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Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited

RANIPUR, HARIDWAR
UTTARAKHAND
PROJECT REPORT ON
HEAVY FABRICATION
SHOP
UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF
MR. P.PANDIT

SUBMITTED BY:Sachin Sharma


DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG.
JAWAHAR LAL NEHRU GOVT. ENGINEERING COLLEGE
SUNDENAGAR (H.P)

Contents

1.

Prologue

A. BHEL
B. HEEP

An Overview
An Overview

2.

Study on Turbines & Auxiliary Block

3.

Study on Material Specification

4.

Broad Specification of Major Machines Tools & Machines


(CNC & Non CNC)

5.

Other Areas

MANUFACTURING DIVISIONS

Heavy Electricals Plant, Piplani, Bhopal

Electricals Machines Repair Plant (EMRP), Mumbai

Transformer Plant P.O. BHEL, Jhansi.

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited :


Heavy Electricals Equipment Plant,
Central Foundary Forge Plant., Ranipur, Hardwar

Heavy Equipment Repair Plant, Varanasi.

Insulator Plant, Jagdishpur, Distt. Sultanpur.

Heavy Power Equipment Plant, Ramachandra Puram, Hyderabad

High Pressure Boiler Plant & Seamless Steel Tube Plant,


Tiruchirappalli.

Boiler Auxiliaries Plant, Indira Gandhi Industrial Complex, Ranipet.

Industrial Valves Plant, Goindwal.

Electronics Division :
Electronics Systems Division.
Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Plant (ASSCP).
Electroporcelains Division.
Industrial Systems Group.
.

Component Fabrication Plant, Rudrapur.

Piping Centre, Chennai.

Regional Operations Division, New Delhi

A. BHEL AN OVERVIEW
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the
energy related infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40
years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous
Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India a dream which has been more than
realized with a well recognized track record of performance it has been earning
profits continuously since 1971-72.
BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's &
Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy,
Defense, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing division, four power
Sector regional centre, over 150 project sites, eight service centre and 18 regional
offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and provide them
with suitable products, systems and services efficiently and at competitive prices.
BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality management, and
ISO 14001 certification for environment management.

POWER GENERATION
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro and nuclear
power plant business as of 31.03.2001, BHEL supplied sets account for nearly
64737 MW or 65% of the total installed capacity of 99,146 MW in the country, as
against nil till 1969-70.
BHEL has proven turnkey capabilities for executing power projects
from concept to commissioning, it possesses the technology and capability to
produce thermal sets with super critical parameters up to 1000 MW unit rating and
gas turbine generator sets of up to 240 MW unit rating. Co-generation and
combined-cycle plants have been introduced to achieve higher plant efficiencies. to

make efficient use of the high-ash-content coal available in India, BHEL supplies
circulating fluidized bed combustion boilers to both thermal and combined cycle
power plants.
The company manufactures 235 MW nuclear turbine generator sets and has
commenced production of 500 MW nuclear turbine generator sets.
Custom made hydro sets of Francis Pelton and Kaplan types for different head
discharge combination are also engineering and manufactured by BHEL.
In all, orders for more than 700 utility sets of thermal, hydro, gas and nuclear have
been placed on the Company as on date. The power plant equipment manufactured
by BHEL is based on contemporary technology comparable to the best in the world
and is also internationally competitive.
The Company has proven expertise in Plant Performance Improvement through
renovation modernization and uprating of a variety of power plant equipment
besides specialized know how of residual life assessment, health diagnostics and
life extension of plants.

POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION (T & D)


BHEL offer wide ranging products and systems for T & D applications. Products
manufactured include power transformers, instrument transformers, dry type
transformers, series and stunt reactor, capacitor tanks, vacuum and SF circuit
breakers gas insulated switch gears and insulators.
A strong engineering base enables the Company to undertake turnkey delivery of
electric substances up to 400 kV level series compensation systems (for increasing
power transfer capacity of transmission lines and improving system stability and
voltage regulation), shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage
improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power). BHEL

has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor (for


reactive power management on long transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV Facts
(Flexible AC Transmission System) project under execution.

INDUSTRIES
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries. Cement,
sugar, fertilizer, refineries, petrochemcials, paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and
other process industries lines and improving system stability and voltage
regulation, shunt compensation systems (for power factor and voltage
improvement) and HVDC systems (for economic transfer of bulk power) BHEL
has indigenously developed the state-of-the-art controlled shunt reactor (for
reactive power management on long transmission lines). Presently a 400 kV
FACTS (Felxible AC Transmission System) projects is under execution.

INDUSTRIES
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries, cement,
sugar, fertilizer, refinances, petrochemicals, paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and
other process industries. The range of system & equipment supplied includes:
captive power plants, co-generation plants DG power plants, industrial steam
turbines, industrial boilers and auxiliaries. Wate heat recovery boilers, gas turbines,
heat exchangers and pressure vessels, centrifugal compressors, electrical machines,
pumps, valves, seamless steel tubes, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters,
reactors, fluidized bed combustion boilers, chemical recovery boilers and process
controls.
The Company is a major producer of large-size thruster devices. It also supplies
digital distributed control systems for process industries, and control &
instrumentation systems for power plant and industrial applications. BHEL is the
only company in India with the capability to make simulators for power plants,

defense and other applications.


The Company has commenced manufacture of large desalination plants to help
augment the supply of drinking water to people.

TRANSPORTATION
BHEL is involved in the development design, engineering, marketing, production,
installation, maintenance and after-sales service of Rolling Stock and traction
propulsion systems. In the area of rolling stock, BHEL manufactures electric
locomotives up to 5000 HP, diesel-electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP,
both for mainline and shunting duly applications. BHEL is also producing rolling
stock for special applications viz., overhead equipment cars, Special well wagons,
Rail-cum-road vehicle etc., Besides traction propulsion systems for in-house use,
BHEL manufactures traction propulsion systems for other rolling stock producers
of electric locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, electrical multiple units and
metro cars. The electric and diesel traction equipment on India Railways are
largely powered by electrical propulsion systems produced by BHEL. The
company also undertakes retooling and overhauling of rolling stock in the area of
urban transportation systems. BHEL is geared up to turnkey execution of electric
trolley bus systems, light rail systems etc. BHEL is also diversifying in the area of
port handing equipment and pipelines transportation system.

TELECOMMUNICATION
BHEL also caters to Telecommunication sector by way of small, medium and large
switching systems.

RENEWABLE ENERGY
Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting non-conventional and
renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators, solar photovoltaic
systems, solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles. The Company has taken
up R&D efforts for development of multi-junction amorphous silicon solar cells
and fuel based systems.

INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS
BHEL has, over the years, established its references in around 60 countries of the
world, ranging for the United States in the West to New Zealand in the Far East.
These references encompass almost the entire product range of BHEL, covering
turnkey power projects of thermal, hydro and gas-based types, substation projects,
rehabilitation projects, besides a wide variety of products, like transformers,
insulators, switchgears, heat exchangers, castings and forgings, valves, well-head
equipment, centrifugal compressors, photo-voltaic equipment etc. Apart from over
1110MW of

boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia, and execution of four

prestigious power projects in Oman, Some of the other major successes achieved
by the Company have been in Australia, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Greece, Cyprus,
Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Sri Lanka, Iraq etc.
The Company has been successful in meeting demanding customer's requirements
in terms of complexity of the works as well as technological, quality and other
requirements viz extended warrantees, associated O&M, financing packages etc.
BHEL has proved its capability to undertake projects on fast-track basis. The
company has been successful in meeting varying needs of the industry, be it
captive power plants, utility power generation or for the oil sector requirements.
Executing of Overseas projects has also provided BHEL the experience of working
with world renowned Consulting Organisations and inspection Agencies.

In addition to demonstrated capability to undertake turnkey projects on its own,


BHEL possesses the requisite flexibility to interface and complement with
International companies for large projects by supplying complementary equipment
and meeting their production needs for intermediate as well as finished products.
The success in the area of rehabilitation and life extension of power projects has
established BHEL as a comparable alternative to the original equipment
manufactures (OEMs) for such plants.
TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION AND RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
To remain competitive and meet customers' expectations, BHEL lays great
emphasis on the continuous upgradation of products and related technologies, and
development of new products. The Company has upgraded its products to
contemporary levels through continuous in house efforts as well as through
acquisition of new technologies from leading engineering organizations of the
world.
The Corporate R&D Division at Hyderabad, spread over a 140 acre complex, leads
BHEL's research efforts in a number of areas of importance to BHEL's product
range. Research and product development centers at each of the manufacturing
divisions play a complementary role.
BHEL's Investment in R&D is amongst the largest in the corporate sector in India.
Products developed in-house during the last five years contributed about 8.6% to
the revenues in 2000-2001.
BHEL has introduced, in the recent past, several state-of-the-art products
developed in-house: low-NQx oil / gas burners, circulating fluidized bed
combustion boilers, high-efficiency Pelton hydro turbines, petroleum depot
automation systems, 36 kV gas-insulated sub-stations, etc. The Company has also

transferred a few technologies developed in-house to other Indian companies for


commercialization.
Some of the on-going development & demonstration projects include: Smant wall
blowing system for cleaning boiler soot deposits, and micro-controller based
governor for diesel-electric locomotives. The company is also engaged in research
in futuristic areas, such as application of super conducting materials in power
generations and industry, and fuel cells for distributed, environment-friendly power
generation.

