain the

importance

of

manpower development

productivity and performance of the recepient.

1.4 Significance of the Study

and

utilization

in

the

Manpower development and utilization in the Universities enhance productivity and

service delivery; promote efficiency and effectiveness in the institutions. In addition to this,

University is a citadel of learning morals, values and norms and has its product as students;

therefore, the significance is to avail the Universities of producing half-baked graduates.

However, graduates are seen as the hope of any nation as well as its honey well. Generally,

manpower development and utilization improves the nation s state of economy.

Empirically, having painstakingly and thoroughly studied manpower development

and utilization in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka staff as well as providing answers to the

research questions, making sure that the objectives of the study were attained; and that the

hypotheses were tested statistically, findings and recommendation well handled with proper

referencing, the study will serve as a guide and as well help those who would like to embark

on a research in this topic or related topic in establishments. It is hoped that this study will be

of benefit to a number of people. In other words, future researchers in the field will find the

research a resourceful and reliable reference material.

Theoretically, the use of systems theory in the theoretical Framework of the study as a

guide goes a long way to support its existence as a management theory. The system theory

helps the researcher to drive home the connectivity of the staff with other aspect of the

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University and how the deformity or inefficiency of the staff affects the whole system and

vice versa. This will actually guide other Universities to know that a University as an

organization is a system which has components and that if a component is affected other parts

will be affected in one way or the other. The knowledge of this will help the management to

ensure that all aspects of the organization are working and that none of them is non-

functional.

Practically, the study is considered significant for the mere fact that it will contribute

to the high productivity, growth efficient and effective service delivery and the development

of

the

Universities

as

well

as

their

staff

by due

consultation,

consideration

of

the

recommendations in making plans and policies of manpower development and utilization in

the Universities by their managements. More so, the application of the recommendations of

the study in some of the infant establishments can help boost their competitive advantage.

This off course starts with the human capital of the organizations.

1.5 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The study focused on manpower development and utilization in the University of

Nigeria, Nsukka. The researcher used the University staff in the study.

The study faced a lot of challenges, constraints, which were considered as stumbling

blocks to the study. The researcher encountered many hitches and hard times that in one way

or the other delayed the work. The major challenge encountered that really posed a threat to

the study was the time frame for the study. The time given for the submission of this work

was not enough to have carried out a detailed research. Be that as it may, the researcher was

able to come up with something reasonable.

The success of any project depends on the availability of finance. Insufficient funding

was seen as a constraint to the study. This is so because the study is quiet tasking and

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demanded a lot of financial backups. Unfortunately, the study was delayed as a result of

finance.

Administration and collection of questionnaires from the respondents posed a great

challenge to the study. Actually, not all the questionnaires distributed were returned and the

delay in collection of questionnaires affected the work.

Finally, the textbooks section in the main University of Nigeria, Nsukka library,

which is yet to be catalogued and shelved, contributed to the delay of the study.

Notwithstanding those constraints, the researcher made a concerted effort to ensure

that the study was comprehensive and successfully carried out to meet the desired goal.

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CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review and Research Methodology

2.1 Literature Review

The researcher reviewed the literature of many scholars on the topic using the

following headings;

Historical Background of Manpower Development and Utilization

The Concept of Manpower Development

The Concept of Manpower Utilization.

2.1.1

Historical Background of Manpower Development and Utilization in Nigeria.

The historical background of manpower development and utilization can be closely

looked from the angle of the management theories and their proponents, which according to

Egbo and Okeke (2009:86) argued that the classical approach remained the oldest for

studying and analyzing human organization. Chandan (1987:27) posits that it is based on the

ideas similarly generated in the late 1800 s and early 1900 s and is primarily based upon the

economic rationality of all employees. Among all the proponents of the classical management

school, manpower development and utilization can be generally traced in the works and

contributions of Fredrick Taylor, the father of scientific management.

It was Drucker (1970) who adds that the central theme of Taylor s work was not

efficiency but the need to substitute industrial warfare by industrial economy. This he stated

that Taylor sought to achieve by the following means:

a. Higher wage can improve output.

b. The removal of physical strain from doing work the wrong way.

c. Development of the workers and the opportunity for them to undertake task they were

capable of doing, and

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d. Elimination of the boss by the duty of the management to probe the workers.

He principally summarized the contributions of scientific management as follows:

It

encourages

maximum

utilization

of

efforts

as

well

as

a

safeguard

against

inefficiency and waste in other words, it promotes rational approach to problem solving.

It encourages scientific selection, placement and utilization of workers.

Scientific management school emphasizes the role of compensation and other forms

of incentives in productivity.

It encourages greater specialization through division of work, proper design of job,

specialization methods and motion standard.

It encourages the establishment of standards of performance as average output and

maximum output per capita.

However, the weaknesses of the scientific school gave room for others, including the neo

classical management schools such as Human relation school that repositioned manpower as

the brain behind organizational productivity.

According to Egbo and Okeke (2009:92), notwithstanding

inherent limitations,

scientific management school was credited with the origin of systematic and scientific

method of employee selection and development as well as work organization and structuring

for purpose of efficient use of resource to champion productivity concern of the organization.

Thus Bozeman in Egbo and Okeke (2009:92) affirmed his support by stating that:

Scientific management did not waste away in textbooks; it was highly influential in the practice of public administration and in government research . The influence of public administration recorded its zenith as the faith in scientific management and the scientific principles spread and established itself as the prevailing orthodoxy . Scientific management dominated public administration from about 1910 to 1944 and helped crystallize public administration as an academic field.

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The human relation, neo classical school of management moved a bit from scientific

mechanical and physiological to behavioural, sociological and psychological management in

an organization. The school focused on manpower welfare in the organization. Mullins

(1999:58) succinctly posits that:

The main emphasis of the classical workers was on structures and on the formal organization but during the 1920 s, the years of great depression, greater attention began to be paid t o the social factors at work and to the behavior of employees within an organization- that is to human relations.

