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AgileShip

Ship Maneuvering Assessment Program


(SMAP) Version 4.0
Demonstration Program Manual

For product information contact:


Proteus Engineering
345 Pier One Road
Stevensville, MD 21666
Phone: 410-643-7496
Fax: 410-643-7535
Email: flagship@proteusengineering.com

Copyright 1996 Advanced Marine Enterprises, Inc.


January 1996
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced by any means without
permission from AME.

The information in this publication is believed to be accurate in all respects. However, AME
cannot assume the responsibility for any consequences resulting from the use thereof. The
information contained herein is subject to change. Revision to this publication or new
editions of it may be issued to incorporate such change.

SMAP is a trademark of Advanced Marine Enterprises, Inc.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION ................................................. ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.


2.0 RANGE OF APPLICABILITY ............................................................................................ 2
3.0 HISTORY OF SMAP DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................ 3
4.0 RANGE OF VALIDATION .................................................................................................. 4
5.0 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS AND INSTALLATION .............................................. 5
6.0 SHIP MANEUVERING ASSESSMENT PROGRAM - SMAP ........................................ 6
6.1 EQUATIONS OF MOTION ............................................................................................ 6
6.2 INPUT DATA FOR SMAP ............................................................................................. 7
6.3 RUNNING SMAPDEMO ............................................................................................... 9
7.0 DEFINITIVE MANEUVERS - DEFM .............................................................................. 13
7.1 FAST TIME SIMULATION ......................................................................................... 13
7.2 RUNNING DEFM ......................................................................................................... 13
7.3 ZIGZAG DEFINITIVE MANEUVER ............................................................................. 14
7.4 TURNING CIRCLE DEFINITIVE MANEUVER ........................................................ 18
7.5 SPIRAL DEFINITIVE MANEUVER ............................................................................ 22
7.6 CRASH STOP DEFINITIVE MANEUVER .................................................................. 26

ii

1.0 INTRODUCTION
Note: Throughout this document, AgileShip is referred to as SMAP (Ship Maneuvering
Assessment Program).
The purpose of SMAP is to provide the naval architect with a quick method to make predictions
of the maneuvering characteristics at the early design stage. The program is designed to cover
block coefficients from 0.5 to 0.85 (slender ship forms to full ship forms).
SMAP is composed of three programs. The first program, called SMAP, is used to create
a hydrodynamic ship file with linear and non-linear coefficients, to make a power prediction at
service speed, and calculate linear maneuvering criteria including criteria for directional stability.
The second program, called DEFM, is used to run definitive maneuvers, which consist of turn,
zigzag, stop, and spiral maneuver simulations. All maneuvers can be executed in deep and
shallow water. The third program, called IDF32 transfers data from the Interface Definition File
(.IDF) generated by marine programs such as FAST SHIP into an SMAP input file.
SMAP uses the Holtrop & Mennen approach to calculate the propulsion characteristics of
the ship. The hydrodynamic coefficients are calculated by use of a number of different equations
to estimate the coefficients. The equations are based on regression analyses of captive model
tests and sea trials:

Planar motion test data from Hydronautics for more than 50 model tests were used in
developing regression for the hydrodynamic coefficients.

Workshop on Modular Maneuvering Models, The Society of Naval Architects and


Marine Engineering, November 13, 1991.

Assessment and Principal Structure of the Modular Mathematical Model for Ship
Maneuverability Prediction and Real-Time Maneuvering Simulations, by Dr.
Vladimir Ankudinov, Dr. Paul Kaplan, and Bent K. Jakobsen, MARSIM 93.

The program estimates the bare hull coefficients first and then the contributions for
appendages are added. The SMAP program produces an output file, OUTPUT1.DAT, and the
hydrodynamic ship file, DTRXXX.DAT both of which are ASCII text files.
DEFM reads the DTRXXX.DAT file and commands from the screen, and produces an
ASCII text file, OUTPUT2.DAT along with an on screen and postscript plot of the desired
maneuver.
The IDF32 program transfers data from the Interface Definition File (.IDF) generated by
marine programs such as FastShip into a SMAP input file.

