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OR

Explain the difference between speed and velocity.

Ans : Figure illustrates the motion of a particle in the x-y plane. The particle travels

from point A to point B along the path ACDB in time interval t. The length of

the path ACDB is the distance traveled by the particle in the given time interval.

The average speed of a particle during a given time interval t is the ratio of the

distance traveled by the particle to the time t.

distance ACDB

t

A vector drawn from the initial to the final position of

o

the particle is the displacement ( s ) in the given time

interval. The direction of the displacement is from the

initial position to the final position. i.e from A to B

The average velocity of a particle during the given time

interval is the ratio of the displacement of the particle to

the time t.

o

o

s

?

vav =

t

vav

S.I. unit

Dimensions

: m/s

: [M0L1T1]

Note :

1)

Distance and speed are scalar quantities.

2)

Displacement and velocity are vector quantities.

y

B

A

O

C

x

54

Projectile Motion

Ans : Instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed :

The average velocity of a particle gives the velocity of the particle over a

particular interval of time. It may or may not be equal to the velocity of the

particle at different instants in a given time interval.

Therefore, we define the instantaneous velocity. It is the velocity of the

particle at given instant of time.

o

The instantaneous velocity v is defined as the limit of the average

velocity as the time interval '

't becomes extremely small (i.e. infinitesimal)

o

dx

'x

v = lim

=

't o 0 't

dt

The instantaneous velocity may be positive, negative or zero. For a particle

moving with constant velocity the instantaneous velocity at any instant is

equal to the average velocity of the particle.

o

that average speed over a finite interval of time may be greater than or

equal to the magnitude of the average velocity. But the instantaneous

speed at any instant is always equal to the magnitude of the instantaneous

velocity at that instant.

The speedometer of an automobile measures the instantaneous speed of

the automobile.

The motion of a particle is said to be uniform if it covers equal distances in

equal intervals of time along a straight line, how so ever small or large

these time intervals may be.

When the particle is in uniform motion the magnitude and direction of

velocity does not change i.e. in uniform motion the velocity of the particle

remains constant. As the velocity of the particle is constant along the

path, its average velocity is same as its instantaneous velocity.

55

Projectile Motion

object (i) at rest (ii) in uniform motion (iii) in non-uniform motion.

Ans : When a body is in motion, its position changes with time. It can be

represented by a position-time graph for different conditions.

i) Object at rest :

x

For an object which is stationary, the

position-time graph is parallel to the time

Position

axis as shown below.

y

ii)

For an object which moves with a velocity

which remains constant in magnitude and

direction, the motion is called uniform

motion.

Figure (a) shows the position-time graph for

uniform motion.

In this case, the object was initially at rest.

The slope is positive and constant, which

indicates constant velocity.

velocity

slope

x 2 x1

t2 t1

time

Position

x

x2

x1

T

O

t1

t 2 time

tan T

Figure (b) shows the case when object had some initial displacement

(x0).

The slope is again positive and constant which indicates constant

velocity.

velocity

slope

x 2 x1

=

t2 t1

tan T

Position

x

x2

x1

x0

O

t1

(b)

t 2 time

56

Projectile Motion

In this case the body initially has no displacement, then moves with a

velocity which goes on changing with time. The slope is positive but

variable which indicates a variable velocity.

y

Position

t1

t2

t3

x

time

Note :

When the motion is non-uniform motion, we find the average speed and

instantaneous speed as shown,

y

Position

Position

B

x2

P

A

x1

O

t1

A

t2

x

time

vav

'x

't

x 2 x1

t2 t1

Instantaneous speed at P,

vP

slope of tangent AB

vP

'to 0

lim ' x

't

time

57

Projectile Motion

Ans : Motion of a particle is said to be accelerated if the velocity of the particle changes

with time. The rate of change of velocity is called the acceleration of the particle.

For a given time interval, the average acceleration is defined as the ratio

of the change in velocity to the corresponding time interval.

o

o

Let v1 and v2 be the initial and final velocities of a particle for a time

interval t. The average acceleration for this period is

o

v2 v1

t

S.I. unit

: m/s2

Dimensions : [M0L1T2]

If the acceleration is constant then the motion is said to be a uniformly

accelerated motion.

Deceleration or retardation is negative acceleration.

Zero acceleration corresponds to constant velocity. It also indicates that

the motion is necessarily along a straight line.

Q.5. Explain the velocity-time graph of a particle having (i) uniform velocity

(ii) uniform acceleration/retardation (iii) non-uniform acceleration/

retardation.