Similarly, Simon (1947) opines that:

Human beings who work in organization have aspirations and desires. Their behavior is conditioned by their psychology, motives and social environment. The administrative science should therefore study these facts of behavior without getting involved in the question of values . The behaviour of these people is subject to influence .

The eight basic premises of behaviourism otherwise known as the intellectual

foundation stones of the approach according to David Easton are regularities, verification,

techniques,

qualification,

values,

(Charlesworth,1967:13).

systematization,

pure

science

and

integration

However, Odike (2003:131-132) was of the opinion that the Nigerian manpower

development and utilization could be traced from the traditional Nigeria society, where

people acquire skills by watching elders and by following their examples. In this way he

states that experience is gained in the use of more sophisticated tools and techniques. These

techniques to Odike include farming since the traditional Nigerian society economy is

basically agriculture.

In the traditional society according to Odike, when a father wants his child to learn a

trade, he will take the child to whom he wants his child to learn the trade with. The person

will be left with the individual and placed under his complete control and authority. As an

apprentice, he does not only learn the trade but serves the master in other house activities.

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Therefore here, the distribution of manpower resources was determined by the head of the

family. However, there were no national economic development goals and manpower

planning then.

Odike

further

posits

that

manpower

planning

in

Nigeria

emanated

with

the

appointment of the Ashby Commission in April 1959. The commission he stated was to

conduct investigation into Nigeria s higher education needs over a twenty-year period in

order to appraise the future educational and manpower requirements in the country. Harbison

(1960) wrote a special report on High level manpower for Nigeria s future; the first Nigerian

manpower projection. The report estimated minimum high level manpower needs for the

period (1960-1970), based on pre-independence national growth. Since Harbison lacked basic

statistics, his projections were not based on any specific analysis and, therefore, were of

limitations, the report was the first serious attempt to evaluate and solve manpower problems.

As a result of the approval of the Ashby Commission report a national manpower

board was established in 1962 with its functioning arm, the secretariat, as a branch of the

federal ministry of Economic Development. The terms of reference of the national Manpower

Board according to Fapohunda in Olalokun (1987), include the determination of nation s

manpower

needs

in

all

occupations,

the

formulation

of

programmes

for

manpower

development, the coordination, policies and activities of the Federal and regional ministries

primarily concerned with manpower problems and the development of employment. The

composition of the Board was representatives of the Federal and Regional ministries of

Education,

Economic

planning

and

Development,

Labours;

the

National

Universities

commission, the Labour Unions, the Nigeria Employers consultative association and Private

Employers. According to Fapohunda, the operational secretariat was assigned as both a

research and a manpower development agency. The National Manpower Board established

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regional

manpower

committees

to

feed

them

with

information

and

to

consider

the

recommendations of the central board as they apply primary to their local public sectors.

In the words of commendation, Yesufu and others (1973) suggest that

Both the Manpower Board and the Manpower Committees did excellent preparatory work and the stage seemed to be set for ensuring effective manpower planning and development in the future. Guidelines for scholarship awards and for course structure in the universities were, for example, enunciated and accepted.

Notwithstanding the Yesufu and others stand, Olalokun, and others (1987:125), made

it clearly known that there has been virtually no significant manpower planning at the Federal

or state government levels in Nigeria. However, the 1962-1968 plan, had interest in the field

of manpower development. According to that plan, the highest priority was being given to

agriculture, industry and training of high and intermediate level manpower (First Plan: 22).

Subsequent development plans borrowed a leaf from the former but according to Odike

(2003:132), the Second development plan was produced without a suitable manpower plan.

Therefore, project proposals were not carefully analyzed in terms of their manpower

requirement. However, under the third National development plan, the national manpower

board was to be recognized and the staffing position of the national secretariat strengthened

(Third National development plan 1975-1980:395). In addition, a manpower unit was to be

established in each state planning ministry to add the National secretariat.

2.1.2 The Concept of Manpower Development

According to Beach (1998:100), the human assets grow and increase in value;

maintaining and upgrading employees skills not only tend to increase productivity; but also

increase commitment and motivation. Beach asserts further that the approach to manpower

development within the firm will vary according to the technology, traditional policies and

the value of management.

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Omole (2004:76) asserts that

human resources development

is concerned

with

providing

learning

and

development

opportunities,

making

training

intervention

and

planning, conducting and evaluating training programmes. Nadler (1970) was also of the

opinion that human resources development, a series of activities conducted within a specific

time and designed to produce behavioural change. However, in this definition, Nadler failed

to identify the nature of the activities which individuals undertake to bring about behavioural

change and also did not make explicit the underlying goals of development programmes for

staff of organizations. This lacuna was filled by Armstrong (2004:525), who said that human

resource development is concerned with the provision of learning, development and training

opportunities in order to improve individual, team and organizational performance. Similarly,

Akintayo and Babajide (2005:21), reported that manpower development programmes had

been found to have capable of influencing high turnover

of profit, improved quality of

service, better use of human resources, increased safety on the job (reduced number of

accidents), increased staff motivation, less resistance to change, less cost due to human

errors, more efficiency and productivity.

Croft (1996) further underscores the reasons why the practice of human resources

development has become increasingly important thus;

Human resources are becoming increasingly expensive to employ and as such, their

management must be approached with utmost caution;

Social science research has emphasized the importance of increasing productivity and

the benefits of having satisfied workforce; and

Legislation and development of industrial relations have encouraged the emergence of

specialists will be able to interpret and apply their skills to this area of management.