HUMAN RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE


The most prized asset of BHEL is its employees. The Human Resource
Development Institute and other HRD centers of the Company help in not only
keeping their skills updated and finely honed but also in adding new skills,
whenever required. Continuous training and retraining, positive, a positive work
culture and participative style of management, have engendered development of a
committed and motivated work force leading to enhanced productivity and higher
levels of quality.
HEALTH, SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENT MANAGEMENT
BHEL, as an integral part of business performance and in its endeavour of
becoming a world-class organization and sharing the growing global concern on
issues related to Environment. Occupational Health and Safety, is committed to
protecting Environment in and around its own establishment, and to providing safe
and healthy working environment to all its employees.
For fulfilling these obligations, Corporate Policies have been formulated as:

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY
Compliance with applicable Environmental Legislation/Regulation;
Continual Improvement in Environment Management Systems to protect
our natural environment and Control Pollution;
Promotion of activities for conservation of resources by Environmental
Management;
Enhancement of Environmental awareness amongst employees, customers
and suppliers. BHEL will also assist and co-operate with the concerned
Government Agencies and Regulatory Bodies engaged in environmental
activities, offering the Company's capabilities is this field.
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY
Compliance with applicable Legislation and Regulations;
Setting objectives and targets to eliminate/control/minimize risks due to
Occupational and Safety Hazards;
Appropriate structured training of employees on Occupational Health and
Safety (OH&S) aspects;
Formulation and maintenance of OH&S Management programmes for
continual improvement;
Periodic review of OH&S Management System to ensure its continuing
suitability, adequacy and effectiveness;
Communication of OH&S Policy to all employees and interested parties.
The major units of BHEL have already acquired ISO 14001 Environmental
Management System Certification, and other units are in advanced stages of

acquiring the same. Action plan has been prepared to acquire OHSAS 18001
Occupational Health and Safety Management System certification for all BHEL
units.
In pursuit of these Policy requirements, BHEL will continuously strive to improve
work particles

in the light of advances made in technology and new

understandings in Occupational Health, Safety and Environmental Science.


PARTICIPATION IN THE "GLOBAL COMPACT" OF THE UNITED
NATIONS
The "Global Compact" is a partnership between the United Nations, the business
community, international labour and NGOs. It provides a forum for them to work
together and improve corporate practices through co-operation rather than
confrontation.
BHEL has joined the "Global Compact" of United Nations and has committed to
support it and the set of core values enshrined in its nine principles:

PRINCIPLES OF THE "GLOBAL COMPACT"


HUMAN RIGHTS
1. Business should support and respect the protection of internationally
proclaimed human rights; and
2. Make sure they are not complicit in human rights abuses.

Labour Standards
3. Business should uphold the freedom of association and the effective
recognition of the right to collective bargaining;
4. The elimination of all form of forces and compulsory labour.

5. The effective abolition of child labour, and


6. Eliminate discrimination.
Environment
7. Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental
challenges;
8. Undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility and
9. Encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly
technologies.
By joining the "Global Compact", BHEL would get a unique opportunity of
networking with corporate and sharing experience relating to social responsibility
on global basis.

ACTIVITY PROFILE
PRODUCTS
Power Generation & Transmission
- Steam Turbine-Generator Sets &
Auxiliaries
- Boiler and Boiler Auxiliaries
- Once-through Boilers
- Nuclear Power Generation Equipment
- Hydro Turbine-Generator Sets & Auxiliaries
- Mini/Micro Hydro Generator Sets
- Gas Turbine-Generator Sets
- Waste Heat Recovery Boilers
- Heat Exchangers
- Condensers

- Industrial Fans
- Seamless steel Tubes
- Fabric Filters
- AC DC Motors, Variable speed
- AC Drive
- Electronic Control Gear &
Automation
- Equipment
- DDC for Process Industry
- Thruster Equipment
- Power Devices
- Energy Meters
- Transformer

Bowi Mills and Tube Mills


Gravimetric Feeders
Regenerative Air Pre-Heaters
Electrostatic Precipitators

- Bag Filters
- Valves
- Pumps
- Electrical Machines
- Piping Systems
-Power,Distribution&Instrument
Transformers
- Reactors
- Synchronous Condensers
- Switchgear
- Control gear
- Distributed Digital Control for Power
Stations
- Bus Ducts
- Rectifiers
- Porcelain Insulators
- Ceralin

Switch gear
Insulator
Capacitors
Broad Gauge AC, AC/DC Loco
motives
- Diesel-Electric Shunting
Locomotives
- Traction Motors & Control
Equipment
- Electric Trolley Buses
- AC/DC Electric Multiple Units
- Drives and Controls for Metro
Systems
- Battery-Operated Passengers
Vans
- X-Mas Trees and Well Heads
- Cathodic Protection Equipment
- Digital Switching Systems
- Rural Automatic Exchange
- Simulators
-

Wind Electric Generators


Solar Powered Water Pumps
Solar Water Heating Systems
Photo Votaic Systems
Defense Equipment
Reverse Osmoses Desalination
Plants

INDUSTRIES/TRANSPORTATION/OIL
& GAS/
TELECOMMUNICATION/RENEWABLE
ENERGY
- Steam Turbine-Generator Sets
- Gas Turbine-Generator Sets
- Diesel Engine-Based Generators
- Industrial Steam Generators
- Heat Recovery Steam Generators
- Fluidised Bed Combustion Boilers
-

Drive Turbine
Manne Turbines
Industrial Heat Exchangers
Centrifugal Compressor

- Industrial Valves
- Reactors
- Columns
- Pressure Vessels
- Pumps

SYSTEMS & SERVICES

- Turkey Utility Power Stations/


EPC
- Contracts
- Captive Power Plants
- Co-generation Systems
- Combined Cycle Power Plants
- Modernisation & Renovation of
Power
Stations and FLA Studies
- Switch yards and Substations
- HVDC Transmission Systems
- Shorts sines condensation
Systems
- Power system analysis
- Electron comissionly and
operation
- Consultancy services
- Consultancy Services

SUMMARY OF BHEL'S CONTRIBUTION


TO VARIOUS CORE SECTORS
Power Generation
THERMAL

RATING (MW)

500
250
210/200
120/125/130
195
110
100
70/67.5
60
30
TOTAL
(THERMAL)
GAS

FRAME SIZE/
SCOPE

9
6
5
3
V 94.2
6FA
STG
GEN
TOTAL (GAS)
NUCLEAR

RATING (MW)

500
220
TOTAL
(NUCLEAR)
TOTAL (THERMAL+GAS+NUCLEAR)

NO. OF
SET
S
30
9
138
20
1
38
6
6
14
5
267

NO.
OF
SET
S
5
17
13
6
2
3
24
4
74

NO. OF
SET
S

TOTAL
CAPACITY
(MW)
15000
2250
28570
2420
195
4180
600
410
840
150
54615

TOTAL
CAPACITY
(MW)
730
580
309
48
286
207
1190
87
3437
TOTAL
CAPACITY
(MW)

2
10
12

1000
2200
3200

353

61252

HYDRO

GRAND TOTAL

402
755

18735
79987

SUMMARY OF BHEL'S CONTRIBUTION TO VARIOUS


CORE SECTORS
POWER TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION
In the T&D sector, BHEL is both a leading equipmentmanufacturer and a system-integrator. BHELmanufactured T&D products have a proven track
record in India and abroad.
In the area of T&D systems, BHEL provides turnkey solutions to utilities.
Substations and shunt compensation installations set up by BHEL are in operation
all over the country. EHV level series compensation schemes have been installed in
KSEB, MSEB, SMPSEB and POWERGRID networks. Complete HVDC systems
can be delivered by BHEL. The technology for state-of-the-art Flexible AC
Transmission Systems (FACTS) is being developed.

INDUSTRIES
Since inception in 1982, the Industry Sector business has grown at an impressive
rate and, today, contributes significantly of BHEL's turnover.
BHEL, today, supplies all major equipment for the industries: AC/DC machines,
alternators, centrifugal compressors, special reactor column, heat exchangers,
pressure vessels, gas turbine based captive co-generation and combined-cycle
power plants, DG power plants, steam turbines and turbo-generators, complete
range of steam generators for process industries, diesel engine-based power plants,
solar water heating systems, photovoltaic systems, electrostatic precipitators, fabric
filters, etc.
The industries which BHEL serves include: Steel, Aluminium, Fertiliser, Refinery,

Petrochemicals, Chemicals, Automobiles, Cement, Sugar, Paper, Mining, Textile


etc.

TRANSPORTATION
In the transportation filed, product range covers: AC locomotives, AC/DC dualvoltage locomotives, diesel-electric shunting locomotives, traction motors and
transformers, traction elections and controls for AC, DC and dual voltage EMUs,
diesel-electric multiple units, diesel power car and diesel electric locomotives,
battery-powered vehicles.
A high percentage of the trains operated by Indian Railways are equipped with
traction equipment and controls manufactured and supplied by BHEL.

B.

HEEP: AN OVER VIEW

Over the years, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited has emerged as world class
Engineering and Industrial giant, the best of its kind in entire South East Asia. Its
business profile cuts across various sectors of Engineering/Power utilities and
Industry. The Company today enjoys national and international presence featuring
in the "Fortune International-500" and is ranked among the top 12 companies in
the world, manufacturing power generation equipment. BHEL has now 14
Manufacturing Divisions, 8 Service Centres and 4 Power Sectors Regional Centres
besides a large number of project sites spread over India and abroad.
The Company is embarking upon an ambitions growth path through clear vision,
mission and committed values to sustain and augment its image as a world class
enterprise.

VISION
World-class, innovative, competitive and profitable engineering enterprise
providing total business solutions.

MISSION
The leading Indian engineering enterprise providing quality products systems and
services in the fields of energy, transportation, infrastructure and other potential
areas.

VALUES
Meeting commitments made to external and internal customers.
Foster learning creativity and speed of response.

Respect for dignity and potential of individuals.


Loyality and pride in the company.
Team playing.
Zeal to excel.
Integrity and fairness in all matters.