Ans : When a body is in motion, its velocity may or may-not change with respect

to time. It can be represented by a velocity-time graph.

i) Object with no acceleration (uniform velocity) :

For an object with a constant uniform velocity, velocity-time graph is a

straight line parallel to time axis.

y

Velocity

x

time

58

Projectile Motion

Acceleration from A to B,

a

change in velocity

time

vv

= 0

t

Displacement from A to B,

s

=

Area under v - t graph

?

s

=

Area of rectangle OABC

?

s

=

vt

ii) a)

Object with uniform acceleration :

1)

Initially at rest :

The speed of the body increases uniformly from zero, and the

velocity-time graph is a straight line inclined to time axis.

?

y

Velocity

A

time

Acceleration from O to A,

change in velocity

time

v 0

t

v

t

Displacement from O to A,

s

1

(vt)

2

59

Projectile Motion

2)

The speed of body increases uniformly from initial velocity u

and velocity-time graph is a straight line inclined to time

axis.

Velocity

vu

v

A

u

O

Time

Acceleration from A to B,

change in velocity

time

vu

t

... (1)

Displacement from A to B,

s

=

Area of region OABMCO

?

s

=

Area of rectangle OAMC + Area of 'ABM

'

?

ut +

1

(v u) t

2

ut +

1

at2

2

60

Projectile Motion

b)

The speed of the object decreases uniformly, such that the

velocity-time graph has negative slope.

Velocity

A

B

O

v=0

Time

Acceleration from A to B,

a

change in velocity

time

vu

0u

u

=

=

t

t

t

Displacement from A to B,

s

=

Area of tringle OAB

1

ut

2

Object with non-uniform acceleration :

The speed of the object changes variably with time, having a

variable positive slope for which acceleration goes on increasing

variably.

?

iii) a)

Velocity

b)

Time

The speed of the object decreases variably with time, having a variable

negative slope for which acceleration goes on decreasing variably.

61

Projectile Motion

Velocity

Time

Ans :

B

Velocity

vu

v

A

u

O

Time

Let u be the initial velocity (at t = 0 s) and v be the final velocity after t

seconds.

i)

Acceleration from A to B,

a

change in velocity

time

vu

t

at

vu

u + at

... (1)

ii)

Displacement from A to B,

s

'

ut +

1

[(v u) t]

2

62

Projectile Motion

ut +

1

(at t)

2

1

at2

2

This is the second kinematic equation of motion.

ut +

u + at

v2

(u + at)2

v2

u2 + 2uat + a2t2

v2

u2 + 2a (ut +

v2

u 2 + 2as

... (2)

iii) Now,

Squaring,

1

at2)

2

... [From (2)]

Q.7. Derive the expression for distance traveled by a body in nth second of

its motion.

Ans : i)

Let sn and s(n1) be the distance traveled by a body in n and (n1) seconds

respectively.

Then we know,

sn

s (n1) =

ii)

un +

1

an2

2

u (n1) +

1

a (n1)2

2

s

sn sn1

un +

1

1

an2 [u (n1) + a (n1)2]

2

2

un +

1 2

1

an [(un u + a (n2 2n+1)]

2

2

63

Projectile Motion

1 2

1

1

an un + u an2 + an a

2

2

2

un +

u + an

u+

1

a

2

1

a (2n1)

2

iii) For a body falling freely from its position of rest, the height covered by

it in nth second is given by,

s

u+

1

g (2n1)

2

0+

1

g (2n1)

2

1

g (2n1)

2

Q.8. Define the terms : (i) Projectile (ii) Velocity of projection (iii) Angle of

projection (iv) Trajectory.

Ans : i) Projectile :

Projectile is a body which is projected in vertical x-y plane, making a certain

angle with horizontal and is allowed to move freely under the action of gravity.

ii) Velocity of projection :

The velocity with which the projectile is projected is called the velocity of

projection.

iii) Angle of projection :

The angle made by velocity of projection with horizontal is called angle of

projection.

iv) Trajectory :

The path traced by the projectile in space is called trajectory.

64

Projectile Motion

Show that the path of projectile is parabola.

Ans :

y

OR

uy

H

T

0

i)

ii)

ux

Consider a body projected from the origin of x-y plane with velocity u

making an angle T with horizontal i.e. with x-axis.

We make following assumptions :

a)

Acceleration due to gravity is constant throughout the motion.

b)

The resistance of air to the motion is negligible.

c)

The effect of rotation of earth on projectile is negligible.