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To Croft, other rationales for human resources development are to ensure increased

productivity;

improvement

in

employee

morale,

reduce

supervision,

personal

growth,

organizational stability and to meet future personnel needs of organization.

The importance of manpower development to the national development were figured

out by Egbo and Okeke (2009:278), who opined that sustainable development of any country,

depends on how well the human capitals in its productive population were developed and

trained, provided to those who need it, at the right time using right methods and techniques.

This position was reinforced by Harbison (1962) and Mbat (1992). According to Harbison,

the developmental potentials of any nation depends primarily on its available human and

capital resources, marginally on her natural resources and a nation s population make up her

very inestimable asset. Mbat, on his own part, is of the view that human resources

development provides the cardinal point which any realistic economic development can be

based. He asserts that without man, management either through training or education is for

better

skills,

national

economic

development

cannot

make

the

development should be human centric .

desired

impact

since

Ahanor (1990:35), submits that the objectives of manpower development programmes

in any work organization is achieved by ensuring that everyone in the organization has the

knowledge and skills to reach the level of competence required to carry out their works

effectively.

Similarly,

Osterman (1995:125) posits that

the

performance

of

individual

employees and teams in work organization is subject to continuous improvement on their

skills and employees should be developed in ways that maximize their potentials. These can

be obtainable in an organization if there is effective manpower planning and implementation.

Manpower Planning

Chadler and Plano (1982:263), described manpower planning as the process of which

organization ensures that it has the right number of people and the right kind of people, in the

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places, at the right time, doing the right things to serve the purpose of the organization.

Nwankwo (2007:18) states that manpower planning is concerned with budgeting for the most

effective use of an organization s labour resources. Graham (1980:12), describes the concept

of manpower planning as an attempt to forecast how many and what kind of emphases will be

required in the future, and to what extent this demand will be met. Similarly, Bowey (1974:1)

sees the concept of manpower planning as the activity of management which is aimed at

coordinating the availability of, different types of employee. Usually this involves ensuring

that the firm has enough of the right kind labour at such times as it is needed. It may also

involve adjusting the recruitments to the available supply.

Nwankwo (2007:12) posits that manpower planning can be divided into micro and

macro types. The Macro refers to the nation s labour force and plans to utilize its resources

more effectively. It also deals with training and development plans initiated by the Federal

and State government aggregate labour supply, projectors and resolving unemployment

problems. On the other hand, he said that the micro manpower planning is concerned with

providing the right number and kind of people to accomplish organization s objectives. This

includes the assessment of current human resources, forecasting future needs, designing

programmes to recruit and develop personnel as well as implementing national manpower

programmes in an organization. French (1974:241) tried to bring out what manpower

planning entails, which to him include an analysis of current and expected vacancies due to

recruitments, discharges, transfer, promotions, sick leaves, leaves of absence or other reasons

and analysis of current and expected expansions or curtailment in departments. Onah

(2007:8-9) asserts that on the basis of the analysis and assessment the personnel agency

proceeds to make plans for internal transfers or reduction of manpower for training and

requisite skills and knowledge, for advertizing existing vacancies and, if need be, for the

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recruitment of new staff, or a combination of these processes. Manpower planning involves a

series of activities which are six in number as follows (Onah, 1995:108-109)

Demand Forecasting: this involves a process of estimating the future quality and

quantity of manpower required for the establishment.

 

Supply Forecasting: This includes manpower that is likely to be available from within

and outside the organization, having allowed for absenteeism, internal movements,

promotions, wastage, and change in hours and other conditions of work.

 

Determining Manpower requirements: This is achieved by relating the supply to the

deficit or surpluses that will exist in the future.

 

Manpower productivity and cost productivity: This is the output of goods and services

which can be obtained from a given input of employees within the organization.

Manpower cost on the other hand, represents the overall expenditure on manpower,

which includes remuneration cost, recruitment cost, training cost and personnel as

well as administrative cost.

 

Action

Planning:

The

preparation of

manpower

planning

should

be

based

on

manpower requirement and the implications of the information on productivity and

cost. The main element action planning depending on circumstances, consist of

recruitment plan, development plan; redundancy plan, training plan, productivity plan

and retention plan.

 

Manpower Budgeting and Control: This is concerned with estimating manpower

requirement in terms of members, skills, and grades needed to accomplish specified

tasks within a time frame which is usually a financial year.

Training and Development

There is growing economic evidence that investment in training are associated with long run profitability, and firms that recognize work using programmes such as teams and quality circle report greater productivity if those programmes are

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associated with worker education. (Lisa M Lynch & Sandra Black, 1995).

While the effort to spend on training is astonishing, even more astonishing is how little we know about effectively managing training investments. (George T Mikovich & John W Boudreau, 1997).

One area of manpower resources development which is relevant in the effective use of

employees is training and development (Egbo and Okeke, 2009:274). They went further to

state that it is only few people who argue against the importance of training as a major

influence on the success of an organization. Similarly, Nnadozie (2002:92) rightly observed

that training and development of human resources in an organization is sine-qua-non to the

growth and development of any organization. The exploitation and utilization of the material

resources

towards

achievement

of

the

goals

and

objectives

of

an

organization

and

government, in turn as a function of effective human resources development programme. In

collaboration with this, Onah (2003:121) posits that the importance of staff training and

development in any organization is clear if we recognize that the structure that sustains every

organization depends on the individuals that operate the structure.