2.0 RANGE OF APPLICABILITY


SMAP was developed for monohull displacement ships with ship length to draft ratios from
8.2 to 36.7 and block coefficients in the range of 0.48 to 0.83. The ship speed is limited to Froude
numbers less then 0.5. Barge tows cannot be predicted by this program.

Bulbous Bow
SMAP allows hull geometry with or without a bulbous bow.

Skegs
SMAP allows from zero to three skegs in the aft section of the ship.

Rudders
SMAP allows one or two rudders, which may be located behind the propeller or outside
the slipstream. The program supports the following rudder types:
(1) Spade rudder
(2) Horn rudder
(3) Becker rudder
(4) Schilling rudder

Propellers
SMAP allows one or two propellers. The propeller thrust and torque are based on the
Wageningen B-series. The program supports ducted propellers where the calculations
are based on the B470 with a 19A nozzle. B470 is a four-bladed propeller with a 0.70
blade area ratio. The P/D (propeller pitch diameter) ratios cover the range 0.5 to 1.4.
The program distinguishes between fixed pitch and controllable pitch propellers.

3.0 HISTORY OF SMAP DEVELOPMENT


The evaluation of ship maneuvering characteristics is of interest to the designer and naval
architect. The traditional ship design practice of estimating ship maneuvering performance based
on simplified stability criteria and semi-empirical coefficients derived from past experience may not
be sufficient for optimal design. An accurate and quick assessment of the ship-handling
performance based on hull geometry, powering and control characteristics is the goal. Captive
model tests have been performed for decades, and trial data is useful information, but has proven to
be too time-consuming to use at the early design stage.
In 1987 Tracor Hydronautics Inc. was tasked by the U.S.C.G. to develop a general computer
program based on the database of captive model test results, trial data, and material found in the
literature. The software was developed on a VAX750 computer and delivered to run on U.S.C.G.
computer. In 1991 AME bought the rights and ownership to the software. SMAP was then used
for a number of navy designs adding new features to the program. The regression formulas used for
estimation of the hydrodynamic coefficients have been revised and compared with Japanese
formulas as the program was used for more ship types.

4.0 RANGE OF VALIDATION


SMAP has proven to give good early-stage, predictions for a wide range of ships with
Length to draft ratio from 8.2 to 36.7, and block coefficients from 0.48 to 0.83. However, some
limitations have still not been overcome by SMAP.

The speed effect for frigates and destroyers are not properly accounted for. SMAP
assumes the ship turning maneuvers to be independent of the ship speed in the
traditional way. This is not the case for fast ships (ship speeds higher than 20 to 25
knots). The SMAP program is designed to cover speeds around 20 knots. At ship
speeds around 30 knots, the tactical turning diameter will be larger than predicted by
SMAP.

The bollard pull for all ships is too large. For normal ship maneuvering this is not
important. The calculated bollard pull is an integral part of the simplified machinery
model in use in the SMAP program. This part of the model will be improved by
calculating propeller forces from propeller thrust and torque curves in future versions of
the program.

Predictions of tugboat models should be used with care, because there is little model test
data for tugboats, and tugboats have length over beam ratios that are much smaller than
most ships.

SMAP is based on existing ship maneuvering data. If ship parameters are selected
outside this data, the predicted maneuvers should only be used for rough estimating.

The prediction of maneuvering characteristics should always be compared with existing


sea trial data or model tests. The program is best used by first running a known ship
design with similar characteristics, and then running the prediction of the maneuvering
characteristics for the new design.