We resolve velocity of projection into two mutually perpendicular

directions, ux along x-axis and uy along y-axis.

ux

=

u cos T

u sin T

... (1)

o

o

o

?

u

=

ux i + uy j

iii) As there is no force acting on projectile along horizontal direction, its

velocity in horizontal direction remains constant.

i.e.

ax

=

0

o

In vertical direction, projectile has downward acceleration g .

i.e.

ay

=

g

Thus two components of velocity at any instant are :

vx = u x + 0

i.e.

vx = u cos T

uy

vy = uy g t

i.e.

vy = u sin T g t

1

at2

2

The x co-ordinate of the position of particle after time t is,

s

ut +

vx t +

1

a t2

2 x

... (2)

65

Projectile Motion

v)

1

(0) t2

2

vx t +

vx t

u (cos T) t

... (3)

1

a t2

2 y

vy t +

u (sin T) t

1

g t2

2

... (4)

t

x

ucos T

x

1

x

usin T

2 g ucos T

ucos T

x tan T

1 g x2

2 u2 cos 2T

constants. It is of the form y = ax + bx2 which represents parabola where

a and b are constants.

Thus trajectory of the projectile is parabola.

Q.10. Define (i) Time of ascent (ii) Time of descent (iii) Time of flight. Derive

necessary expressions.

Ans : i) Time of ascent :

The time of ascent is the time required for a projectile to reach maximum height.

The y-component of the velocity of projectile is,

vy

=

u sin T g t

where, u = velocity of projection

T = angle of projection

From this equation, as time t increases, velocity along y-axis decreases.

At the highest point of the trajectory, vertical component of velocity

becomes zero.

66

Projectile Motion

Thus, at t = tA, vy = 0

ii)

u sin T g tA

tA

usin T

g

... (1)

Time of descent :

Time of descent is the time required for a projectile to travel from its maximum

height to the ground.

tD

T tA

tD

usin T

g

... (3)

iii) Time of flight :

The total time for which a projectile remains in air is called as time of flight.

After this time interval, projectile returns to ground. Let this time be T.

Thus, at t = T , y = 0

?

?

1

g T2

2

u (sinT

T)

T T

u (sinT

T)

T T

2usin T

g

1

g T2

2

... (2)

Q.11. Define horizontal range. Derive the necessary expression for it.

Ans : Horizontal range (R) is the distance covered by projectile in horizontal direction

between the starting point and point at which it touches the ground.

i) The total time for which projectile remains in air i.e. time of flight is

T

where,

ii)

2usin T

g

u

=

velocity of projection

T

=

angle of projection

The x co-ordinate of position of particle is given by,

x

=

u cos T t

Now, at t = T , x = R

67

Projectile Motion

2usin T

u cos T

g

u2 sin2T

g

... (1)

sin 2T

T

=

1

i.e.

2T

T

=

900

i.e.

T

=

450

Hence, maximum horizontal range is

Rmax

u2

g

when T = 450

Note :

When T = 450, maximum height reached by projectile,

H

u2 sin2 T

2g

1

u2

2

2g

u2

4g

R max

when T = 450

4

i.e. Horizontal range is four times maximum height

?

Ans :

y

usin T

H

T

O

ucosT

T

x

R

68

Projectile Motion

i)

ii)

Consider a body projected from the origin of x-y plane with velocity u

making an angle T with horizontal i.e. with x-axis.

From the first kinematical equation, the velocity of projectile along y-axis,

vy

=

uy + ayt

Now, uy = u sin T

?

vy

and

ay = g

u sin T g t

?

u sin T g tA

tA

usin T

g

... (1)

v)

1

g t2

... (2)

2

Maximum height (H) reached by projectile is obtained by putting t = tA in

equation (2). i.e. at t = tA, y = H

?

(u sin T) t

(u sin T) tA

usin T 1 usin T

usin T

g

g 2 g

u2 sin2 T u2 sin2 T

g

2g

u2 sin2 T

2g

1

g t2A

2

2

Q.13. Show that for a given velocity of projection, there are two angles of

projection which give the same range of projectile.

Ans :

y

700

600

450

30 0

20 0

O

x

Range

69

Projectile Motion

i)

R

u2 sin2T

g

... (1)

T = angle of projection

ii)

u, in a direction making an angle (900 T) with the horizontal, then

the range of the projectile (R1) is given by,

u2 sin 2 90 0 T

R1

g

u2 sin 1800 2T

R1

R1

u2 sin 2T

g

R1

... [From (1)]

iii) Thus horizontal range of projectile is same for any two angles, T and

900 T , projected with same velocity.

Thus horizontal range of projectile is same for complementary angles.

The trajectories of projectile are different but range remains the same.

Q.14. Derive the expression for trajectory of a particle projected horizontally

with velocity u from height H.

Ans : i) Consider a particle projected horizontally

y

with velocity u from height H.

u

?

ux =

u

... (1)

uy

ii)

... (2)

vertically downward direction. Hence,

ax

=

0

ay

HORIZONTAL PROJECTION

vx

=

ux + axt

?

vx

70

Projectile Motion

Also,

?

vy

uy + ayt

vy

gt

1

a t2

2 x

u xt +

ut

x

u

... (3)

Also,

u yt +

1

g t2

2

2

1

x

g

2

u

1

a t2

2 y

1 g 2

x

2 u2

K x2

1 g

2 u2

Thus, path of the particle is parabolic.