The acquisition of requisite skills and competence by person through training and

development programmes is an important determinant of productivity- it offers the personnel

an opportunity imbibing the desired attitude and streams behavior that enforce productivity

by helping them learn effective organization technique and time-tasted efficiency practices in

the use of resources. By so doing, the individual workers develop the necessary self

confidence in him or herself and limits the supervisory role of managers. Hence, human

beings need training and development in order to be effective and productive in their work

Egbo and Okeke, (2009:278). Orewa (1991), Olowu and Ademolekun (2002:98), have

similar view. To Orewa, the aim of human resources development is to provide the scope for

the acquisition of knowledge, which enable trainee to gain self confident. It equips the

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employees satisfactorily on the job and prepares them to carry out more complex functions

than their present jobs. As Olowu and Ademolekun put it, training is expected to meet a range

of objectives notably among his skill development, upgrading the socialization into a public

service ethics. Asiegbu (1992:143) puts it, human resources development or human capital

formation is the process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have

education, skills and experience, and the motivation, which are critical for economic and

social development of the country. It involves investments in man and his development as

creative and productive resource. It includes:

a. Investment by society in education.

b. Investment by employers in training; and

c. Investment by individuals in time and money in their own development.

In other words, human capital formation can be societal base, organizational based and

individual.

Akpan (1982) in his own observation on the Nigerian situation stresses the need for

specialized training and professional specialization but also on pre and post entry training in

methods and techniques of administration for newly recruited permanent members of staff

and those already serving. Hilgert and Towle (1978:81) look at training and development of

staff as not only being capable of reducing organizational/employee conflict but also of

motivating staff in their work place. In their words, a well conceived training and

development programme can contribute to a Lessing or reconciliation of conflict. Thus a

challenge and an opportunity is presented to every manager to make each employee better

able to serve the firm, while at the same time realizing greater satisfaction of individual needs

and aspirations. Thus the authors observations that training is also related to employee

motivation agrees with French (1978) notion that employees who know and understand their

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jobs and

who feel that

management values them enough to prepare them for future

assignment are more likely to demonstrate higher morale and greater interest in the job.

Furthermore, French describes the dynamics of motivating people through training

programme in the following words:

In order to change behavior in the direction of greater contribution to the attainment of organizational goals, the individual must perceive the new, expected behavior serving to fulfill needs, or at least as not leading to deprivation of fulfillment supplying goals that fulfill needs and are within reasonable reach of employees is very important in providing motivation as it relates to training and to change in behavior.

Based on the above statement, Onah (2003:141) states that the implication of training

motivation correlation for organization s sponsoring their employees on training programmes

is perhaps more critical for the public service, particularly in developing countries where

government is the largest employer of labour and the problems of motivating the workforce is

rather daunting. Therefore, to Onah, the task of the public service as an organization seeking

to improve the performance of its workforce through training is to guarantee an environment

conducive for the trainee to return to, or else beneficiaries of the employee-sponsored training

programmes would not see training received as a motivator to greater job performance. He

went further to say that the point is all the more important given the fact that the need for

organization training its employees in the first place is to equip them with knowledge that

would enable them to contribute their quota to organizational growth and development. In the

words of French (1978), to be effective, training and development functions of organizations

as a process which is a complex amalgamation of many sub-processes aimed at increasing the

capacity of individuals to contribute to organizational goal attainment.

Nevertheless, there is need for training in the organizations. To Cole (2002), training

needs are basically any shortfall in employee. He identifies two major typologies of training

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which we further classified under group of six training methods each. These he presented as

follows:

Figure1. Manpower Development Methods

1. Lecture, Conferences/Talks

2. Classroom Instruction

3. Programme Instruction

4. Group Discussion

5. Case Study Analysis

6. Simulation exercise

Discussion 5. Case Study Analysis 6. Simulation exercise Off-the-job Location On-the-job Location 7. Job

Off-the-job

Location

Off-the-job Location On-the-job Location

On-the-job

Location

7. Job Instruction

8. Learning from Experienced Workmate (eg. Sitting by Nellie)

9. Coaching/Counseling

10. Delegation

11. Secondment

12. Special Project

from Experienced Workmate (eg. Sitting by Nellie) 9. Coaching/Counseling 10. Delegation 11. Secondment 12. Special Project

Sources: Cole, G.A (2002). Personnel and Human Resource Management 5 th Edition, London: Continuum.

According to Cole in an off-the-job location, such as training centers or educational

institutions, the emphasis in learning is usually on;

Developing an understanding of general principles

Providing background knowledge

Generating an awareness of competitive ideas and practices.

Conversely, in on-the-job location, the emphasis is on the acquisition of specific local

knowledge in a real situation. He notes that the important point to be considered when

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selecting one or the other of the above mentioned methods is the degree of freedom to learn

allowed to the trainee concerned . Other methods of training by other authors include;

Induction Training

Special Course

Apprenticeship

Pre-Entry Training

Orientation

In Service Training

Vestibule Training

Circular Training

Refresher Training

Retraining

Post-entry training

Short terms and Long term training

Department and central training

Skill and Background training

Simulation training etc.

See (Chandan, 1987:180-181; Laximikanth, 2006:316-317; Ezeani, 2006:341-343and

Onah, 2003:173-179).

Our discussion will focus on some of the above methods of training which may be

categorized under on-the-job or off-the-job training.

Orientation:

This method according to Omodia (2009:114) is the integral part of the recruitment exercise

in that once an employee has found appointable, it is expressed that such an employee needs

to be positively oriented in line with the aspiration of the organization for effective discharge

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of the function. The orientation programmes according to Onah (2003:174-5), should include

refresher courses largely for management staff pool staff for whom orientation programmes

may be necessary include cleaners, messengers, drivers, clerical officers, typists, secretaries,

executive officers and administrative officers. The orientation programmes in his view should

be organized by personnel services department in liaison with the department, for pool staff,

drawing from the resources available within the university. He also posits that this training

programme should be done once in every two years and participation should be mandatory

since they serve as a sort of retraining and upgrading programmes.

