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PROJECTILE MOTION

Q.1. Explain the difference between distance and displacement.


OR
Explain the difference between speed and velocity.
Ans : Figure illustrates the motion of a particle in the x-y plane. The particle travels
from point A to point B along the path ACDB in time interval t. The length of
the path ACDB is the distance traveled by the particle in the given time interval.
The average speed of a particle during a given time interval t is the ratio of the
distance traveled by the particle to the time t.

distance ACDB
t
A vector drawn from the initial to the final position of
o
the particle is the displacement ( s ) in the given time
interval. The direction of the displacement is from the
initial position to the final position. i.e from A to B
The average velocity of a particle during the given time
interval is the ratio of the displacement of the particle to
the time t.
o
o
s
?
vav =
t

vav

S.I. unit
Dimensions

: m/s
: [M0L1T1]

Note :
1)
Distance and speed are scalar quantities.
2)
Displacement and velocity are vector quantities.

y
B

A
O

C
x

54

Projectile Motion

Q.2. Define instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed.


Ans : Instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed :
The average velocity of a particle gives the velocity of the particle over a
particular interval of time. It may or may not be equal to the velocity of the
particle at different instants in a given time interval.
Therefore, we define the instantaneous velocity. It is the velocity of the
particle at given instant of time.
o
The instantaneous velocity v is defined as the limit of the average

velocity as the time interval '
't becomes extremely small (i.e. infinitesimal)
o

dx
'x
v = lim
=
't o 0 't
dt
The instantaneous velocity may be positive, negative or zero. For a particle
moving with constant velocity the instantaneous velocity at any instant is
equal to the average velocity of the particle.
o

Instantaneous speed is the magnitude of instantaneous velocity. We know


that average speed over a finite interval of time may be greater than or
equal to the magnitude of the average velocity. But the instantaneous
speed at any instant is always equal to the magnitude of the instantaneous
velocity at that instant.
The speedometer of an automobile measures the instantaneous speed of
the automobile.
The motion of a particle is said to be uniform if it covers equal distances in
equal intervals of time along a straight line, how so ever small or large
these time intervals may be.
When the particle is in uniform motion the magnitude and direction of
velocity does not change i.e. in uniform motion the velocity of the particle
remains constant. As the velocity of the particle is constant along the
path, its average velocity is same as its instantaneous velocity.

55

Projectile Motion

Q.3. What is position-time graph ? Discuss the position-time graph of an


object (i) at rest (ii) in uniform motion (iii) in non-uniform motion.
Ans : When a body is in motion, its position changes with time. It can be
represented by a position-time graph for different conditions.
i) Object at rest :
x
For an object which is stationary, the
position-time graph is parallel to the time
Position
axis as shown below.
y

ii)

Object in uniform motion :


For an object which moves with a velocity
which remains constant in magnitude and
direction, the motion is called uniform
motion.
Figure (a) shows the position-time graph for
uniform motion.
In this case, the object was initially at rest.
The slope is positive and constant, which
indicates constant velocity.
velocity

slope

x 2 x1
t2 t1

time
Position
x
x2
x1
T
O

t1

t 2 time

tan T

Figure (b) shows the case when object had some initial displacement
(x0).
The slope is again positive and constant which indicates constant
velocity.
velocity

slope

x 2 x1
=
t2 t1

tan T

Position
x
x2
x1
x0
O

t1
(b)

t 2 time

56

Projectile Motion

iii) Object in non-uniform motion :


In this case the body initially has no displacement, then moves with a
velocity which goes on changing with time. The slope is positive but
variable which indicates a variable velocity.
y

Position

t1

t2

t3

x
time

Note :
When the motion is non-uniform motion, we find the average speed and
instantaneous speed as shown,
y

Position

Position
B

x2

P
A

x1
O

t1

A
t2

x
time

Average Speed between A and B,


vav

'x
't

x 2 x1
t2 t1

Instantaneous speed at P,

vP

slope of tangent AB

vP

'to 0

lim ' x
't

time

57

Projectile Motion

Q.4. Define and explain acceleration of a particle.


Ans : Motion of a particle is said to be accelerated if the velocity of the particle changes
with time. The rate of change of velocity is called the acceleration of the particle.
For a given time interval, the average acceleration is defined as the ratio
of the change in velocity to the corresponding time interval.
o
o
Let v1 and v2 be the initial and final velocities of a particle for a time
interval t. The average acceleration for this period is
o

v2 v1
t

S.I. unit
: m/s2
Dimensions : [M0L1T2]
If the acceleration is constant then the motion is said to be a uniformly
accelerated motion.
Deceleration or retardation is negative acceleration.
Zero acceleration corresponds to constant velocity. It also indicates that
the motion is necessarily along a straight line.
Q.5. Explain the velocity-time graph of a particle having (i) uniform velocity
(ii) uniform acceleration/retardation (iii) non-uniform acceleration/
retardation.
Ans : When a body is in motion, its velocity may or may-not change with respect
to time. It can be represented by a velocity-time graph.
i) Object with no acceleration (uniform velocity) :
For an object with a constant uniform velocity, velocity-time graph is a
straight line parallel to time axis.
y
Velocity

x
time

58

Projectile Motion

Acceleration from A to B,
a

change in velocity
time

vv
= 0
t
Displacement from A to B,
s
=
Area under v - t graph
?
s
=
Area of rectangle OABC
?
s
=
vt
ii) a)
Object with uniform acceleration :
1)
Initially at rest :
The speed of the body increases uniformly from zero, and the
velocity-time graph is a straight line inclined to time axis.
?