Where,

Note :

1)

Time of flight :

i) Time of flight is the time taken by the particle to reach ground i.e. to

travel a vertical distance of H.

ii) The vertical distance traveled is given by,

y

iii) At t = T,

1

g t2

2

y = H

1

g T2

2

T2

2H

g

71

Projectile Motion

2)

2H

g

... (4)

Horizontal range :

i) Horizontal range is the distance traveled by the particle in the horizontal

direction before reaching the ground.

ii) The horizontal distance traveled is given by,

x

=

ut

iii) At t = T, x = R

?

R

=

uT

?

2H

g

72

Projectile Motion

Classwork Problems

Uniformly accelerated motion along a straight line :

1)

A car moves at a constant speed of 60 km/h for 1 km and 40 km/h for the

next 1 km. What is the average speed of the car ?

[Ans : 48 km/h]

2)

A body travels from place A to place B with uniform velocity of 10 m/s and

travels back from place B to place A with uniform velocity of 25 m/s. Calculate

the average velocity of the body for the whole journey. [Ans : 14.29 m/s]

3)

A train travels at a speed of 50 km/h for 0.5 h, at 30 km/h for the next 0.26

h and at 70 km/h for the subsequent 0.76 h. What is the average speed of

the train ?

[Ans : 56.58 km/h]

A stone is thrown vertically upward with a velocity of 30 m/s. How high will

it rise ? After how much time will it return to ground ?

[Take g = 10 m/s2]

[Ans : 45 m, 6 s]

4)

5)

A stone is dropped from the top of a building 147 m high. How long will it

take to reach the ground ? What will be its velocity when it strikes the

ground ?

[Ans : 5.48 s, 53.70 m/s]

6)

in a distance of 75 m. Find the time in which the train is brought to rest.

Also calculate the distance covered by the train in the first half and the

second half of this time interval.

[Ans : 6 s, 56.25 m, 18.75 m]

7)

A stone is released from the top of a tower 90 m high. At the same instant

a second stone is projected vertically upwards from the ground with a

velocity of 30 m/s. When and where will the two stones meet ?

[Ans : Two stones meet each other at 44.1 m from the top or 45.9 m from

the ground after 3 seconds]

8)

A train, 100m long and stationary, is given the all clear by a signal 80m

ahead of it. The train then accelerates uniformly at 0.4 m/s2. Find the

time taken for the engine driver (at the front) and the guard (at the back) of

the train to pass the signal. At what speed is the train moving at each of

these times ?

[Ans : 12 m/s]

9)

A body released from rest from a certain height was observed to cover

78.4 m in the last two seconds before hitting the ground. Find the height from

which it was released. (g = 9.8 m/s2)

[Ans : 122.5 m]

73

Projectile Motion

10)

Starting from rest, a car moves with uniform acceleration and attains a

velocity of 72 km/hr in 20 s. It then moves with uniform speed for 25 s and

is then brought to rest in 10 s under uniform retardation. Find the total

distance travelled using velcoity-time graph.

[Ans : 800 m]

11)

distance travelled by the car in this time interval ?

[Ans : 87.5 m]

12) A jet aeroplane traveling at the speed of 500 km/h ejects its exhaust

(products of combusion) at the speed of 1500 km/h relative to the plane.

What is the relative velocity of the latter (exhaust) with respect to an

observer on the ground ?

[Ans : 1000 km/h]

Projectile Motion :

13) A particle is projected obliquely into air with a velocity of 98 m/s at an

angle of elevation of 300. Write down its equation of motion. (g = 9.8 m/s2)

x

x

3

490 3

A bullet is fired from the gun. It covers maximum horizontal distance of

10 km. Determine the velocity of projection and the maximum height attained

by the bullet.

[Ans : 313 m/s, 2492 m]

Ans : y =

14)

15)

horizontal. Find :

i)

time of flight

ii)

horizontal range

iii) maximum height

iv) direction of velocity after 2.5 s

[Ans : 5 s, 212.17 m, 30.625 m, horizontal]

16)

Find the angle of projection at which the horizontal range is twice the

maximum height of a projectile.

[Ans : 63 24c]

17)

A batsman makes a half volley and lifts a ball with a velocity of 19.6 m/s at

an angle of elevation of 300. A fielder stationed 40 m away from the batsman

runs forward to catch the ball. How fast he must have run if he manages to

catch the ball just before it strikes the ground ?

[Ans : 3.03 m/s]

18)

180 km/hr. An object is released from the aeroplane. How far from the

location will the object land and after what time ?