Induction Training:

This often consists of a short course or programme of items aimed at assisting new recruits to

adjust to the organization and to provide them with the background information. Typically

courses include talks and films about the organization s structure and facilities and the

provision of literature containing regulations and useful information (Ezeani,2006:342).

Special Courses:

This is classified by some education rather than training. Included in this category are the

OND and ADP programmes offered in some designated institutions such as the University of

Nigeria, Nsukka; Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, and Obafemi Awolowo University Ile Ife,

for training of local government officials. It is important to state that these special courses

cannot be dismissed simply as general education since they can be directly related to the

affected employees particular job (Ezeani, 2006:342).

Apprenticeship Training:

The usual apprenticeship programme combines on-the-job training and experience with

classroom instruction in particular subjects. Apprenticeship programme tends towards more

education than on-the-job training in thet knowledge and skill in doing a craft or a series of

related jobs are involved. Apprenticeship programmes are available in a number of crafts

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such as machining, electrical works, welding, carpentry etc (Ezeani, 2006:343). Unamka and

Ewurum (1995:163) further assert that:

The apprenticeship system, which is a way of developing skilled craftsmen, originated from the craft guild system of the middle ages Under this scheme, the worker or apprentice learns from a specialists or craftsman by observation and imitation Sometimes, training may be supplemented by formal classroom instruction.

This type of training is not usually employed by large businesses. It is common among small

businesses particularly the sole proprietorship type.

Pre-Entry Training:

This is the training given to an individual in preparation for entry into the civil service. The

purpose is to prepare the aspirant for the selection examination, to develop the knowledge

and qualities which would make for his subsequent success (Tyagi, 2004:452).

Pre-Entry training is specialized in nature and the general objective potential is to make an

individual fit for a given potential career. It could take the form of vocational or professional

training (Egbo and Okeke, 2009:294).

In-Service Training:

These are schemes not merely designed to improve academic qualification but with the

training needs of the system, and not only the officer but necessary for the enhancement of

the staff member s performance on the job (Onah, 2003:175). Lawal (2006), in his view,

posits that this method involves training outside the organization or workplace in higher

institutions of learning or vocational centers under the sponsorship of the organization or on

terms that may be agreed upon between the organization and the workers.

Vestibule Training:

This is a method of manpower development through the acquisition of skills in a related

working environment (Nongo, 2005). Under this method, the trainees practice his skill with

identical equipment that he uses or he is expected to use in his actual place of work. This

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method is most suitable for sensitive operations where maximal perfection is expected. The

purpose is therefore to enable perfection at work place.

Coaching:

This is an on-the-job training which according to Onah (2003:185) will develop the strengths

and potentials of subordinates and help overcome their weakness. To Onah, coaching requires

time, but if done well, it will save time, money costly mistakes by subordinates, which in the

long run will benefit everyone, the superior, the subordinates and the university.

Classroom Instruction:

This consists of using standard lecture and discussion techniques for training on the technical

aspects of the job. For example, during such periods managers could be called together from

time to time and lectured on a given technical aspect of their jobs. In this way, they acquire

more skills and build up more confidence in their jobs (Onah, 2003:179).

Simulated Training:

This is having a manager learn by giving him examples of typical situation to deal with and

to study. There is a number of this type of training such as

Case study method

In basket testing

Management gaming (Onah, 2003:179).

Lectures,

Conferences

and

Talks:

These

are

among

the

most

common

methods

of

transmitting information or training. They provide ample opportunity for trainee interest and

share experiences with their counterparts, both within and other organization.

Job Instruction: this approach is used by supervisors for training subordinates. It is based

upon four steps which consist of preparing the trainee, presenting the knowledge, allowing

the trainee to perform. It is a logical approach and forms the basis of a great deal of

traditional training (Ezeani, 2009:342).

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2.1.3 The Concept of Manpower Utilization

Successful training and development programme offer potential and real benefits to

the organization and to the employees. Conceding this view, Ezeani (2002:3) in his definition

of personnel management observes that the aim is to ensure effective use of performance, or

potential performance, which can be reminded by appropriate training. Onah (2003:142) adds

that there are many ways of overcoming deficiencies in human performance at work, and

training is only one of them. It is important to recognize this fact, since sometimes training

staff are asked to meet needs which ought to be dealt with in some machinery or simplifying

procedures.

Furthermore, Onah was of the opnion that as lack of training is dysfunctional to

organizational performance, adequate care should be taken to recognize when training is

needed. Thus according to Nwachukwu (1988:121), indications that employees in any

organization require training are the following factors:

i.

Lack of interest in one s job

ii.

Negative attitude to work

iii.

Low productivity

iv.

Tardiness

v.

Excessive complaints

vi.

Excessive absenteeism rate

vii.

High rejects or low quality output

viii.

High incidence of accidents

ix.

Insubordination.

Whenever these conditions are experienced among staff, Nwachukwu contends that

the organization should

consider organizing training. As these

situations are frequent

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occurrences in organizations, the implication is that training has to be regular. Put precisely,

training is a continuous process. Dooley (1946:161) emphasizes this point when he asserts

that training is not something that is done once to a new employee, it is used continuously in

every well-run establishment. Every time you get someone to do work the way you wants it

done, you are training, every time you give instructions or discuss a procedure, you are

training.

There are varieties of training types or methods by different authors from which

managers can choose. The first important thing to do is to establish the need for training and

carefully identify who needs training and the kind of training needed. The next thing to do is

to select the best technique that will easily lead to the training objectives. As Pigor and Myers

(1984:283) rightly observe,

The type of employee training best suited to a specific organization depend upon a number of factors such as skills called for in jobs to be filled, qualification of candidates applying for job and the kinds of operating problems confronted by the organization.

