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INDEX

S.No.
TOPIC
Page No.
1
TABLES, SQUARES AND CUBES
2
2
SHORTCUTS OF MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
5
3
SHORTCUTS OF PERCENTAGE
8
4
APPROXIMATION
11
5
VBODMAS
13
6
BAISC FORMULAS
16
7
SURDS AND INDICES
20
8
FRACTIONAL NUMBERS
22
9
NUMBERS SYSTEM
26
10
LCM AND HCF
31
11
SQUARE AND SQUARE-ROOTS
37
12
SIMPLIFICATION
41
13
AP/GP
45
14
AVERAGE
48
15
ALGEBRA LE/QE
54
16
PERCENTAGE
56
17
PROFIT LOSS
66
18
SIMPLE INTEREST

75
19
COMPOUND INTEREST
79
20
RATIO AND PROPORTION
82
21
PARTNERSHIP
86
22
AGES
88
23
ALLIGATION AND MIXTURE
89
24
VARIATION
91
25
TIME AND WORK
93
26
PIPES AND CISTERNS
99
27
TIME AND DISTANCE
101
28
TRAINS
105
29
BOATS AND STREAMS
108
30
PERMUTATION & COMBINATION
110
31
PROBABILITY
116

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 2


Tables:

12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
24
26
28

30
32
34
36
38
40
36
39
42
45
48
51
54
57
60
48
52
56
60
64
68
72
76
80
60
65
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
72
78
84
90
96
102
108
114
120
84
91
98
105
112
119
126

133
140
96
104
112
120
128
136
144
152
160
108
117
126
135
144
153
162
171
180
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56
58
63
66

69
72
75
78
81
84
87
84
88
92
96
100
104
108
112
116
105
110
115
120
125
130
135
140
145
126
132
138
144
150
156
162
168
174
147
154
161
168
175
182
189
196
203
168
176
184
192
200
208

216
224
232
189
198
207
216
225
234
243
252
261
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 3


SQUARES
1x1
1
11x11
121
21x21
441
31x31
961
41x41
1681
2x2
4
12x12
144
22x22
484
32x32
1024
42x42
1764
3x3
9
13x13
169
23x23
529
33x33
1089
43x43
1849

4x4
16
14x14
196
24x24
576
34x34
1156
44x44
1936
5x5
25
15x15
225
25x25
625
35x35
1225
45x45
2025
6x6
36
16x16
256
26x26
676
36x36
1296
46x46
2116
7x7
49
17x17
289
27x27
729
37x37
1369
47x47
2209
8x8
64
18x18
324
28x28
784
38x38
1444
48x48
2304
9x9
81
19x19
361
29x29
841
39x39

1521
49x49
2401
10x10
100
20x20
400
30x30
900
40x40
1600
50x50
2500
51x51
2601
61x61
3721
71x71
5041
81x81
6561
91x91
8281
52x52
2704
62x62
3844
72x72
5184
82x82
6724
92x92
8464
53x53
2809
63x63
3969
73x73
5329
83x83
6889
93x93
8649
54x54
2916
64x64
4096
74x74
5476
84x84
7056
94x94
8836
55x55
3025
65x65
4225

75x75
5625
85x85
7225
95x95
9025
56x56
3136
66x66
4356
76x76
5776
86x86
7396
96x96
9216
57x57
3249
67x67
4489
77x77
5929
87x87
7569
97x97
9409
58x58
3364
68x68
4624
78x78
6084
88x88
7744
98x98
9604
59x59
3481
69x69
4761
79x79
6241
89x89
7921
99x99
9801
60x60
3600
70x70
4900
80x80
6400
90x90
8100
100x100
10000

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 4

CUBES
1x1x1
1
11x11x11
1331
21x21x21
9261
31x31x31
29791
41x41x41
68921
2x2x2
8
12x12x12
1728
22x22x22
10648
32x32x32
32768
42x42x42
74088
3x3x3
27
13x13x13
2197
23x23x23
12167
33x33x33
35937
43x43x43
79507
4x4x4
64
14x14x14
2744
24x24x24
13824
34x34x34
39304
44x44x44
85184
5x5x5
125
15x15x15
3375
25x25x25
15625
35x35x35
42875
45x45x45
91125
6x6x6
216
16x16x16
4096
26x26x26
17576
36x36x36
46656
46x46x46
97336
7x7x7

343
17x17x17
4913
27x27x27
19683
37x37x37
50653
47x47x47
103823
8x8x8
512
18x18x18
5832
28x28x28
21952
38x38x38
54872
48x48x48
110592
9x9x9
729
19x19x19
6859
29x29x29
24389
39x39x39
59319
49x49x49
117649
10x10x10
1000
20x20x20
8000
30x30x30
27000
40x40x40
64000
50x50x50
125000
51x51x51
132651
61x61x61
226981
71x71x71
357911
81x81x81
531441
91x91x91
753571
52x52x52
140608
62x62x62
238328
72x72x72
373248
82x82x82
551368
92x92x92
778688
53x53x53
148877
63x63x63
250047

73x73x73
389017
83x83x83
571787
93x93x93
804357
54x54x54
157464
64x64x64
262144
74x74x74
405224
84x84x84
592704
94x94x94
830584
55x55x55
166375
65x65x65
274625
75x75x75
421875
85x85x85
614125
95x95x95
857375
56x56x56
175616
66x66x66
287496
76x76x76
438976
86x86x86
636056
96x96x96
884736
57x57x57
185193
67x67x67
300763
77x77x77
456533
87x87x87
658503
97x97x97
912673
58x58x58
195112
68x68x68
314432
78x78x78
474552
88x88x88
681472
98x98x98
941192
59x59x59
205379
69x69x69
328509
79x79x79
493039
89x89x89

704969
99x99x99
970299
60x60x60
216000
70x70x70
343000
80x80x80
512000
90x90x90
729000
100x100x100
1000000

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 5


SHORTCUTS OF MULTIPLICATION AND DIVISION
PART:A MULTIPLY
1) 67 5 2) 57 5 3) 39 5 4) 5 736 5) 5 65 6) 5 7643
7) 342 15 8) 456 15 9) 778 15 10) 87 15 11) 46 15 12) 356 15
PART: B MULTIPLY
1) 438 25 2) 344 25 3) 86 75 4) 64 75
5) 628 25 6) 984 25 7) 25 668 8) 25 878
9) 438 125 10) 344 125 11) 986 125 12) 694 125
13) 628 625 14) 984 625 15) 625 668 16) 625 878
PART: C DIVIDE
1) 67 5 2) 57 5 3) 39 5 4) 73 5 5) 65 5 6) 76 5
7) 342 15 8) 456 15 9) 678 15 10) 87 15 11) 426 15 12) 396 15
PART: D DIVIDE
1) 438 25 2) 344 25 3) 986 25 4) 694 25
5) 438 125 6) 344 125 7) 986 125 8) 694 125
9) 628 625 10) 984 625 11) 668 625 12) 878 625
PART: E MULTIPLY
1) 36 15 2) 54 45 3) 68 75 4) 974 15
5) 248 35 6) 984 85 7) 68728 35 8) 654279 115
PART: F MULTIPLY
1) 4326 11 2) 45367 11 3) 64 44 4) 56 33
5) 98.7654 11 6) 64.35 11 7) 9.687 11 8) 654.279 11
PART: G MULTIPLY
1) 4326 111 2) 45367 111 3) 6546 111 4) 97656 111
5) 987654 111 6) 6435 111 7) 9687 111 8) 654279 111
PART:H MULTIPLY
1) 107 103 2) 112 113 3) 93 92 4) 87 89 5) 107 89 6) 89 112
7) 206 208 8) 302 313 9) 193 196 10) 217 204 11) 512 503 12) 412 411
PART:I MULTIPLY
1) 67 63 2) 127 123 3) 92 98 4) 76 74 5) 98 92 6) 89 81
PART: J MULTIPLY
1) 42 67 2) 56 87 3) 84 42 4) 87 97 5) 46 85
6) 35.6 47 7) 34.6 8.9 8) 4.68 .039 9) 45.8 .59 10) .763 .049
11) 657 76 12) 5647 24 13) 39 92434 14) 59 73342 15) 4876 65
16) 3556 76 17) 8475 39 18) 8845 38 19) 6.99 68 20) .8987 94
PART: K MULTIPLY
1) 435 564 2) 345 876 3) 986 574 4) 694 963
5) 62.1 25.8 6) 9.89 .0585 7) 3.78 66.8 8) 897 878
PART: L MULTIPLY
1) 67657 16 2) 57.54 1.4 3) 9739 19 4) 5649 13
5) 46.578 1.7 6) 3977.5 .0018 7) 89.864 .012 8) 85645 13

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 6


PART: M MULTIPLY

1) 3564 9 2) 7456 9 3) 3778 9 4) 4687 9


5) 7646 9 6) 9356 9 7) 5864 9 8) 57868 9
PART: N MULTIPLY
1) 2435 99 2) 3345 99 3) 9386 99 4) 5694 99
5) 6214 99 6) 9894 99 7) 3478 99 8) 2897 99
PART: O FIND SQUARE OF
1) 35 2) 45 3) 75 4) 85 5) 95 6) 85
7) 115 8) 125 9) 145 10) 155 11) 99 12) 9999
PART: P FIND SQUARE OF
1) 106 2) 107 3) 114 4) 124 5) 148 6) 118
7) 94 8) 92 9) 87 10) 82 11) 96 12) 91
PART: Q FIND SQUARE OF
1) 198 2) 217 3) 189 4) 219 5) 518 6) 296
7) 714 8) 821 9) 623 10) 92.1 11) 3.96 12) 6.91
13) 1248 14) 2117 15) 1189 16) 3219 17) 51.18 18) 72.96
19) 732.4 20) 42.21 21) 68.23 22) 9651 23) 323.9 24) 36.92
PART: R FIND SQUARE OF
1) 54.5 2) 144.5 3) 76.25 4) 78.5 5) 8.125 6) 16.125
7) 11.25 8) 16.25 9) 84.5 10) 124.25
PART: S FIND CUBE OF
1) 32 2) 43 3) 25 4) 81 5) 19 6) 35
7) 18 8) 23 9) 17 10) 54
PART: T FIND SQUARE ROOT OF
1) 4624 2) 3844 3) 18496 4) 620.01 5) 384.16
6) 761.76 7) 18.0625 8) 704 9) 87025 10) 39.4384
PART: U FIND CUBE ROOT OF
1) 97336 2) 29791 3) 24389 4) 4.913 5) 195112
6) 226981 7) 389.017 8) 614.125 9) 970299 10) 12167

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 7


Practice Questions:
1.) 2
11236 36

(a)0.70 (b)1402* (c)448 (d)9600

2.) 2
464412.5
(a)1209 (b)14 (c)448 (d)2180.25*

3.) 2
36 2916
(a) 72 (b) 12 (c)42 (d)24*
4.) 878330276 1044
(a)5621.16* (b)14.60 (c)56.321 (d)87.9
5.)
21

512 3 1251728 3
(a)59 (b)1402 (c)448 (d) 1728.512*
6.) 421254.5796
(a)2.476* (b)42 (c)4 (d)9.97
7.) 77.77.77
(a)8.547 (b)140.206 (c)418.803* (d)451.2
8.) 2
4.643.2 9.6
(a)10.7008 (b)107.008* (c)100 (d)90
9.) 2

6.4 8.73.8
(a)74.02* (b)84.02 (c)48 (d)96
10.) 936.36 74.31.7
(a)0.70 (b)156.91* (c)448 (d)96
11.)
1

6859 3 7.27.8
(a)75.16* (b)1402 (c)448 (d)600
12.) 3.122.06457.96
(a)56 (b)27.8272* (c)27.5672 (d)20.657
13.) 462.25 6.451.74.2
(a) 5.16 (b)10.879 (c)10.473* (d)14.073
14.)
1

4913 3 87 435132.25
(a)19.3* (b)14.2 (c)4.4 (d)19.7

15.) 2
12.14 3.684.212564
(a)7.5 (b)12.6756 (c)4.8 (d) 8131.9236*
16) 2 1
(3.4) 47.61
5.29

(a)5.16 (b)14.02 (c)14.8 (d)14.56*


17)
1

12 4 6 5 15 6 474 552 3 70 56

(a) 74.2* (b)1.980 (c)193.88 (d)600


18) 2

1562572152139
(a)69 (b)42 (c)91* (d)68
19)
2

1
(2 8) 1 95 3 2 (4 913)
12 25

(a)10.922* (b)10.02 (c)10.48 (d)10.6


33

20)
1

(262144)3 923111(298)2
(a)99.9726* (b)99.14 (c)99.448 (d)99.76
21) 2 (512) 486257569
(a)47.5144* (b) 30 (c)48.24 (d)43.657
22) 2 15129 154.632125(24)
(a)24.704* (b)14.78 (c)44.987 (d)69.5
23)
1

(110592)3 (25)2 46656


(a) 75.16 (b) 20.9 (c) 22.368* (d)60
24) 888888
(a)56.19 (b)14.02 (c)89.78 (d) 625.152*

25) 2 1112(1.3) 141542436

(a)15.29* (b)13.29 (c)14.58 (d)11.40

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 8


SHORTCUTS OF PERCENTAGE
Fraction Percent Equivalence : In course of doing problems on percentages, many times we would need to find
x 100
11
10
x100or
6
5
x 100 or
3
2

to find the percentage. It would be a good idea to memorize a few fractions as their
percentage equivalents i.e. learn that the fraction
3
2

is 66.66%,
6
5

is 83.33% and
11
10

is 9.0909%. If one is
comfortable with these, rarely would one need to do any calculations.
The fractions that have to be mugged-up in their equivalent percentage terms are:
1.
2
1
= 50%
2.
3
1
= 33.33%,
3
2
=66.66%
3.
4
1
= 25%,
4
3
= 75%
4.
5
1
= 20%,
5
2
= 40% ,
5
3
= 60%,
5
4
= 80%
5.
6

1
= 16.66%,
6
5
= 83.33%
6.
7
1
= 14.28%
7.
8
1
= 12.5%,
8
3
= 37.5%,
8
5
= 62.5%,
8
7
= 87.5%
8.
9
1
= 11.11%,
9
2
=22.22%,
9
4
= 44.44%,
9
5
= 55.55% and so on..
9.
11
1
= 9.09%,
11
2
= 18.18%,
11
3
= 27.27%,
11
4
=36.36% and so on..
10.
12
1
= 8.33%,
12
11
= 91.66%
11.
15
1
= 6.66%
12.
16
1
= 6.25%

13.
18
1
= 5.555%
14.
19
1
= 5.26%
15.
20
1
= 5%

Calculating Percentage Values through additions:


Example: 43% = 10% 4 + 1% 3

48% = 50% - 1% 2
58.23% = 50% + 10% - 2% + .1% 2 + .01% 3
Now calculate 1) 43% of 78 = (10% of 78) 4 + (1% of 78) 3

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 9


= 7.8 4 + .78 3 = 31.2 + 2.34 = 33.54
2) 3.24% of 82 = 82 3 + 8.2 + 8.2 + .82 + .82 + .82 + .82 =265.68