y
Velocity
A

time

Acceleration from O to A,

change in velocity
time

v 0
t

v
t

Displacement from O to A,
s

Area under v - t graph

Area of triangle OAB

1
(vt)
2

59

Projectile Motion

2)

Initially moving with velocity u :


The speed of body increases uniformly from initial velocity u
and velocity-time graph is a straight line inclined to time
axis.

Velocity
vu

v
A
u
O

Time

Acceleration from A to B,

change in velocity
time

vu
t

... (1)

Displacement from A to B,
s
=
Area of region OABMCO
?
s
=
Area of rectangle OAMC + Area of 'ABM
'
?

ut +

1
(v u) t
2

ut +

1
at2
2

... [From (1)]

60

Projectile Motion

b)

Object with uniform retardation :


The speed of the object decreases uniformly, such that the
velocity-time graph has negative slope.
Velocity
A

B
O

v=0
Time

Acceleration from A to B,
a

change in velocity
time

vu
0u
u
=
=
t
t
t
Displacement from A to B,
s
=
Area of tringle OAB

1
ut
2
Object with non-uniform acceleration :
The speed of the object changes variably with time, having a
variable positive slope for which acceleration goes on increasing
variably.

?
iii) a)

Velocity

b)

Time

Object with non-uniform retardation :


The speed of the object decreases variably with time, having a variable
negative slope for which acceleration goes on decreasing variably.

61

Projectile Motion

Velocity

Time

Q.6. Using velocity-time graph, derive the kinematic equations.


Ans :
B

Velocity

vu
v
A
u
O

Time

Let u be the initial velocity (at t = 0 s) and v be the final velocity after t
seconds.
i)

Acceleration from A to B,
a

change in velocity
time

vu
t

at

vu

u + at

... (1)

This is the first kinematic equation of motion.


ii)

Displacement from A to B,
s

Area of region OABDC

Area of rectangle OADC + Area of 'ABD


'

ut +

1
[(v u) t]
2

62

Projectile Motion

ut +

1
(at t)
2

... [From (1)]

1
at2
2
This is the second kinematic equation of motion.

ut +

u + at

v2

(u + at)2

v2

u2 + 2uat + a2t2

v2

u2 + 2a (ut +

v2

u 2 + 2as

... (2)

iii) Now,

Squaring,

1
at2)
2
... [From (2)]

This is the third kinematic equation of motion.


Q.7. Derive the expression for distance traveled by a body in nth second of
its motion.
Ans : i)

Let sn and s(n1) be the distance traveled by a body in n and (n1) seconds
respectively.
Then we know,
sn

s (n1) =
ii)

un +

1
an2
2

u (n1) +

1
a (n1)2
2

The distance traveled in nth second of its motion,


s

sn sn1

un +

1
1
an2 [u (n1) + a (n1)2]
2
2

un +

1 2
1
an [(un u + a (n2 2n+1)]
2
2

63

Projectile Motion

1 2
1
1
an un + u an2 + an a
2
2
2

un +

u + an

u+

1
a
2

1
a (2n1)
2

iii) For a body falling freely from its position of rest, the height covered by
it in nth second is given by,
s

u+

1
g (2n1)
2

0+

1
g (2n1)
2

1
g (2n1)
2

Q.8. Define the terms : (i) Projectile (ii) Velocity of projection (iii) Angle of
projection (iv) Trajectory.
Ans : i) Projectile :
Projectile is a body which is projected in vertical x-y plane, making a certain
angle with horizontal and is allowed to move freely under the action of gravity.
ii) Velocity of projection :
The velocity with which the projectile is projected is called the velocity of
projection.
iii) Angle of projection :
The angle made by velocity of projection with horizontal is called angle of
projection.
iv) Trajectory :
The path traced by the projectile in space is called trajectory.

64

Projectile Motion

Q.9. Derive the equation of the path of projectile.


Show that the path of projectile is parabola.
Ans :
y

OR

uy

H
T
0

i)

ii)

ux

Consider a body projected from the origin of x-y plane with velocity u
making an angle T with horizontal i.e. with x-axis.
We make following assumptions :
a)
Acceleration due to gravity is constant throughout the motion.
b)
The resistance of air to the motion is negligible.
c)
The effect of rotation of earth on projectile is negligible.
We resolve velocity of projection into two mutually perpendicular
directions, ux along x-axis and uy along y-axis.
ux
=
u cos T

u sin T
... (1)
o
o
o
?
u
=
ux i + uy j
iii) As there is no force acting on projectile along horizontal direction, its
velocity in horizontal direction remains constant.
i.e.
ax
=
0
o
In vertical direction, projectile has downward acceleration g .
i.e.
ay
=
g
Thus two components of velocity at any instant are :
vx = u x + 0
i.e.
vx = u cos T
uy

vy = uy g t

i.e.