5.0 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS AND INSTALLATION


SMAP and SMAPDEMO are designed to run on any PC computer system, 486 or better.
The software is written in Microsoft FORTRAN PowerStation version 1, which is a 32-bit
application that uses a MS-DOS extender. The video display supports VGA, 640 x 480 resolution
and SVGA 1024 x 768 resolution.
The SMAPDEMO installation procedure helps the user install the SMAPDEMO software
on the hard disk. The procedure creates all the required subdirectories and copies the files. The
user can specify the hard disk and directory for the installed software.
The following should be implemented prior to installation:
A backup copy of each distribution disk should be made by using a utility such as
DISKCOPY or XCOPY. The originals should be stored in a safe place.
To install the SMAPDEMO software, the following steps should be taken:
Installation and execution of the SMAPDEMO program should be done from the DOS
prompt.
Insert the SMAPDEMO Installation Disk into the floppy diskette drive and enter
A:\INSTALL, substitute A: for the actual diskette drive name, and follow the
installation instructions displayed on the screen. It will request a confirmation of the
destination disk drive and proceed to install SMAPDEMO.
SMAPDEMO uses data embedded in the executible file versus data read in from the
files to ensure its use as a demonstration only program. The calculations are done
identically to the full-featured version of SMAP based on the embedded data.
Make certain that the SMAP.cfg file is set to VGA (640x480) or SVGA (1024X768) as
appropriate.
You are now ready to run SMAPDEMO.

6.0 SHIP MANEUVERING ASSESSMENT PROGRAM - SMAP


The ship is considered a rigid body with only three degrees-of-freedom: surge, sway, and
yaw. These motions in the horizontal plane are the most important requirements for ship
maneuvering predictions. The ship motions in the other three degrees-of-freedom (roll, pitch, and
heave) do not significantly change the maneuvering performance in the normal speed range.
However, the variation of the ship hydrodynamic coefficients, as a function of the static trim and
sinkage, are included in the SMAP program.
The model is non-linear which causes the model to differ from a linear model by the
following:

Only the non-linear surge equation contains the non-linear resistance and propulsion
terms and viscous loss coefficients due to sway and yaw velocities.

Quadratic and non-linear cross-coupling sway and yaw terms due to separation losses.

Interaction between rudder and propeller due to the presence of the ship geometry and
motion parameters.
6.1 EQUATIONS OF MOTION

Ship maneuvering equations are well described in their general form as follows:
m * [ u - v * r - xG * r2 ] = X H + X P + X R

(1)

m * [ v + u * r + x G * r ] = Y H + Y P + Y R

(2)

I z * r + m * xG * ( v + u * r ) = N H + N P + N R

(3)

where:
XH, XP, XR
YH, YP, YR
NH, NP, NR
Iz
m
xG
u, v, r

surge force components of the ship hull, propeller, and rudder


sway force components of the ship hull, propeller, and rudder
yaw moment components of the ship hull, propeller, and rudder
ship yaw moment of inertia
ship mass
longitudinal coordinate of the ship center of gravity
ship speeds in surge, sway, yaw modes

The above equations refer to a right hand orthogonal system of moving axes, fixed in the
ship, with its origin located at the center of gravity, C.G., of the ship. The complete set of coupled
differential equations used in SMAP has been well published and extensively validated for a wide
[1,2]
range of ships in deep and shallow water.

Holtrop, J., Mennen, G., An Approximate Power Prediction Method, International Shipbuilding Progress, Vol. 29,
No.335, July 1982
2

Ankudinov V. K., Miller E. R. Jr., Jakobsen B. K., Daggett L. L., Maneuvering Performance of Tug/Barge Assemblies in
Restricted Waterways, Proceedings of MARSIM & ICSM 90, Tokyo, Japan, 1990.