[Ans : 800 m, 16 s]

74

19)

Projectile Motion

inclined surface making an angle I I <

Ans : R =

2 u 2 cos sin I

g cos 2 I

V0

T

I

20)

21)

22)

maximum height reached.

[Ans : 20 m]

A body is thrown with a velocity of 40 m/s in a direction making an angle of

30 0 with the horizontal. Calculate (i) the horizontal range (ii) maximum

(peak) height attained (iii) the time taken to reach the maximum height.

[Ans : 141.4 m]

A body is projected from the top of a tower with a velocity of 10 m/s at an

angle of 300 with the horizontal. The body hits the ground four seconds

after the projection. Find

i)

the range of the projectile

ii)

the height of the tower

iii) the time taken by the body to attain the maximum height

iv) the maximum height attained by the body

(as measured from the ground).

[Ans : 34.64m, h = y = 58.4m, 0.5102 s, 59.675 m]

23) Figure shows the velocity-time graph for a car.

v(m/s)

A

20

15

10

5

0

i)

What is the initial speed of the car ?

t(s)

75

Projectile Motion

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

24)

Which part of the graph shows zero acceleration ?

Which part of the graph shows varying retardation ?

Find the distance travelled by the car in the first 6 seconds.

the car varies with time as follows :

Time (s)

Speed (m/s)

0

5

10

10

20

15

30

20

40

25

50

30

the acceleration of the car 9ii) the distance travelled by the car in the first

10 seconds.

Classwork Solutions

1.

Solution :

v1

= 60 km/h,

v2

= 40 km/h,

s

s = 1 km,

s2 = 1 km

= vt

? t1

t2

s1

1

h

v 1 = 60

? vav

? vav

and

1

1

+

10 25

2 u 10 u 25

10 + 25

? vav

500

= 14.29 m/s

35

14.29 m/s.

s1 + s2

= t +t

1

2

1+ 1

2 u 120

=

=

1

1

2+3

+

60 40

= 2 u 24 = 48 km/h

=

2s

? vav

=

s

s

+

10 25

s2

1

h

=

v2

40

total time

2s

2 u 120

5

2.

Solution :

u1 = 10 m/s

u2 = 25 m/s

a

= 0

Let us take direction from place A to place B as

positive. For journey from place A to place B,

s

= u1 t1

s

? t1 =

10

For the return journey from place B to place A,

s

= u2 t2

s

? t2 =

25

total distance covered

Average velocity =

total time taken

s+s

? vav =

t1 + t2

3. Given :

Q 1 = 50 km/h

t1 = 0.5 h

Q 2 = 30 km/h

t2 = 0.26 h

Q 3 = 70 km/h

t3 = 0.76 h

s = Qt

Average speed of the train

=

total distance

total time

s 1 + s 2 + s3

t1 + t2 + t3

v1 t 1 + v2 t2 + v 3 t 3

t 1 + t 2 + t3

0.5 + 0.26 + 0.76

25 + 7.8 + 53.2

86

=

1.52

1.52

= 56.58 km/h

=

77

Projectile Motion

4.

Solution :

u

= 30 m/s

g

= 10 m/s2

In case of vertical projection, T = 900

? sin 900 = 1

Maximum height reached,

H

u2 sin2 T

2g

900 u 1

= 45 m

2 u 10

Time of flight,

2 u sin T

T =

g

? H

? T

? T

=

=

2 u 30 u sin 90

10

6s

5.

Solution :

s

= 147 m

From first equation of motion,

v =u + a t

Since u = 0

? v

= at

From second equation of motion,

1 2

s

= ut +

at

2

1

? 147 = (0) t +

(9.8) t2

2

147 u 2

? t2 =

9.8

2

? t

= 30

6.

Solution :

5

m/s

18

90 km/hr = 90 u

? u

s

v

Using,

v2

? 0

=

=

=

25 m/s

75 m

0

=

=

? a

u2 + 2as

625 + (2a u 75)

625

25

=

m/s2

150

6

Using,

v

=

u+at

? 0

25 +

25

t

6

25

t = 25

6

? t

= 6s

For the first half of motion,

t

= 3s

Using,

1 2

s1 = ut +

at

2

1

25

9

? s1 = (25 u 3) +

2

6

? s1 = 56.25 m

For the second half of motion,

s2 = s s1

?

? s2

? s2

=

=

75 56.25

18.75 m

7.

Solution :

? t

= 5.4 s

Let the stone released meet the other stone at a

Since t cannot be negative,

distance x from the top. Hence,

? t

= 5.4 s

u1

=

0

Also,

s1

=

x

v

= gt

1

s1

=

u1t + g t2

? v

= 9.8 u 5.4 = 53.70 m/s

2

Time taken by particle is 5.4 s and velocity when

1

?

x

=

0+

u 9.8 t2

it strikes gound is 53.70 m/s.