vy = u sin T g t

iv) Using second equation of motion,


1
at2
2
The x co-ordinate of the position of particle after time t is,
s

ut +

vx t +

1
a t2
2 x

... (2)

65

Projectile Motion

v)

1
(0) t2
2

vx t +

vx t

u (cos T) t

... (3)

The y co-ordinate of the position of particle is given by,

1
a t2
2 y

vy t +

u (sin T) t

1
g t2
2

... (4)

vi) From equation (3) we get,


t

x
ucos T

Substituting this value in equation (4) we get,

x
1
x
usin T
2 g ucos T

ucos T

x tan T

1 g x2

2 u2 cos 2T

This is the equation of trajectory of the projectile. Here u, g and T are


constants. It is of the form y = ax + bx2 which represents parabola where
a and b are constants.
Thus trajectory of the projectile is parabola.
Q.10. Define (i) Time of ascent (ii) Time of descent (iii) Time of flight. Derive
necessary expressions.
Ans : i) Time of ascent :
The time of ascent is the time required for a projectile to reach maximum height.
The y-component of the velocity of projectile is,
vy
=
u sin T g t
where, u = velocity of projection
 T = angle of projection
From this equation, as time t increases, velocity along y-axis decreases.
At the highest point of the trajectory, vertical component of velocity
becomes zero.

66

Projectile Motion

Thus, at t = tA, vy = 0

ii)

u sin T g tA

tA

usin T
g

... (1)

Time of descent :
Time of descent is the time required for a projectile to travel from its maximum
height to the ground.

tD

T tA

tD

usin T
g

... (3)

? Time of ascent (tA) = Time of descent (tD)


iii) Time of flight :
The total time for which a projectile remains in air is called as time of flight.
After this time interval, projectile returns to ground. Let this time be T.
Thus, at t = T , y = 0
?
?

1
g T2
2

u (sinT
T)
T T

u (sinT
T)
T T

2usin T
g

1
g T2
2

... (2)

Q.11. Define horizontal range. Derive the necessary expression for it.
Ans : Horizontal range (R) is the distance covered by projectile in horizontal direction
between the starting point and point at which it touches the ground.
i) The total time for which projectile remains in air i.e. time of flight is
T
where,

ii)

2usin T
g

u
=
velocity of projection
T
=
angle of projection
The x co-ordinate of position of particle is given by,
x
=
u cos T t
Now, at t = T , x = R

67

Projectile Motion

2usin T
u cos T

2u2 cos T sin T


g

u2 sin2T
g

... (1)

iii) From equation (1) we can say that R is maximum when


sin 2T
T
=
1
i.e.
2T
T
=
900
i.e.
T
=
450
Hence, maximum horizontal range is
Rmax

u2
g

when T = 450

Note :
When T = 450, maximum height reached by projectile,
H

u2 sin2 T
2g

1
u2

2
2g

u2
4g

R max
when T = 450
4
i.e. Horizontal range is four times maximum height
?

Q.12. Derive an expression for maximum height reached by the projectile.


Ans :
y

usin T

H
T
O

ucosT
T

x
R

68

Projectile Motion

i)
ii)

Consider a body projected from the origin of x-y plane with velocity u
making an angle T with horizontal i.e. with x-axis.
From the first kinematical equation, the velocity of projectile along y-axis,
vy
=
uy + ayt
Now, uy = u sin T
?

vy

and

ay = g

u sin T g t

iii) At highest point, vertical component of velocity is zero. i.e. at t = tA, vy = 0


?

u sin T g tA

tA

usin T
g

... (1)

iv) The y-coordinate of position of particle is given by,

v)

1
g t2
... (2)
2
Maximum height (H) reached by projectile is obtained by putting t = tA in
equation (2). i.e. at t = tA, y = H
?

(u sin T) t

(u sin T) tA

usin T 1 usin T
usin T
g

g 2 g

u2 sin2 T u2 sin2 T

g
2g

u2 sin2 T
2g

1
g t2A
2
2

This is the expression for maximum height reached by the projectile.


Q.13. Show that for a given velocity of projection, there are two angles of
projection which give the same range of projectile.
Ans :
y
700
600
450
30 0
20 0
O

x
Range

69

Projectile Motion

i)

The horizontal range of projectile is given as,


R

u2 sin2T
g

... (1)

where, u = velocity of projection


T = angle of projection
ii)

When the projectile is projected with the same velocity of projection


u, in a direction making an angle (900 T) with the horizontal, then
the range of the projectile (R1) is given by,
u2 sin 2 90 0 T

R1

... [From (1)]

g
u2 sin 1800 2T

R1

R1

u2 sin 2T
g

R1

... (... sin (1800 x) = sin x)


... [From (1)]

iii) Thus horizontal range of projectile is same for any two angles, T and
900 T , projected with same velocity.
Thus horizontal range of projectile is same for complementary angles.
The trajectories of projectile are different but range remains the same.
Q.14. Derive the expression for trajectory of a particle projected horizontally
with velocity u from height H.
Ans : i) Consider a particle projected horizontally
y
with velocity u from height H.
u
?
ux =
u
... (1)
uy
ii)