Practice Questions:
1) 9.09% of 11.11% of 12.5% of 102.96
a) 25 *b) .13 c) 5 d)1.2
2) 44.44% of 3663 + 16.6 % of 72 = 37.5% of 128 + x
a) 2504 b) 2134 c) 1592* d)1264
3) 14.28% of 56 + 6.25% of 64
a) 25 b) 23 c) 16* d)18
4) 8.33% of 36 + 27.27% of 44
a) 15 b) 18 c) 14 d)15*
5) 62.5% of 48 + 6.67% of 75 9.09% of 66
a) 29* b) 35 c) 56 d)28
6) 83.3% of 72 + 22.2% of 36 + 5.55% of 108
a) 52 b) 36 c) 58* d)64
7) 41.66% of 84 26.66% of 75 = 12.5% of 32 + x
a) 35 b) 13 c) 15 d)11*
8) 83.3% of 14.28% of 18.18% of 55.44
a) 1.2* b) 2.3 c) 5.6 d) 2.1
9) 5.5% of 8.3% of 6.6% of 777.60
a) .25 b) .76 c) .24* d)1.2
10) 48% of 962 + 32% of 658
a) 26.895 b) 76.213 c) 586.67 d)672.32*
11) 35% of 7200 + 15% of 9600 45% of 4800
a) 1700 *b) 1800 c) 1500 d)1200
12) 62.5% of 48 + 37.5% of 32 = 12.5% of 96 15% of
X
a) 250 b) 300 c) 500 d)200*
13) 52% of 49.6 + 24% of 24.8 9% of 36.4
a) 25.654 *b) 28.468 c) 85.231 d)15.628
14) 93% of 6.3 + 87% of 96 10.6% of 112
a) 77.507* b) 63.813 c) 65.760 d)81.32
15) 15% of 86.4 + 35% of 92.4 + 40% of X = 65% of 96.8
a) 62.25 b) 98.13 c) 25.65 d)44.05*
16) 20 is what % of 60 ?
a) 25% *b)

1
33
3
% c)50% d)125%
17) what % of 90 is 60 ?
a) 25% b)75% c)50% d)66.66%*

18) express 1/3 as a % of 5/9.


a) 25% b)75% c)60%* d)125%
19) what % is equivalent to 3/4 ?
a) 25% *b)75% c)50% d)125%
20) what fraction is 15% ?
a) 2/5 b)7/5 c)5/2 d) 3/20*
21) find 4% of Rs. 3125
a) 25% *b)75% c)50% d)125%
22) 60% of what number is 30 ?
a) 25 b)75 c)50* d)125
23) 2.5 cab be expressed in terms of percentage as.?
a) 250%* b)75% c)50% d)125%
24) 5% of a number is 15. The number is :
A. 150 B. 200 C. 250 *D.300
25) 75% of what area is 15 square metres?
A. 10 square metres B. 15 square metres
*C. 20 square metres D. 25 square metres
26) What percentage is equivalent to 5/8 ?
a)

1
45
2
*b)

1
62
2
c)

1
22
2
d)

1
37
2
27)

1
8
3
% expressed as a fraction is ?
a)

25
3
b)

3
25
*c)

1
12
d)

1
4
28) What fraction is

1
22
2
percent ?
*a) 9/40 b) 6/40 c) 9/20 b) 6/20
29) Express as fractions in their lowest terms:-

1
8

3
%
a)

1
16
b)

3
16
c)

1
12
* b)

1
4
30) 20% of Rs.5 is :
*A. Re.l B. Rs. 2 C. Rs. 3 D. Rs. 4
31) Find

1
12
2
% of Rs. 1000.
a) Rs. 120 b) Rs. 175 c) Rs. 150 *d) Rs. 125
32) Find the value of 5% of Rs. 1400.
a) Rs. 35 *b) Rs. 70 c) Rs. 140 d) Rs. 105

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 10


33) Find the value of

2
66 %
3
of 2 kg 6 hg 3 dag 7g.
a) 1 kg 7 hg 5 dag 8g* b) 1 kg 5 hg 7 dag 8g
c) 1 kg 8 hg 5 dag 7g d) 1 kg 7 hg 8 dag 5g
34) Half of 1 percent written as a decimal is
*(a) 0.005 (b) 0.05 (c) 0.02 (d) 0.2
35) What is 15 percent of Rs. 34 ?
(a) Rs. 3.40 (b) Rs. 3.75 (c) Rs. 4.50 *(d) Rs. 5.10
36) 88% of 370 + 24% of 210 - ? = 118
(a) 256 *(b) 258 (c) 268 (d) 358
37) 45% of 750 - 25% of 480 = ?
(a) 216 *(b) 217.50 (c) 236.50 (d) 245
38) 40% of 1640 + ? = 35% of 980 + 150% of 850
(a) 372 (b) 842 *(c) 962 (d) 1052
39) 218% of 1674 = ? x 1800
(a) 0.5 (b) 4 (c) 6 *(d) None of these
40) What percent of 7.2 kg is 18 gms ?
(a) .025% *(b) .25% (c) 2.5% (d) 25%
41) 0.01 is what percent of 0.1 ?
(a) 1/100 (b) 1/10 *(c) 10 d) 100
42) What' percent of Rs. 2650 is Rs. 1987.50 ?
(a) 60% *(b) 75% (c) 80% (d) 90%
43) What percent of a day is 3 hours?
*(a)

1
12
2
% (b)

2
16
3
% (c)

2
18
3
% (d)

1
22
3
%
44) 5% of (50% of Rs. 300) is :
A. Rs. 8.50 *B. Rs. 7.50 C. Rs. 5.00 D. Rs. 10.00
45) 5/8 may be expressed as :
A. 50/80% *B. 62.5% C. 55.5% D. 70.5%
46) 15% of Rs. 50 is equal to :
A. Rs. 25 B. Rs. 12.50 C. Rs. 9.50 *D. Rs. 7.50
47) 60% of what no. is 30?
*a) 50 b) 25 c) 60 d) 65
48) What per cent of Rs. 30 is Rs. 10?
A. 30% *B. 33.3% C.35% D.40%
49) 2
3 26 % of what no. is 164?
a) 651 *b) 615 c) 516 d) 561
50) What is the sum of money of which

3
3
4
% is Rs. 45?
a) Rs. 1500 *b) Rs. 1200 c) Rs. 1250 d) Rs. 1550
51) What per cent of 3 metres is 75 cm?
A. 10% B. 15% C.20% *D.25%
52) what is the number, 1
2 12 % of which is 64?
a) 510 b) 312 *c) 512 d) 521
53)

1
22
2
% of a number is 45, what % of that number is
90?
a) 25% b) 65% c) 30% *d) 45%
54) Rs.

1
12
2
is what percent of Rs.

2
16
3
?
a) 50% b) 25% *c) 75% d) 45%
55) What rate percent is 6 P of the Re.2 ?
a) 5% *b) 3% c) 12% d) 18%

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 11


APPROXIMATION
In this type of questions, we do not have to find out the exact value but approximate value after rounding
off numbers. An approximate answer can be found more quickly. Rounding off a number to a decimal place
means finding the multiple of the representative of that decimal place which is closest to the original number.
Thus, rounding off a number to the nearest hundred means finding the multiple of a 100 which is closest to the
original number. Rounding off to the nearest tenth means finding the multiple of 1/10 which is closest to the
original number.

After a number has been rounded off to a particular decimal place, all the digits to the right of that decimal
place will be zero.
For e.g. 1. 267.7899 267.79 267.8
2. (29.99)2 (30)2 900

Find the approximate value of the following


expressions:1. (415.63)2 = ?
a) 172850 b) 172700* c)172750
d)172800 e) 17225
2.
5246
?
6997

a) 0.44 b) 0.32 c) 0.5*


d) 0.36 e) 0.40
3. 754.002 + 3.0024 88.976 = ?
a) 66616 b) 1021* c)1000
d)66600 e)1035
4. 2 2
727.9995 (5.1961) ?
10.7960

a) 53 b) 44 c) 5
d) 15 e) 10*
5. 3 80000 ?
a) 50 b) 49* c)43
d)38 e)40
6. (5995+4874+3333) (713 +509 +326 ) =?
a) 11 b) 9* c) 11.5
d) 7.5 e) 12
7. (399.98)2= ?
a) 160000* b)15999 c)1600
d)1599 e)16000
8. 2 1
624.9995 4.9989 ?
4.9900865

a)6 b) 50 c)10*
d)125 e)15
9. 989.001+1.0098276.792 =?
a) 1000 b) 1100 c)1065*
d)110 e)100
10. 0.4931.8643.554 =?
a) 3.5* b)6.5 c)4.8
d)5.2 e)6.9
11. 872.905 9.013 1.898 = ?
a) 194 b)50* c) 102
d) 55 e) 72
12.
? 55.985
2.167
2.951 13.010

a) 35 b) 40 c) 16
d) 26* e) 18

13. 948.991 621.052 + ? = 723.486


a) 305 b) 416 c) 396*
d) 348 e) 443
14. 198.001 25 + 112.05 24.998 = ?
a) 7570 b)7550 c)7500
d) 7750* e) 7250
15. (7.995)2 + 90.951 - ? = 121.001 + 10.995
a) 33 b) 50 c) 18
d) 28 e) 23*
16. 4.999 1.999 6.001 = ?
a) 24 b) 20 c) 15*
d) 17 e)18
17. 165% of 140 + 12.5% of 192 =?
a. ) 155 b. ) 250 c. ) 255*
d. ) 275 e. ) none of these
18. What approximate value should come in the
place of the question mark in the following
question?
12833+133% of 1655-7/5 of 3533=?
a) 9000 b) 10000* c) 10500
d) 11000 e) 9500

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 12


19. What approximate value should come in place of
the followings equation?

9837 3156771310%of1500 ?
a) 10600 b) 10850* c) 11200
d) 10700 e) 11000.
20. Find the approximate value of question mark in
the following expressions.
2

34 ? 37.08 476.78 2400

a) 1840 b) 1900 c) 1960*


c) 2020 d) 2080.
21. What approximate value should come in place of
the question mark?
12591 39.8+933 13-12.8614.2+135=?
a) 340* b) 330 c) 325
d) 350 e) 355.
22. What approximate value should come in place of
question mark?

1
% 1379 7% 320 23%490 ?
4
of of
a) 68 b) 73 c) 80*
d) 88 e) 96.
23. Find the approximate value of the following
expression?
32

278%of1356138.236.812 13

a) 12310* b) 12325 c) 13340


d) 13325 e) 13310
24. What approximate value should come in the place
of the question mark.
33333

11 0.8 12 1.1 1.2 ?

a) 3063* b) 3060 c) 3066


d) 3060 e) 3068
25. What approximate value should come in place of
the question mark.

281 24 873189 ?
a) 1280* b) 1290 c) 1310

d) 1350 e) 1400
26. What approximate value should come in place of
the question mark.

2
17.59 178.86180 45%of 216 ?
a) 40 b) 43* c) 46
d) 37 e)49
27. What approximate value should come in place of
question mark.
6

273
1240 3 ? 6130
582
of of
a) 3000 b) 2500 c) 3500
d) 2000 d) 3200*
28. What approximate value would come in the place
of ?.
9321.7352674.296=?423.731
a) 14.7 b) 15.6* c) 16.9
d) 16.5 e) 17.2
29. What approximate value would come in place of ?

8 12
4921 2137 3451 ?
15 17
of of
a) 2360 b) 2225 c) 2325*
d) 2220 e) 2380
30. What approximate value should come in the place
of ?.

87432 17.5%of132 ?13.242.5


a) 300 b) 305* c) 310
d) 321 e) 315
31. What approximate value should come in place of
the question mark in the following question.
753446/373 = ?
a) 750 b) 650 c) 900*
d) 1050 e) 1250
32. What approximate value should come in the place
of the question mark.
40.2% of 1656-16.8% of 2012 =?
a) 300 b) 325* c) 350
d) 400 e) 425.
33. What approximate value should come in the place
of question mark.
5208.62-4818.31 = 10865-?
a) 52000 b) 5200 c) 10000*
d) 40500 e) 6000
34. What approximate value should come in the place
of question mark.
100/165.88 =(?) 2
a) 6* b) 7 c) 8
d) 9 e) 5
35. What should come in the place of ? in the
following

21
17 180 480 ?
34
of of
a) 3180 b) 3240 c) 3200

d) 3300* e) none of these


36. What approximate value should come in the place
of the ?

3
3 157.85 39% 1847 ? 447.30
5
of of
a) 1200 b) 1500 c) 1600
d) 1800* e) 2100

VBODMAS RULE
Order Abbreviated letter Meaning Notation
1. V Vinculum or bar -----------2. B Bracket ( ), { }, [ ].
3. O Of Of
4. D Division
5. M Multiplication
6. A Addition +
7. S Subtraction Example :1 simplify :
31738
1 (6 8 3 2)
7 5 25 7 14
of


=
3 1 7 14
1 (6 8 1)
7 5 25 14
of


=
317
1 14 1
7 5 25
of


=
13
16
25


=
1 13
6 25
=
53
150

ans.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 14


14
Exercise:
1.

1 1

10 8 6 (7 6 4)
22


a) 5/2 b) 2 c) 1* d) 3

2. 10 6 7 (6 85)


.
a) 8* b) 6 c) 7 d) 10.
3. 1810432(41021)
a) 5 b) 9 c) 8 d)7*.
4.

1 3 45 2 5 2
5
4 7 24 3 6 5
of of


a) 13 b) 15 c) 14* d)16

5. 24010 2 732(7541312 6)


a) 24/53* b) 6/5
c) 53/24 d) 5/6
6.

273417
23
384648



a) 29/8 b) 29/9*
c) 28/9 d) 14/9
7. Find the value of x:
4.5 4.5

4.59.04.5x 0,


a) 9 b)0* c) 4.5
d) none of these
8. If x=4, y=3, then the value of x
a) 7/4 b)

1
1
2
c) 4/5* d) 5/4
9.

y x 2is

111111
444444


a) 1/2 b) 1/4 c) 1 d) 0*
10.

14 16 14
?
16 28 42

a) 2/3 b)

1
1*
2
c) 1/3
d)

2
1
3
e) None of these
11.

3 2 12 7 1
1?
5 3 13 5 3

a)

31
2
70
b)

33
1
70
c)

31
2
90
d)

31
1*
90
e) None of these
12.

231
46?
322



a) 100 b) 10* c) 150
d) 68.32 e) None of these
13.

?
12
1
1

3
2
2
4
3
2
(a)
48
39

(b)
4
1
1

(c)
144
169

(d)None of these*
14. find missing digit:
528
289
8
7
1
4(?)24
4335

(a) 1 (b) 2* (c)8 (d)None of these


15.

2317
9135?
9 11 7 9
of of
(a)
4
5

(b)8* (c)
81
32
8

(d)9
16. Simplify

11
312231523?
4431136
23
of

(a)
18
7

(b)
54
49

(c) 2/3* (d)


3
1

17. Simplify:

1321

3453
2314
1
3445
of of

(a)
63
1

(b)
40
23

(c)
55
23

(d)

23*
63
18. The value of

111
222:
111
222
of
is
of

(a) 1 (b)
3
1
1 (c) 4 * (d)3

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 15


15
19.

20 8 0.5
12
20 ?

a) 12 b) 26 c) 18*
d) 5 e) None of these
20.

272 18 8
?
14 8 2 8

a) 2 b) 4 c) 1*
d) 3 e) None of these
21.