2

78

Projectile Motion

?

x

=

4.9 t2

... (i)

Other stone is projected vertically upward with

a velocity u2. Hence,

u2

=

30 m/s

s2

=

(90 x)

1

?

s2

=

u2t + at2

2

?

90 x

=

30 t 4.9 t2

... (ii)

360

= 900 s2

0.4

? The time taken by the guard to pass

the signal, t2 = 30 s

30 seconds after starting from rest, the

speed of the train is

Q2 = u2 + at2

= 0 + (0.4 m/s2) (30 s)

= 12 m/s

x + 90 x

?

90

?

t

From equation

x

?

x

=

=

=

(i),

=

=

30t

3s

4.9t2 = 4.9 u 9

44.1 m

8. Given :

s1 = 80m

s2 = (80 + 100)m

= 180m

u = 0 m/s

a = 0.4 m/s2

1) For the engine driver :

1

s1 = ut 1 + at 21

2

? 80m = 0 +

1

0.4m /s 2 t 21

2

t2 =

9.

Solution :

u = 0

g = 9.8 m/s2

Distance covered in last two second is 78.4 m.

? s

= 78.4

But, the distance travelled in last 2 seconds,

1

1

2

2

s = u n + an u n 2 + a n 2

2

? s

2

un + 2 an

2

un 2u + 2 an 2an +2a

? s

? s

? 78.4

? 4

? n

=

=

=

=

=

2u + 2an 2a

2u + 2a (n 1)

0 + 2 (9.8) (n 1)

n1

5s

1 2

ut +

at

2

1

0 + u 9.8 u 25

2

122.5 m

160

= 400 s2

0.4

? The time taken by the engine driver

s

=

to pass the signal, t1 = 20 s

20 seconds after starting from rest, the

=

? s

speed of the train is

Q1 = u1 + at1

? s

=

= 0 + (0.4 m/s2) (20 s)

= 8 m/s

10.

2) For the guard :

Solution :

1 2

v = 72 km/hr

s2 = ut 2 + at 2

2

5

? v =

72

m /s

1

2

2

18

0

+

0.4m

/s

t

? 180m =

2

2

? v = 20 m/s

?

t1 =

79

Projectile Motion

drawn. It is shown below.

Let v e and v j be the velocities of the

exhaust and the jet aeroplane relative to

A

D

(an observer on) the ground. Let vej be

20

15

the relative velocity of the exhaust with

respect to the plane.

10

vej = ve vj

5

?

ve = vej + vj

C

B

E

O

Given :

10

20 30

40 50 55

time (t)

v j = 500 km/h

Total distance travelled by car is area enclosed

vej = 1500 km/h (the minus sign

by the graph OADE with time axis.

indicates that vej is opposite to vj)

? The relative velocity of the exhaust

1

? s

=

u(OB

u AB) + (AB u BC)

u

with respect to the ground is

2

ve = 1500 + 500 = 1000 km/h

1

u(CE

u

u CD)

+

2

Projectile motion

? s

1

u20

u u 20 + (20 u 25)

2

1

u10

u u 20

2

200 + 500 + 100 = 800 m

+

? s

11.

Solution :

u = 90 km/hr

5

m /s

18

25 m/s

36 km/h = 36 u

13.

Solution :

u

= 98 m/s

T

= 300

=

x tan T

x tan 300

tan 300 =

72

?y

=

10 m/s, t = 5 s

Assuming constant acceleration (here, ? y

deceleration), the distance travelled by the car,

s = vav t =

=

5

18

1

(u + v) t

2

1

(25 + 10) u 5 = 17.5 u 5 = 87.5 m

2

1

2

1

3

x

3

x

3

450

u 2 cos 2 T

g x2

2 98 cos 300

9.8 x 2

3

2 9898

4

x

1

490 3

14.

Solution :

Rmax = 10 km

T

g x2

3

2

80

Projectile Motion

g

= 9.8 m/s2

? u2

u2

= 10000

g

10000 u 9.8

? u

? u

313 m/s

Rmax =

Maximum height,

H

?H

u2 sin2 T

2g

313

? R

49 u 49 u sin (2 u 300)

9.8

? R

5 u 49 u sin 600

? R

Maximum height,

u2 sin2T

H =

2g

? H

49 u 49 u sin2 300

2 u 9.8

? H

49 u

? H

245

8

sin 2 450

2 9.8

5

1

x

2

2

1

313 313

2

19.6

? H = 30.625 m

The time of flight is 5 s.

? H =

5

? time of ascent =

= 2.5 s

? H = 2492 m

2

Thus, velocity of projection is 313 m/s and At the end of 2.5 second body reaches

maximum height. Thus its velocity is in

maximum height reached is 2492 m.

horizontal direction.