... (2)

The particle experiences a force in the


vertically downward direction. Hence,
ax
=
0
ay

HORIZONTAL PROJECTION

iii) From the first kinematical equation,


vx
=
ux + axt
?

vx

... [From (1)]

70

Projectile Motion

Also,
?

vy

uy + ayt

vy

gt

... [From (2)]

iv) From the second kinematical equation,

1
a t2
2 x

u xt +

ut

... [From (1)]

x
u

... (3)

Also,

u yt +

1
g t2
2

... [From (2)]

2
1
x
g
2
u

... [From (3)]

1
a t2
2 y

1 g 2

x
2 u2
K x2

1 g

2 u2
Thus, path of the particle is parabolic.

Where,

Note :
1)
Time of flight :
i) Time of flight is the time taken by the particle to reach ground i.e. to
travel a vertical distance of H.
ii) The vertical distance traveled is given by,
y
iii) At t = T,

1
g t2
2

y = H

1
g T2
2

T2

2H
g

71

Projectile Motion

2)

2H
g

... (4)

Horizontal range :
i) Horizontal range is the distance traveled by the particle in the horizontal
direction before reaching the ground.
ii) The horizontal distance traveled is given by,
x
=
ut
iii) At t = T, x = R
?
R
=
uT
?

2H
g

... [From (4)]

72

Projectile Motion

Classwork Problems
Uniformly accelerated motion along a straight line :
1)
A car moves at a constant speed of 60 km/h for 1 km and 40 km/h for the
next 1 km. What is the average speed of the car ?
[Ans : 48 km/h]
2)

A body travels from place A to place B with uniform velocity of 10 m/s and
travels back from place B to place A with uniform velocity of 25 m/s. Calculate
the average velocity of the body for the whole journey. [Ans : 14.29 m/s]

3)

A train travels at a speed of 50 km/h for 0.5 h, at 30 km/h for the next 0.26
h and at 70 km/h for the subsequent 0.76 h. What is the average speed of
the train ?
[Ans : 56.58 km/h]
A stone is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 30 m/s. How high will
it rise ? After how much time will it return to ground ?
[Take g = 10 m/s2]
[Ans : 45 m, 6 s]

4)

5)

A stone is dropped from the top of a building 147 m high. How long will it
take to reach the ground ? What will be its velocity when it strikes the
ground ?
[Ans : 5.48 s, 53.70 m/s]

6)

A train travelling at 90 km/hr is brought to rest by the application of brakes


in a distance of 75 m. Find the time in which the train is brought to rest.
Also calculate the distance covered by the train in the first half and the
second half of this time interval.
[Ans : 6 s, 56.25 m, 18.75 m]

7)

A stone is released from the top of a tower 90 m high. At the same instant
a second stone is projected vertically upwards from the ground with a
velocity of 30 m/s. When and where will the two stones meet ?
[Ans : Two stones meet each other at 44.1 m from the top or 45.9 m from
the ground after 3 seconds]

8)

A train, 100m long and stationary, is given the all clear by a signal 80m
ahead of it. The train then accelerates uniformly at 0.4 m/s2. Find the
time taken for the engine driver (at the front) and the guard (at the back) of
the train to pass the signal. At what speed is the train moving at each of
these times ?
[Ans : 12 m/s]

9)

A body released from rest from a certain height was observed to cover
78.4 m in the last two seconds before hitting the ground. Find the height from
which it was released. (g = 9.8 m/s2)
[Ans : 122.5 m]

73

Projectile Motion

10)

Starting from rest, a car moves with uniform acceleration and attains a
velocity of 72 km/hr in 20 s. It then moves with uniform speed for 25 s and
is then brought to rest in 10 s under uniform retardation. Find the total
distance travelled using velcoity-time graph.
[Ans : 800 m]

11)

The speed of a car is reduced from 90 km/h to 36 km/h in 5 s. What is the


distance travelled by the car in this time interval ?
[Ans : 87.5 m]
12) A jet aeroplane traveling at the speed of 500 km/h ejects its exhaust
(products of combusion) at the speed of 1500 km/h relative to the plane.
What is the relative velocity of the latter (exhaust) with respect to an
observer on the ground ?
[Ans : 1000 km/h]
Projectile Motion :
13) A particle is projected obliquely into air with a velocity of 98 m/s at an
angle of elevation of 300. Write down its equation of motion. (g = 9.8 m/s2)
x
x

3
490 3
A bullet is fired from the gun. It covers maximum horizontal distance of
10 km. Determine the velocity of projection and the maximum height attained
by the bullet.
[Ans : 313 m/s, 2492 m]
Ans : y =

14)

15)

A body is thrown with velocity of 49 m/s at an angle of 30 0 with the


horizontal. Find :
i)
time of flight
ii)
horizontal range
iii) maximum height
iv) direction of velocity after 2.5 s
[Ans : 5 s, 212.17 m, 30.625 m, horizontal]

16)

Find the angle of projection at which the horizontal range is twice the
maximum height of a projectile.
[Ans : 63 24c]

17)

A batsman makes a half volley and lifts a ball with a velocity of 19.6 m/s at
an angle of elevation of 300. A fielder stationed 40 m away from the batsman
runs forward to catch the ball. How fast he must have run if he manages to
catch the ball just before it strikes the ground ?
[Ans : 3.03 m/s]

18)

An aeroplane is flying horizontally at height of 1254.4 m with a velocity of


180 km/hr. An object is released from the aeroplane. How far from the
location will the object land and after what time ?
[Ans : 800 m, 16 s]

74

19)

Projectile Motion

A particle is projected with speed of u at an angle T to the horizontal on an


inclined surface making an angle I I <

to the horizontal. Find an

expression for its range along the inclined surface.