12.47 1.535

?
100 0.35

a) 1.86 b) 0.70 c) 2* d) 200


e) None of these
22. 52.416 18.72 + 6.28 = ?
(a) 2.09664 (b)8.36 (c)9.08*
(d) 9.80
23. 5.8 x 2.5 + 0.6 x 6.75 + 139.25 = ?
(a) 157.30* (b)157.80 (c)158.40
(d)160.30
24. The value of 0.008 x 0.01 x 0.0072 (0.12 x
0.0004) is:
(a)0.012* (b)0.12 (c)1.02
(d)1.2
25. 0.2 + 0.2 -0.2 0.2 x (0.2 x 0.2), on
simplification, gives:
(a)0.04 (b)0.2 (c)0.36*
(d)1
26. 4.59 x 1.8 3.6 + 5.4 of ?
5
1
9
1

(a)1.815* (b)2.705 (c)3.105


(d)None of these
27. 2.002 + 7.9 (2.8 6.3 ( 3.6 1.5) + 15.6) =?
(a)2.002 (b)42.845 (c)40.843
(d)42.845*
28. 3 [1.6 {3.2 (3.2 + 2.25 x)}] =0.65. The
value of x is:
(a)0.3 (b)0.7 (c)3 (d)7
29. find missing digit: 54.27 [12.84 {(x).87
(3.41 x 2 1.85)}] = 38.33
(a) 1* (b)3 (c)4 (d) None of these
30. (8 88) x 8888088 = ?
(a) 808008* (b) 808080 (c)808088
(d) 8008008
31. 1260 15 7 =?
(a) 12* (b) 58 (c)122
(d) 588 (e)None of these
32.
2 [2 (2-2 (2 + 2)}] = ?
(a)-4 (b)4 (c) -6* (d)None of these
33. 3640 14 x 16 + 340 = ?
(a)0.70 (b)3525 (c)4500*
(d)9600 (e)None of these
34. What mathematical operation should come at the
place of ? in the equation: 2 ? 6 12 4 + 2 = 11.
(a)+ (b)- (c) * (d)
35. The value of
44444
(6 6 6 6) 6

is equal to:
(a)1 ( b) 3/2 (c)

4
*

13
(d) 13
6
3

36. Simplify: 18 [5 ( 6 + 2 ( 7-8 5)}] .


37. Evaluate:
| 5 3| | 5 8| 3
8 [5 ( 3 2)] 2

(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5*


38. 1 +

28
1
14
1
7
1
4
1
2
1
is equal to:
(a) 2* (b) 2.5 (c) 3 (d) 3.5
39.

?
6
1
15
3
1
30
2
1
20
(a)
6
1
34 (b)

2
35 *
3
(c)
6
5
35 (d)
3
1
45

(a) 13 (b) 15 (c) 27* (d) 32

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 16


BASIC FORMULAE : ALGEBRAIC FORMULAE
1. (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab=(a - b)2 + 4ab
2. (a b)2 = a2 + b2 2ab=(a + b)2 - 4ab
3. (a + b)2 (a b)2 = 4ab
4. (a + b)2 + (a b)2 = 2 (a2 + b2)
5. (a2 b2) = (a + b) (a b)
6. (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2 (ab + bc + ca)

7. (a3 + b3) = (a + b) (a2 ab + b2)


8. (a3 b3) = (a b) (a2 + ab + b2)
9. (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b) = a3 + b3 + 3 a2b + 3 a b2
10. (a - b)3 = a3 - b3 - 3ab(a - b) = a3 - b3 - 3 a2b + 3 a b2
11. (a3 + b3 + c3 3abc) = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 ab bc ca)
12. If a + b + c = 0, then a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc.
Application of some formulas:
Example :1 simplify : 0.46 0.46 + 0.54 0.54 + 0.92 0.54
= 0.462 + 0.542 + 2 0.46 0.54 ((a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab )
= (0.46 + 0.54)2 = 12 = 1
Example :2 simplify : 2 [ 1.25 1.25 + 0.25 0.25 ]
= 2 [1.252 + 0.252] [ (a + b)2 + (a b)2 = 2 (a2 + b2) ]
= (1.25 + 0.25)2 + (1.25 0.25)2
= 1.52 + 12
= 2.25 + 1 = 3.25
Example :3 simplify :
2 2 (14.5 6.23) (14.5 6.23)
14.5 6.23

[(a + b)2 (a b)2 = 4ab ]


=
4 14.5 6.23
14.5 6.23

4
Example :4 simplify : 0.6 0.6 0.6 + 0.4 0.40.4 + 0.72
= 0.63 + 0.43 + 3 0.6 0.4 ( 0.6 + 0.4 ) [(a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab(a + b) ]
= (0.6 + 0.4)3
= 13 = 1
Example :5 simplify :
0.125 0.064
0.25 0.16 0.2

[(a3 + b3) = (a + b) (a2 ab + b2) ]


=
33
22

0.5 0.4
0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4

=
22
22

(0.5 0.4)(0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4)


(0.5 0.4 0.5 0.4)

= 0.9 ans.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 17


Unsolved exercise:
1. Find the value of: 0.750.75+0.250.752+0.250.25=?
a) 1* b) 2 c) 1/2 d)

2. Find the value of:


6.36 6.36 2.36 2.36 4.72 6.36
3.36 3.36 0.64 0.64 1.28 3.36

a) 16 b) 9 c) 1* d) 4
3. Find the value of:
2 0.527 0.527 2 0.527 0.495 (0.495)
0.032

a) 0.032* b) 0.023
c) 0.052 d)0.042
4.

2 2
22

63 36 63 36
?
63 36

a) 1 b) 2* c) 3 d) 6
5.

2 2 0.576 0.324 (0.576 0.324)


4 0.162 0.288

a) 1 b) 4* c) 3 d) 2
6. Find the value of

2 2

2.8 1.2
2.8 2.8 1.2 1.2 5.6 1.2

a) 0.5 b) 0.25 c) 1.6 d) 0.1*


7. Simplify:
0.704 0.704 0.296 0.296
0.704 0.296

a) 1* b)2 c) 0 d) not determined


8. Find the value of
147 147 147 123 123 123
147 147 147 123 123 123

a) 160 b) 150* c) 140 d) 130


9. Find the value of
0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.6
?
0.5 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.6

a) 1 b) 1.1* c) 2 d) 1.5
10. 397 397 + 104 104 + 2 397 104 = ?
(a) 250001 (b) 251001* (c) 260101 (d) 261001
11 186 186 + 159 159 - 2 186 159 = ?
(a) 729* (b) 1039 (c) 2019 (d) 7029
12 (475 + 425)2 - 4 475 425 is equal to :
(a) 2500* (b) 3160 (c) 3500 (d) 3600
13. If (64)2 - (36)2 = 20z, the value of z is :
(a) 70 (b) 120 (c) 180 (d) None of these*
14. (46)2 - (?)2 = 4398 - 3066

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 18


(a) 16 (b) 28* (c) 36 (d) 42
15.
2 2 (856 167) (856 167)
856 856 167 167

is equal to:
(a) 1 (b) 2* (c) 689 (d) 1023
16.
469 174
(469 174) (469 174)2 2

is equal to:
(a) 2 (b) 4* (c) 295 (d) 643
17. The value of (68.237)2 (31.763)2 is:
(a) 3.6474 (b) 36.474 (c) 364.74 (d) 3647.4*
18. Evaluate:
(2.39 1.61
(2.39) (1.61)2 2

(a) 2 (b) 4* (c) 6 (d) 8


19. On simplification of
0.288
(2.644) (2.356)2 2

, we get:
(a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 5* (d) 6
20.
40
?
(36.54) (3.46)2 2

(a) 3.308 (b) 4 (c) 33.08* (d) 330.8


21. The value of is
75.458 40.374
(67.542) (32.458)2 2

:
(a) 1 (b) 10 (c) 100* (d) None of these
22.


14.9 5.1
1.49 14.9 0.51 5.1

is equal to:
(a) 0.20 (b) 2.00* (c) 20 (d) 22
23.
?
2.3 6.1
4.2 4.2 1.9 1.9

(a) 0.5 (b) 1* (c) 1.9 (d) 4.2


24. Simplify:
2 2 (7.66)

(2.34)
5.32 56 5.32 44

(a) 7.2 (b) 8.5 (c) 10* (d) 12


25.
22
44

(0.6) (0.5)
(0.6) (0.5)

is equal to:
(a) 0.1 (b) 0.11* (c) 1.1 (d) 11
26. (7.57.5 37.5 2.52.5) is equal to:
(a) 30 (b) 60 (c) 80 (d) 100*
27. The simplification of
0.36
0.20.2 0.020.02 0.40.02

gives:
(a) 0.009 (b) 0.09* (c) 0.9 (d) 9
28. The expression (11.98 11.98 +11.98 x +0.02 0.02) will be a perfect square for x equal to:
(a) 0.02 (b) 0.2 (c) 0.04* (d) 0.4

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 19


29. The value of
2.697 2.697 0.498 0.498
(2.697 0.498) (2.697 0.498)2 2

is:
(a) 0.5 (b) 2* (c) 2.199 (d) 3.195
30. The value pf
0.137 0.098
(0.137 0.098) (0.137 0.098)2 2

is:
(a) 0.039 (b) 0.235 (c) 0.25 (d) 4*
31. The value of

0.051 0.051 0.051 0.041 0.041 0.041


0.051 0.051 0.051 0.041 0.041 0.041

is:
(a) 0.00092 (b) 0.0092 (c) 0.092* (d) 0.92
32. The value of

.953 .953 .953 .047 .047 .047


.953 .953 .953 .047 .047 .047

is:
(a) .32 (b) .886 (c) 1.1286 (d) None of these *
33. The value of

0.5 0.5 0.09 0.15


0.125 0.027

is:
(a) 0.08 (b) 0.2 (c) 0.8* (d) 1
34.

10.3 10.3 10.3 1


10.3 10.3 10.3 1

is equal to:
(a) 9.3 (b) 10.3 (c) 11.3* (d) 12.3
35.

(7.5) 6.5
8(3.75) 1
2
3

is equal to:
(a)
5
9

(b) 2.75 (c) 4.75 (d) 8.5*


36. 2
1 85743 85745
(85744)

is equal to:
(a) 2 (b) 1* (c) 295 (d) 643

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 20


SURDS, INDICES
1. Xa Xb = Xa+b

Ex. a) X3 X5 = X3+5= X8
Ex. b) X3/2 X5/3 = X3/2 +5/3 = X19/6
2. Xa Xb = Xa-b
Ex. a) X9 X6 = X9-6= X3
Ex. b) X7/2 X5/3 = X7/2 +5/3 = X11/6
3. b

X = a b
X
a

Ex. a) 3
X = 5 3
X
5

= 15
X
Ex. b)
3
2

X3


=
2
3

X3

= 2
X
4. 1 X =
1
X



5.
m

Xn
Y




=
m

Yn
X



6. a x a y a xy
7.
a
a
a

xx

yy

8. a b a b b a x x x
Directions: Mark () against the correct answer:
1) The value of (256)5/4 is:
(a)512 (b) 984 (c) 1024* (d)1032

2) The value of 3
1

8 is

(a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 2 * (d) 8


3) The value of
5
4

243
32

is:
(a)
9
4

(b)
4
9

(c)
81
16

(d) 81
*
16
4) The value of
3
2

216
1

is:

(a) 36* (b) -36 (c)


36
1

(d)
36
1

5) The value of 4
1

5 (125)0.25 is:
(a) 5 (b) 5* (c)

5 5 (d) 25
6) The value of :
(32)
1
(256)
1
(216)
1
5
1
4
3

3
2

is

(a) 102* (b) 105 (c) 107 (d) 109


7) The value of [(10)150 (10)146] is:
(a) 1000 (b) 10000* (c) 100000 (d) 106
8) (2.4 x 103) (8x10-2)=?
(a) 3 x 10-5 (b) 3 x 104 * (c) 300 (d) 30
9) 3
4
3
2

27
1
216
1

=?
(a)
4
3

(b)
3
2

(c) 4
*
9
(d)
8
1

10) (1000)7 1018=?


(a) 10 (b) 100 (c) 1000 * (d) 10000
11) (256)0.16 x (256)0.09=?
(a) 4 * (b) 16 (c) 64 (d) 256.25
12) (0.04)-15=?
(a) 25 (b) 125 * (c) 250 (d) 625
13) (17)3.5 x (17)? = 178
(a) 2.29 (b) 2.75 (c) 4.25 (d) 4.5 *
14) 49 x 49 x 49 x 49 = 7?
(a) 4 (b) 7 (c) 8 * (d) 16
15) The value of (8-25 8-26) is
(a) 7 x 8-25 (b) 7 x 8-26 * (c) 8 x 8-26 (d) None
16) (18)3.5 (27)3.5 x 63.5 = 2?
(a) 3.5 (b) 4.5 (c) 6 (d) 7*
17) (25)7.5 x (5)2.5 (125)1.5 = 5?
(a) 8.5 (b) 13* (c) 16 (d) 17.5

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 21


18) The value of
0.25 0.075 0.2
0 13 0.07

(7) (49) (343)


(243) (243)

is:
(a)
7
3

(b) 7
*
3
(c)
7
3
1 (d)
7
2
2

19) If
x1x3

ab
ba




, then the value of x is:
(a)
2
1

(b) 1 (c) 2* (d)


2
7

20) If 22n-1 =
38

1
n

, then the value of x is:


(a) 3 (b) 2* (c) 0 (d) -2
21) If 5a = 3125, then the value of 5(a-3) is:
(a) 25* (b) 125 (c) 625 (d) 1625
22) If 5
3

5 53 5 2

= 5a+2, then the value of a is:


(a) 4* (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 8
23) If n 2 = 64, then the value of n is:
(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 8*
24) If

39 3 3 3,

52

n then

the value of n is:


(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 4 (d) 5*
25) If
4
53

3 (81)
9 3 (27)

= 27, then the value of n is:


(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 3* (d) 4
26) If 3(x-y) = 27 and 3(x+y) = 243, then x is equal
to:
(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 4* (d) 6
27) If

3
2
27
8
4
9
1

x x

, then the value of x is:


(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) 4*
28) If 2x = 3 32 , then x is equal to:
(a) 5 (b) 3 (c)
5
3

(d) 5
*
3
29) If 5 (x+3) = (25)(3x-4), then the value of x is:
(a)
11
5

(b) 11
*
5
(c)
3
11

(d)
5
13

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 22


FRACTIONAL NUMBEERS
Comparison of fractions:
Suppose some fractions are to be arranged in ascending or descending order of magnitude. Then,
convert each one of the given fraction in the decimal form, and arrange them accordingly.
For ex.; Arrange the fractions
367
,,
579
in descending order.
Now, 3/5 = 0.6, 6/7 = 0.85, 7/9 = 0.77
Since 0.85 > 0.77 > 0.6 so,
673
795

* In the group of fractions


23
, , , ,.....
23
x x a x a x a x na
y y b y b y b y nb

=
x na
y nb

Has the highest value.