6.2 INPUT DATA FOR SMAP


Input for SMAP must be prepared in the form of a data file: XXXXXX.DAT. The
XXXXXX represents a unique name for an input file for a specific ship design and condition.
A new SMAP input file can be created manually using an existing input file from another
vessel, or by executing the IDF32 program. Manually, an existing SMAP input file can be used as a
template, and modified according to the new ship data with a text editor. The IDF32 program reads
an existing Interface Definition File (IDF) hydrodynamics file and creates a new SMAP input file
that includes data from the IDF file.
The required form of a SMAP input file is shown in Fig. 6.2.1. Lines beginning with an
asterisk (*) include comments. Lines beginning with a percent (%) include data section titles.
Blank lines mark the end of a data section. All other lines in a SMAP input file consist of a
character string description followed by a numeric value separated by an equal sign. The numeric
value is entered in free format. Only comments and numeric values should be modified by the user
to represent specific ships.
In this report, text between bold horizontal lines indicate program data on the PC monitor.
User responses are delineated by single brackets <input>. User responses for using function keys
are delineated by double brackets <<Return>> or <<F1>>.

Fig. 6.2.1 Input File for SMAP


8

6.3 RUNNING SMAPDEMO


To run SMAPDEMO:
change directory to C:\SMAPDEMO
make certain that the SMAP.CFG file is set correctly (VGA or SVGA)
type <SMAPDEMO> and press <<ENTER>>.
SMAP presents an introductory screen:
A.M.E. maneuvering evaluation
You can select one of the following three ships:
Containership - 1
Tanker - 2
Icebreaker - 3
Type 1, 2, or 3:
Two options are available:
press <<ENTER>> and the default input file will be used, for (i.e., OSAKA.DAT)
type the requested input file name, for example <OSAKA.DAT>, and press
<<ENTER>>. The input file OSAKA.DAT is shown in Fig. 6.2.1.
SMAP will produce a ship stability evaluation plot on the screen, if you press <<ENTER>>.
The plot is also available in the postscript file STAB.PLT which is written to \SMAP_V4\OUTPUT
subdirectory (Fig.6.3.1). It will not appear on the screen, if you type <N >and press <<ENTER>>.
In the last step, SMAP creates output file OUTPUT1.DAT and a data file necessary for execution
of definitive maneuvers in the \SMAP_V4\OUTPUT directory. Example of OUTPUT1.DAT is
shown in Fig. 6.3.2a and Fig.6.3.2b.

Fig. 6.3.1 Example STAB.PLT

10

Fig. 6.3.2a Example OUTPUT1.DAT: LINEAR MANEUVERING CRITERIA


11

Fig. 6.3.2b Example OUTPUT1.DAT: LINEAR MANEUVERING CRITERIA

12

7.0 DEFINITIVE MANEUVERS - DEFM


7.1 FAST TIME SIMULATION
Fast time non-linear computer predictions provide comprehensive information on how
variations of hull, rudder, and propeller design parameters can affect the ship maneuvering
performance. That information creates a rational basis for preliminary stages of ship design and
safety of navigation studies.
DEFM fast time simulation is implemented as a stand-alone separate program, but it runs
the same non-linear models and the same subroutines as the real-time full bridge shiphandling
simulators operated by Marine Safety, Inc. Thus, DEFM fast time and the real-time simulations
apply exactly the same hydrodynamic forces, moments, and shallow water effects. The major
difference is the control of the program which for DEFM is done from a keyboard using scripted
commands. DEFM has the capability to run the following definitive maneuvers:
zigzag
turning circle
crash stop
spiral
The term definitive maneuvers has been adopted to describe a class of maneuvers
[3]
designed to reveal objective numerical measures for specific ship handling qualities. Although
the maneuvers resemble actual ship operational maneuvers performed by a helmsman, these
maneuvers are independent of the man-in-the-loop control mechanism. Because of that, the
maneuvers objectively define the inherent maneuvering qualities of a vessel as a function of its
design.
The following list compiles the types of ship-handling capabilities which ship designers
will try to achieve, and which can be effectively examined by DEFM non-linear fast-time
simulation:
ability to execute an efficient turn
ability to maintain steady course with small rudder activity
ability to initiate and to check a course rapidly
ability to decelerate or stop rapidly while retaining good control over the ship.
7.2 RUNNING DEFM
SMAP creates the linear and nonlinear coefficients for the non-linear coupled surge, sway
and yaw equations for ship maneuvering simulations in the time domain. The coefficients created
by SMAP are used by DEFM to simulate definitive maneuvers of the designed vessel. To run
DEFM:
change directory to C:\SMAPDEMO

Guide for Sea Trials SNAME Technical and Research Bulletin 3-47, 1990.