Ans : R =

2 u 2 cos sin I
g cos 2 I

V0
T
I

20)
21)

22)

A man throws a ball to maximum horizontal distance of 80 m. Calculate the


maximum height reached.
[Ans : 20 m]
A body is thrown with a velocity of 40 m/s in a direction making an angle of
30 0 with the horizontal. Calculate (i) the horizontal range (ii) maximum
(peak) height attained (iii) the time taken to reach the maximum height.
[Ans : 141.4 m]
A body is projected from the top of a tower with a velocity of 10 m/s at an
angle of 300 with the horizontal. The body hits the ground four seconds
after the projection. Find
i)
the range of the projectile
ii)
the height of the tower
iii) the time taken by the body to attain the maximum height
iv) the maximum height attained by the body
(as measured from the ground).
[Ans : 34.64m, h = y = 58.4m, 0.5102 s, 59.675 m]

Position-Time (x - t) graph and velocity-Time (v - t) graph :


23) Figure shows the velocity-time graph for a car.
v(m/s)
A

20

15
10
5
0

From the figure, answer the following questions :


i)
What is the initial speed of the car ?

t(s)

75

Projectile Motion

ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
24)

What is the maximum speed attained by the car ?


Which part of the graph shows zero acceleration ?
Which part of the graph shows varying retardation ?
Find the distance travelled by the car in the first 6 seconds.

A car is moving on a straight road with uniform acceleration. The speed of


the car varies with time as follows :
Time (s)
Speed (m/s)

0
5

10
10

20
15

30
20

40
25

50
30

Draw the speed-time graph by choosing a convenient scale. Calculate (i)


the acceleration of the car 9ii) the distance travelled by the car in the first
10 seconds.

Classwork Solutions
1.
Solution :
v1
= 60 km/h,
v2
= 40 km/h,
s

s = 1 km,
s2 = 1 km

= vt

? t1

t2

s1
1
h
v 1 = 60

? vav

? vav

and

1
1
+
10 25

2 u 10 u 25
10 + 25

? vav

500
= 14.29 m/s
35

Hence, average velocity for whole journey is


14.29 m/s.

s1 + s2
= t +t
1
2

1+ 1
2 u 120
=
=
1
1
2+3
+
60 40
= 2 u 24 = 48 km/h
=

2s

? vav

Average speed of the car


=

s
s
+
10 25

s2
1
h
=
v2
40

total dis tan ce


total time

2s

2 u 120
5

2.
Solution :
u1 = 10 m/s
u2 = 25 m/s
a
= 0
Let us take direction from place A to place B as
positive. For journey from place A to place B,
s
= u1 t1
s
? t1 =
10
For the return journey from place B to place A,
s
= u2 t2
s
? t2 =
25
total distance covered
Average velocity =
total time taken
s+s
? vav =
t1 + t2

3. Given :
Q 1 = 50 km/h
t1 = 0.5 h
Q 2 = 30 km/h
t2 = 0.26 h
Q 3 = 70 km/h
t3 = 0.76 h
s = Qt
Average speed of the train
=

total distance
total time

s 1 + s 2 + s3
t1 + t2 + t3

v1 t 1 + v2 t2 + v 3 t 3
t 1 + t 2 + t3

50 u 0.5 + 30 u 0.26 + 70 u 0.76


0.5 + 0.26 + 0.76

25 + 7.8 + 53.2
86
=
1.52
1.52
= 56.58 km/h
=

77

Projectile Motion

4.
Solution :
u
= 30 m/s
g
= 10 m/s2
In case of vertical projection, T = 900
? sin 900 = 1
Maximum height reached,
H

u2 sin2 T
2g

900 u 1
= 45 m
2 u 10
Time of flight,
2 u sin T
T =
g
? H

? T
? T

=
=

2 u 30 u sin 90
10
6s

5.
Solution :
s
= 147 m
From first equation of motion,
v =u + a t
Since u = 0
? v
= at
From second equation of motion,
1 2
s
= ut +
at
2
1
? 147 = (0) t +
(9.8) t2
2
147 u 2
? t2 =
9.8
2
? t
= 30

6.
Solution :
5
m/s
18

90 km/hr = 90 u

? u
s
v
Using,
v2
? 0

=
=
=

25 m/s
75 m
0

=
=

? a

u2 + 2as
625 + (2a u 75)
625
25

=
m/s2
150
6

Using,
v
=

u+at

? 0

25 +

25
t
6

25
t = 25
6
? t
= 6s
For the first half of motion,
t
= 3s
Using,
1 2
s1 = ut +
at
2
1
25

9
? s1 = (25 u 3) +
2
6
? s1 = 56.25 m
For the second half of motion,
s2 = s s1
?