Cole (2002:355) was more comprehensive in treatment of training methods. He defines

training methods as the means by which we intend to communicate information, ideas,

skills, attitude and feelings to learners . Of the personnel to achieve maximum productivity

for the organization and at the same time enable the employee to gain optimum psychological

and material benefits from his or her work.

In examining the concept of manpower utilization, Udo Aka (1992) admits that it has

to do with a sequence in the relationships between development and utilization of human

resources which emphasizes their relevance to the manpower requirements and their actual

deployment in their appropriate mix to meet national needs . Egungwu (1992) added that it is

a gradual and systematized continuous job assignment during the working life in order to

guarantee increased performance abilities. He made the following clarifications:

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Systematized human resources utilization schemes require the placement of only employees in the right job at the right time and place irrespective of their origin, and adequately motivating them, through appropriate management techniques to be productive. It ensures that every employee s talent is used to the fullest benefit of the enterprise and of the employees. By taking this step, there is the avoidance of talented employees display of disenchanted and disruptive work attitude which never augur well with any enterprise.

In an explanation, Egbo and Okeke (2009:330) state that the target for employee utilization

involves optimal use of skills, will-power and knowledge or human capital of the employee

without recourse to parochial considerations of race, origin, sex; age and other psychographic

and demographic yardstick in pursuit of organizational objectives through efficient use of

other factors services, including land and capital. Hence for us, human resources utilization

involves effective use of personnel in pursuit of efficiently designed goals through objective

roles assignment based on appraisal outcomes, skills and knowledge garnered from training

and development programmes as well as experiences or employees competences.

Ezeani (2002) sees this as involving maximum use of competent staff, and their deployment

at strategic places and the creation of enabling environment for the practice of acquired skills.

Ajileye

(1992:125)

rightly observes,

where trainees are not deployed to perform

for which they are trained, it results in a huge financial loss to the organization . Apart from

this, the employee looses confidence in himself, his organization and the undertaken.

In corroboration with this view, Smith and Gintzberg (1967) observe that the

commonly observed error in both developed and developing nations is the tendency to often

shift attention exclusively to matters like manpower supply with very little considering given

to its development and utilization. They maintain that there is a close relationship between

manpower development and its corresponding utilization since a trained person who is not

used or who is poorly utilized is not really an asset . In fact the extent to which the full

rewards of training are realized depends on a planned and systematic approach which

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integrates a clear-cut plan for utilizing trained personnel. According to Harbison (1973)

manpower utilization is a factor to the attainment of corporate objectives. He argues that

appropriate and maximum utilization of human resources in production activities are the

essential factors that can increase economic development.

Egbo and Okeke (2009:332) summarized the issue of manpower utilization by their

comment;

In a nutshell, the entire idea of human resources utilization is concerned with how best to put to use the human capital of the employees of the organization for the attainment of its objectives without undermining the potentialities of the workers to attain optimum psychological and material benefits from his work. It refers broadly to the effective deployment of existing skill, qualification, competences and in fact human capital for the maximum achievement of individual goals and organizational or national goals and objectives. It is pertinent to note that there are several conditions required for the actual use or application of skills.

Boxall and Purcell (2003) share similar view. The less individual performance, they

admit, is a function of three factors viz: ability, motivation and opportunity (AMO) and point

out that perform well when:

a. They are able to do (that is, when they can do the job they have the necessary abilities

and skills.

b. They have the motivation to do so (that is, they will do this because they want to and

are adequately incentivized; and

c. Their work environment provides the necessary support avenue for expression.

Rationale for Effective Manpower Utilization

One important aspect of productivity is manpower training and pattern of deployment

of trained or developed personnel (Egbo and Okeke, 2009:329). Mullins (1999) posits that

training is one of the most important potential performance motivators, and it can lead to

many possible benefits for both the individual and the organization. To him it can

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Increase the confidence, motivation and commitment of staff;

Provide recognition, enhance responsibility, and the possibility of increased pay and

promotion;

Given a filling of personnel satisfaction and achievement and broader opportunity for

career progression; and

Help to improve the availability and quality of staff.

As Armstrong (1991) rightly argues, that training increases the level of individual and

organizational competence; and helps to reconcile the gap between what should happen and

what is happening, that is between desired targets or standards and actual level of work

performance.

Egbo and Okeke (2009:330) made their claims clear when they stated that the

potential benefits of training are obvious; we make quick to observe that it does not

necessarily follow that training per-ser will lead to improved performance. There has to be an

appropriate training culture, and training has to be relevant to the needs, and programme

makes meaning and impact on organizational performance only to the extent to trained

personnel are use in discharging tasks and responsibilities that have a close link with the

training content together with the skills and knowledge called for in a given work or task. It

was Ojo (1983) who admits that the failure to adequately link manpower development on the

one hand and that of utilization on the other can always lead to frustration, unemployment

and mismanagement. Udo-Aka (1992) then posits that human resources development and

utilization are mean variables of productivity, which generally depends on the relevance of

the human assets to need and optimization of their use.

Instruments of Human Resources Utilization

Ensuring effective use of the personnel in any organization is the function of the

managers, especially those in the personnel unit and department of the organization. They

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hire, train, use and fire (Egbo and Okeke, 2009:336). As it concerns the utilization of

personnel, several mechanisms are open to organization and end goal is principally to ensure

that workers are always at the right place and time carrying out tasks which allow them to

apply their knowledge and skills learned.

Kiggundu (1989:157) rightly asserts that human resources utilization is the extent to

which available human resources are deployed effectively for the maximum achievement of

individual, collective organizational or national goals and objectives. Effective human

resources he noted may involve three options; human resources allocation, maintenance and

further development. The instruments of human resources utilization according to Egbo and

Okeke are

Transfer and Job rotation

Advancement

Promotion

Conversion

Delegation

Secondment

Special assignment and project

Sitting up for superiors

Assistant-to method

Membership of committee and Junior Board

Transfer and Job Rotation:

Egbo and Okeke (2009:337) posit that transfer and job rotation involve the movement of staff

from one scheduled service or duty to another within the same service. Here an employee is

transferred from one place of work to another in the same grade and on the same position.