15.

Solution :

u = 49 m/s

T

300

g

= 9.8 m/s2

Time of flight,

2u sin T

T =

g

? T

2 u 49 u sin 300

9.8

? T

98 u 0.5

9.8

? T = 5s

Horizontal range,

u2 sin2T

R =

g

16.

Solution :

R = 2H

u2 sin 2T

T

u2 sin2 T

?

= 2

g

2g

?

sin 2T

T

= sin2 T

?2 sin T cos T

?

2

?

T

?

T

=

=

=

=

sin2 T

tan T

tan1 (2)

630 24cc

17.

Solution :

u

T

Distance

= 19.6 m/s

= 300

= 40 m

81

Projectile Motion

Horizontal range,

R

u sin 2T

T

g

9.8

= 19.6 u 2 u

= 19.6 u 3

R

= 33.94 m

Time of flight,

2u sin T

T

=

g

3

2

1

?

s

=

g t2

2

1

?

1254.4 =

u 9.8 u t2

2

1254.4 u 2

?

t2

=

9.8

2

?

t

= 256

?

t

= 16 s

Horizontal displacement,

x

=

uut

?

x

=

50 u 16

?

x

=

800 m

Thus object lands at a distance of 800 m from

the location it is dropped.

9.8

1

19.

?

T

= 2u2u

=2s

2

Solution :

He catches the ball means he covers the distance

in 2 sec.

Distance covered by the boy,

R

?

s

= 40 33.94

V0

?

s

= 6.06 m

? His speed is,

T

I

6.06

v

=

= 3.03 m/s

2

The particle is projected with velocity u making

angle T with horizontal.

18.

?

ux

= u cos T

and

Solution :

uy

= u sin T

s

= 1254.4 m

Let R be the distance travelled along the

u

= 180 km/hr

inclined surface.

180000

?

u

=

= 50 m/s

?

x

= R cos I

3600

Initially velocity of object is same as that of

y

= R sin I

aeroplane i.e. 50 m/s. Due to gravitational Also, we know,

acceleration velocity of object goes on

ax

= 0

and

increasing in vertically downward direction and

ay

= g

horizontal velocity is constant.

Using second kinematical equation,

We have,

1

1

x

= uxt +

a t2

2

s

= ut +

gt

2 x

2

?

82

Projectile Motion

? R cos I

= (u cos T) t +

Also,

= uyt +

? R sin I

R sin I

1

(0) t2

2

H =

R cos I

u cos T

... (i)

1

a t2

2 y

u sin T t

1

g t2

2

R sin T cos I

=

cos T

R sin I

2

2

1 g R cos I

2

2

2 u cos T

2

2

R sin T cos I

1 g R cos I

2

=

R sin I

2

2 u cos T

cos T

1 g R cos I

2

=

2

2 u cos T

cos T

1 g R cos I

= sin T I

2 u 2 cos T

g = 9.8 m/s2

2 u cos sin I

40 m / s sin 2 u 30 0

u2 sin 2 T

=

9.8 m / s 2

g

1600 u 0.866

1600 sin 600

=

=

9.8

9.8

= 141.14 m

ii) The maximum (peak) height attained by the

projectile,

H =

40 m /s sin 30 0

2 9.8m / s 2

u 2 sin 2 T

=

2g

40 u 0.5

400

= 20.41 m

2 u 9.8

2 u 9.8

iii) The time taken to reach the maximum height,

i.e., the time of ascent,

ta =

u sin T

g

40 u 0.5

9.8

20

9.8

80 m

= 20 m

4

21.

Solution :

u = 40 m/s, T = 300,

i) The horizontal range,

R =

[From (i)]

?

R cos I

u sin T u cos T

R cos I

1

g

2

u cos T

R max

4

40 m / s sin 30 0

9.8m / s 2

= 2.041 s

g cos 2 I

22. Given :

u =

20.

T =

Solution :

t =

Rmax = 80 m

g =

Rmax = 4 H

i) R =

? The maximum height reached by the ball in

t =

its path when the range is maximum is

=

10m/s

300

4s

9.8 m/s2

x = u cos T

(10m/s)(cos 300) (4s)

10 u 0.866 u 4

83

Projectile Motion

? R = 8.66 u 4 = 34.64 m

? The range of the projectile = 34.64 m

o

u

usinT

T

A(t = t1)

T

O ucosT

T

t = 4s

B

Tower

Ground

R=x

1 2

ii) y = u sin Tt gt

2

=

1

2

u 9.8m /s2 4s

2

= 10 u 0.5 u 4 9.8 u 8

? y = 20 78.4 = 58.4 m

? The height of the tower,

h = y = 58.4 m

iii) At the highest point,

X y = 0 and t = t1 (say)