? s2
? s2

=
=

75 56.25
18.75 m

7.
Solution :
? t
= 5.4 s
Let the stone released meet the other stone at a
Since t cannot be negative,
distance x from the top. Hence,
? t
= 5.4 s
u1
=
0
Also,
s1
=
x
v
= gt
1
s1
=
u1t + g t2
? v
= 9.8 u 5.4 = 53.70 m/s
2
Time taken by particle is 5.4 s and velocity when
1
?
x
=
0+
u 9.8 t2
it strikes gound is 53.70 m/s.
2

78

Projectile Motion

?
x
=
4.9 t2
... (i)
Other stone is projected vertically upward with
a velocity u2. Hence,
u2
=
30 m/s
s2
=
(90 x)
1
?
s2
=
u2t + at2
2
?
90 x
=
30 t 4.9 t2
... (ii)

360
= 900 s2
0.4
? The time taken by the guard to pass
the signal, t2 = 30 s
30 seconds after starting from rest, the
speed of the train is
Q2 = u2 + at2
= 0 + (0.4 m/s2) (30 s)
= 12 m/s

Addition equation (i) and (ii),


x + 90 x
?
90
?
t
From equation
x
?
x

=
=
=
(i),
=
=

4.9t2 + 30t 4.9t2


30t
3s
4.9t2 = 4.9 u 9
44.1 m

8. Given :
s1 = 80m
s2 = (80 + 100)m
= 180m
u = 0 m/s
a = 0.4 m/s2
1) For the engine driver :
1
s1 = ut 1 + at 21
2
? 80m = 0 +

1
0.4m /s 2 t 21
2

t2 =

9.
Solution :
u = 0
g = 9.8 m/s2
Distance covered in last two second is 78.4 m.
? s
= 78.4
But, the distance travelled in last 2 seconds,
1

1
2

2
s = u n + an u n 2 + a n 2
2

? s

2
un + 2 an

2
un 2u + 2 an 2an +2a

? s
? s
? 78.4
? 4
? n

=
=
=
=
=

2u + 2an 2a
2u + 2a (n 1)
0 + 2 (9.8) (n 1)
n1
5s
1 2
ut +
at
2
1
0 + u 9.8 u 25
2
122.5 m

160
= 400 s2
0.4
? The time taken by the engine driver
s
=
to pass the signal, t1 = 20 s
20 seconds after starting from rest, the
=
? s
speed of the train is
Q1 = u1 + at1
? s
=
= 0 + (0.4 m/s2) (20 s)
= 8 m/s
10.
2) For the guard :
Solution :
1 2
v = 72 km/hr
s2 = ut 2 + at 2
2
5
? v =
72
m /s
1
2
2
18
0
+
0.4m
/s
t
? 180m =
2
2
? v = 20 m/s
?

t1 =

79

Projectile Motion

From the given data, velocity-time graph is 12. Given :


drawn. It is shown below.
Let v e and v j be the velocities of the
exhaust and the jet aeroplane relative to
A
D
(an observer on) the ground. Let vej be
20
15
the relative velocity of the exhaust with
respect to the plane.
10
vej = ve vj
5
?
ve = vej + vj
C
B
E
O
Given :
10
20 30
40 50 55
time (t)
v j = 500 km/h
Total distance travelled by car is area enclosed
vej = 1500 km/h (the minus sign
by the graph OADE with time axis.
indicates that vej is opposite to vj)
? The relative velocity of the exhaust
1
? s
=
u(OB
u AB) + (AB u BC)
u
with respect to the ground is
2
ve = 1500 + 500 = 1000 km/h
1
u(CE
u
u CD)
+
2
Projectile motion
? s

1
u20
u u 20 + (20 u 25)
2
1
u10
u u 20
2
200 + 500 + 100 = 800 m
+

? s

Total distance travelled by the car is 800 m.


11.
Solution :
u = 90 km/hr

5
m /s
18
25 m/s

36 km/h = 36 u

13.
Solution :
u
= 98 m/s
T
= 300
=

x tan T

x tan 300

tan 300 =

72

?y

=
10 m/s, t = 5 s
Assuming constant acceleration (here, ? y
deceleration), the distance travelled by the car,

s = vav t =
=

5
18

1
(u + v) t
2

1
(25 + 10) u 5 = 17.5 u 5 = 87.5 m
2

1
2

1
3
x
3

x
3

450

u 2 cos 2 T
g x2
2 98 cos 300

and cos 300 =

9.8 x 2
3

2 9898
4

x
1

490 3

14.
Solution :
Rmax = 10 km
T

g x2

3
2

80

Projectile Motion

For maximum range T = 450


g
= 9.8 m/s2

? u2

u2
= 10000
g
10000 u 9.8

? u

10000 u 9.8 = 100 x 3.13

? u

313 m/s

Rmax =

Maximum height,
H
?H

u2 sin2 T
2g

313

? R

49 u 49 u sin (2 u 300)
9.8

? R

5 u 49 u sin 600

? R

245 u 0.866 = 212.17 m

Maximum height,
u2 sin2T
H =
2g
? H

49 u 49 u sin2 300
2 u 9.8

? H

49 u

? H

245
8

sin 2 450
2 9.8

5
1
x
2
2

1
313 313
2
19.6

? H = 30.625 m
The time of flight is 5 s.
? H =
5
? time of ascent =
= 2.5 s
? H = 2492 m
2
Thus, velocity of projection is 313 m/s and At the end of 2.5 second body reaches
maximum height. Thus its velocity is in
maximum height reached is 2492 m.
horizontal direction.
15.
Solution :
u = 49 m/s
T