Where i) a=b or ii) a>b
EXAMPLE: Which one of the following fractions is the greatest ?
147
,,
8 9 10
Solution: we see that the, numerator increases by 3 (a constant value ) and the denominator also increases by
a constant value(1), so the last fraction ie. 7/10 is the greatest fraction.
* The fraction whose numerator after cross-multiplication gives the greater value is greater.
For example:
59
8 14
or = 514 = 70 and 8 9 = 72. As 72 is greater than 70 and the numerator involved with the
greater value is 9, so the fraction 9/14 is greater.
In the group of fractions
23
, , , ,....
23
x x a x a x a x na
y y b y b y b y nb

When a<b, we have the following relations:


(i) If
min
IncreaseinNumerator
IncreaseinDeno tor
First fraction, the last value is the greatest.
E.x: Which one of the following is greatest?
1/8, 2/12, 3/16, 4/20
Soln: In the above example, we see that the numerators the denominators of the fractions increased by constants
I,e
1
min 4
IncreaseinNumerator
IncreaseinDeno ator
is greater than the first fraction 1/8, Hence the last fraction is 4/20 is the greatest.
(ii) If
min
IncreaseinNumerator
IncreaseinDeno ator
First fraction, the last value is the least.
Ex.
2468
,,,
7 15 23 31
we see that the numerators and denominators increases by 2 and 8 respectively.
Now,
21

min 8 4
IncreaseinNumerator
IncreaseinDeno ator
is less than the fraction 2/7. hence the last fraction is 8/31, is the least and
the first fraction 2/7is the greatest.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 23


Recurring Decimal:
If in a decimal fraction, a figure or set of figures is repeated continuously, then such a number is
called a recurring decimal.
In a recurring decimal it is expressed by putting a bar on the repeating set.
Thus, 1/3 = 0.33333. = 3
22
7
= 3.142857142857= 3.142857
Pure Recurring Decimal : A decimal fraction in which all the figures after the decimal point are repeated, is called
a pure recurring decimal.
While converting pure recurring decimal fraction into vulgar fraction, write the repeated figures only once
in the numerator and tke as many nines in the denominator as is the number of repeating figures.
Thus
5
.5
9
,
53
.53
99
,
567
.567
999

Mixed Recurring Decimal


A decimal fraction in which some figures do not repeat and some of them are repeated, is
called a mixed recurring decimal. E.g. 0.1733333 = 0.173
Convert 0.173 into vulgar fraction:
let x = 0.173__________(i)
10x = 1.733__________(ii)
now by subtracting (i) from (ii), we get
9x = 1.56, so x =
1.56 156 13
9 900 75

By shortcut method x =
1.73 .17 1.56 156 13
9 9 900 75

1. The fraction 101


100000
27

in decimal form is:


(a) .01027 (b) .10127 (c) 101.00027* (d) 101.000027
2. When .36 is written in simplest fractional form, the sum of the numerator and the denominator is:
(a) 15* (b) 45 (c) 114 (d) 135
3. If 47.2506 =4A +
B

+2C+
D
5

+6E then the value of 5A + 3B + 6C + D + 3E is:


(a) 53.6003 (b) 53.603 (c) 153.6003* (d) 213.0003
4. Which of the following has fractions in ascending order?
(a) 1 2 4 3 5 6
,,,,,*
357567
(b)
7
6
,
6
5
,
7
4
,
5
3
,
5
2
,
3
1

(c)
7
6
,
7
4
,
6
5
,
5
3
,
5
2
,
3
1

(d)
7
6
,
6
5
,
7
4
,
3
1
,
5
3
,
5
2

5. Which of the following has fractions in ascending order ?


(a)

9
8
,
11
9
,
9
7
,
5
3
,
3
2

(b)
9
8
,
9
7
,
11
9
,
3
2
,
5
3

(c) 3 2 7 9 8
,,,,*
5 3 9 11 9
(d)
5
3
,
3
2
,
9
7
,
11
9
,
9
8

6. Which of the following are in descending order of their value?


(a)
17
11
,
15
8
,
11
7
,
9
5

(b)
11
7
,
17
11
,

15
8
,
9
5

(c)
,
9
5
,
15
8
,
11
7
,
17
11

(d) 11 7 5 8
,,,*
17 11 9 15
7. What is the difference between the biggest and the smallest fraction among
6
5
5
4
,
4
3
,
3
2
and ?

(a) 1
*
6
(b)
12
1

(c)
20
1

(d)
30
1

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 24


8. Which part contains the fractions in ascending order?
(a) 11 16 19
,,*
14 19 21
(b)
21
19
,
14
11
,
19
16

(c)
14
11
,
21

19
,
19
16

(d)
19
16
,
14
11
,
21
19

9. Which of the following reactions is the smallest?


(a)
16
13

(b) 15
*
19
(c)
21
17

(d)
8
7

10. Which of the following fractions is greater than


4
3

and less than


6
5

?
(a)
2
1

(b)
3
2

(c) 4
*
5
(d)
10
9

11. Which of the following fractions is less than


8
7

and greater than


3
1

?
(a)
4
1

(b)
24
23

(c) 11
*
12
(d)
24
17

12. Which of the following numbers does not lie between


5
4

and
13
7

?
(a) 1
*
2
(b)
3
2

(c)
4
3

(d)
7
5

13. The arrangement of rational numbers


3
2
,
8
5
,
10
7

in ascending order is:


(a)
10
7
,
8
5
,
3
2

(b)
3
2
,
10
7
,
8
5

(c)
3
2
,
8
5
,
10
7

(d) 7 2 5

,,*
10 3 8

14. when 0.232323.is converted into a fraction, then the result is:
(a)
5
1

(b)
9
2

(c) 23
*
99
(d)
100
23

15. the rational number for the recurring decimal 0.125125..is:


(a)
487
63

(b)
993
119

(c) 125
*
999
(d) None of these
16. when 0.47 is converted into a fraction, the result is;
(a)
90
46

(b)
99
46

(c)
90
47

(d) 47
*
99
17. 0.36 expressed in the form
q
p

equals:
(a) 4
*
11
(b)
13
4

(c)
90
35

(d)
99
35

18. The least among the following is:


(a) 0.2 (b) 1 0.2 (c) 0.2 (d) 2 (0.2) *

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 25

19. The correct expression of 6. 46 in the fractional form is:


(a)
99
646

(b)
1000
64640

(c)
100
640

(d) 640
*
99
20. The value of 0.57 is:
(a)
10
57

(b)
99
57

(c) 26
*
45
(d)
9
52

21. The value of 4.1 2 is:


(a) 11
4*
90
(b)
99
11
4 (c)
900
371

(d) None of these


22. The value of 2.1 36 is:
(a)
220
47

(b)
495
68

(c) 3
2*
22
(d) None of these
23. The value of (0. 2 0.30.4 0.9 0.39) is:
(a) 0.57 (b)
33
20
1 (c)
3
1
2 (d)

13

2*
33
24. 3. 87 2.59= ?
(a) 1.20 (b) 1. 2 (c) 1. 27 (d) 1. 28 *
25. The simplification of 3. 36 2.05 1.33 equals:

(a) 2.60 (b) 2.64 (c) 2. 61 (d) .6 57 *

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 26


NUMBERS
1. Natural Numbers : Counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, .are called natural numbers.
2. Whole Numbers : All counting numbers together with zero form the set of whole numbers. Thus,
(i) 0 is the only whole number which is not a natural number.
(ii) Every natural number is a whole number.
3. Integers : All natural numbers, 0 and negatives of counting numbers i.e., {.., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, .}
together form the set of integers.
(i) Positive Integers : {1, 2, 3, 4, .} is the set of all positive integers.
(ii) Negative Integers : { 1, 2, 3, } is the set of all positive integers.
(iii) Non-Positive & Non-Negative Integers : 0 is neither positive nor negative. So, {0, 1, 2, 3, .}
represents the set of non-negative integers, while {0, 1, 2, 3, } represents the set of non-positive
integers.
4. Even Numbers : A number divisible by 2 is called an even number. e.g., 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, etc.
5. Odd Numbers : A number not divisible by 2 is called an odd number. e.g., 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, etc.
6. Prime Numbers : A number greater than 1 is called a prime number, if it has exactly two factors, namely 1
and the number itself.
There are 25 Prime numbers upto 100 are : 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19, 23, 29, 31, 37, 41, 43, 47, 53, 59, 61,
67, 71, 73, 79, 83, 89, 97.
Prime Numbers Greater than 100 : Let p be a given number greater than 100. To find out whether it is
prime or not, we use the following method :
Find a whole number nearly greater than the square root of p. Let k > root p. Test whether p is divisible by
any prime number less than k. If yes, then p is not prime. Otherwise, p is prime.
e.g., We have to find whether 191 is a primer number or not. Now, 14 > root 191.
Prime numbers less than 14 are 2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13.
191 is not divisible by any of them. So, 191 is a prime number.
7. Composite Numbers : Numbers greater than 1 which are not prime, are known as composite numbers. e.g.,
4, 6, 8, 9, 10 12.
Note : (i) 1 is neither prime nor composite.
(ii) 2 is the only even number which is prime.
(iii) There are 25 prime numbers between 1 and 100.
8. Co-primes : Two numbers a and b are said to be co-primes, if their H.C.F. is 1. e.g., (2, 3), (4, 5), (7, 9), (8,
11), etc. are co-primes.

RATIONAL NUMBER
Rational number is a number, which can be put in
q
p

form,
where p and q are both integers and q 0. A rational number
may be positive, negative or zero.A rational number can be
expressed as a decimal. A rational number may be terminating
decimal or non-terminating,repeating decimal,but cannot be
non-terminating ,non-repeating decimal.
IRRATIONAL
NUMBER
Irrational number is a number, which cannot be put in

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 27


q
p

form, where p and q are both integers and q 0. An


irrational number is a non-terminating, non-repeating decimal.
E.g. 3 + 5
REAL number A real number may be rational or irrational.

Properties of
rational/irrational
number
(a) Sum or difference of a rational number and an irrational
number is always an irrational number.
(b) the product of a rational number(other than zero) and an
irrational number is also an irrational number .
(c) Sum, difference, product or quotient of two irrational
numbers may be rational number or irrational number.
surd/radical A surd or a radical is positive n root of a,where a cannot be
written as square of any rational no. e.g. 3 , 5 etc.
TESTS OF DIVISIBILITY :
1. Divisibility By 2 : A number is divisible by 2, if its units digit is any of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8.
Ex. 84932 is divisible by 2, while 65935 is not.
2. Divisibility By 3 : A number is divisible by 3, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 3.
Ex. 592482 is divisible by 3, since sum of its digits = (5 + 9 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 2) = 30, which is divisible by 3.
But, 864329 is not divisible by 3, since sum of it digits = (8 + 6 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 9) = 32, which is not divisible
by 3.
3. Divisibility By 4 : A number is divisible by 4, if the number formed by the last two digits is divisible by 4.
Ex. 892648 is divisible by 4, since the number formed by the last two digits is 48, which is divisible by 4.
But, 749282 is not divisible by 4, since the number formed by the last two digit is 82, which is not divisible
by 4.
4. Divisibility By 5 : A number is divisible by 5, if its units digit is either 0 or 5. Thus, 20820 and 50345 are
divisible by 5, while 30934 and 40946 are not.
5. Divisibility By 6 : A number is divisible by 6, if it is divisible by both 2 and 3.
Ex.The number 35256 is clearly divisible by 2
Sum of its digits = (3 + 5 + 2 + 5 + 6) = 21, which is divisible by 3.
Thus, 35256 is divisible by 2 as well as 3. Hence, 35256 is divisible by 6.
6. Divisibility By 8 : A number is divisible by 8, if the number formed by the last three digits of the given
number is divisible by 8.
Ex. 953360 is divisible by 8, since the number formed by last three digits is 360, which is divisible by 8.
7. Divisibility By 9 : A number is divisible by 9, if the sum of its digits is divisible by 9.
Ex. 60732 is divisible by 9, since sum of digits = (6 + 0 + 7 + 3 + 2) = 18, which is divisible by 9.
8. Divisibility By 10 : A number is divisible by 10, if it ends with 0.
Ex. 96410, 10480 are divisible by 10, while 96375 is not.
9. Divisibility By 11 : A number is divisible by 11, if the difference of the sum of its digits at odd places and
the sum of its digits at even places, is either 0 or a number divisible by 11.
Ex. The number 4832718 is divisible by 11, since

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 28


(sum of digits at odd places) (sum of digits at even places)
= (8 + 7 + 3 + 4) (1 + 2 + 8), which is divisible by 11.
10. Divisibility By 12 : A number is divisible by 12, if it is divisible by both 4 and 3.
Ex. Consider the number 34632.
(i) The number formed y last two digit is 32, which is divisible by 4.
(ii) Sum of digits = (3 + 4 + 6 + 3 + 2) = 18, which is divisible by 3.
Thus, 34632 is divisible by 4 as well as 3. Hence, 34632 is divisible by 12.
11. If in any number the digit repeat thrice then this number will be divisible by 3 and 37.
Example: 222, 777, 131313, 856856856.
12. If any number any digit repeat six times then this number must be divisible by 3, 7, 11, 13.
Example: 222222, 777777, 121212121212
Other points
(1) Dividend: The number to be divided is called the dividend.
(2) Divisor: The number by which it is divided is called the divisor.
(3) Quotient: The number which tells how many times the divisor is contained in the dividend is called the
quotient.
(4) Remainder: If the dividend does not contain the divisor on exact number of times and we take away from the

dividend s many times the divisor as we can, what is left is called remainder. When there is no remainder, the
division is called to be exact.
(5) In inexact division
Dividend=(Divisor Quotient + Remainder)
(6) In exact division
Dividend Divisor = Quotient
(7) Quotient Divisor = Dividend
(8) Divisor = Re
Dividend
mainder
Quotient

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 29


OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS:1. If 1*548 is divisible by 3, which of the following digits can replace * ?
(a) 0 (b) 2 (c) 7 (d) 9*
2. If the number 357*25* is divisible by both 3 and 5, then the missing digits in the unit's place and the thousandth place
respectively are:
(a) 0, 6 (b) 5, 6* (c) 5, 4 (d) None of these
3. What least value must be assigned to * so that the number 86325.*6 is divisible by 11?

(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3* (d) 5


4. If the number 42573* is completely divisible by 72, then which of the following numbers should replace the asterisk?

(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6* (d) 7


5. 6897 is divisible by :

(a) 11 only (b) 19 only (c) both 11 and 19* (d) neither 11 nor 19
6. The largest natural number which exactly divides the product of any four consecutive natural numbers is :

(a) 6 (b) 12 (c) 24* (d) 120


7. A number is multiplied by 11 and 11 is added to the product. If the resulting number is divisible by 13, the smallest
original number is :

(a) 12* (b) 22 (c) 26 (d) 53


8. The smallest number that must be added to 803642 in order to obtain a multiple of 11 is :
(a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 7* (d) 9
9. The least number which must be subtracted from 6709 to make it exactly divisible by 9 is :
(a) 2 (b)3 (c)4* (d)5
10. The least number by which 72 must be multiplied in order to produce a multiple of 112, is :

(a) 6 (b) 12 (c) 14* (d) 18


11. Find the number which is nearest to 457 and is exactly divisible by 11.

(a) 450 (b) 451 (c) 460 (d) 462*


12. The smallest number of five digits exactly divisible by 476 is :

(a) 10000 (b) 10472* (c) 10476 (d) 47600


13. How many three-digit numbers are divisible by 6 in all ?
(a) 149 (b) 150* (c) 151 (d) 166

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 30


14. A number when divided by 114 leaves the remainder 21. If the' same number is divided by 19, then the remainder will
be

(a) 1 (b) 2* (c) 7 (d) 21


15. When a number is divided by 32, the remainder is 29. When the same number is divided by 16, what will be the
remainder?

(a) 11 (b) 13* (c) 15 (d) Data inadequate'


16. When a number is divided by 13, the remainder is 11. When the same number is divided by 17, the remainder is 9. What
is the number?
(a) 339 (b) 349 * (c) 369 (d) Data inadequate
17. In a division sum, the divisor is 10 times the quotient and 5 times the remainder. If the remainder is 46, the dividend is :

(a) 4236 (b) 4306 (c) 4336 (d) 5336*


18. When n is divided by 4, the remainder is 3. What is the remainder when 2n is divided by 4?

(a) 1 (b) 2* (c) 3 (d) 6


19. A number when divided successively by 4 and 5 leaves remainders 1 and 4 respectively. When it is successively divided
by 5 and 4, then the respective remainders will be :

(a) 1, 2 (b) 2, 3* (c) 3, 2 (d) 4,1


20. A number was divided successively in order by 4, 5 and 6. The remainders were respectively 2, 3 and 4. The number is:

(a) 214* (b) 476 (c) 954 (d) 1908

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 31


LCM & HCF
L.C.M. of two or more numbers is the least among the numbers which are common multiples of the given
numbers. In other words, L.C.M. of the given numbers is the smallest number which is exactly
divisible by each of them. For example: The L.C.M for
2 & 5 is 10
2 & 3 is 6
4 & 6 is 12
We can find L.C.M. by two methods.
Method 1: Factorization Method
48 = 2 2 2 2 3 = 24 3
108 = 2 2 3 3 3 = 22 33
140 = 2 2 5 7 = 22 5 7
L.C.M. = Highest power of 2 Highest power of 3 Highest power of 5 Highest power of 7
= 24 33 5 7 = 15120
Method 2: Division Method
Thats you know from childhood.or attend the class.