HEAVY ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT PLANT (HEEP)


At Hardwar, against the picturesque background of Shivalik Hills, 2 important
manufacturing units of BHEL are located viz. Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant
(HEEP) & Central Foundry Forge Plant (CFFP). The hum of the construction
machinery woke up Shivalik Hills during early 60s and sowed the seeds of one of
the greatest symbol of Indo Soviet Collaboration Heavy Electrical Equipment
Plant of BHEL. Following is the brief profile of Heavy Electrical Equipment
Plant:1.

ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT STAGES:

Established in 1960s under the Indo-Soviet Agreements of 1959 and 1960 in


the area of Scientific, Technical and Industrial Cooperation.

DPR prepared in 1963-64, construction started from October '63.

Initial production of Electric started from January, 1967.

Major construction / erection / commissioning completed by 1971-72 as per


original DPR scope.

Stamping Unit added later during 1968 to 1972.

Annual Manufacturing capacity for Thermal sets was expanded from 1500
MW to 3500 MW under LSTG. Project during 1979-85 (Sets upto 500 MW,
extensible to 1000/1300 MW unit sizes with marginal addition in facilities

with the collaboration of M/s KWU-Siemens, Germany.


*

Motor manufacturing technology updated with Siemens collaboration during


1984-87.

Facilities

being

modernized

continually

through

Replacements

Reconditioning-Retrofitting, Technological / operational balancing.

2.

INVESTMENTS:

Gross Block as on 31.3.95 is Rs. 355.63 Crores (Plant and Machinery Rs.
285.32 Crores).

Net Block as on 31.3.95 is Rs. 113.81 Crores (Plant & Machinery Rs.
76.21 Crores).

3.

CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHICAL:

Hardwar is in extreme weather zone of the Western Uttar Pradesh of India


and temperature varies from 2oC in Winter (December to January) to 45 oC in
Summer (April-June); Relative humidity 20% during dry season to 95-96%
during rainy season.

Longitude 78o3' East, Latitude 29 o55'5" North.

Height above Mean Sea Level = 275 metres.

Situated within 60 to 100 KMs of Foot-hills of the Central Himalayan


Ranges; Ganges flows down within 7 KMs from the Factory area.

HEEP is located around 7 KMs on the Western side of Hardwar city.

4.

COMMUNICATION & TRANSPORTATION:

Telegraphic Code "BHARAT TELEC, HARDWAR"

TLX Lines: 05909-206 / 207

Telephones : P&T / STD (0133) 427350-59, 423050-423954


FAX : (0091) (133) 426462 / 425069 / 426082 / 426254

Direct Board gauge train lines to Calcutta (Howrah), Delhi, Bombay,


Lucknow, Dehradun and other major cities; Railway Siding for goods traffic
connected to Hardwar Railway Station.

5.

POWER & WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM:


-

40 MVA sanctioned Electric Power connection from UP Grid (132 KV /


11KV / 6.6 KV) (Connected load around 185 MVA)

26 deep submersible Tube Wells with O.H. Tanks for water supply.

A 12 MW captive thermal power station is located in the factory


premises.

6.

FIRE PROTECTION:
-

Managed by CISF with around 40 personnel and a host of latest fire


fighting equipment and fire tenders.

7.

MANPOWER:
Total strength is 9904 as on 31.3.96 which includes around 3000 qualified
Engineers and Technicians (including substantial number of Post graduates),
5200 skilled artisans and the rest in other categories.

8.

TOWNSHIP AND PERIPHERAL INFRASTRUCTURES:

A large modern township for employees and allied personnel with social and
welfare amenities.

Medical:

Main Hospital (200 beds)

Dispensaries in various

townships sectors
*

Educational:

Occupational health center


No. of Schools (including

1
19

Intermediate levels)
Science Degree College
*

Residential: Around 6780 quarters.

Other amenities:

Good Road network

Shopping Centres

Central Stadium

Community Centres

A Club

Police Stations

CISF Complex for over 500 CISF personnel.

Convention Hall (a Most modern Air Conditioned Auditorium with 1500


seating capacity).

Parks.

9.

HEEP PRODUCT PROFILE:

THERMAL AND NUCLEAR SETS

(Turbines, Generators, Condensers and Auxiliaries of unit capacity upto


1000 MW)

HYDRO SETS INCLUDING SPHERICAL AND DISC VALVES


(Kaplan, Francis, Pelton and reversible Turbines of all sizes and matching
generators and auxiliaries maximum runner dia 6600 mm)

ELECTRICAL MACHINES:
(For various industrial applications, pump drives & power station
auxiliaries, Unit capacity upto 20000 KW AC / DC)

CONTROL PANELS
(For Thermal / Hydro sets and Industrial Drives)

LARGE SIZE GAS TURBINES


(Unit Rating : 60-200 MW)

LIGHT AIRCRAFT

DEFENSE PRODUCTS

10.

HEEP: FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE

Modernisation and regular upgradation / up gradation of facilities and other


infrastructure is a continuous endeavour at HEEP, BHEL. After initial setting up of
the plant during the year 1964-72, in collaboration with the Soviet Union, the plant
facilities and infrastructures have since been continuously upgraded under various
investment projects viz, Stamping Unit Project, LSTG Project, Motor Project,
Governing Components Project, TG Facilities Modernisation, TG Facilities
Augmentation, Quality Facilities Augmentation, EDP projects, Gas Turbine
Project, Facilities have also been added and establishments have been created for
new projects in Defense and Aviation Project. Additionally, R &D facilities have
also been created under Generators Research Institute, Pollution Control Research
Institute, HTL modernization and other such schemes.

Today the Plant has unique manufacturing and testing facilities,


computerized numerically controlled machine-tools, Blade shop, heavy duty lathes,
milling machines, boring machines, machining centers and many more. The Over
Speed Vacuum Balancing Tunnel created for rotors upto 1300 MW (32T, 6.9 M
dia bladed rotor, 6 rpm upto 4500 rpm) is one of the 8 of its kind in the entire
world.

The total spectrum of sophisticated, unique and other facilities at HEEP,


Hardwar are the state-of-the-art in manufacturing processes and can be utilized for
a variety of products' manufacture.

TURBINE BLOCK
Steam turbine
Power plant market requirements have changed in recent years. The
tendency for highly flexible
and efficient power plants with long revision intervals, life times 200

000h as well as low


investment costs have resulted in an increased effort in the improvement
of design and materials.
One possible way to meet high efficiency requirements is to install subcritical steam power
plants with live steam temperatures of T 565C

and an optimized steam


cycle path. As a result,
new challenges have arisen for the design of a two cylinder steam turbine
line for a capacity up to
700 MW. In addition, the realization of critical turbine components need
improved design and
materials, which offer all possibilities for a cost effective and flexible
service. At the same time,
the combined cycle power plant market demands constantly high
performance, reliability and
operating flexibility at moderate prices for competitive life cycle costs. For
this power range, two
cylinder designs are also typically applied for the steam turbine.
This paper outlines the different aspects of a modular design concept. The
authors company has
been following this concept in recent years with an aim to accurately
fulfilling market
requirements. It has already been applied to various aspects of the two
double-casing
configurations for both single and double-flow low pressure turbines. This
paper provides
examples on how the concept has been realized within various design
aspects and features, all
with an underlying target to produce steam turbines that meet all named
market requirements at
competitive prices.

INTRODUCTION
The worlds power generation markets have been deregulated to a large extent over the past
few years, and this process is still ongoing. In order to remain competitive, power plants need
to have Features that match with the requirements of the changing market. With the focus on
cost efficient production of electricity, the most important requirements of today are low
overall lifecycle costs, high reliability, availability and operating flexibility. Additionally,
specific customer And local site requirements need to be met by the suppliers of power plants
and components.
At the same time, the market demands continuously decreasing turbine delivery times and
prices. Thus, one of the primary requirements of all steam turbine manufacturers is to
standardize their products in order to meet the cost and delivery time targets while at the
same time providing a high level of flexibility to their customers. This also helps to obtain
optimum performance levels and product quality.
For steam turbines, the main design parameters are the power output, the steam conditions,
the ambient temperature and the power plant configuration. In combined cycle power plants
(CCPP) these are strongly related to the number and type of the installed gas turbines. In
single-shaft units a gas turbine and a steam turbine commonly drive a single generator. For
start-up and shutdown operations, this configuration requires a switch gear to separate the
steam turbine from the shaft train. Multi-shaft configurations use independent gas turbinegenerator and steam turbinegenerator sets. Commonly, one or two gas turbines power a heat
recovery steam generator (HRSG), which drives the steam turbine-generator set.
Within a given CCPP configuration, the steam conditions depend on the power output and
temperature level of the applied gas turbine. Hence, as a result of the ongoing gas turbine
development, steam temperatures and mass flows are increasing continuously. Typically, the
current generation of CCPPs (e.g. [8]) are designed for main steam conditions of 157 bar and
565C, and reheat temperatures of 565C. However, due to the numerous gas turbines in the
market, steam turbines need to be able to cover a wide power range for CCPP. This range
may also be considerably increased if duct-firing is applied.
For sub-critical steam power plants (SPP) the market requires main steam temperatures up to
600C at main steam pressures of 177 bar. Additionally, steam turbines for SPP need to
feature steam extractions as well as an overload injection to support an optimum steam cycle
design. In recent years the steam turbine division of the Siemens Power Generation Group
has focused on the development of two-cylinder designs to cover the complete range of
applications in CCPP and SPP up to a steam turbine power output of 700MW. The HE series,
with a single flow LP, is applied for lower power range and high back pressures, whereas the
KN series covers the upper power range and applications with large LP flows. For both
product lines, particular effort has been made to fulfill the market requirements with respect
to performance, availability, start-up
times and delivery times. Due to challenging price levels in the market, this could only be

achieved with a modular design concept. The concept allows for high flexibility in the design
phase, in order to deliver customer specific designs using standardized modules as a basis.
This paper will provide an overview of the two product lines, and give details on the
application
of the modular concept within different aspects of steam turbine design.