300

g
= 9.8 m/s2
Time of flight,
2u sin T
T =
g
? T

2 u 49 u sin 300
9.8

? T

98 u 0.5
9.8

? T = 5s
Horizontal range,
u2 sin2T
R =
g

16.
Solution :
R = 2H
u2 sin 2T
T
u2 sin2 T
?
= 2
g
2g
?

sin 2T
T

= sin2 T

?2 sin T cos T
?
2
?
T
?
T

=
=
=
=

sin2 T
tan T
tan1 (2)
630 24cc

17.
Solution :
u
T
Distance

= 19.6 m/s
= 300
= 40 m

81

Projectile Motion

Horizontal range,
R

u sin 2T
T
g

19.6 u 19.6 u sin 600


9.8

= 19.6 u 2 u

= 19.6 u 3

R
= 33.94 m
Time of flight,
2u sin T
T
=
g

3
2

where u = 0 for vertical motion


1
?
s
=
g t2
2
1
?
1254.4 =
u 9.8 u t2
2
1254.4 u 2
?
t2
=
9.8
2
?
t
= 256
?
t
= 16 s
Horizontal displacement,
x
=
uut
?
x
=
50 u 16
?
x
=
800 m
Thus object lands at a distance of 800 m from
the location it is dropped.

2 u 19.6 u sin 300


9.8
1
19.
?
T
= 2u2u
=2s
2
Solution :
He catches the ball means he covers the distance
in 2 sec.
Distance covered by the boy,
R
?
s
= 40 33.94
V0
?
s
= 6.06 m
? His speed is,
T
I
6.06
v
=
= 3.03 m/s
2
The particle is projected with velocity u making
angle T with horizontal.
18.
?
ux
= u cos T
and
Solution :
uy
= u sin T
s
= 1254.4 m
Let R be the distance travelled along the
u
= 180 km/hr
inclined surface.
180000
?
u
=
= 50 m/s
?
x
= R cos I
3600
Initially velocity of object is same as that of
y
= R sin I
aeroplane i.e. 50 m/s. Due to gravitational Also, we know,
acceleration velocity of object goes on
ax
= 0
and
increasing in vertically downward direction and
ay
= g
horizontal velocity is constant.
Using second kinematical equation,
We have,
1
1
x
= uxt +
a t2
2
s
= ut +
gt
2 x
2
?

82

Projectile Motion

? R cos I

= (u cos T) t +

Also,

= uyt +

? R sin I

R sin I

1
(0) t2
2

H =

R cos I
u cos T

... (i)

1
a t2
2 y

u sin T t

1
g t2
2

R sin T cos I

=
cos T

R sin I

2
2
1 g R cos I

2
2
2 u cos T

2
2
R sin T cos I
1 g R cos I
2
=
R sin I
2
2 u cos T
cos T

sin T cos I sin I cos T


1 g R cos I
2
=
2
2 u cos T
cos T

1 g R cos I

= sin T I
2 u 2 cos T

g = 9.8 m/s2

2 u cos sin I

40 m / s sin 2 u 30 0
u2 sin 2 T
=
9.8 m / s 2
g

1600 u 0.866
1600 sin 600
=
=
9.8
9.8
= 141.14 m
ii) The maximum (peak) height attained by the
projectile,
H =

40 m /s sin 30 0
2 9.8m / s 2

u 2 sin 2 T
=
2g
40 u 0.5

400
= 20.41 m
2 u 9.8

2 u 9.8
iii) The time taken to reach the maximum height,
i.e., the time of ascent,
ta =

u sin T
g

40 u 0.5
9.8

20
9.8

80 m
= 20 m
4

21.
Solution :
u = 40 m/s, T = 300,
i) The horizontal range,
R =

[From (i)]
?