13

make certain that the SMAP.CFG file is set correctly (VGA or SVGA)
run SMAPDEMO for a selected ship. For this example, choose the tanker (2)
type DEFMDEMO.
DEFM presents an introductory screen:
Enter number code of maneuver
1 - zigzag
2 - Turn
3 - Crash Stop
4 - Spiral
Select one maneuver by typing for example <1> for zigzag, and press <<ENTER>>.
Execution of all available maneuvers will be reviewed in the following sections.
7.3 Zigzag DEFINITIVE MANEUVER
The standard procedure for the conduct of the zigzag Definitive Maneuver is as follows:
1. Initially:
The engine/propeller rpm is adjusted to a predetermined initial ship speed. When a steady
engine/propeller rpm and ship speed are achieved, the throttle settings are not changed for the
time of maneuver.
The rudder is manipulated as necessary until a practically straight course has been achieved
and maintained for one minute.
2. After steady propulsive conditions on straight course have been established:
The rudder is laid to a predetermined angle, say 20 degrees, and held until a predetermined
change of heading, say 20 degrees, is reached.
At that point, the rudder is deflected at maximum rate to the opposite (checking) angle of 20
degrees and held until the ship passes through its initial course to complete the overshoot phase
of the maneuver.
The maneuver is continued until a heading of 20 degrees to the other side is reached.
Whereupon, the rudder is again deflected rapidly to 20 degrees in the first direction. This cycle
is repeated through 3rd and 4th executes.
The standard maneuvers are the 20-20 and 10-10 zigzag, although other combinations are
also used. For example, 5-5 zigzag has been advocated for full-form ships.

14

7.3.1 Running Zigzag Simulation


After the zigzag maneuver has been selected, DEFM offers two options: deep water, or
shallow water, with deep water as a default:
Do you want shallow water? (y/n) [n]
Press <<ENTER>> for deep water default, or type <y> for shallow water. Lets accept deep
water for this example. If shallow water was selected, the ratio of depth to draft would be requested.
Shallow water will tend to have the following effects on the zigzag maneuver:
overshoots decrease,
reach and period increase.
Then, DEFM asks what heading change the ship has to reach before the rudder is
reversed:
Command heading angle (degrees) =
Type your choice, for example <-10>, if the maneuver is expected to make -10/10 zigzag.
Negative value for the ship heading means that the ship will turn first to STARBOARD.
Next question is about the magnitude of rudder deflection that is required:
Main rudder angle (degrees) =
Type your choice. Typically, the same value that was declared for the ship heading change
is used. DEFM will not accept different signs for these two commands because it would mean that
the ship is expected to react inversely to the rudder. To continue with typical values, type < -10>
and press <<ENTER>>.
Then, an initial ship speed must be declared:
Ship speed (knots) =
For example, type <7.7> and press <<ENTER>>.
Typically, the zigzag maneuver is executed with the ship speed and the propeller RPM
being initially in equilibrium. However, it is not necessary and DEFM asks for initial propeller
RPM giving the equilibrium value as a default:
Propeller rpm [40.28] =
Value 40.28 is the equilibrium RPM for the ship speed 7.7 kts as already selected. Type
your choice and press <<ENTER>>. The default value is strongly recommended for standard
maneuvers.
The last information requested is associated with the test identification in the output files
and plots:

15

Enter Simulation Run Identification (50 characters) or abort with Ctrl/Z


1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890
Type selected description up to 50 characters, or just press <<ENTER>>. For example, type
<ESSO OSAKA - test1> and press <<ENTER>>.
The selected maneuver is executed. The following information appears on the screen:
First overshoot heading angle (degrees) = 6.1
Second overshoot heading angle (degrees) = 20.4
Third overshoot heading angle (degrees) = 17.3
Fourth overshoot heading angle (degrees) = 21.5
Period (seconds) = 1158.3
Data are ok, plotting in progress
Output ready on .PLT, Postscript
Do you want to make a color plot (y/n) [y]
If you press <<ENTER>>, the default y is accepted and the plot of the executed zigzag
maneuver will appear on the screen. If you type <n> and press <<ENTER>>, the program is
terminated. In both cases, two output files are generated in the OUTPUT directory:
.PLT contains the plot of executed zigzag as a postscript file
OUTPUT2.DAT contains data calculated during the maneuver.
Fig. 7.3.1 shows an example of the time history from -20/20 zigzag simulated by DEFM
with ESSO OSAKA super-tanker.

16

Fig. 7.3.1 -20/20 zigzag simulated by DEFM with ESSO OSAKA super-tanker

17

7.4 TURNING CIRCLE DEFINITIVE MANEUVER


The standard procedure for conducting a Turning Circle Maneuver is as follows:
1. Initially:
The engine/propeller rpm is adjusted to a predetermined initial ship speed. When a steady
engine/propeller rpm and ship speed are achieved, the throttle settings are not changed for the
time of maneuver.
The rudder is manipulated as necessary until a practically straight course has been achieved
and maintained for one minute.
2. After steady propulsive conditions on straight course have been established:
The rudder is laid to a predetermined angle, typically 35 degrees right, and held until a change
of heading of at least 540 degrees has occurred. At that point, the maneuver is terminated.
7.4.1 Running Turning Circle Simulation
After the TURN maneuver has been selected, DEFM offers two options: deep water, or
shallow water, with deep water as a default:
Do you want shallow water? (y/n) [n]
Press <<ENTER>> for deep water default, or type < y> for shallow water. Lets accept
deep water for this example. If you answer <y>, the program prompts you for the depth of the draft
ratio, shallow water affects the turning circle maneuver in the following ways:
Tactical Diameter, Steady Turning Diameter, and Transfer increase,
Final Drift Angle decreases.
Next, DEFM asks what magnitude of rudder deflection is commanded:
Main rudder angle (degrees) =
Type your choice. Negative value for the ship heading means that the ship will turn to
STARBOARD. Typically, the hard over rudder of approximately -35 degrees is ordered. To
continue with typical values, type <-35 >and press <<ENTER>>.
Then, an initial ship speed must be declared:
Ship speed (knots) =
For example, type <7.7> and press <<ENTER>>.

18

Typically, Turning Circle maneuver is executed with the ship speed and the propeller RPM
being initially in equilibrium. However, it is not necessary and DEFM asks for initial propeller
RPM giving the equilibrium value as a default. It is recommended that the default be used for
standard maneuvers.
Propeller rpm [40.28] =
Value 40.28 is the equilibrium RPM for the ship speed 7.7 kts as already selected. Type
your choice and press <<ENTER>>.
The last information requested is associated with the test identification in the output files
and plots:
Enter Simulation Run Identification (50 characters) abort with Ctrl/Z
1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890
Type selected description up to 50 characters, or just press ENTER. For example, type
<ESSO OSAKA - test 2> and press <<ENTER>>.
The selected maneuver is executed. The following information appears on the screen:
950.5
Tactical Diameter (m)
=
non-dim
476.2
Static Diameter (m)
=
non-dim
1017.4
Advance (m)
=
non-dim
451.3
Transfer (m)
=
non-dim
=
78.7
Speed Loss (%)
=
20.9
Drift Angle (deg)
Data are ok, plotting in progress
Output ready on TURN.PLT, Postscript
Data are ok, plotting in progress
Output ready on TURN_CH.PLT, Postscript
Do you want to make a color plot (y/n) [y]

=
=
=
=

2.92
1.47
3.13
1.39

If you press <<ENTER>>, the default <y> is accepted and the plot of the executed turning
circle maneuver will appear on the screen. If you type <n> and press <<ENTER>>, the program is
terminated. In both cases, three output files are generated in the OUTPUT directory:
TURN.PLT Contains the plot of executed Turning Circle trajectory as a postscript file
TURN_CH.PLT Contains the plot of executed Turning Circle characteristics as a
postscript file
OUTPUT2.DAT data calculated during the maneuver.
Fig. 7.4.1 and 7.4.2 show the turning circle and turning characteristics simulated by DEFM
with ESSO OSAKA super-tanker.