TWO CYLINDER DESIGNS UP TO 700MW


For the power range from 100MW to 700 MW, Siemens provides two optimized two-cylinder
steam turbine designs with single and double flow low pressure sections. For
applications with lower power output or high back pressures, the HE product line with single
flow LP is used. The flat floor mounted HE steam turbine set consists of a high pressure
turbine module (H) and a single flow combined intermediate/low pressure module (E) with
axial exhaust.
The H-turbine is a single-flow, full-arc admission machine. The steam enters through one
combined control and stop valve. The H-turbine casing uses the proven barrel-type design,
which does not have horizontal flanges at the outer casing to ensure a homogenous
distribution of the forces regarding main steam pressure and thermal load. Additionally, the
design improves the

TWO CYLINDER DESIGNS UP TO 700MW


For the power range from 100MW to 700 MW, Siemens provides two optimized two-cylinder
steam turbine designs with single and double flow low pressure sections. (Fig. 1). For
applications with lower power output or high back pressures, the HE product line with single
flow LP is used. The flat floor mounted HE steam turbine set consists of a high pressure
turbinemodule (H) and a single flow combined intermediate/low pressure module (E) with
axial exhaust. The H-turbine is a single-flow, full-arc admission machine. The steam enters
through one combined control and stop valve. The H-turbine casing uses the proven barrel-

type design, which does not have horizontal flanges at the outer casing to ensure a
homogenous distribution of the forces regarding main steam pressure and thermal load.
Additionally, the design improves the

TWO CYLINDER DESIGNS UP TO 700MW


For the power range from 100MW to 700 MW, Siemens provides two optimized two-cylinder
steam turbine designs with single and double flow low pressure sections. (Fig. 1). For
applications with lower power output or high back pressures, the HE product line with single
flow LP is used. The flat floor mounted HE steam turbine set consists of a high pressure
turbine
module (H) and a single flow combined intermediate/low pressure module (E) with axial
exhaust.
The H-turbine is a single-flow, full-arc admission machine. The steam enters through one
combined control and stop valve. The H-turbine casing uses the proven barrel-type design,
which
does not have horizontal flanges at the outer casing to ensure a homogenous distribution of
the
forces regarding main steam pressure and thermal load. Additionally, the design improves the

Turbine Modules
For the K-Turbine, the full
application range from 100-700 MW
(for 60Hz) is covered with four
module sizes (Fig. 2). All modules
are based on the same design
philosophy in order to apply similar
proven design features to all turbines.
The latest design incorporates the K turbine
experience of the past 30
years from both Siemens and
Westinghouse.
The scaling factor between the different turbine modules have beenregard to turbine
efficiency. As a result, the K-turbine family covers the complete application
range with a constantly high performance.
Additionally, the modular design yields further cost and delivery-time benefits to the
customer.
Firstly, developmental efforts for new K-turbine types is considerably reduced and contract
specific design work is minimized, while at the same time the high level of reliability is
maintained. Secondly, the long lead time items are standardized for 50Hz and 60 Hz
applications
in order to reduce the delivery times. As an example, identical casing patterns can be used for
50Hz and 60Hz as well as for CCPP and SPP applications. Due to the design of the patterns,
required extractions and overload admission can be added by means of separate parts.

Sub-Modules
The turbine modules are furthermore divided into sub-modules of different sizes, which may
be
combined as required. This approach has been especially favorable for the E-turbine, since
size
of the IP part is mainly linked to the main steam flow, whereas the size of the LP part also
strongly depends on the ambient temperature. Therefore the modular concept consists of a
standardized axial separation plane between the IP and LP casings and of a welded rotor
module.
The modular concept yields an optimum number of
required components to cover a wide range of
applications for both CCPP and SPP. For the latter, an
additional set of casing components is available with
steam extractions. Again, the main benefits from the
modular concept are reduced prices and delivery times
due to the standardized long lead time items while at
the same time a very high performance level is
maintained.

Valves
The HP, IP and LP admission valves comprise stop and
control valves arranged at right angles to each other and
combined in a single casing (Fig. 4). For both the E and
the K turbines, the valve assembly is provided with a flange connection at the bottom of the
outer
casing of the turbine.
The modular valve concept consists of a standardized connection to the turbine casings for
different sizes. Thus different valve sizes can be assembled to a single turbine size, and a
single
valve fits to different turbine types. Hence an optimum valve arrangement with respect to
flow
velocities can always be applied to achieve maximum element efficiency.

Bearings
The HE and the KN steam turbine arrangements both consist of three bearings. All three
bearing
pedestals are separated from the turbine casings and are supported directly on the foundation.
Only one bearing is located between the turbine sections to
minimize the effect of foundation
deformation on loads to bearings
and shaft journals. Axial thermal

expansion of the entire rotor train


starts at the combined journal and
thrust bearing as the fixed point. If
required, the bearing pedestal can Only one bearing is located
between the turbine sections to
minimize the effect of foundation
deformation on loads to bearings
and shaft journals. Axial thermal
expansion of the entire rotor train
starts at the combined journal and
thrust bearing as the fixed point. If
required, the bearing pedestal can design with optimum
efficiencies is delivered to the
customer.
Different to the other elements
of the steam turbine, the
primary goal of standardization
with regard to HP/IP blading
has been to standardize the
way to the product instead of
the product itself. The basis is
a strictly modular concept of
bladepath construction from standard and proven elements (e.g. airfoils, roots, grooves,
shrouds,
extractions, locking devices). As an example (Fig. 7), the composition of a single blade from
root, shroud and airfoil is demonstrated. For each element, different types exist for the
various
applications, each type having its own advantages and disadvantages with respect to
performance, mechanics and costs. Within the modular concept all these different types may
be
combined freely to give an optimum blade for the specific design boundary conditions such
as
aerodynamics, forces, materials and temperatures. Hence, cylindrical, twisted or bowed
airfoils
can be assembled with any of the roots or shrouds. Details on the concept applied for HP/IP
blading are given in

MODULAR CONCEPT TO FULFILL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE


REQUIREMENTS
Besides the main steam flow, the second major design parameters are the main steam
conditions.
Main steam temperatures are continuously increasing to optimize the overall performance of
SPPs, and as in gas turbine development, also for CCPPs. At the same time high temperatures
require expensive material to withstand the associated optimum pressure levels. In order to
keep
price increase moderate for such advanced steam cycles, one focus of the modular concept is
to
reduce the amount of required high-temperature material to a minimum. The basic design
elements of the concept are:

to apply identical designs for the main components at different temperature levels (e.g.
565C
and 600C) and thereby only to change material.
to weld main components in order to minimize the amount of high-temperature material.
to shield components against the hot steam.to cool affected areas.
The application of the concept to HE
and KN product lines will be outlined
below.
K-Turbine Material Concept for
Temperatures up to 600C
The combined HP/IP turbine (KTurbine,
Fig. 8) consists of a top and a
bottom half of inner and outer casings
with horizontal flanges. The thermal
load due to the high main steam and
reheat steam temperatures and
pressures is completely carried by the inner casing. For this reason, the material of the inner
casing is selected according to the specific application temperatures. Similarly, the rotor
material
is chosen depending on the size of the K-turbine, the application temperature and the
rotational
speed (50 or 60 Hz).
Steam Temperature
Main / Reheat Steam
Variant 1
540C / 540C
Variant 2
566C / 566C
Variant 3
600C / 600C
Future
600C / 620C
Rotor
(50Hz or 60Hz) low alloyed
low alloyed
or
high alloyed
high alloyed high alloyed
Inner Casing low alloyed low alloyed high alloyed high alloyed
Outer Casing globular cast
iron
globular cast
iron
globular cast
iron
globular cast

iron
Valve Casings
low alloyed
or
high alloyed
low alloyed
or
high alloyed
high alloyed high alloyed

Table 2: K-Turbine and Valve Materials


The design consists of special features which shield the outer casing from the hot main steam
and
reheat steam temperatures. The valve is connected to the inner casing via a flexible L-ring
and a
thermo sleeve that guides the hot steam directly into the inner casing and the HP or IP blading
respectively. As a result, the outer casing only needs to withstand the IP-exhaust pressure
andtemperature. Therefore the outer casing material for all applications is globular cast iron,
which
yields considerable cost reductions.
Similarly, the valve casing materials are cost optimized for different design pressure and
temperature regimes.
As an example of the modular material concept, an overview of the K-turbine material
combinations applied for different main steam and reheat steam temperatures.

Welded Rotor Design


A welded design has been applied
to the rotor of the new E-turbine.
The required material
properties for the hot IP section
with smaller blades and the cold
LP section with large centrifugal
forces are completely different.
Therefore, only a welded rotor
design enables the use of optimal
materials for both the hot IP
section and the cold LP section.
The combination of two materials
for the rotor yields an optimum of
mechanical properties over a wide reheat temperature range: up to 565C 2%-Cr-steel is
utilized
for the IP rotor block and the inner casing. Up to 600C, the rotor and inner casing material is
substituted by a 10%-Cr-steel. The LP rotor block consists of a 3.5%-Ni-steel. The rotor
welding
seam is positioned behind the LP front stages. This offers the advantage to implement a cost

effective welding seam at the low diameter of the IP drum.