LCM of Fractions
If a/b, c/d, e/f be the proper fractions then their LCM is given by
=
. . . , , ....
. . min . , , .....
LCM of numerators a c e
HCF of deno ators b d f
Note: (i) First express the fractions in their lowest terms.
(ii) LCM of fractions may be a fraction or a integer.
Ex:1 Find the LCM of
11
4 ,3,10
22
Soln:
1 9 1 21
4 ,10
2222

Thus the fractions are


9 3 21
,
212
and
The required LCM
=
9,3 21 63
63
2,1 2 1
LCMof and
HCFof and

L.C.M of decimals
To find the LCM of the given number in which decimals are given, first of all we find out the LCM of numbers
without decimal. And then we see the number in which the decimal is given in the minimum digits from the right
to left. We put the decimal in our result which is equal to that number of digits.

Example: Find the LCM of 0.16, 5.4 and .0098.


First of all we find out the LCM of 16, 54, 98.
Here LCM of 16, 54, 98 is 21168.
In numbers 0.16, 5.4, 0.0098, the minimum digits from right from left is 5.4
Here 5.4 the decimal is given of one digits from right to left. So we put decimal in our result such that:
=21168=2116.8.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 32


Example:2 Find the LCM of 48, 10.8 and 0.140.
LCM of 48, 108 and 140 is=15120
So LCM of 48, 10.8, and 0.140=1.5120.

H.C.F. (Highest Common Factor)


A number which is a factor of two or more numbers is said to be a common factor or common
measure of numbers. We exclude unity which is a common measure of all numbers. The greatest number
which will divide each of two or more numbers is called their Highest Common Factor or Greatest
Common Measure & is denoted by the letters H.C.F. or G.C.M. (Greatest Common Divisor).
Method 1: Factorization Method
48 = 2 2 2 2 3 = 24 3
108 = 2 2 3 3 3 = 22 33
140 = 2 2 5 7 = 22 5 7
H.C.F. = Lowest power of 2 Lowest power of 3
= 22 3 = 12
Method 2: Division Method
Thats you know from childhood.or attend the class.

HCF of fractions
If a/b, c/d, e/f be the proper fractions then their HCF is given by
=
. . . , , ......
. . min . , , .....
HCF of numerators a c e
LCM of deno ators b d f
Note: (i) First express the given fractions in their lowest terms.
(ii) We see that each of the numbers is perfectly divisible by
6
17.
Illustrative of fractions
Ex:3. Find the HCF of
54 9 36
,3
9 17 51
54 6 9 60 36 12
, ,3
9 1 17 17 51 17
and
Here and
Thus the fractions are
6 60 12
,
1 17 17
and
HCF
. 6,60,12 6
. 1,17,17 17
HCF of
LCM of

HCF of Decimals
Here first of all we find HCF of the given numbers without decimals and then put decimal.
Example:4 Find the HCF of 0.0012, 1.6, and 28.
Here HCF of 12, 16 and 28 is 4.
The decimal is given at maximum digits from right to left
So, HCF=0.00004.
Example 5: Product of HCF and LCM of two numbers = Product of two numbers
i.e. HCF of numbers LCM of numbers = n1 n2

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 33


Illustrated Example
Ex: The LCM of two numbers is 2079 and their HCF is 27.If one of the number is 189, find the other.
Sol: The required number =
2079 27
297.
189
LCM HCF
FirstNumber

Example 6: To find the greatest number that will exactly divide x,y and z
Required number = HCF of x,y and z
Ex: What is the greatest number that will exactly divide 1365, 1560 and 1755?
Soln: Applying the above rule, the required greatest number = HCF of 1365, 1560 and 1755 = 195
Example:7 Find the greatest number of four digits which, when divided by 12, 15, 20 and 35 leaves no
remainder.
Soln: Using the above method we get,
Step 1 : LCM of 12, 15, 20 and 35= 420
Step 2 : [4 digit greatest number =9999), so 9999 = 420 23 + 339
Step 3 : Required number = 9999-339 = 9663
Example 8: Find the four digit smallest number which when divided by 12, 15, 20 and 350) leaves no remainder.
Soln : Step 1 : LCM of 12, 15, 20 and 35= 420
Step 2 : now, 1000 = 420 2 + 160
Step 3 : The required number = 1000+(420-160)=1260
Example 9: To find the greatest number that will divide x, y and z living the same remainder in each case.
Required Number = HCF of (x-y), (y-z) and (z-x)
Ex: Find the greatest number which is such that when 76, 151 and 226 are divided by it, the reminders are all
alike.
Soln: By the above rule, we get
X = 76, Y = 151, Z = 226
(x-y)=(76-151)=75
(y-z)=(151-226)=75
(z-x)=(226-76)=150
The required greatest number = HCF of 75, 75 and 150 = 75.
Example 10: Find the 4 digit smallest number which, when divided by 12, 18, 21, leaver remainder 3 in each case.
Soln : Step 1 : LCM of 12, 18, 21 and 28 = 252
Step 2 : now, 1000 = 252 3 + 244
Step 3 : The required number = 1000+(252-244)+3=1011
Example 11: Find the greatest number of six digits which, on being divided by 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10 leaves remainder 4,
5, 6, 7, 8 respectively
Sol The greatest number of six digits = 9999999
L.C.M of
LCM = 2520
On dividing 999999 by 2520 we get 2079 as remainder so number will be 999999 2079 = 997920
But 6 4 = 2, 7 5 = 2, 8 6 = 2, 9 7 = 2, 10 8 = 2
So the required no = 997920 2 = 997918 Ans

2 6 7 8 9 10
37-4-95

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 34


Example 12: What is the least multiple of 7, which when divided by 2, 3, 4, 5 & 6 leaves 1,2,3,4and 5 as
remainder respectively ?
sol.: L.C.M. of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 = 60
It also leaves common remainder (2 - 1) = (3 - 2) = (4 - 3) = (5 - 4) = (6 - 5) = 1
So the number will be 60 k 1
It should be multiple of 7 also.
Then 60 k 1 = 1 (784)k1
(78k) 4k 1
Value of k = 2 we find that 6021119
It is a multiple of 7. & it is the required of 7. & it is the required number

Practice Exercise:
1. The H.C.F. of 22 x 33 x 55, 23x 32 x52 x 7 and 24 x 34 x 5 x 72 x 11 is :
(a) 22 x 32 x 5 * (b) 22 x 32 x 5 x 7 x 11 (c) 24 x 34 x 55 (d) 22 x 34 x 55 x 7 x 11
2. The L.C.M. of 23 x 32 x 5 x 11, 24 x 34 x 52 x 7 and 25 x 7 and 25 x 33 x 53 x 72 x 11 is:
(a) 23 x 32 x 5 (b) 25 x 34 x 53 (c) 23x 32 x5 x 7 x 11 * (d) 25 x 34 x 53 x 72 x 11
3. The H.C.F. of 204, 1190 and 1445 is:
(a) 17* (b) 18 (c) 19 (d) 21
4. Which of the following is a pair of co-primes?
(a) (16,62) (b) (18, 25)* (c) (21, 35) (d) (23,92)
5. The H.C.F. of 2923 and 3239 is:
(a) 37 (b) 47 (c) 73 (d) 79 *
6. Find the lowest common multiple of 24, 36 and 40.
(a) 120 (b) 240 (c) 360 * (d) 480
7. The H.C.F. of
27
4
,
9
2
,
6
5
,
3
1

is:
(a) 1
*
54
(b)
27
10

(c)
3
20

(d) None of these


8. The L.C.M. of
13
9
,
7
4
,
5
3
,
3

is:
(a) 36* (b)
36
1

(c)
1365
1

(d)
455
12

9. The H.C.F. of 0.54, 1.8 and 7.2 is:


(a) 1.8 (b) 0.18* (c) 0.018 (d) 18
10. The L.C.M. of 3,2.7 and 0.09 is:
(a) 2.7 (b) 0.27 (c) 0.027 (d) 27*
11. Three numbers are in the ratio 1:2:3 and their H.C.F. is 12. The numbers are:
(a) 4,8,12 (b) 5,10,15 (c) 10,20,30 (d) 12,24,36*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 35


12. The ratio of two numbers is 3:4 and their H.C.F. is 4. Their L.C.M. is:
(a) 12 (b) 16 (c) 24 (d) 48*
13. The H.C.F. of two numbers is 12 and their difference is 12. The numbers are :
(a) 66,78 (b) 70,82 (c) 94,106 (d) 84,96*
14. The L.C.M. of two numbers is 48. The numbers are in the ratio 2:3. the sum of the numbers is:
(a) 28 (b) 32 (c) 40* (d) 64
15. Three numbers are in the ratio of 3:4:5 and their L.C.M. is 2400. Their H.C.F. is
(a) 40* (b) 80 (c) 120 (d) 200
16. The H.C.F. and L.C.M. of two numbers are 50 and 250 respectively. If the first number is divided by 2, the
quotient is 50. The second number is:
(a) 50 (b) 100 125* 250
17. The product of two numbers is 1320 and their H.C.F. is 6. The L.C.M. of the numbers is:
(a) 220* (b) 1314 (c) 1326 (d) 7920
18. Product of two co-prime numbers is 117. Their L.C.M. should be:
(a) 1 (b) 117* (c) Equal to their H.C.F. (d) Cannot be calculated
19. The H.C.F. of two numbers is 8. Which one of the following can never the their L.C.M.?
(a) 24 (b) 48 (c) 56 (d) 60*
20. Three different containers contain 496 litres, 403 litres and 713 litres of mixtures of milk and water
respectively. What biggest measure can measure all the different quantities exactly.
(a) 1 litre (b) 7 litres (c) 31 litres * (d) 41 litres
21. Find the greatest number that will divide 43, 91 and 183 so as to leave the same remainder in each case.
(a) 4* (b) 7 (c) 9 (d) 13
22. The smallest fraction, which each of
21
10
,
14
5
,
7
6

will divide exactly, is :


(a) 30
*
7
(b)
98
30

(c)
147
60

(d)

294
50

23. How many numbers between 200 and 600 are divisible by 4, 5 and 6 ?
(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 7* (d) 8
24. The least number of five digits which is exactly divisible by 12, 15 and 18, is:
(a) 10010 (b) 10015 (c) 10020 (d) 10080*
25. The least number which is a perfect square and is divisible by each of the numbers 16, 20 and 24, is:
(a) 1600 (b) 3600* (c) 6400 (d) 14400
26. The least number, which when divided by 12,15,20 and 54 leaves in each case a remainder of 8, is:
(a) 504 (b) 536 (c) 544 (d) 548*
27. Six bells commence tolling together and toll at intervals of 2,4,6,8,10 and 12 seconds respectively. In 30
minutes, how many times do they toll together?
(a) 4 (b) 10 (c) 15 (d) 16*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 36


28. A, B and C start at the same time in the same direction to run around a circular stadium. A completes a round in 252
seconds, B in 308 seconds and C in 198 seconds, all starting at the same point. After what time will they meet again at
the starting point?
(a)
4 min 18 sec.
(b)
10 min 20 sec.
(c)
42 min. 36 sec.
(d)
46 min. 12 sec.*
29. A watch ticks 90 times in 95 seconds and another watch ticks 315 times in 323 seconds. If both the watches
are started together, how many times will they tick together in the first hours.
a)100 b)101* c)102 d)103 e)104
30. The least no which when divided by 5,6,7 and 8 leaves a remainder 3, but when divided by 9 leaves no
remainder, is:
a)1677 b)1683* c)2523 d)3363 e)1303

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 37


SQUARE AND SQUARE-ROOT
Squaring is multiplying the number itself.
For example: 252 = 25 25 = 625
But squaring of large no. is not so easy for that you should learn some basic squares and follow the
following method:
Let a, b denote numbers
(a)2 = a2 - b2 + b2
=(a - b)(a + b) + b2
For example:
(1213)2 = (1213 - 13)(1213 + 13) + 132
= (1200)(1226) + 169
= 1200 1226 + 169
= 1471369
Squaring of a number ending in 5
(125)2 = (12 13 )25
= 15625
Properties of squares:
1. it cannot be negative number.
2. it cannot have odd numbers of zeros at its end.
3. it cannot end with 2,3,7 or 8.
4. square of an even number is always an even number.
5. square of an odd number is always an odd number.
6. every square is either a multiple of 3 or exceeds multiple of 3 by unity.
7. every square is either a multiple of 4 or exceeds multiple of 4 by unity.

Square of Numbers consisting of 9s only.


Let the number consists of n 9s.
For example:
(999)2 = 99/8/00/1
= 998001
solution : The given number consist of five 9s. so, we will write four 9s followed by 8, then four zeros are
finally 1.
i.e. (99999) =9999800001

SQUARE ROOT
Square root is inverse of square. Square root of a given number may be defined as the number whose
square is equal to the given number. In other words, square root of a given number is number, which when
multiplied by itself, gives the product equal to the given number.
Example : 4 =2 and
22=4, 9 =3 and 33=9.
There are two methods of finding square root of a number.
Method 1 : By Factorization
This method is generally used where the given number is a perfect square of when the number can be written
as a product of such factors whose square roots are known.
In factorization method we write the number as a product of prime factors and take the product of prime factors,
choosing one out of every pair.
Note :
1. Square root of a number greater than or equal to 1 but is less than 100 consists of only one digit.
2. Square root of a number greater than or equal to 100 but less than 10000 consists of two digits.
3. If general, if the given number has n digits, its square root will have n/2 digits when n is even and
n+1/2 digits when n is odd. This holds good for the case of pure decimal fractions too.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 38


Some properties of exact square roots (i.e., square roots are whole numbers)
1. A pure square number ending in 1 must have 2 or 8 as the last digit.
e.g. 81=9 and 121=11
2. square ends in 4, its square root must have 2 or 8 the last digit.
e.g. 64=8 and 36=6.
3. If a square root ends in 5 or 00, its square root must have 5 as 0 respectively as the last digit.
e.g. 625=25 and 100=10.
A square ending in 9 has 3 or 7 as the last digit in its square root.
e.g. 169=13 and 729=27.
Method 11 : By Division
It is the most general method of finding square roots and is applicable to all cases.
(OBJECTIVE TYPE QUESTIONS)
1. The value of 10 25 108 154 225 is:
(a) 4* (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 10
2.
625 14 11
11 25 196




is equal to:
(a) 5* (b) 6 (c) 8 (d) 11
3. The square root of (2722 1282) is:
(a) 144 (b) 200 (c) 240* (d) 256
4. If x * y = x + y + xy , the value of 6* 24 is:
(a) 41 (b) 42* (c) 43 (d) 44
5. If y = 5, then what is the value of 10y 3 2 y y ?
(a) 50 2 (b) 100 (c) 200 5 (d) 500*

6. ?
9
1
81
25

(a)
3
2

(b) 4
*
3
(c)
81
16

(d)
81
25

7. How many two-digit numbers satisfy this property: The last digit (units digit) of the square of the twodigit
number is 8?
(a) 1 (b) 2 (c) 3 (d) None of these *
8. 0.010.0064 =?
(a) 0.03 (b) 0.3* (c) 0.42 (d) None of these
9. The value of 1.0 0.011.210.0009 is :
(a) 2.03 (b) 2.1 (c) 2.11 (d) 2.23*
10. If 18225 = 135, then the value of 182.25 1.8225 0.018225 0.00018225is:
(a) 1.49985 (b) 14.9985* (c) 149.985 (d) 1499.85

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 39


11. Given that 13 = 3.605 and 130 = 11.40, find the value of 1.3 1300 0.013
(a) 36.164 (b) 36.304 (c) 37.164 (d) 37.304*
12. Which number can replace both the question marks in the equation
32
?
?
2
1
4

(a) 1 (b) 7 (c)


2
1
7 (d)