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White (1930) opines that this instrument serve to bring out the best in the employee by

offering him new challenges and deeming his skill and knowledge of different tasks within

the organization.

Tyagi (2004:491) rightly admits that in order to draw the maximum advantage out of

the employee and also in order to provide fit person for a job, his transfer to an appropriate

job is made . It is referred to as job rotation because the worker is require to learn several

different jobs in a work unit or department and perform each job for a specified time period.

Advancement:

Egbo and Okeke (2009:343) posit that unlike transfers, advancement process does not

involve inter-sectional or departmental mobility, or role reassignment, instead it involves an

increment in individual pay. It is a device which vitally affects the efficiency of work and has

been defined by White (1930) as a personnel administrative device which pertains to an

advance in pay by a prescribed increment within the scale of pay appropriate to a given

position . It is known also as administrative promotion and primarily involves increase in

compensation. Though advancement to them is distinguished from promotion proper in the

sense that it entails no advancement in the status or responsibility of the employee concerned,

but only an advanced in his emolument.

Egbo and Okeke (2009:343) stated three forms of advancements which according to

them depend on two distinct factors namely: employees length of service in the positions and

efficiency of the employees. The forms therefore are

The automatic advancement system

The conditional advancement system and

The semi-automatic advancement system.

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Promotion:

Egbo and Okeke (2009:346) assert that promotion is the advancement matched with status

elevation of pay like and increased responsibilities. It involves the movement of an employee

from a position to another with entirely different schedule of duties and responsibilities

usually accompanied with increment in emolument. White (1930) in his words defines

promotion as an appointment from a given position to a position of higher grades involving

a change of duties to a more difficult type of work as greater responsibility, accompanied by

change of title and usual increase in pay .

The scholars were of the view that unlike transfer and advancement, promotion

involves increases in duties and responsibility as well as upward review of pay. Thus William

G Torpey defines it as the movement of employee from one position to another position

having a higher and or a higher minimum salary .

According

to

Laximikanth

promotion system include;

(2006:321),

the

basic

elements

or

components

of

Change of position, that is, from lower position to higher position;

Change of duties, that is, from less difficult type of work to more difficult type of

work.

Change of responsibility, that is, from lesser responsibility to greater responsibility.

Change of title, that is, from lower designation to a higher designation; and

Change of pay, that is, from lower salary scale to higher salary scale.

The difference between transfers, advancement and promotion was clearly stated by

Tyagi (2004:493), as thus;

Although transfer and advancement also bring about a change in the conditions of service of the employee, yet promotion differs from both of them fundamentally. Transfer simply entails a change of service from one agency to another without any change in rank or emolument. Similarly, advancement affects only an increase in pay; but promotion entails a basic

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change in position and status of the employee. The promotee goes from a lower position to higher one, which means more responsibility, higher rank and incidentally, though not fundamentally higher salary.

Conversion:

Egbo and Okeke (2009:355) rightly put that conversion is the process of integrating an

employee back into the service on completion of a programme of development, or training or

at the expiration of the duration of a secondment by placing him/her in right position and job

where the skills and knowledge gained will be optimally put to use for the good of the service

and organization. As provided for in section 23 of part iv of the guidelines for appointments,

promotion and discipline, all conversions from one cadre to another shall be based on the

acquisition of the qualifications prescribed in the possession of cognate experience. The

notional date of conversion, it adds, shall be the date the officer acquired the qualification or

when

vacancies

occurred,

whichever

is

the

later,

while

the

actual

effective

date(for

remuneration) shall be January 1, following the date of conversion.

Delegation:

This

involves

given

authority

and

additional

responsibility

to

subordinates

by

their

supervisor. Making the subordinate do and take decisions themselves, which is possible

through delegation according to Davar (1988:129) can alone develop in them the decision

making and leadership skills so essential in good management.

Secondment:

This according to Egbo and Okeke is a temporary release of an officer to the servants of

another government agency or international organizations of which Nigeria is a member for a

specified period. The provisions governing this system are contained in chapter 2, section 6

of the civil service policy and shall be strictly complied with. The provision states that

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Secondment at an officer s request shall be for a two years duration, after which the

officer must apply for extension, seek for transfer or return to his original post. All

requests for secondment

and

extension shall

be considered by the appropriate

committee and recommendations there on submitted to the Federal civil service

commission.

Secondment on grounds of public policy and its duration shall be at the discretion of

the federal civil service commission.

2.2 Hypotheses

A research hypothesis is a tentative statement about relationships that exist between

two or among many variables. It is conjectural statement about relationships and need to be

tested and subsequently accepted or rejected (Asika, 2009).

The study intends to examine the following null hypotheses;

1. The staff development programmes in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka are not

consistently pursued.

2. A good number of staff of the University of Nigeria, Nsukka is not well utilized.

3. Manpower development and utilization have no positive impact on the productivity

and performance of the staff in the University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

2.3 Operationalization of the Key Concepts

Some of the key concepts need to be clarified with regards to their usage in the study.

This would enhance the easy and proper understanding of the literature. Therefore, the

concepts are as follows:

ß Organization: in this study, organization is being referred to as a social unit with a

defined hierarchical pattern of authority, chain of commands and interpersonal

relations designed with the common interest to achieve goals.

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ß

Manpower:

this

is

the

available

labour

force

which

the

organization

can

tap

effectively in order to actualize its goals. It is also referred to as human resources as

was used in this work.

 

ß

Development: it is the dramatic change or improvement in attitude and behavior of

individual or organization. It is a multi dimensional phenomenon.