? u sin T

T gt1 = 0

? t1 =

? t1 =

usin T

g

1

2

9.8m /s 2 0.5102s

2

= 10 u 0.5 u 0.5102 4.9 u (0.5102)2

? y1 = 2.551 1.276 = 1.275 m

? h + y1 = 58.4 + 1.275

= 59.675 m

? The maximum height attained by the

body (as measured from the ground)

= 59.675 m

23. Solution :

i) The initial speed (at t = 0) of the car speed

of O = 0 m/s.

ii) The maximum speed attained by the carspeed at A = 20 m/s.

iii) The car has zero acceleration (or constant

speed)between t = 3 s and t = 6 s as shown

by the region AB.

iv) None, since the 2 seconds time interval (t =

6 s to t = 8 s) in which the car decelerates,

the graph is a straight line showing that

there is uniform retardation.

[Note : The car had varying speed in the

regions OA and BC.]

v) The distance travelled by the car in the first

6 seconds.

= area under the curve OAB

= area of 'OAE + area of react. ABDE

=

1

OE u AE + AB u AE

2

1

u 3 u 20 + 3 u 20 = 30 + 60 = 90 m

2

10m /s sin 30 0

9.8m /s 2

10 u 0.5

=

9.8

5

9.8

24. Solution :

From the data, the speed-time graph for the

? The time taken by the body to attain the motion is shown in figure.

The acceleration of the car = the slope of the

maximum height = 0.5102 s

line

1 2

iv) y = u sin T t gt

25 m / s 15m / s

2

v2 v1

=

=

40 s 20 s

t2 t1

1 2

? y1 = u sin T t 1 gt 1

(for t = t1)

2

= 0.5 m/s2

= (10m/s)(sin300)(0.5102 s)

=

= 0.5102 s

84

Projectile Motion

v(m/s)

30

25

20

20

(v1 ,t 1)

B

15

10 A

5

C

0

10 20 30

(v2 ,t2 )

40

50

t(s)

= area under the line AB

=

1

OC + (OA + BC)

2

1

u 10 u(5

u + 10) = 5 u 15 = 75 m

2

85

Projectile Motion

Homework Problems

1)

2)

3)

4)

5)

6)

A railway train 150 m long and traveling at a constant speed of 45 km/hr crosses

a 900 m long bridge. How much time it will take to cross the bridge ?

[Ans : 1 minute 24 s]

A car moves at a constant speed of 60 km/hr for 1 km and 40 km/hr for next

1 km. What is the average speed of the car ?

[Ans : 48 km/hr]

A body traveling along a straight line with uniform acceleration travels 30 m in

5th second and 36 m in the 8th second. Find the acceleration and the initial

velocity.

[Ans : 2 m/s2, 21 m/s]

A body is projected vertically upwards with velocity of 49 m/s. How much high

will it rise ? How long will it be in air ?

[Ans : 122.5 m, 10 s]

A stone is thrown vertically upwards from the top of a tower with a velocity of

15 m/s. Two seconds later, a second stone is dropped from the top of the

tower. If both the stone strike the ground simultaneously, find the height of

the tower. (g = 10 m/s2)

[Ans : 20 m]

A car is moving on a straight road with uniform acceleration. The speed of car

varies with time as follows :

Speed (m/s)

Time (s)

7)

8)

9)

10)

11)

12)

5

0

10

10

15

20

20

30

25

40

30

50

Calculate : (i) acceleration of the car (ii) distance traveled by the car in 10 s.

[Ans : 0.5 m/s2, 75 m]

A body is projected from the ground with a velocity of 20 m/s at an angle of 600

with the horizontal. Find its speed at the highest point.

[Ans : 10 m/s]

Prove that when a particle is projected so as to have a maximum horizontal

range, the maximum height reached is one fourth of the horizontal range.

A man throws a ball to maximum horizontal distance of 80 m. Calculate the

maximum height reached.

[Ans : 20 m]

0

A stone projected at an angle of 45 with the horizontal, covers a horizontal range

of 20 m. Calculate the velocity of projection of the body. (g = 9.8 m/s2)

[Ans : 14 m/s]

A body is thrown with velocity of 40 m/s in a direction making an angle of 300

with the horizontal. Calculate : (i) horizontal range (ii) maximum height (iii)

time taken to reach the maximum height.

[Ans : 141.4 m, 20.41 m, 2.041 s]

A bullet is fired horizontally from the top of a tower of height 44.1 m with

velocity of 600 m/s. The cartridge case falls to the foot of the tower. Which will

reach the ground first ? At what distance apart they will hit the ground ?

[Ans : Both hit ground simultaneously, 1800 m]

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