R cos I
u sin T u cos T

R cos I
1

g
2
u cos T

R max
4

40 m / s sin 30 0
9.8m / s 2

= 2.041 s

g cos 2 I

22. Given :
u =
20.
T =
Solution :
t =
Rmax = 80 m
g =
Rmax = 4 H
i) R =
? The maximum height reached by the ball in
t =
its path when the range is maximum is
=

10m/s
300
4s
9.8 m/s2
x = u cos T
(10m/s)(cos 300) (4s)
10 u 0.866 u 4

83

Projectile Motion

? R = 8.66 u 4 = 34.64 m
? The range of the projectile = 34.64 m
o
u
usinT
T

A(t = t1)

T
O ucosT
T

t = 4s
B

Tower
Ground
R=x

1 2
ii) y = u sin Tt gt
2
=

10m / s sin 300 4s

1
2
u 9.8m /s2 4s
2
= 10 u 0.5 u 4 9.8 u 8
? y = 20 78.4 = 58.4 m
? The height of the tower,
h = y = 58.4 m
iii) At the highest point,
X y = 0 and t = t1 (say)
? u sin T
T gt1 = 0

? t1 =

? t1 =

usin T
g

1
2
9.8m /s 2 0.5102s
2
= 10 u 0.5 u 0.5102 4.9 u (0.5102)2
? y1 = 2.551 1.276 = 1.275 m
? h + y1 = 58.4 + 1.275
= 59.675 m
? The maximum height attained by the
body (as measured from the ground)
= 59.675 m

23. Solution :
i) The initial speed (at t = 0) of the car speed
of O = 0 m/s.
ii) The maximum speed attained by the carspeed at A = 20 m/s.
iii) The car has zero acceleration (or constant
speed)between t = 3 s and t = 6 s as shown
by the region AB.
iv) None, since the 2 seconds time interval (t =
6 s to t = 8 s) in which the car decelerates,
the graph is a straight line showing that
there is uniform retardation.
[Note : The car had varying speed in the
regions OA and BC.]
v) The distance travelled by the car in the first
6 seconds.
= area under the curve OAB
= area of 'OAE + area of react. ABDE
=

1
OE u AE + AB u AE
2

1
u 3 u 20 + 3 u 20 = 30 + 60 = 90 m
2

10m /s sin 30 0
9.8m /s 2
10 u 0.5
=
9.8

5
9.8

24. Solution :
From the data, the speed-time graph for the
? The time taken by the body to attain the motion is shown in figure.
The acceleration of the car = the slope of the
maximum height = 0.5102 s
line
1 2
iv) y = u sin T t gt
25 m / s 15m / s
2
v2 v1
=
=
40 s 20 s
t2 t1
1 2
? y1 = u sin T t 1 gt 1
(for t = t1)
2
= 0.5 m/s2
= (10m/s)(sin300)(0.5102 s)
=

= 0.5102 s

84

Projectile Motion
v(m/s)
30
25
20
20
(v1 ,t 1)
B
15
10 A
5
C
0
10 20 30

(v2 ,t2 )

40

50

t(s)

The distance travelled by the car in the first 10 s


= area under the line AB
=

1
OC + (OA + BC)
2

1
u 10 u(5
u + 10) = 5 u 15 = 75 m
2

85

Projectile Motion

Homework Problems
1)

2)
3)

4)
5)

6)

A railway train 150 m long and traveling at a constant speed of 45 km/hr crosses
a 900 m long bridge. How much time it will take to cross the bridge ?
[Ans : 1 minute 24 s]
A car moves at a constant speed of 60 km/hr for 1 km and 40 km/hr for next
1 km. What is the average speed of the car ?
[Ans : 48 km/hr]
A body traveling along a straight line with uniform acceleration travels 30 m in
5th second and 36 m in the 8th second. Find the acceleration and the initial
velocity.
[Ans : 2 m/s2, 21 m/s]
A body is projected vertically upwards with velocity of 49 m/s. How much high
will it rise ? How long will it be in air ?
[Ans : 122.5 m, 10 s]
A stone is thrown vertically upwards from the top of a tower with a velocity of
15 m/s. Two seconds later, a second stone is dropped from the top of the
tower. If both the stone strike the ground simultaneously, find the height of
the tower. (g = 10 m/s2)
[Ans : 20 m]
A car is moving on a straight road with uniform acceleration. The speed of car
varies with time as follows :
Speed (m/s)
Time (s)

7)
8)
9)
10)

11)

12)

5
0

10
10

15
20

20
30

25
40

30
50

Draw the speed-time graph by choosing a convenient scale.


Calculate : (i) acceleration of the car (ii) distance traveled by the car in 10 s.
[Ans : 0.5 m/s2, 75 m]
A body is projected from the ground with a velocity of 20 m/s at an angle of 600
with the horizontal. Find its speed at the highest point.
[Ans : 10 m/s]
Prove that when a particle is projected so as to have a maximum horizontal
range, the maximum height reached is one fourth of the horizontal range.
A man throws a ball to maximum horizontal distance of 80 m. Calculate the
maximum height reached.
[Ans : 20 m]
0
A stone projected at an angle of 45 with the horizontal, covers a horizontal range
of 20 m. Calculate the velocity of projection of the body. (g = 9.8 m/s2)
[Ans : 14 m/s]
A body is thrown with velocity of 40 m/s in a direction making an angle of 300
with the horizontal. Calculate : (i) horizontal range (ii) maximum height (iii)
time taken to reach the maximum height.
[Ans : 141.4 m, 20.41 m, 2.041 s]
A bullet is fired horizontally from the top of a tower of height 44.1 m with
velocity of 600 m/s. The cartridge case falls to the foot of the tower. Which will
reach the ground first ? At what distance apart they will hit the ground ?
[Ans : Both hit ground simultaneously, 1800 m]