Cooling of Dummy Piston


To achieve maximum thermodynamic efficiencies, a straight-flow design was chosen for the
new
E-turbine. In contrast to a reverse-flow concept, the chosen straight-flow design requires a
large
IP piston diameter for sufficient axial thrust compensation. Due to the mechanical impact of
this
large piston diameter at reheat temperatures, a forced rotor cooling has been developed for
the IP
piston to ensure high life cycles. Cooling steam (350C) from the cold reheat is blown into a
special mixing space in front of the
IP piston and mixed with hot reheat steam (between 565C and 600C) from the IP inlet to
achieve an optimum temperature of 450C. At this temperature, two advantages for both the
IP
rotor and the IP piston are combined: optimum rotor life cycles and minimum clearances at
the
IP piston seal. Thereby 2%-Cr-steel can be used for the IP rotor up to temperatures of 565.
Thus,
performance and reliability remain at a high level without increasing material costs. The
cooling
system has successfully been tested in E-turbines with high temperature capability in the US
market.

MODULAR CONCEPT FOR OPTIMUM LP ENDS FOR A WIDE RANGE OF


CONDENSER PRESSURES
The third major design parameter with respect to modularity is the volume flow through the
LP
end stages, which is directly connected to the mass flow and the condenser pressure. The
performance of the last stages and the exhaust diffuser is strongly related to the mean axial
velocity in this area. A number of different LP sizes are therefore required to cover the range
of
condenser pressures without compromising the performance of the LP section. In this case,
the
focus of the modular concept is to achieve an optimum balance between maximum LP
performance and moderate costs. Therefore, the main targets where set
to define an optimum set of LP standard stages to cover the required range of volume
flows.
to enable cost effective connections of all required combinations of LP and IP components
and thereby to maintain optimum
performance.
Thereby, a large condenser pressure range of
20 to 200mbar is being considered.

LP Blading
Since the axial velocity after the last blade is
primarily related to the exit area (and not to
length of the last blade), a homogenous
distribution of exit areas has been chosen for
the Siemens family of LP standard stages . For each of the given exit areas, a

Free Standing LP End Blades


In general, the last two rows of LP moving blades are designed as free-standing blades with
curved fir-tree roots for a homogenous stress distribution. The highly-efficient threedimensional
airfoil design consists of super-sonic tip section for the large end blades (Fig. 10). The inlet
edge
is flame or laser hardened, respectively, to prevent from droplet erosion.
Additional erosion protection measures are applicable to the last stationary blades. They are
designed as hollow blades that either consist of drainage slots (Fig. 11) to remove moisture
from
the blade surface or can be heated with steam. An advanced three-dimensional airfoil design
is
applied in order to increase stage reaction at the blade hub and hence improve performance at
low loadIn order to allow for larger axial
movement due to thermal expansion,
non-interlocking labyrinth seals are
applied within the LP section of the
turbine. The seal design provides an
optimum sealing efficiency within a
relatively short seal length.

LP Exhaust Casing for Single Flow ETurbine


The modular concept of the E-turbine
provides only three different LP exhaust
casings to cover the complete exit area
range specified in table 1. The six
related sets of standard LP stages are

installed by means of standardizedinterfaces. Also, the axial joint between the LP exhaust
casing and the IP outer casing is a standard interface that allows any combination

of sizes of the two casings. Fig. 12 shows the LP exhaust casing module for the 12.5m2
exhaust
section.

Exhaust Geometry Optimization


Detailed computational fluid analyses are performed in the design phase, in order to optimize
the
geometry of the LP turbine exhaust as well as the transition region to the condenser. In
conjunction with measurements on models and on turbines in the field, effort is focused on
increasing exhaust pressure recovery and hence improving the overall steam turbine
performance.
As an example, Fig. 13 shows the results of an exhaust analysis with flow lines for a classic
turbine deck arrangement with the condensers mounted below the turbine. The steam flow
downstream of the last turbine stage passing into the exhaust hood shows considerable
vortices,
which were also observed in the flow in the exhaust casing itself. As vortices cause energy
loss
in the flow, guide vanes have been installed to improve flow and thereby reduce pressure
losses.

SUMMARY
For a power range from 100MW up to 700MW Siemens provides the HE and KN steam
turbine
product lines for both CCPP and SPP. Both turbo sets consist of a two casing design. The HE
is
applied where a single flow LP section is
sufficient to take the steam flow at optimum
velocities. For large power output and low
condenser pressures the KN product line with a
double flow LP turbine is applied.
Both designs are based on a modular design

concept. Details have been given in the paper on


how the concept is applied to compensate for
the effects of the major design parameters power
output, temperature and condenser pressure.
Thereby, the main targets are to reduce the
number of variants of major components and to
minimize the material cost impact of high
temperatures.

The concept has successfully been applied within the HE and KN product lines and is seen a
fundamental basis to fulfill the challenging requirements in todays steam turbine market. The
reduced number of major components ensures short delivery times and low costs. At the same
time the concept stands for reliability due to the application of proven Siemens technology
and
similar designs through-out each set of module sizes. Special design features such as the
welded
E-turbine rotor contribute to short start-up times and operational flexibility. All configurations
consist of Siemens latest LP standard stage designs. In the HP and IP sections a
highperformance
fully three-dimensional reaction blading is applied, which is designed on a contract
specific basis to provide maximum blade path efficiency.
Hence, Siemens two casing designs have been optimized to fulfill the markets most
important
requirements of low overall life cycle costs, high reliability, availability and operating
flexibility
in order to support the customer focus on cost efficient production of electricity.

GAS TURBINE

All the components of Gas Turbine are machined and assembled using the
facilities available for manufacturing of steam and hydro turbines except the
following facilities which are procured exclusively for the manufacturing of
Gas Turbine and are installed in the areas specified for gas turbine
manufacturing.

a)

Hydraulic Lifting Platform


This facility is used for assembly and disassembly of G.T. Rotor. This is a
hydraulically operated platform which travels upto 10 M height to facilitate
access to different stages of Rotor. This is installed in Bay-I assembly area.

b)

CNC Creep Feed Grinding M/c.


This is installed in Gas Turbine machining area Bay-II Extn. This M/c
grinds the hearth serration on rotor disc faces. Hirth serrations are radial
grooves teeth on both the faces of rotor discs. Torque is transmitted trough
these serrations, which are very accurately ground.

c)

External Broaching Machine


This machine is installed in GT machining area and is used to make groove
on the outer dia of rotor discs for the fitting of moving blades on the discs.

d)

CNC Facing Lathe


This machine is installed in GT machining area and is used basically for
facing rotor disc but can turn other components also.

e)

CNC Turning Lathe

This machine is installed in Bay-I Heavy Machine Shop and is used to turn
Tie Rods of Gas Turbine, which have very high length / diameter ratio. TieRod is a very long bolt (length approx. 10 meter & dia 350 mm) which is
used to assembly and hold the gas turbine rotor discs to form a composite
turbine rotor.

f)

Wax Melting Equipment


This is low temp. electric furnace installed in Gas Turbine blading area in
Bay-II. It is used to mix and melt Wax and Colaphonium, which is required
to arrest the blade movement during the blade tip machining of stator blade
rings.

g)

Gas Turbine Test Bed


This test bed is installed near the Gas Turbine Machining area in Bay-II.
This facility is used to finally assemble the gas turbine. Combustion
chambers are not assembled here, which are assembled with main assembly
at the site.

h)

Combustion Chamber Assembly Platform


This facility is a 3 Tier Platform installed in Bay-I assembly area and is used
for assembly of Combustion Chambers of Gas Turbine.

HYDRO TURBINES

The major processes involved in various Hydro Turbine Sections are as


follows:
-

Marking and checking of blanks manual as well as with special


marking M/c.

Machining on Horizontal Boring, Vertical Boring, Lathes etc. as the case


may be on CNC /Conventional Machines.

Intermediate assembly operation is carried out on the respective


assembly beds provided.

Then the assembly is machined as per requirement.

The sub-assemblies are further assembled for hydraulic/functional


testing. Hydraulic testing is done using a power driven triple piston
horizontal hydraulic pump which can generate a pressure of 200 Kg/Cm 2.
It can also be carried out using a power pack.

On Governing elements / assembly and test stand, the components / sub-assemblies


/ assemblies are tested up to a hydraulic pressure of 200 Kg / c m 2 using the piston
pump. Oil testing upto 40 Kg / c m2 is carried out with oil pumping.

BROAD SPECIFICATION OF

MAJOR/IMPORTANT MACHINE TOOLS &


MACHINES
CNC MACHINE TOOLS
CNC HORIZONTAL BORERS:
1.

2.

Item Description

CNC Horz. Borer

Model

RAPID 6C

Supplier

WOTN, GERMANY

CNC Control System

FANUC 12M

Spindle Dia.

200mm

Table

4000 x 4000 mm

Max. Load on Table

100 T

Travers

X=20000, Y=5000, X=1400mm

Ram traverse

W = 1000 mm

Ram size

400 x 400 mm

Power Rating

90 KW

Weight of the m/c

111 T

ATC Capacity

60 Nos.

Plan No.

1-227 (Block-I)

Item Description

CNC Stub Borer

Model

DW 1800

Supplier

HEYLIGENSTAEDT, GERMANY

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 7T

Boring Dai

625 2500 mm

Table

4000 x 4000 mm

Headstock Travel

4000 mm

3.

Spindle Speed

0.5 90 RPM (in 4 Steps)

Power Rating

63 KW

Max. Load Capacity

100 T

Weight of the m/c

72 T

Plan No.

27-420 (Block-III)

Item Description

CNC Horz. Borer (2 Nos.)

Model

W200 HB NC

Supplier

SKODA, CZECH

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 850 M

Spindle Dia.

200 mm

Traverse

X=12500,
Y=5000,
Z=2000mm

CNC LATHES

4.

Items Description

CNC Centre Lathe

Model

D-1800 NYF

Supplier

HOESCH MFD, GERMANY

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 3T

Centre Distance

8000 mm

Swing Over Carriage

1800 mm

Swing Over Bed

2400 mm

Spindle Speed

0 125 RPM

Power Rating

92 KW

Weight of the Job

110 TON

Weight of the m/c

124 TON

Plan No.

2-394 (Block-III)

5.

6.