None of these *
13. If 0.13 p2 = 13, then p equals:
(a) 0.01 (b) 0.1* (c) 10 (d) 100
14. If n 3 = 729, then the value of n is:
(a) 6 (b) 8 (c) 10 (d) 12*
15. 28 ? + 1426 =
4
3

of 2872
(a) 576 (b) 676* (c) 1296 (d) 1444
16. If x 441 = 0.02, then the value of x is:
(a) 0.1764* (b) 1.764 (c) 1.64 (d) 2.64
17. If
13
14
169
1
x

, the x is equal to:

(a) 1 (b) 13 (c) 27* (d) None of these


18. The value of :
45 63
80 112
is

(a)
4
3

(b) 1
1*
3
(c)
9
7
1 (d)
4
3
1

19.
1.5625 0.0289 72.9 64
0.081 0.324 4.624

is equal to:
(a) 0.024* (b) 0.24 (c) 2.4 (d) 24
20. The square root of 0.4 is:
(a) 0. 6 * (b) 0. 7 (c) 0. 8 (d) 0. 9
21. Which one of the following numbers has rational square root?
(a) 0.4 (b) 0.09* (c) 0.9 (d) 0.025
22. The value of 0.4 is:
(a) 0.02 (b) 0.2 (c) 0.51 (d) 0.63*
23. The least perfect square number divisible by 3,4,5,6 and 8 is:
(a) 900 (b) 1200 (c) 2500 (d) 3600*
24. The least number by which 294 must be multiplied to make it a perfect square, is
(a) 2 (b) 3 (c) 6* (d) 24

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 40


25. The least number by which 1470 must be divided to get a number which is a perfect square, is:
(a)
5
(b)
6
(c)
15
(d)
30*
26. What is the smallest number to be subtracted from 549162 in order to make it a perfect square?
(a)
28
(b)
36
(c)
62
(d)
81*
27. The smallest number added to 680621 to make the sum a perfect square is:
(a)
4*

(b)
5
(c)
6
(d)
8
28. The greatest four-digit perfect square number is:
(a)
9000
(b)
9801*
(c)
9900
(d)
9981
29. The least number of 4 digits which is a perfect square, is:
(a)
1000
(b)
1016
(c)
1024*
(d)
1036
30. A man plants 15376 apple trees in this garden and arranges them so that there are as many rows as there are
apples trees in each row. The number of row is:
(a)
124*
(b)
81
(c)
100
(d)
None of these
31. The cube root of .000216 is:
(a)
.6
(b)
.06*
(c)
.006
(d)
None of these
32. By what least number 675 be multiplied to obtain a number which is a perfect cube?
(a)
5*
(b)
6
(c)
7
(d)
8
33. What is the smallest number by which 3600 be divided to make it a perfect cube?
(a)
9
(b)
50

(c)
300
(d)
450*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 41


SIMPLIFICATION
1. How many s
8
1

are there in
2
1
37 ?

(a) 300* (b) 400 (c) 500 (d) Cannot be determined


2. The smallest fraction which should be subtracted from the sum of
31711
1 ,2 ,5 ,3 2
4 2 12 3 4
and to make the
result a whole number is:
(a) 5
*
12
(b)
12
7

(c)
2
1

(d) 7
3. If
5
4

of an estate be worth Rs. 16,800, then the value of


7
3

of the estate is:


(a) Rs. 9000* (b) Rs. 21,000 (c) Rs. 72,000 (d) Rs. 90,000
4. If a * b = ,
ab
ab

find the value of 3* (3* -1).


(a) -3* (b) -1.5 (c) -1 (d)
3
2

5. If x y = x2 + 2y, what is the value of p if 4 (3 p) = 50


(a) 4* (b) 7 (c) 8 (d) 12.5
6. 7 is added to a certain number; the sum if multiplied by 5; the product is divided by 9 and 3 is
subtracted from the quotient. The remainder left is 12. The number is
(a) 20* (b) 30 (c) 40 (d) 60
7. 8-8 x
6
1
6
1
2
7
2
1

5
1
2

is equal to:
(a) 2 (b) 4* (c) 6 (d) 8
8.
3 1 2 2 6 12
11111?
4 3 3 5 7 13



(a)
5
1

(b)
6
1

(c) 1
*
7
(d) None of these
9. The value of
1111
1 1 1 ... 1
2 3 4 120



is:
(a) 30 (b) 40.5 (c) 60.5* (d) 121
10. Income of a company doubles after every one year. If the initial income was Rs. 4 lakhs, what would be
the income after 5 years?
(a) Rs. 1.24 crores (b) Rs. 1.28 crores* (c) Rs. 2.52 crores (d) Rs. 2.56 crores (e) None of these
11. A light was seen at intervals of 13 seconds. It was seen for the first time at 1 hr. 54 min. 50 secs. a.m. and
the last time at 3 hrs. 17 min. 49 secs. a.m. How many times was the light seen?
(a) 360 (b) 375 (c) 378 (d) 384*
12. The total number of digits used in numbering the pages of a book having 366 pages, is:

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 42


(a) 732 (b) 990* (c) 1098 (d) 1305
13. What fraction of
7
4

must be added to itself to make the sum 1


14
1

?
(a)
2
1

(b)
7
4

(c) 7
*

8
(d)
14
15

14. A 70 cm long wire is to be cut into two pieces such that one piece will be
5
2

as long as the other. How


may centimeters will the shorter piece be?
(a) 10 (b) 14 (c) 20* (d) 28
15.
10
1

of a pole is coloured red,


20
1

white,
30
1

blue,
40
1

black,
50
1

violet,
60
1

yellow and the rest is green. If the


length of the green portion of the pole is 12.08 metres, then the length of the pole is:
(a) 16 m * (b) 18 m (c) 20 m (d) 30 m
16. A student was asked to find the value of
8
3

of a sum of money. The student made a mistake by dividing


the sum by
8
3

and thus got an answer which exceeded the correct answer by Rs. 55. The correct answer
was:
(a) Rs. 9* (b) Rs. 18 (c) Rs. 24 (d) Rs. 64
17. In a family, the father took
4
1

of the cake and he had 3 times as much as each of the other members had.
The total number of family members is:
(a) 3 (b) 7 (c) 10 * (d) 12
18. A sum of Rs. 1360 has been divided among A,B and C such that A gets
3
2

of what B get s and B gets


4
1

of
what C gets. Bs share is:
(a) Rs. 120 (b) Rs. 160 (c) Rs. 240 * (d) Rs. 300
19.
4
1

of a tank holds 135 litres of water. What part of the tank is full if it contains 180 litres of water?
(a)
6

(b) 1
*
3
(c)
3
2

(d)
5
2

20. A boy read


8
3

th of a book on one day and


5
4

th of the remainder on another day. If there were 30 pages


unread, how many pages did the book contain?
(a) 240 * (b) 300 (c) 600 (d) None of these
21. An institute organised a fete and
5
1

of the girls and


8
1

of the boys participated in the same. What fraction


of the total number of students took part in the fete?
(a) 2
*
13
(b)
40
13

(c) Data inadequate (d) None of these


22. To win an election, a candidate needs
4
3

of the votes cast. If after


3
2

of the votes have been counted, a


candidate has
6
5

of what he needs, then what part of the remaining votes does he still need?
(a)
8
1

(b) 3
*
8
(c)
10
1

(d)
4
1

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 43


23. The charges of hired car are Rs. 4 per km for the first 60 km, Rs. 5 per km for the next 60 km and Rs. 8
for every 5 km for further journey. If the balance amount left over with Rohit is one-fourth of what he
paid towards the charges of the hired car for travelling 320 km, how much money did he have initially

with him?
(a) Rs. 1075 * (b) Rs. 1255 (c) Rs. 1540 (d) None of these
24. In a regular week, there are 5 working days and for each day, the working hours are 8. A man gets Rs.
2.40 per hours for regular work and Rs. 3.20 per hours for overtime. If he earns Rs. 432 in 4 weeks, then
how many hours does he work for?
(a) 160 (b) 175 * (c) 180 (d) 195
25. A total of 324 coins of 20 paise and 25 paise make a sum of Rs. 71. The number of 25-paise coins is:
(a) 120 (b) 124 * (c) 144 (d) 200
35. The difference between a number and its three-fifth is 50. What is the number?
(a) 75 (b) 100 (c) 125* (d) None of these
36. If a number is decreased by 4 and divided by 6, the result is 8. What would be the result if 2 is
subtracted from the number and then it is divided by 5 ?
(a) 9
2
3
(b) 10* (c) 10
1
5
(d) 11
1
5
(e) None of these
37. If one-third of one-fourth of a number is 15, then three-tenth of that number is :
(a) 35 (b) 36 (c) 45 (d) 54 *
38. A number is doubled and 9 is added. If the resultant is trebled, it becomes 75. What is that number?
(a) 3.5 (b) 6 (c) 8* (d) None of these
39. A number whose fifth part increased by 4 is equal to its fourth part diminished by 10, is :
(a) 240 (b) 260 (c) 270 (d) 280 *
40. The difference of two numbers is 20% of the larger number. If the smaller number is 12, the larger one i
(a) 15* (b) 16 (c) 18 (d) 20
41. If one-seventh of a number exceeds its eleventh part by 100, then the number is :
(a) 770 (b) 1100 (c) 1825 (d) 1925*
42. If the sum of one-half and one-fifth of a number exceeds one-third of that number by 7
1
3
, the number is
(a) 15 (b) 18 (c) 20* (d) 30
43. If 50 is subtracted from two-third of a number, the result is equal to sum of 40 and one-fourth of that
number. What is the number?
(a) 174 (b) 216* (c) 246 (d) 336
44. Twenty times a positive integer is less than its square by 96. What is the integer?
(a) 20 (b) 24* (c) 30 (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
45. Thrice the square of a natural number decreased by 4 times the number is equal to 50 more than the
number. The number is :
(a) 4 (b) 5* (c) 6 (d) 10

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 44


46. The sum of a number and its reciprocal is one-eighth of 34. What is the product of the number and its
square root?
(a) 8* (b) 27 (c) 32 (d) None of these
47. Two-third of a positive number and
25
216
of its reciprocal are equal. The number is :
(a)
5
12
* (b)

12
5
(c)
25
144
(d)
144
25
48. The product of two natural numbers is 17. Then, the sum of the reciprocals of their squares is :
(a)
1
289
(b)
289
290
(c)
290
289
* (d) 289
49. If 2
1
2
is added to a number and the sum multiplied by 4
1
2
and 3 is added to the product and then
dividing the sum by 1
1
5
the quotient becomes 25. What is the umber?
(a) 2
1
2
(b) 3
1
2
* (c) 4
1
2
(d) 5
1
2
50. Three numbers are in the ratio 4 : 5 : 6 and their average is 25. The largest number is :
(a) 30 * (b) 32 (c) 36 (d) 42

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 45

AP/GP
AP: Quantities are said to be in arithmetic progression when they increase or decrease by a common
difference. E.g.: 3,7,11,15, or 8,2,-4,-10,..
First term denoted by a and common difference denoted by d , total number of terms denoted by n
last term denoted by L Sum of terms by Sn.Therefore:
L= a + (n 1 ) d,
()
2n
naL
S


or [2 ( 1) ]
2n
n
S a n d
If you have to assume 3 terms of AP, assume them as a-d, a , a+d
If you have to assume 4 terms of AP, assume them as a - 3d, a - d , a + d , a + 3d
If you have to assume 5 terms of AP, assume them as a-2d, a-d, a , a+d, a+2d
If we are counting in steps of x from n1 to n2 including both the end points, we get ( 2 1 1
nn
x

) numbers
If we are counting in steps of x from n1 to n2 including only one end points, we get ( 2 1 n n
x

) numbers
If we are counting in steps of x from n1 to n2 excluding both the end points, we get ( 2 1 1
nn
x

) numbers
GP: Quantities are said to be in a geometric progression when they increase or decrease by a constant
factor. E.g.: 3,6,12,24,48,96(factor =2) or 128,64,32,16,8,4,2..(factor =1/2)
First term denoted by a and constant ratio denoted by r , total number of terms denoted by n last
term denoted by l Sum of terms by Sn.Therefore:
n 1 l ar ,
( 1)
1
n
n

ar
S
r

if r > 1 or
(1 )
1
n
n

ar
S
r

if r < 1
Sum of infinite geometric progression when r < 1 ,
1n
a
S
r

If you have to assume 3 terms of GP, assume them as a/r, a , ar

Some Formulas:
1. sum of all the first n natural numbers =
( 1)
2
n n
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + .100 =
100(100 1)
2

= 5050
101 + 102 + 103 + 104 +105 + .200 = 15050
201 + 202 + 203 + 204 +205 + .300 = 25050
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + .n-1 + n + n-1 +..+ 3 + 2 + 1 = n2
1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + .100 + 99 + 98 +..+ 3 + 2 + 1 = 1002 = 10000
2. sum of all the first n odd numbers = 2 n
1 + 3 + 5 + 7 + 20th odd number = 202 = 400
3. sum of all the first n even numbers = n(n 1)
2 + 4 + 6 + 8 +.50th even term = 50 (50 + 1 ) =2550.
4. sum of squares of first n natural numbers =
( 1)(2 1)
6
n n n

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 46


12 + 22 + 32 + 42 + ..102 =
10(10 1)(20 1)
6

= 385
12 - 22 + 32 - 42 + ..n2 =
( 1)
2
n n
= answer will have same sign( +/ -) as on last number.
5. sum of cubes of first n natural numbers =
2

( 1)
2
n n


13 + 23 + 33 + 43 + 53 + ..103 =
2

10(10 1)
2



=
1. Find the sum of natural numbers between 20 and 100.
a) 4480 *b) 4840 c) 4800 d) 4850
2. Find the value of 1+2+3+..+210.
*a) 22155 b) 21255 c) 22515 d) 22255
3. Find the sum of first 50 odd numbers.
a) 6250 *b) 2500 c) 2520 d) 2450
4. Find the value of:(1+3+5+.+80th odd number) - (1+3+5++30th odd number)
*a) 5500 b) 6100 c) 5400 d) 7300

5. Find the value of : 2+4+6+..+100th even number.


a) 10000 *b) 10100 c) 11000 d) 10101
6. Find the value of: 26+28++28th even number.
*a) 656 b) 665 c) 566 d) 565
7. Find the value of 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 .......16 .
a) 1946 b) 1649 c) 1469 *d) 1496
8. 2 2 2 2 (1 2 3 .......10 ) (123.....10) is equal to
*a) 330 b) 440 c) 550 d) 660
9. Find the value of: 3 3 3 1 2 ......12 .
a) 6804 b) 6084 c) 6048 *d) 6408
10. Find the value of 3 3 3 8 9 ........15 .
a) 18496 b) 18495 c) 18497 *d) 14895
11. The number of terms in the sequence 4, 11,18, ..... 186 is:
A. 17 B. 25 C.26 D.27*
12. The number of multiplies of 6 between 400 and 800 is:
A.80 B.68 C. 66 D. 67*
13. A gentleman buys every year Bank's cash certificates of value exceeding the last year's purchase by Rs.
300. After 20 years, he finds that the total value of the certificates purchased by him is Rs. 83,000. Find the
value of the certificates purchased by him in the 13th year.
a) Rs.4900* b) Rs.6900 c) Rs.1300 d) None of these.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 47


14: The sum of the first 50 terms common to the Arithmetic Sequence 15, 19, 23..... and the Arithmetic Sequence 14, 19,
24..... is.
a) 25450* b) 24550 c) 50900 d) 49100 15: What is the sum of all positive integers that are multiples of 7 from 200 to
400? a) 8729* b) 8700 c) 8428 d) 8278 16: The sum of the first and the 9th of an arithmetic progression is 24. What is the
sum of the first nine terms of the progression? a) 240 b) 216 c) 108* d) 120 17: The sum of 20 terms of the series -12 +
22 - 32 + 42 - 52 + 62.... is: a) 210* b) 519 c) 190 d) 420 18: Sum of first 25 terms of an AP is 525; sum of the next 25
terms is 725; what is the common difference? a) 8/25 * b) 4/25 c) 6/25 d) 1/5 19: Sum of first 12 terms of a GP is equal
to the sum of the first 14 terms in the same GP. Sum of the first 17 terms is 92, what is the third term in the GP? a) 92*
b) -92 c) 46 d) 231 18: In the first 1000 natural numbers, how many integers exist such that they leave a remainder 4
when divided by 7, and a remainder 9 when divided by 11? a) 11 b) 14 c) 12 d) 13* 19: The sum of the fourth and twelfth
term of an arithmetic progression is 20. What is the sum of the first 15 terms of the arithmetic progression?
a) 300 b) 120 c) 150* d) 170 e) 270

20: After striking a floor a certain ball rebounds 4/5th of the height from which it has fallen. Find the distance that it
travels before coming to rest, if it is gently dropped from a height of 120 metres.
a) 960 b) 1020 c) 1280 d) 1080*
21: A square is drawn by joining the mid-points of the sides of a square. A third square is drawn inside the second square
in the same way and the process is continued indefinitely. If the sides of the square is 10 cm, find the sum of areas of all
the squares so formed.
a) 200* b) 400 c) 120 d) 100
22: The sum of three numbers in AP is -3 and their product is 8. Find the numbers
a) 4, 1, 2 b) -4, -1, 2* c) -4, 1, -2 d) 4, -1, -2
23: The angles of a quadrilateral are in AP whose common difference is 100. The largest angle is:
a) 750 b) 850 c) 950 d) 1050*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 48

Average
Simple Average or Arithmetic Mean
Average (specifically Arithmetic Mean) as we understand it Whenever we speak of average, we understand that
Average =
Tota lnumber of observat ions
Sum of all observat ions
This is more specially called the\Arithmetic Mean and would differ in interpretation and applications from Weighted
Average as we will earn ahead. B\.it for the moment it hardly matters if we use either term- Average or Arithmetic
E.g. 1: The average weight of 10 members was 70 kgs. Find the average weight if a eleventh guy weighing 81 kgs joins the
group.