 

ß

Manpower development: the physical and psychological improvement in behavior of

the available human resources in an organization.

 

ß

Planning: this is the process of thinking through and making explicit, the strategy,

actions and relationship necessary to accomplish overall objectives for present and

future.

ß

Manpower planning: it is the process of assessing an organization s human resources

ability and strength in the light of its anticipated present and future needs.

 

ß

Utilization: the derivation of maximum satisfaction and efficient use of something.

ß

Manpower utilization: the

maximum

use

of competent

human resources,

their

deployment at strategic places and creation of enabling environment for practice of

acquired skills.

 

ß

Training: the act of acquiring knowledge and skills as well as how to utilize them.

 

2.4

Methods of Data Collection and Analysis

 

2.4.1

Method of Study

 

The study method adopted by the researcher for the study is survey research. The

researcher focused on a population from which he drew the sample for data collection,

intensive study and analysis. In selecting a sample, the researcher used a sampling technique

which will be discussed later.

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2.4.2 Research Design

The researcher adopted a cross-sectional survey design, precisely a descriptive design

for the study.

The questionnaires were carefully administered to respondents, which

represent the population of the study. It is geared towards collection of data for hypotheses

testing.

2.4.3

Methods of Data Collection

The researcher made use two methods of data collection in the study namely; the

primary and secondary methods of data collection. Both sources data collection were

extensively explored for the purpose of drawing an empirical conclusion for proper analysis

of the study so as to come up with objective findings.

v Primary Data

These are data collected from the administered questionnaire the staff of the University of

Nigeria, Nsukka. This of course provided the researcher with the first hand information

needed for the study.

v Secondary Data

Secondary data are the data collected from textbooks, internet, articles, journals, unpublished

papers as well as relevant official administrative documents of the University of Nigeria,

Nsukka.

2.4.4 Population of Study

For the sake of standards and acceptability of a research work, there is need for

population of the study. According to Obi (2005:72), population is a total set of items a

researcher wants to analyze. This may be a group of people or inanimate objects like house,

records, items etc.

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The population of the study is the entire staff of the University both the Academic and

Non-academic staff which is about 6488 (see appendix 2). A sample was drawn from the

population in order to ensure manageability and accurate empirical study.

2.4.5

Sample and Sampling Techniques

v

Sample of the Study

The sample for the study consists of Two hundred (200) subjects representing 3% of the Staff

in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. This is line with Nwanna s (1990) rule of thumb which

states that when the population is a few hundreds, the sample size should be 40-50%. If they

are many hundred, 20% of the population should be the sample size; when a few thousands,

10% of them will do; and if several thousands, 2-5% of the population will be considered

representative. Though the 3% is 194.6 but the researcher decided to make it a round figure

of 200 to ensure that both Academic and Non-academic staff gets equal questionnaire.

Therefore two hundred (200) questionnaires were administered in the course of the study.

v Sampling Technique

The researcher adopted a proportionate simple random sampling technique for the study in

which one hundred (100) respondents each were selected from the academic and non-

academic staff of the University respectively. This is to pave way for easy administration,

collation of questionnaires and calculation of sampling errors as well as to make good

inference of the characteristics of the target population.

2.4.6 Data Gathering Instrument

The instruments used by the researcher for data gathering include documentary and

questionnaire instruments.

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Documentary Instrument

This research involves the collection of already existing literatures on the topic

written by different scholars in form of textbooks and serials on manpower development and

utilization in University of Nigeria Nsukka. These documents were collected, organized and

subjected to rapt analysis. This was to help the researcher on his comparative study of the

data from the reviewed literature and responses from respondents.

Questionnaire Instrument

The questionnaire was constructed in such a way that it sought to answer research questions,

and test hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 respectively.

In the questionnaire design, rapt attention was paid to the research questions,

objectives, significance of the study, and the hypothetical statements of the study.

2.4.7

Validation of the Instrument

 

The questionnaire instrument was given to the project supervisor for both face and

content

validation,

who

made

some

reasonable

and

minor

corrections

as

well

as

modifications. After his scrutiny and some useful suggestions, changes were effected on the

final copies used for fieldwork.

2.4.8 Reliability of the Instrument

Twenty copies of the

questionnaire were administered on twenty staff of the

University of Nigeria, Nsukka, who were not included in the study but have the same

characteristics with the study population. This was done to establish the degree of internal

consistency.

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2.4.9 Methods of Data Analysis

A five (5) point Likert Scale system of

Strongly Agree (SA)

=

5,

Agree (A)

=

4, Disagree (D)

=

Strongly Disagree (SD) =

2, and Undecided (U)

= 1

Excellent (EX) = 5,

Very Good (VG) = 4, Good (G) = 3

and also

3

Fair (F) = 2 and Bad (B) = 1 were used.

The criterion value was determined by summing up the scale and dividing the number of

the Scale thus: 1+2+3+4+5

=

15

= 3

5

5

For easy interpretation and analysis of data collected from the field, the researcher made use

of statistical tables through the adoption of simple percentage via frequency distribution

table. The researcher also made use of Chi-Square ( 2 ) in the testing of the formulated

hypotheses at ( ) 5% or 0.05 level of significance. The results were presented in tables with a

brief interpretation of its content.

2.5 Theoretical Framework

The essence of theories in the behavioural science is to guide and facilitate research,

and this can only be done if such theories are both logically and operationally adequate.

Therefore, the primary function of a theory is to explain empirical data or a phenomenon. It

was on the above premise that the researcher adopted system theory which guided the

study. This theory adequately applied on.

Egbo and Okeke (2009:111) submit that the theory is closely linked with the

pioneering works of Talcott Persons and

David

Easton who

developed

a

systematic