19

Fig. 7.4.1 Turning Circle Trajectory simulated for ESSO OSAKA super-tanker

20

Figure 7.4.2 Turning Circle Characteristics simulated for ESSO OSAKA super-tanker

21

7.5 SPIRAL DEFINITIVE MANEUVER


The standard procedure for conducting the Spiral Definitive Maneuver is as follows:
1. Initially:
The engine/propeller rpm is adjusted to a predetermined initial ship speed. When a steady
engine/propeller rpm and ship speed are achieved, the throttle settings are not changed for the
time of maneuver.
The rudder is manipulated as necessary until a practically straight course has been achieved
and maintained for one minute.
2. After steady propulsive conditions on straight course have been established:
The rudder is laid to 15 degrees right and held until a steady rate of change of heading remains
constant for one minute (or longer, if required in specific cases such as VLCCs).
The rudder deflection is then decreased by 5 degrees and held again until the rate of change of
heading remains constant for one minute.
The procedure is repeated until the rudder has covered a range from 15 degrees on one side to
15 degrees on the other side and back again to 20 degrees on the first side. For 5 degrees on
either side of zero rudder deflection, the intervals are taken in one degree steps.
7.5.1 Running Spiral Simulation
After Spiral maneuver has been selected, DEFM offers the deep water, or shallow water
options, with deep water as a default:
Do you want shallow water? (y/n) [n]
Press <<ENTER>> for deep water default, or type< y> for shallow water. Lets accept deep
water for this example. If you answer y, the program will prompt you for a depth to ratio draft.
Shallow water affects the spiral maneuver in the following way:
hysteresis loop is getting smaller (ships directional stability improves in shallow water)
slope of curve decreases which indicates increase in directional stability.
Next, DEFM asks for an initial ship speed:
Ship speed (knots) =
For example, type <7.7> and press <<ENTER>>.
Typically, the Spiral maneuver is executed with the ship speed and the propeller RPM being
initially in equilibrium. However, it is not necessary and DEFM asks for initial propeller RPM
giving the equilibrium value as default. It is recommended to use the default value for standard
maneuvers.
Propeller rpm [40.28] =

22

Value 40.28 is the equilibrium RPM for the ship speed 7.7 kts as already selected. Type
your choice and press <<ENTER>>.
Last requested information is associated with the test identification in the output files and
plots:
Enter Simulation Run Identification (50 characters) abort with Ctrl/Z
1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890
Type selected description up to 50 characters, or just press <<ENTER>>. For example,
type <ESSO OSAKA - test 3> and press <<ENTER>>.
The selected maneuver is executed. The following information appears on the screen:
Rudder Angle (degrees)
= 25.00
Turn Rate (degrees/sec)
= -0.189
Non-Dim. Rate (r*L/U) =-0.8907
Final Speed (knots)
= 2.33
it
= 3347
and is updated for each rudder deflection. When the maneuver has been completed, DEFM displays
the following information:
Data are ok, plotting in progress
Output is ready on SPR.PLT, Postscript
Do you want to make a color plot (y/n) [y]
If you press <<ENTER>>, the default <y >is accepted and the plot of executed Spiral will
appear on the screen. If you type <n> and press <<ENTER>>, the program is terminated. In both
cases, two output files are generated in the OUTPUT directory:
SPR.PLT Contains the plot of executed Spiral as a postscript file
OUTPUT2.DAT Contains data calculated during the maneuver
Fig. 7.5.1 and 7.5.2 show a Spiral simulated by DEFM with ESSO OSAKA super- tanker as
it was demonstrated.