Sum of weights of the I0 members = 70 x I0 = 700


Thus, sum of the weights after the eleventh guy joins the group = 700 + 81 = 781.
Thus new average = 71
11
781

"intellectually stimulating" method:-Considering that the eleventh guy also weighs same as the earlier average i.e. 70 kgs,
we now have 11 kgs to be distributed equally among 11 students. Thus each will receive I kg and the new average is 71 kgs.
E.g. 2: The average amount that each student has is Rs. 167.75. When a student having Rs. 183.45 joins the group, the new
average that each student has is now Rs. 170.89. Find the number of people originally in the group.
Using the formula, if there were n students earlier, then we would have
167.75 x n + 183.45 = 170.89 x (n+ 1)
3.14 x n = 12.56
n = 4
3 14
12 56

.
.
"intellectually stimulating" method:- Considering that the new student also has Rs. 167.75, there is now Rs. 183.45 167.75 = Rs. 15.70 that is distributed among all members (n + I) and each member receives Rs. 170.89
167.75 = Rs. 3.14. Thus there are in all
3 14
15 70
.
.
= 5 members after the new student joins and there were 4 students originally
in the group.
E.g. 3:The average age of the 18 boys in a class is 24 years and the average age of 12 girls in the class is 22 years. Find the
average age of the class.
the formula for weighted average is:
Cavg =
12
1122

ww
CwCw

, where
C1 and C2 are the two quantities whose average is being found and WI and W2 are the weights of each group.
"intellectually stimulating" method:-Please not that we have to divide 24 22 = 2 in the ratio 3 : 2. The two parts would
be 1.2 and 0.8 and the average will be 23.2.
E.g. 4:I bought 5 kgs of rice costing Rs. 32 per kg and another 7 kgs of rice costing Rs. 50 per kg. What is the average cost
price per kg of rice I bought?
"intellectually stimulating" method:-Thus 18 has to be divided in the ratio 7 : 5 and the first part will be 18 10 5
12
7
. .
Thus the required average will be 32 + 10.5 = 42.5

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 49


Unsolved exercise:
1. David obtained 76, 65, 82, 67 and 85 marks (out of 100) in English, Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry
and Biology. What are his average marks?
(a) 65 (b) 69 (c) 72 (d) 76 (e) None of these *
2. Find the average of all the numbers between 6 and 34 which are divisible by 5.
(a) 18 (b) 20* (c) 24 (d) 30
3. The average of the first nine prime numbers is :
(a) 9 (b) 11 (c)
1
11
9

* (d)
2
11
9
4. The average of 2, 7, 6 and x is 5 and the average of 18, 1,6, x and y is 10. What is the value of y?
(a) 5 (b) 10 (c) 20* (d) 30
5. If the mean of 5 observations x, x + 2, x + 4, x + 6 and x + 8 is 11, then the mean of the last three
observations is :
(a) 11 (b) 13* (c) 15 (d) 17
6. The average of the, two-digit numbers, which remain the same when the digits inter- change their
positions, is :
(a) 33 (b) 44 (c) 55 * (d) 66
7. The average of first 50 natural numbers is :
(a) 12.25 (b) 21.25 (c) 25 (d) 25.5 *
8. The average of first five multiples of 3 is :
(a) 3 (b) 9* (c) 12 (d) 15
9. The average of a non-zero number and its square is 5 times the number. The number is :
(a) 9 * (b) 17 (c) 29 (d) 295
10. The average of 7 consecutive numbers is 20. The largest of these numbers is :
(a) 20 (b) 22 (c) 23 * (d) 24
11. The average of five consecutive odd numbers is 61. What is the difference between the highest and lowest
numbers?
(a) 2 (b) 5 (c) 8 * (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
12. The average age of the boys in a class is 16 years and that of the girls is 15 years. The average age for the
whole class is :
(a) 15 years (b) 15.5 years (c) 16 years (d) Data inadequate *
13. The average annual income (in Rs.) of certain agricultural workers is S and that of other workers is T. The
number of agricultural workers is 11 times that of other workers. Then the average monthly income (in
Rs.) of all the workers is :
(a)
2
S T
(b)
11
2
S T
(c)
1
11
T
S
(d)
11
12
S T
*
14. A family consists of grandparents, parents and three grandchildren. The average age of the grandparents is
67 years, that of the parents is 35 years and that of the grandchildren is 6 years. What is the average age of
the family?

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 50


(a) 28
4
7
years (b) 31
5
7

years * (c) 32
1
7
years (d) None of these
15. The average weight of 16 boys in a class is 50.25 kgs and that of the remaining 8 boys is 45.15 kgs. Find
the average weight of all the boys in the class.
(a) 47.55 kgs (b) 48 kgs (c) 48.55 kgs* (d) 49.25 kgs
16. The average of six numbers is x and the average of three of these is y. If the average of the remaining three
is z, then:
(a) x = y + z (b) 2x = y + z * (c) x = 2y + 2z (d) None of these
17. The average of five numbers is 27. If one number is excluded, the average becomes 25. The excluded
number is :
(a) 25 (b) 27 (c) 30 (d) 35*
18. The average of 20 numbers is zero. Of them, at the most, how many may be greater than zero?
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) 10 (d) 19 *
19. The average of 10 numbers is 40. the average of first five is 42 & that of last four is 35. the sixth number
is:
a) 35 b) 40 c) 42 d) 50*
20. The average age of a group of 13 boys is 13 years. When two more boys joined the group, the average of
the group increased by 1 year. The sum of the ages of two new boys is:
a) 22 years b) 28 years c) 38 years d) 41 years*
21. The average age of 8 teachers in a school is 40 years. A teacher among them died at the age of 55 years
whereas another teacher whose age was 39 years joined them. The average age of the teachers in the
school now is:
a) 35 years b) 36 years c) 38 years* d) 39 years
22. The average weight of 6 men decreases by 3 kg when one of them weighing 80 kg is replaced by a fresh
man. The weight of the new man is:
a) 56 kg b) 58 kg c) 62 kg* d) 76 kg
23. The average of three numbers is 42. The first is twice the second & the second is twice the third. The
difference between the largest & the smallest number is:
a) 36* b) 54 c) 72 d) 18
24. The average of 11 observations is 60. if the average of the first five observations is58 & that of last five is
56, then the sixth observation is:
a) 90* b) 110 c) 85 d) 100
25. The average weight of 8 men is increased by 1.5 kg when one of the men whose weight is 65 kg is
replaced by a new man. The weight of the new man is:
a) 76 kg b) 76.5 kg c) 76.7 kg d) 77 kg*
26. The average monthly expenditure of a family was Rs. 4050 during first three months, Rs. 4260 during
next four months & Rs. 4326 during last 5 months of the year. If the total saving during the year be Rs.
6120, then find the average monthly income.
a) Rs. 4500 b) Rs.4615 c) Rs. 4700 d) Rs.4725*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 51


27. The average age of 40 students of a class is 15 years when 10 new students are admitted, the average age increased
by 0.2 years. The average age of the new student is:
a) 15.2 yrs b) 16 yrs* c) 16.2 yrs d) 16.4 yrs
28. 9 men rent a hotel, 8 of them spend Rs. 3.00 each over the meal & the 9th person spends Rs. 2 more than the average
expenditure of all the 9 men. Then the total money spent by them, was:
a) Rs. 26 b) Rs. 26.25 c) Rs. 29 d) Rs. 29.25*
29. The bating average for 40 innings of a cricket player is 50 runs. His highest score exceeds his lowest score by 172
runs. If these two innings are excluded, the average of remaining 38 innings is 18 runs. His highest score was:
a) 173 runs b) 174 runs* c) 176 runs d) 172 runs
30. The average age of a group going for picnic is 16 years. 20 new people with an average age of 15 years join the
group on the spot which decreases the average age to 15.5 years. The number of people original going for picnic was:
a) 15 b) 20* c) 30 d) 10
31. Of the three numbers, first is twice the second. It is also thrice the third. The average of the three numbers is 44. The
first number is:
a) 36 b) 72* c) 44 d) 24

32. Of the three numbers, the first is twice the second & is half of the third. If the average of the three numbers is 56, the
three numbers in order are:
a) 48, 96, 24 b) 48, 24, 96* c) 96, 24, 48 d) 96, 48, 24
33. The average weight of 8 persons is increased by 2.5 kg when one of them, whose weight is 56 kg, is replaced by a
new man. The weight of the new man is:
a) 66 kg b) 75 kg c) 76 kg* d) 86 kg
34. The average weight of three men A,B & C is 84 kg. Another man D joins the group & the average of the group
becomes 80 kg. if another man E, whose weight is 3 kg more than that D replaces A, then the average weight of B, C, D
& E becomes 79 kg. the weight of A is:
a) 70 kg b) 72 kg c) 75 kg* d) 80 kg
35. The average of 10 numbers is 40. the average of first five is 42 & that of last four is 35. the sixth number is:
a) 35 b) 40 c) 42 d) 50*
36. The average weight of 5 men is increased by 1 kg when one of them, whose weight is 60 kg, is replaced by a new man. The
weight of the new man is:
a) 50 kg b) 55 kg c) 60 kg d) 65 kg*
37. The average of seven consecutive odd numbers is 73. The largest no. is:
a) 83 b) 91 c) 79* d) 73
38. There are five brothers in a family. The average salary per month of the eldest four is Rs. 740. the fifth youngest brother then
starts earning & the average salary of all five falls by Rs. 34, if now the eldest brother, after retirement, take up a job with a salary
only Rs. 80 per month more than the youngest, the monthly average comes down to Rs. 636. Find the salary before retirement of
the eldest brother & that of the youngest.
a) Rs. 1200, 600 b) Rs. 1000, 570* c) Rs. 1500, 500 d) Rs. 2000, 400
39. The average monthly salary paid to 75 employees in a company is Rs. 1420. The average salary of 25 of them is Rs. 1350 &
that of 30 others is Rs. 1425. The average salary of the remaining employee is:
a) Rs. 1350 b) Rs. 1425 c) Rs. 1500* d) Rs. 1420

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 52


40. The average of three numbers is 135. The largest number is 180 & the difference of the others is 25. The smallest number is:
a) 130 b) 125 c) 120 d) 100*
41. The average height of 50 pupils in a class is 150 cm. five of them whose average height is 146 cm leave the class & 5 others
whose average height is 156 cm join the class. The new average height of the pupils of the class is:
a) 149 cm b) 151cm* c) 152 cm d) 153 cm
42. In a class, certain number of students have got an average of 10 marks & the remaining 10 students obtain an average of 20
marks. If the class average of the whole is 15 marks, the number of students who have got an average of 10 marks is:
a) 10* b) 15 c) 20 d) none of these
43. The average age of 20 boys in a class is 15 years & that of 18 girls is 15.5 years. Find the average of 38 students.
a) 15.2 years* b) 15.3 years c) 15.4 years d) 15.5 years
44. The average of first five odd numbers is:
a) 3.5 b) 5* c) 15 d) 25
45. The average of 8 numbers is 21. If each of the number is multiplied by 8, the average of new set of numbers is:
a) 21 b) 25 c) 29 d) 168*
46. The average age of an adult class is 40 years. 12 new students with an average age of 32 years join the class, thereby,
decreasing the average of the class by 4 years. The original strength of the class was:
a) 8 b) 10 c) 12* d) 15
47. Out of the three numbers, the second is double of the first but thrice of the third. If average of the three numbers is 44, what is
the largest number.
a) 72* b) 36 c) 24 d) 108
48. The average of first hundred multiples of three is:
a) 120.5 b) 120.0 c) 151.5* d) 180.5
49. The average age of 10 boys is 14. Four of them are of average age 12. The average age of the other six boys is:
a) 14.35 yrs b) 15.33 yrs* c) 16.38 yrs d) 16.49
50. Seven persons contributed a certain sum. Five of them contributed Rs. 10 each & the other two contributed Rs. 6 & Rs. 4 more
respectively than the average contribution of seven. The total sum contributed was:
a) Rs. 69 b) Rs. 72 c) Rs. 84* d) Rs. 92
51. The average age of a school of 800 students is 11.25 years. By the enrollment of 80 new students, the average age is reduced to
10.75 years. The average age of new students is:
a) 5.75 yrs* b) 6.00 yrs c) 6.25 yrs d) 6.75 yrs
52. The average age of 25 students is 10 years. If the teachers age is also included, the average age increases by one year. The age
of the teacher is:
a) 26 yrs b) 36 yrs* c) 46 yrs d) 25 yrs
53. The average weight of 8 persons is increased by 2 kg when one of them whose weighs 52 kg is replaced by a new man. Find the
weight of a new man.

a) 52 kg b) 60 kg c) 62 kg d) 68 kg*
54. In a certain class the first mark was 67 & the last was 32; & by mistake these were written as 76 & 23. Then the average marks
of the class is;
a) increased by 9 b) decreased by 9
c) not changed * d) not determine since the strength of the class is not specified

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 53


55. The scores of a cricketer in five innings is 25, 73, 72, 20, 15. If he scores 41 in sixth inning , what will be the average score.
a) 82* b) 72 c) 41 d) 37
56. In a test, a batch of 60 students made an average score of 55 & another batch of 40 made it only 45. what is the overall average
score?
a) 55 b) 50 c) 51* d) 45
57. In a class of 20 students in an examination in Mathematics 2 students scored 100 marks each. 3 got zero each & the average of
the rest was 40. what is the average of the whole class.
a) 40 marks* b) 30 marks c) 50 marks d) 60 marks
58. The average of marks obtained by 22 candidates in an examination is 45. The average of the first ten is 55, while that of the last
eleven is 40. The marks obtained by the eleventh candidate are:
a) 0* b) 50 c) 45 d) 47.5
59. In a class of 22 students, 21 students get an average of 44 marks. If the remaining student get 66 marks, the average mark of the
whole class is:
a) 46 b) 52 c) 45* d) 48
60. There were 35 students in a hostel. Due to the admission of 7 new students the expenses of the mess were increased by Rs. 42
per day while the average expenditure per head diminished by Rs. 1. What was the original expenditure of the mess ?
a) 400 b) 500 c) 420* d) 450