Item Description

CNC Centre Lathe

Mode

D-2300 NYFS-1

Supplier

HOESCH MFC, GERMANY

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 7T

Centre Distance

18000 mm

Swing Over Carriage

2300 mm

Swing Over Bed

2900 mm

Spindle Speed

5 125 RPM

Power Rating

110 KW

Weight of the job

320 TON

Weight of the m/c

216 TON

Plan No.

2-360 (Block-III)

Item Description

CNC Centre Lathe

Model

KV2-1100 CNC

Supplier

RANVENSBURG, GERMANY

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 820 T

Centre Distance

12000 mm

Centre Height

900 mm

Swing Over Carriage

1100 mm

Swing Over Bed

1400 mm

Max. Turning Length

12000 mm

Spindle Speed

2-600 RPM

Longitudinal Cutting Feed (Z-Axis)

1-5000 mm / min.

Transfer Cutting Feed (X-Axis) :

1-5000 mm/min.

Main Spindle Drive Motor

95.5 KW DC

Max. Feed Force Z/X Axis

45000 N

No. of Tool carriers

Plan No.

1-120 (Block-III)

CNC MILLING MACHINES


7.

Item Description

CNC Horz. Milling M/c (6 Nos.)

Model

BFH-15

Supplier

BATLIBOI, INDIA

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 810 M

Table

1500 x 400 mm

Traverse

X=1170 mm
Y=420 mm
Z=420 mm

Spindle Speed

45 to 2000 RPM

Power Rating

11 KW

Max. Load Capacity

630 Kg

Weight of the m/c

4200 Kg

Plan No.

2-449, 2-453, 2-454, 2-459, 2-460 (BlockIII:TBM)

8.

Item Description

Universal Milling M/cs (2Nos.)

Model

BFK-15

Supplier

BATLIBOI, INDIA

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 810 M

Table

1500 x 400 mm

Traverse

X=1170 mm
Y=420 mm
Z=420 mm

9.

Spindle Speed

45-2000 RPM

Power Rating

11 KW

Max. Load Capacity

630 Kg

Weight of the m/c

4200 Kg

Plan No.

2-463, 2-466 (Block-III: TBM)

Item Description

CNC Bed Type Milling M/c

Model

FSQ 80 CNC

Supplier

TOSKURIM, CZECH

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 810 M

Table

3000 x 800 mm
TEE SLOT 28H7

Traverse

X= 3000 mm
Y= 870 mm
Z= 850 mm

Spindle Speed Range

H 2500 RPM

Spindle Drive Power

18 KW

continuous

22 KW

intermittent

620 x 500

incldg ram

543 x 420

encldg ram

Spindle Head Size

ATC Capacity

24 Nos.

Table Load

2500 Kg

Plan No.

2-484 (Block-III)

CNC MACHINING CENTRES

10.

11.

Item Description

SPL. Purpose 6 Station T-Root Machining


Centre (2nos.)

Supplier

MIH, JAPAN

CNC Control System

FANUC 7M

Indexing Table

1900 mm dia

Indexing Position

6 Nos.

Plan No.

2-356, 2-41 (Block-III: TBM)

Item Description

SPL Purpose FIR Tree Root M/cing Cenre

Model

NTH 200

Supplier

RIGID, SWITZERLAND

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 7M

Table

1400 x 1400 mm

Traverse

X= 1950 mm
Y= 900 mm
Z= 600 mm

Spindle Speed

30600 RPM

No of Spindle

Power Rating

22 KW

Plan No.

2-354 (Block-III TBM)

CNC VERTICAL BORERS

12.

13.

Item Description

CNC Vertical Borer

Model

TMD 40 / 50

Supplier

OSAKA MACHINES, JAPAN

CNC Control System

FANUC 6TB, 3TC

Table dia

4000 mm

Turning dia

5000 mm

Turning Height

4200 mm

Spindle Speed

0.23-30 RPM

No. of Ram

Power Rating

75 KW

Max. Load Capacity

70T

Machine Weight

100 T

Max. Ram Travel (Vertical)

Plan No.

2-422 (Block-III)

Item Description

CNC Vertical Borer (2 Nos.)

Model

40 DZ

Supplier

SCHIESS, GERMANY

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 850 T

Table

4000 mm

Max. Turning dia

5000 mm

Max. Turning Height

4200 mm

Ram size

300 x 250 mm

Table Speed

0.63 63 RPM

Max. Vertical Travel of Ram

2200 mm

2200 mm

Power Rating

71 KW

Table Load Carrying Capacity: 80 T

14.

ATC Capacity

12 Nos.

Plan No.

1-235 (Block-I), 2-472 (Block-III)

Item Description

CNC Vertical Borer

Model

32 DS 250

Supplier

SCHIESS, GERMANY

CNC Control System

SINUMERIK 850T

Table

2500 mm

Table Load Carrying Capacity: 25T


Max. Turning Dia

3200 mm

Max. Turning Height

2200 mm

Ram Size

210 x 250 mm

Max. Travel of Ram

1400 mm

Table Speed

0.8 160 RPM

Power Rating

56 KW

ATC Capacity

12 Nos.

Plan No.

2-483 (Block-III)

OTHER SPECIAL PURPOSE CNC MACHINES

15.

CNC SURFACE BROACHING M/C


Make

Marbaix Lapointe, UK

Model

Champion 32 /10, 300

CNC System

SINUMERIC 850 M

Broaching capacity (pulling force) :

320 KN

Broaching slide stroke

10.3 mm

Broaching slide width

16.

1500 mm

Max tool length (continuous /row) :

9650 mm

Broaching Speed (cutting stroke) :

1-25 M/min

Broaching Speed (return stroke)

60 M/min

Drive power rating

135 KW

Broaching slide movement

Electro-mechanical

Maximum noise level

< 80 Dbs

Max. dia of the disc (mountable) :

2300 mm

Max. weight of the job

3000 Kgs

Indexing & rotating tables

1500 mm, 1000 mm

Indexing accuracy

+/- 3 Arc sec.

Plan No.

2-485

Make

ELB CHLIFE, GERMANY

Model

ELTAC SFR 200 CNC

CNC System

SINUMERIC 3 GG

Work-piece diameter

200 2000 mm

Work height

2400 mm

Rotary & indexing table dia.

2050 mm

Indexing accuracy

+/- 1 ARC SEC

Max. load capacity

20000 KG

750 mm

2400 mm

CREEP FEED GRINDING M/C

Y-axis (grinding head movement)


Vert. Traverse
Z- axis (grinding head support)
Movement on cross rail)
Horizontal traverse

Traverse feed rate

02 1200 mm /min

Drive motor

34 KW

Grinding wheel max. dia.

500 mm

Max. width

100 mm

Bore

203.2 mm

Surface speed

16-35 M/Sec.

Plan No.

2-491

Make

LANDRIANI, ITALY

CNC System

SELCA

Work-piece diameter

Upto 250 mm

Work Length

200 mm

Plan No.

2-487

Grinding head main support

17.

BROACH SHARPENING M/C

BROAD SPECIFICATIONS OF
MAJOR / IMPORTANT MACHINE TOOLS & MACHINES
B: NON-CNC MACHINE TOOLS

(1)

PRECISION HEAVY DUTY LATHE


Manufacturer : Karamatorsk Heavy Machine Tool Works (USSR); Model

KS-1614
Specifications
1.

Maximum Swing

2000mm

2.

Maximum Diameter of work piece over the Saddle

1500 mm

3.

Maximum Distance between Centres

8000mm

4.

Diameter of Spindle bore

5.

Maximum Taper when machining by the method of

80 mm
0.15 mm

Combined Feeds
6.

Maximum Length between Centres when machining by the

1200 mm

method of Combined Freeds


7.

Maximum Weight of work piece

8.

Maximum Length of Machine over the Saddle

9.

Maximum Summary Effort of Cutting

10. Limit Dimension of Thread Cut:

20000 kg
8000 kg
10,000 kg

Thread Pitch

Max Length of Thread,

Metric Threade Pitch (in mm)

Min

Max

mm

96

6300

3/8

6300

British Trhread Pitch (Per inch) 20

Name of Part

Power

Displacement in mm

One Division
Of Dial

Manual

Rapid
Traverse

Per Rev. of Represent

M/min

Dial
Carriage
Transverse Slide

2.02
1130

1130

0.1 mm

1.03

600

600

0.1 mm

0.48

Tool Slide

150

0.1 mm

Rotary Part

90o

5o

0.5

Longitudinal
Slide

Maximum Displacement of the Tailstock Spindle

260 mm

Maximum Transverse Displacement of the Tailstock

17 mm

Rotating Built in Centre

Available

Power Extraction of the Tailstock Spindle

Available

Rapid Traverse of the Tailstock


12.

Overall Dimension:
Length 13900 mm Width 3845 mm

13.

3.44 M/min

Height 2865 mm

Plant No. 2-182 (Block-III)

UNIVERSAL VERTICAL TURNING & BORING MACHINE


Manufacturer : Kolomna Machine Tool Works (USSR)
Model KY 152
Specifications
1.

Maximum Dia. of workpiece accommodated


10000/12500 mm

2.

Dia. of central table

3.

Maximum travel of vertical Tool Heads from center of table5250 mm

4.

Maximum weight of workpiece accommodated on central table

5.

8750 mm

(a) With table speed limited to n (n 6) r.pm.

200 T

(b) At any speed

100 T

Maximum cutting force with different length of tool over-hang (L) from
head face R.H. Head
16000 Kg with L 1500 mm
7500 Kg with L 2000 mm
2000 Kg with L 3000 mm
1200 Kg with L 3700 mm

L.H. Head
12500 Kg with L 1500 mm
7500 Kg with L 2000 mm
2000 Kg with L 3000 mm
1200 Kg with L 3700 mm
6.

Rated cutting dia on central table

6300 mm

7.