23

Fig. 7.5.1 Spiral Test simulated for ESSO OSAKA super-tanker

24

Fig. 7.5.2 Spiral Maneuver simulated for ESSO OSAKA super-tanker


(non-dimensional Turn Rate)
25

7.6 CRASH STOP DEFINITIVE MANEUVER


Standard procedure for the conduct of Crash Stop Definitive Maneuver is as follows:
1. Initially:
The engine/propeller rpm is adjusted to a predetermined initial ship speed. When a steady
engine/propeller rpm and ship speed are achieved, the initial throttle settings are fixed.
The rudder is manipulated as necessary until a practically straight course has been achieved
and maintained for one minute.
2. After steady propulsive conditions on straight course have been established:
FULL ASTERN engine command is executed. In a standard Crash Stop, the rudder is kept in
the constant course position. SMAP allows the simulation of the rudder being deflected as
well. The throttle is reversed at maximum allowable rate or the automatic control lever is
moved in one motion to FULL ASTERN position.
The maneuver is terminated, when the ship has slowed down to zero speed.
7.6.1 Running Crash Stop Simulation
After Crash Stop maneuver has been selected, DEFM offers an option to use deep or
shallow water, with deep water as a default:
Do you want shallow water? (y/n) [n]
Press <<ENTER>> for deep water default, or type <y> for shallow water. Lets accept deep
water for this example. If you answer y, the program prompts you for the draft ratio, shallow water
affects the crash stop maneuver in the following way:
time to stop ship and transfer are shorter,
ship heading change is smaller.
Then, DEFM asks what Astern RPM value is commanded to stop the ship:
Enter stop rpm =
Type your choice, for example <-45>. Negative value means Astern RPM.
Next question is about the magnitude of rudder deflection that is required:
Main rudder angle (degrees) =
Type your choice. Typically, zero value (midships rudder) is declared. To continue with
typical values, type <0> and press <<ENTER>>.

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Then, an initial ship speed must be declared:


Ship speed (knots) =
Typically, the service speed is used. But in our example, type <3.5> and press
<<ENTER>>.
Typically, Crash Stop maneuver is executed with the ship speed and the propeller RPM
being initially in equilibrium. However, it is not necessary and DEFM asks for initial propeller
RPM giving the equilibrium value as default. It is recommended that the default be used for
standard maneuvers.
Propeller rpm [18.31] =
Value 18.31 is the equilibrium RPM for the ship speed 3.5 kts as already selected. Type
your choice and press <<ENTER>>.
The last information requested is associated with the test identification in the output files
and plots:
Enter Simulation Run Identification (50 characters) abort with Ctrl/Z
1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890 1234567890
Type selected description up to 50 characters, or just press <<ENTER>>. For example,
type <ESSO OSAKA - test 3> and press <<ENTER>>.
The selected maneuver is executed, and the following information appears on the screen:
707.0
Time to stop ship (sec) =
681.4
Advance in stop (ft)
=
non-dim = 2.10
28.7
Transfer in stop (ft)
=
non-dim = .09
44.0
Final Heading (degrees) =
Data are ok, plotting in progress
Output ready on STOP.PLT, Postscript
Do you want to make a color plot (y/n) [y]
If you press <<ENTER>>, the default <y> is accepted and the plot of executed Crash Stop
will appear on the screen. If you type <n> and press <<ENTER>>, program is terminated. In both
cases, two output files are generated in OUTPUT directory:
STOP.PLT Contains the plot of executed Crash Stop trajectory as a postscript file
OUTPUT2.DAT Contains data calculated during the maneuver
Fig. 7.6.1 shows Crash Stop Maneuver simulated by DEFM with ESSO OSAKA supertanker.

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Fig. 7.6.1 Crash Stop Maneuver simulated for ESSO OSAKA super-tanker

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