Maximum cutting torque on central table

80000 Kg.M

8.

Speed range of central table rotation

Minimum = 0.112 r p.m.


Maximum 11.2 r.p.m.

9.

Travel rate of column assembly

10.

Plan No.

190 mm /minute
1-13 (Block-I)
1-24 (Block-III)

BALANCING MACHINE
Manufacturer: SCHENK (West Germany)
Model : Dj 90
Specifications
1.

Weight of rotor

10,000 to
80,000 kg

2.

Minimum weight without considerable loss of measuring


sensitivity, provided the berings can accommodate such
small rotors.

5000 kg

3.

Maximum weight for one bearing pedestal

45,000 kg

4.

Height of rotor axis above machine bed

1600 mm

5.

Rotor diameter (free swing over machine bed) not

4000 mm

considering the funnel


6.

Diameter of journal

Max. 540 mm

7.

Diameter of journal, with special sleeve bearing cups made

Max. 600 mm

from high grade material.


8.

Minimum distance between bearings for less than 10 tons

1500 mm

rotor
9.

Minimum distance between bearings for more than 10 tons

1900 mm

rotor
10. Maximum distance between coupling plague and center of

13500 mm

the scond bearing pedestals


11. Rotational Speeds
(a) For rotors from 5 to 10 tons

Min. 800 rpm


Max. 4000 rpm
Min. 700 rpm

(b) For rotors from 10 to 20 tons

Max. 3600 rpm


Min. 600 rpm

(c) For rotors from 20 to 80 tons

Max. 3600 rpm

12. Maximum test speed and overspeeds


(a) For rotors upto 50 tons

4500 rpm

(b) For rotors upto 50 to 80 tons

3600 rpm

13. Maximum centrifugal force admissible on each bearing

50,000 Kg

pedestals for short period of time


14. Balancing accuracy to be obtained depending on Selling

0.3 to 3 micron

Weight
15. Sensitivity of indication depending on rotor weight, speed
and selling weight
16. Accuracy of the angle indication

0.1-8
div/micron
1 o 2o

17. Stiffness of bearing pedestals, when mounted on machine


bed
(a) With unclamped bearings

1.2 Kg/micron
(0.85
micron/Kg)

(b) With clamped bearing

100 Kg/micron
(0.01 micron
/Kg).

SPECIAL DRILLING & BORING MACHINE


Manufacturer: Machine Tool Works, Ryazan (USSR)
Model: PT 182 H5
SPECIFICATIONS:
1.

Swing over bed

2.

Drilling dia

40-80 mm

3.

Boring dia

80-250 mm

4.

Swing of job in rest

5.

800 mm

Max

300 mm

Min

110 mm

Swing of job in

Max.

300

Headstock chuck

Min.

110 mm

6.

Maximum length of job

3000 mm

7.

Maximum weight of job

2000 Kg

8.

Number of spindles

9.

Headstock

Stemstock

Spindle location

10. Distance to spindle axis:

Horizontal
From bed wasy
From floor

400 mm
1100 mm

11. Head stock Spindle speed

Max

750 r.p.m.

Min.

71. r.p.m.

Number of steps of spindle speed

24

Spindle braking
12. Stemstock Spindle speeds

Available
Max.

730 r.p.m.

Min.

123 r.p.m.

Number of steps of spindle speed


Stemstock feed

6
Max.
Min.

1680 mm /
min
168 mm / min

Number of feed steps

Stepless

13. Overall dimensions


Length

13500 mm

Width

2300 mm

Height

1700 mm

Weight

23844 Kg.

14. Plan No

1-105 (BlockIII)

SPECIAL INTERNAL GRINDING MACHINE


Manufacturer: Saratov Machine Binding Works (USSR)
Model : MB 6020 T
SPECIFICATIONS

1.

Diameter of ground holes


(a) Maximum

320 mm

(b) Minimum

90 mm

2.

Maximum length of grinding (with maximum hole diameter)

3.

Maximum weight of work

4.

Distance from spindle axis to floor level

5.

Distance from spindle axis to table

6.

560 mm
600 Kg
1100 mm

(a) Maximum

300 mm

(b) Minimum

100 mm

Cantilever vertical travel


(a) Per one revolution of handwheel
(b) Speed of rapid vertical traverse (from motor)
(c) Per dial graduation

0.133 mm
190 mm / min.
0.01 mm

7.

Table working surface dimensions

500 x 1200
mm

8.

Table cross-traverse
(a) To operator from intermediate (zero) position

200 mm

(b) From operator from intermediate (zero) position

200 mm

(c) Total

400 mm

(d) For one revolution of hand wheel

0.2 mm

(e) For one dial graduation

0.01 mm

(f) Speed of rapid traverse (from motor)

280 mm / min

UNIVERSAL THREAD GRINDING MACHINE


Manufacturer: Moscow Jig Boring Machine Plant (USSR)
Model : 5822B3
SPECIFICATIONS
1.

Maximum diameter of work admitter

2.

Nominal diameter of thread being


ground

3.

Thread pitch

160 mm
Min

25 mm

Max

125 mm

Min

0.5 mm

Max
4.

6 mm

Maximum length of thread being


ground,

5.

(a) By single-ribbed wheel

75 mm

(b) By multiple ribbed wheel

55 mm

Maximum taper of thread:

1o 47' 24"
or 1:16

6.

Table
Maximum longitudinal table traverse,
(a) By hand

425 mm

(b) By power

415 mm

Table rapid withdrawal speed

(variable:
maximum
about 1.2
m/min)

7.

Taper
(a) Headstock spindle

MT 4

(b) Tailstock spindle


8.

MT 5

Grinding Wheelhead
Maximum cross feed
(a) By hand
(b) By power
Movement per dial division

125 mm
50 mm
0.005 mm

Movement per dial revolution

1 mm

PLANER
Manufacturer : The Yefemov Plant TIAZHSTANKOGIDRO-PRESS (USSR)
Model : 7A288-T
SPECIFICATIONS
1.

Max. width of planning

4000 mm

2.

Max. height under cross rail

4000 mm

3.

Distance between housings

4250 mm

4.

Max. travel of slides below cross rail and inside housing


(a) for vertical tool heads

700 mm

(b) for side tool heads

700 mm

5.

Max. allowable weight of workpiece

6.

Max. cutting force

100 T
40000 Kg.

Arrangement for mechanizing and automating the machine


operation is available
7.

Table
Dimension of working surface of table,
(a) Width

3600 mm

(b) Length

12000 mm

Table Stroke,

Max.

12000 mm

Min.

3000 mm

Safety devices to stop table after worm


disengaging.
8.

Available.

Tool Heads
Number of tool heads

(a) Vert.

(b) Side

Travel of tool heads, mm. V.Tool

(i)

Max. vertical travel

(ii)

Max. horizontal travel

Side Tool Heads


Heads

R.H.

L.H.

700

3750

3750

5000

700

700

(iii) Travel per turn of hand-wheel lever, (in


mm)
Vertical travel

1.14

4.25

4.25

Horizontal travel

0.52

1.14

1.14

Vertical

0.1

0.2

0.2

Horizontal

0.2

0.1

0.1

1.25

2.5

2.5

2.5

1.25

1.25

(iv) Dial division value

(v)

Rapid travel
Speed mm
Vertical
Horizontal

9.

Cutter Head:

(i)

Max. dimension of tool holder

(ii)

Vertical

Side

Tool head

Tool head

(a) Width

120 mm

120 mm

(b) Height

120 mm

120 mm

60 o

45o

Max. angle of slide Swiveling


(a) To the right

(b) To the left

60 o

45o

(iii) Dial division value

10

10

10 o

10 o

Available

Available

(iv) Swiveling of cutter head plate


(v)

Cutter head automatic lifting during return


stroke of table

10.

Cross Rail:
Maximum travel
Rapid travel speed

11.

4000 mm
Not less than 0.3 M/min

Time of cross rail automatic fixing

20 to 30 sec.

Main drive motor

2 x 130 KW

Plan No.

2-189 (Block-III)

MATERIALS SPECIFICATION
X20 Cr 13

A.
1.

13% Cr. Stainless Steel Bars (Hardened & Tempered)

General

This specification governs the quality of


stainless steel bars of grade X20 Cr. 13

2.

Application

For machining of moving and guide blades of


steam Turbine.

3.

Condition of Delivery :

Hot rolled / Forged & hardened and tempered.


The bars shall be straight and free from
waviness.

4.

Complete with standards: There is no Indian standard covering this


material.

5.

DIMENSIONS & TOLERANCES :


Dimension

Bars shall be supplied to the dimensions


specified in the purchase order unless otherwise
specified in the order. The bars shall be supplied
in random length of 3 to 6 meters with a
maximum of 10% shorts down to meter.

Forged bars shall be supplied in length of 1.5 to 3 meters.


Tolerance

The tolerance on cross sectional dimensions


shall be as per table.

5.1. Hot Rolled Bars

Tolerance on hot rolled flat bars shall be as


specified below :

s
b

"b" width across flates Allowable deviation on "s" thickness


mm

Allowable devi.

"b" mm

mm

on 'S' mm

+ 1.5

Up to 20

+1

+2

Over 20 and

+2

Up to 35
Over 35 and Upto 75

Upto 40
Over 75

+3

Over 40

+3

Note : Other tolerances shall be as per DIN 1017. Twisting and bending off the
bars shall not exceed 0.001X length of the bar. Bulging on the sides shall not
be more than 0.01 x b and 0.01 x s respectively.
5.2 Forged Bar

Tolerances on size for forged bars shall be +8%


of the size.

6. MANUFACTURE :
6.1

The steel shall be manufactured in basic electric furnace process and


subsequently vacuum degassed or electric slag refined (ESR). Any other
process of meeting shall be subjected to mutual agreement between
supplier & BHEL.

6.2

For manufacture of flat bars, if initial material is other than ignot (e.g.
continuous casting), supplier shall mention it in his quotation for prior
approval from BHEL.

7.

HEAT TREATMENT :
7.1

The bars shall be heat treated to get the desired mechanical properties
specified in this specification. The hardening temperature shall be in the
range of 980 10300C and the tempering temperature shall not be below

6500C As per DIN-19440.


7.2.

Minimum possible residual stress shall be aimed with slow cooling and
longer duration of tempering treatment.

7.3.

If the bars require straightening after heat treatment, the bars shall be
stress relieved after straightening operation at 30 0C below the actual
tempering temperature.

8. FREEDOM FROM DEFECTS:


8.1

The bar shall be free from lamination cracks, scabs, seams, shrinkage
porosity, inclusions and other harmful defects.

8.2

Decarburization and other material defects shall not exceed the


dimensional tolerances and machining allowances.

9. FINISH :
9.1

The bar surface be smooth, free from laps, rolled in scale etc. Dents roll
marks. Scratches are permitted provided their depth does not exceed
half the tolerance limits specified in table.

9.2

Repair of surface flaws by welding in not permitted

9.3

The edges of bars shall be cut square by swaing or shearing.

10. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION :

The chemical composition of material

shall be as follows (table analysis in %)

Element

Min.

Max.

Carbon

0.17

0.22

11.

Silicon

0.10

0.50

Manganese

0.30

0.80

Chromium

12.50

14.00

Nickel

0.30

0.80

Sulphur

--

0.020

Phosphorus

--

0.030

SELECTION OF TEST SAMPLES :


11.1

Chemical analysis shall be reported on each heat basis..

11.2

For Mechanical Test

11.2.1 One tensile & 3 impact test

samples shall be selected for

mechanical testing per melt per heat treatment batch basis from lot
of size.
11.2.2 The uniform strength of a delivery shall be certified through
hardness test. In case of bars with sectional dimensions more than
120mm, all the bar shall be tested for hardness. In case of bars with
sectional dimension less than or equal to 120mm hardness shall be
checked on 10% of the bars or 10 numbers of bars which ever is
higher.
11.2.3 The mechanical and notch impact test is to be done in longitudinal
direction on the hardest and softest bars. Test sample shall be to
Km. at 1/3rd below the surface of the bars.

12.

Mechanical Properties :

12.1

The material shall comply with the following mechanical properties


at room temperature.

0.2%

600 N/MM2 Min

Tensile strength
% Elongation on 5.65

S0

% reduction in area

800 950 N/mm2

15 min.

50 min. *

Impact (mean of 3.1S0 V sample):

20 J min.

Hardness (HB-30)

280

* The smallest value shall be at least 14 J.


12.2

Tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with IS : 1608 or


equivalent international standard.

12.3

Impact test shall be carried out on 3 ISO-V samples in accordance


with IS : 1757 or equivalent international standard only one test
value out of three, can be below the specified value ; but in no case
it should be below 2/3rd of the minimum specified value; but in no
case it should be below 2/3rd of the minimum specified impact
value.

12.4

Hardness test (Brinell) shall be carried out according to IS : 1500 or


equivalent international standard.

13.

NON DESTRUCTIVE TEST : Following NDT shall be carried out.


13.1

UT of the prematerial combined with 100% magnetic partial testing


of all bars in delivery condition.

13.2

Complete UT of all bars in delivery condition.

13.2.1

In case of testing as per 14(a) U.T. shall be carried out as per HW


0850 192 (SEP 1923) test class D 3 and MPI of all bars except of
face areas. In case of testing as per 14(b) UT shall be carried out as
per HW 0850 192 (SEP 1923) test class D2.

13.2.2

Mix up test (verification test) of all bars.

13.2.3

Visual inspection of all bars

13.2.4

Acceptance Criteria
a) Magnetic Particle Test : When MT is carried out as per clause 14.1.

Surface defects with expected depth > 1 mm are unacceptable.

Indication > 5 mm are unacceptable.

Defect indication observed during MT, can be removed by grinding


(dressing up) but with in 1mm depth.
b) Ultrasonic Test : Quality class 2b with following modification that
individual indication > 2mm EFB (KSR) and back wall losses >
3dB are unacceptable.
X2 CrMoV1 21

B.

600 N/MM2 minimum 0.2% Proof stress Heat resistant steel bars
for steam turbine blades

1. General

Hot rolled and forged bars of steel grades X22


CrMoV1 21.

2. Application

Bars are required for machining of guide and


moving blades for steam turbines.

3. Dimension & Tolerance :

b
"b" width across flates

Allowable deviation

"s" thickness

Allowable devi.

mm

on "b" mm

mm

on 'S' mm

1.5

Up to 20 &

+1

Up to 35 & Over 35

Over 20
Upto 75

+2

Upto 40

+2

Over 75

+3

Over 40

+3

4. Chemical Composition :
Element

% min.

% max.

Carbon

0.18

0.24

Silicon

0.10

0.50

Manganese

0.30

0.80

Chromium

11.00

12.50

Malybeonum

0.80

1.20

Vanadium

0.25

0.35

Nickel

0.30

0.80

Sulphur

--

0.020

Phosphorous
5.

--

0.030

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES :
0.2 % proof stress

600 N/mm2 min.

Tensile Strength

800-950 N/MM2

% Elongation

14 Min.

% Reduction in area

40% Min.

Notch Impact Value

27 J * Min.
* Average of 3 IS0 V Samples.

C.
1.

600 N/MM2 0.2% PROOF STRESS FORGED BLADES

General

This specification governs the quality of guide and


moving blades forged from steel grade X 20 or 13.

2.

Application

3.

Condition of Delivery:

The blades are used for steam turbines.


The forged blades shall be supplied in heat treated
forged blade shall be supplied with center holes
made in accordance with respective technical
requirements or ordering drawing.

4.

Dimensions & Tolerance: The dimension and tolerances shall be as per


ordering drawing accompanying the order.

5.

Manufacture

The steel shall be manufactured in the blade


electrical furnace and for subsequently refined to
ensure turbine blade quality. The forgings shall be
made as envelope forging or precision forging,
subsequently machine / grinder to achieve the
ordering drawing dimensions and surface finish.

6.

Heat Treatment :
6.1.

The forging shall be heat treated to get desired mechanical properties.

6.2.

The tempering temperature shall not be below 650 0 C. The minimum


residual are to be aimed through sufficient duration of the tempering
treatment and the slow cooling rate from the tempering temperature.

6.3.

The blades are to be straightened after heat treatment, each


straightening operation is to be followed by a stress relieving
temperature and in no case below 610 0C followed by slow cooling.

7.

Freedom from Defects : Blades shall be free from folds due to forging ;
cracks, tearing

and

other material

defects,

elonganed non-metallic and jusions, seams etc.


any blade blade containing such defects shall be
rejected.
8.

Surface finish

The blade shall be supplied in a desoaled and


deburred condition. The surface finish shall
comply with the requirements specified on the
drawing. In the surface is ground prior to blasting
the the surface finish must be anouired in
compliance with the finish specified on the

drawing. Grinding may be performed to a depth


not more than H/2 and ground areas shall be
blended over a length of LP/2. However H Shall
not be exceeded.
H

Allowable profile deviation on the pressure side.

LP

Profile length measured from leading edge to


trailing edge.

9.

Chemical Composition : The chemical analysis of the material shall


confirm to the following :

10.

Element

% min.

% max.

Carbon

0.17

0.22

Silicon

0.10

0.50

Manganese

0.30

0.80

Chromium

12.50

14.00

Nickel

0.30

0.80

Sulphur

--

0.020

Phosphorous

--

0.030

Selection of Test Sample :

All

tests

and

examination

shall

be

performed

on

specimens

taken

in

accordance with annexure 1 from at least


one blade of each drawing per melts and
heat treatment batch.

11.

Mechanical properties :

11.1

The mechanical properties of the blade material shall conform to the


following :
0.2 % proof stress

Tensile Strength

800-950 N/MM2

% Elongation

15 Min.

% Reduction in area

50 Min.

3, ISO V Sample)

20 J Min.

Brinell hardness HB 30

280 Max.

600 N/mm2

Impact Value (Average of

11.2 Tensile Test : The tensile test piece shall confirm to the gauge length.
L 0 5.65 S0

11.3 Impact test shall be carried out on standard test piece as per ISO V
notch according to IS : 1757.
11.4 Hardness Test : The brinell hardness test HB 30 shall be carried out
according to IS : 1500.
12.

Non Destructive Test :


12.1 Blade shall only be manufactured from ultrasonically examined rare
material.
12.2 In order to ensure freedom from defects. All blades shall be subjected to
magnetic particle examination prior to shipment.

13.

Dimenional Checks for Acceptance :

13.1 The supplier shall check 100% of the forgings w.r.t. to all parameters.
13.2 Dimensions parameters to be checked for acceptance.
Following dimensional parameters of each of the check sections as
specified in ordering drawing shall be inspected after fixing / clamping
the forging in vertical stand to check conformance of profile of
individual section as well as in relation to each other.
o From tolerance for pressure side

o From tolerance for suction side

R, max differenceR

o From tolerance for Inlet edge

o Twist Tolerance

(H, R) max.

Profile thickness of each section.

D Max. / D / D1

Max. profile length of each section.


Root dimensions.
Base dimensions.
Base plate contour.
Axial and tangential shift of profile with respect to root.
Overall length of forging.
Surface finish.

13.3 Procedure for dimensional checks:

Check of inlet edge : The profile of inlet edge shall be checked by


using split profile gauges.
Check of Profile

: All the dimensional parameters mentioned at

(13.2) shall be checked using a vertical measuring stand.


Drilling of BHEL Centre holes
Checking of BHEL Centres.