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 54

ALGEBRA: LE / QE
Directions (1 to 5) : In each question below one or
two equation (s) is/are provided. On the basis of
these you to have to find out relation between p and
q.
Give answer (1) if p=q
Give answer (2) if p>q
Give answer (3) if p>q
Give answer (4) if p q and
Give answer (5) if q p
1. I. p2 24 10p
II. 2 2q 18 12q
2. I. 4p+7 p= 42
II. 3p-11p= -1
3. I. 2 q q 2
II. 2 p 7 p 10 0
4. I. 2 p 16 8p
II. 2 4q 64 32q
5. I. 2 2p 12p 16 0
II. 2 2q 14q 24 0
Directions (6-10) : In each question two equations I
and II have been given. You have to solve these
equations and
Give answer (1), if no relation between p and q can
be determined
Give answer (2), if p>q
Give answer (3), if q>p
Give answer (4), if p=q
Give answer (5), if q p
6. I. 2 p 13p 40 0
II. 2 q 7q 12 0

7. I. 2 p (10)
II. 2 q q 9900 0
8. I. 2 p 5p 6 0
II. 2 q 4q 3 0
9. I. p 100
II. q=10
10. I. p 100
II.
1

q (10000)2
Directions (11-15) : In each of the following
questions two equations are given. You have to solve
the equation and
Give answer (1), if x<y
Give answer (2), if x y
Give answer (3), if x=y
Give answer (4), if x y
Give answer (5), if x>y
11. I. 2 4x 8x 3 0
II. 2 2y 7y 6 0
12. I. 2 x x 6 0
II. 2 2y 13y 210
13. I. 2 x x 6 0
II. 2 2y 13y 210
14. I. 2 x 4
II. 2 y 6y 9 0
15. I. 2x+3y=4
II. 3x+2y=11
Directions (Q. 1-5) In each of these questions, two
equations (I) and (II) are given. You have to solve both
the equations and give answer
1) if x > y 2) if x 3) if x < y
4) if x y 5) if x = y or no relation can be
established between x and y.
16. I. 2 x 8 3x 45 0
II. 2 y 2y 24 0
17. I. x - 7 2x + 24 = 0
II. y - 55 2y + 12 = 0
18. I. 2 12x 17x 6 0

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 55


II. 2 20y 31y 12 0
19. I. 2 3x 8x 4 0
II. 2 4y 15y 9 0
20. I. 2 x 16x 63 0
II. 2 y 2y 35 0
Directions (Q. 6-10): In each of these questions, two
equations (I) and (II) are given. You have to solve both
the equations and give answer
l) if x > y 2) if x y
3) if x < y 4) if x y
5) if x = Y or no relationship can be established.
21. I. 2 20x 67x 56 0
II. 2 56y 67y 20 0

22. I. 4 x 65536
II. Y = 3 y 4096
23. I. 2 2x 11x 40 0
II. 2 2y 27y 44 0
24. I. 7x=4y+ 85 II 3 y 17576
25. I. 2 x 14641 II. Y = 14641
Directions (Q. 11-15): In each of these questions, two
equations (I) and (II) are given. You have to solve both
the equations and give answer
l) if x > y 2) if x y 3) if x < y
4) if x y 5) if x = y or no relation can be
established between x and y.
26. I. 63x 94 x 35 0
II. 32y 52 y 210
27. I 2 x 7 3x 35 15 5 5x
II. 2 y 5 5y 30 0
28. I. 2 14x 11x 15 0
II. 2 20y 31y 12 0
29. I. 25x 16y 41
II. 16x 25y 40
30. I.
15
2

(18)
x0
x

II.
9

(19)2
y0
y

ANSWERS:
1.(2) 2. (2) 3. (4) 4. (1) 5. (1) 6. (3)
7. (2) 8. (1) 9(5) 10. (1) 11.(2) 12. (4)
13. (5) 14. (1) 15. (5) 16. (5) 17. (2) 18. (4)
19. (5) 20. (1) 21.(1) 22. (4) 23. (3) 24. (1)
25. (4) 26.(5) 27. (1) 28. (3) 29. (1) 30. (3)

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 56

PERCENTAGE
Basics: Evaluating/Finding a Percent
Percent literally means Per Cent, cent as in century i.e. Per Hundred.
Thus when we want to express any data in percentage terms, say, Rahul scored 160 marks in a test with maximum possible
marks being 200, we have to proportionally convert '160 marks out of 200 to marks scored per 100 possible marks i.e.
max marks: 200 marks scored: 160
max marks: 100 marks scored: ?
Thus, we can find the percentage of marks as
200
160
x 100 =
5
4
x 100 = 80%
Alternately, if data is given in terms of percentage, say, Ruchi scored 60% in test with maximum marks being 300, it does
not mean that marks earned by Ruchi is 60. It means that out of 100 possible marks, 60 marks are scored. Thus to find the

actual marks scored by Ruchi, we can make use of the following:


Out of 100 marks marks scored: 60
Out of 300 marks marks scored: ?
Thus, total marks scored can be found as - 300 180
5
3
300
100
60
x x
Thus, in short percentage is any quantity expressed on a scale of 100.
E.g. 1: What percent of 80 is 50?
Let x % of 80 be 50. Thus 80 50
100
x
x
i.e. x = x 62.5%
8
500
100
80
50

E.g. 2: In a poll, a total of 1,20,000 votes were polled of which 10% were invalid. A candidate received 60% of the valid
votes. Find the number of votes polled by the candidate.
The number of valid votes = 90% of the total votes
=x
100
90
1,20,000 = 1,08,000
Of these 1,08,000 valid votes, the candidate received 60%. Thus the candidate received 108000
100
60
x , , = 64,800.
E.g. 3: When 40% of a number is subtracted from 100, he answer is 80% of the number. Find the number. If the number is
assumed to be n, the given data can be written as:
100- x x n
100
80
n
100
40

n
100
120
100 x 83 33
120
100 100
.
x
n
E.g. 4: 100 is 30% of what number?
If the number is assumed to be n, the given data can be written as:
n 100
100
30
x
333 33
30
100 x 100

n .

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 57


Concept of Base:
Whenever a percentage is expressed, it always means a percent of 'some numeric quantity'. E.g. 60% of the maximum marks,
10% of the total votes polled, 60% of the valid votes, 75% of the mixture, prices dropped by 15% (of itself). This 'some
numeric quantity' is called the base and it is extremely important to identify the base correctly.
Let's say we want to find 30 is what percent of 45. What is the base in this example? Is it 30 or 45? To be sure of identifying
the correct base try thinking on the following lines: if the answer is x%, do we mean x% of 30 or 45? The question makes it
very apparent that we have to find 'percent of 45'. Thus our base is 45 and the question can be transformed mathematically to
30 = ? % x 45. Since our base is 45, we would have to proportionally convert '30' on a base of 45' into '? on a base of 100'.
The answer can be found directly without writing any of the above as
x 100 66.66%
3
2
x 100
45
30

been '45 is what percent of 30?', our base would be 30 and to find the answer we would have to proportionally convert '45 on
a base of 30' into '? on a base of 100'. Thus the answer would have been
x 100 150%
2
3
x 100
30
45

The most common error that a beginner commits is that of incorrectly identifying the base and then finding the percent of
this incorrect base. To avoid this mistake always ask the question 'percent of what'.
The following three examples, with the common errors made, would make it even more clear. All the three examples have
two very similar contexts compared. The left had ones are the straight forward ones and the right hand ones are the ones
where an error is made
E.g.5 The following three examples should show you the importance of getting the base right.
1. What is 20% of 450? 20% of what number is 450?
Here 20% of 450 is to be found, so 450 is your
base of which 20% is to be found. Thus
answer =
450 90
100
20
x
Here you do not have to find 20% of 450. The
number of which 20% is to be found is unknown.
So if we assume the number to be n, the working
would go as follows:
450 450 5 2250
100
20
xn n x
2. What is the result when 100 is increased by
20%?
A number when increased by 20% becomes 100.
What's the number?
This should be a sitter. Here 100 is increased
by 20%, so we will find 20% of 100 and add it
to 100. Thus the answer is 120.
If your answer is 80, then you are wrong. That is
precisely what this text here wants to explain.
You/CANNOT take 20% of 100 in this case. 100
is not the base in this example. 20% has to be
calculated of the number.

100
100
20
n n
100
100
120
n n = 83.333
E.g. 6: Ram's salary is 90% of Shyam's salary. Shyam's salary is what percent of Ram's salary?
90% is that of Shyam's salary So assuming Shyam's salary as 100, we can get Ram's salary as 90% of 100 i.e. 90.
Now the question is asking us to find 100 as a percentage of 90 i.e. the base now is 90. Thus the answer is
100
90
100
= 111.11%

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 58


Percent Increase/Decrease - The Multiplying Factor
We will see many applications where a base is increased by certain percentage. This section here explains how these percent
increase/decrease can be handled very effectively.
Consider that a number n is increased by 20%?
It should be obvious if you have done fraction percentage equivalence that we have to find n +

1
5
n . The process of
finding 20% of n i.e.

1
5
th

of n and then adding it back to n can be compressed into one step by considering our answer in the
form n

16
1 .e.n
55
i



.
Thus increasing n by 20% is same as multiplying it by

6
5
.
See if you understand finding the multiplying factors as explained below:
Increase of 16.66% is equivalent to multiplying by
6
7
i.e.
6
1
1

Increase of 37.5% is equivalent to multiplying by


8
11
i.e.
8

3
1

Increase of 125% is equivalent to multiplying by


4
9
i.e.
4
5
1

Decrease of 11.11% is equivalent to multiplying by


9
8
i.e.
9
1
1

Decrease of 27.27% is equivalent to multiplying by


11
8
i.e.
11
3
1

Similarly, one should be able to work in the reverse way also.


8
7
n is same as n being increase
7
1
i.e. 14.28%
9
11
n is same as n being increase
9
2
i.e. 22.22%
8
7
n is same as n being decreased by
8
1
i.e. 12.5%
5

2
n is same as n being increase
5
3
i.e. 60%

Change of Base:
If A is 20% more than B, by what percent is B less than A?
In such questions there are two variables A and B. The data is given as a percentage of one of them (in this case 20% of B),
and the question asked is about percentage of the other variable (in this case percent less than A).
There are basically two ways of doing it.
Method 1: if B is assumed as 100, A will be 120. Thus the answer is 16.66%
6
1
120
20
.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 59


This method can be generalized as follows:
If A is x% more than B, then B is x %
x
x
100
100

less than A, and


Please do not memorize. It should be obvious as if B = 100, A = 100 + x and B is x less than 100 + x which when converted
to a percent is the expression given.
If A is x% less than B, then B is x %
x
x
100
100

However this method or formula is easy only when the percent given is a very manageable one. If the question had been' If A
is 37.5% more than B, by what percent is B less than A?', the working using this formula would be cumbersome.
Method 2: Using multiplying factors.
If A is 20% more than B, we can say A = x B
5
6
Re-writing this, with B in terms of A, B = x A
6
5
From the last relation we can say that B is
6
1th
less than A i.e. 16.66% less than A.
This method is more versatile than the previous one and can be used to solve even if the percentages are a little difficult
ones, e.g. If A is 37.5% more than D, by what percent is B less than A?
A = BB B
11
8
8

11
Thus B is
11
3th
i.e. 27.27% less than A
The above concept can also be used in any relation of the type C = A x B. Few very commonly found such relations are:
Area = Length x Breadth
Expenditure or Sales = Price per unit x Quantity
Sales = Market Share x Market Size
Thus, we could have questions of the type with any of the above relation:
If the length of a rectangle is increased by 10%, by what percent should the breadth be decreased to maintain area?
Keeping in mind the following relation, l x b = lx b,
11
10
10
11
one should easily realise that the breadth should become
11
10th
of
the original breadth i.e.
11
1th
less i.e. 9.09% decrease.

Successive Percentage Changes


E.g. 9: The population of a city increased by 25%, 18.18% 10% in three consecutive census but decreased by 9.09% in the
fourth census. If the population after the fourth census was 65 lacs, find the population before the first census.
Here one would realise the importance of multiplying factors. Since the population of the base year is not given, it would be
cumbersome to work unless one can use the following:
65
11
10
10
11
11
13
4
5
x giving x = 44 lacs.
E.g. 7: What is the single percentage change equivalent to two percentage decreases of 10%.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 60


Using multiplying factors,
100
81
10
9
10
9
i.e. decrease of
100
19
i.e. decrease of 19%
Using the formula, the equivalent percentage change is 10 10 + %
()()
20 1 19
100
10 10

One would go wrong if one assumes both the decreases as 10% and considering that positive sign represents a decrease. In
that case the answer would be 10+ 10 + 20 1 21%

100
10 10

and it would be wrong. So always work with a percentage


decrease as negative and percentage increase as positive.

Unsolved exercise:
1. An agent sells goods of value Rs. 2764, what is his commission at 1
2 12 %?
a) Rs. 355.50 b) Rs. 365.50 *c) Rs. 345.50 d) Rs. 445.50
2. What is the duty on goods worth Rs. 6200 at 1
2 2 %?
a) Rs. 125 b) Rs. 135 c) Rs. 145 *d) Rs. 155
3. A rent collector receives 1
2 1 % for collecting rent. What will he receive for collecting Rs. 5000?
a) Rs. 25 b) Rs. 50 *c) Rs. 75 d) Rs. 125
4. An auctioneer charges 10% for selling a piano. The sale price is Rs. 3455. what is the auctioneers commission?
*a) Rs. 345.50 b) Rs. 345 c) Rs. 385.50 d) Rs. 385
5. A cask containing 425 litres lost 8% by leakage. How many litres were left in the cask?
a) 34 litres *b) 391 litres c) 334 litres d) 389 litres
6. At an election where there are two candidates only, the candidate who gets 62% of the votes is elected by a majority
of 144 votes. Find the total no. of votes recorded?
a) 1200 b) 1800 c) 700 *d) 600
7. A person saves every year 20% of his income. If his income increases every year by 10%, then his saving increase
every year by:
A.10% * B.5% C. 2% D. l%
8. It costs Re. 1 to photocopy a sheet of paper. However, 2% discount is allowed on all photocopies done after first
1000 sheets. How much will it cost to copy 5000 sheets of paper?
(a) Rs. 3920 (b) Rs. 3980 (c) Rs. 4900 *(d) Rs. 4920
9. A housewife saved Rs. 2.50 in buying an item on sale. If she spent Rs. 25 for the item, approximately how much
percent she saved in the transaction ?
(a) 8% *(b) 9% (c) 10% (d) 11%
10. How many litres of pure acid are there in 8 litres of a 20% solution ?
(a) 1.4 (b) 1.5 *(c) 1.6 (d) 2.4
11. The price of an article is decreased by 10 %. To restore it to the original value, the price of the
article has to be increased by
a) 10 % b)

1
9
11
% * c)

1
11
9
% d)

2
14
7
%
12. In an examination 900 candidates were boys and 600 were girls. If 30 % of the boys and 40 % of the girls
passed the examination, then the percentage of total number of candidates that failed in the examination is
a) 42 % b) 34 % c) 58 % *d) 66 %

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 61


13. A student has to secure 45 % marks to pass in a subject. He gets 45 marks and fails by 9 marks.
The maximum marks in the paper are
a) 108 b) 114 * c) 120 d) 160
14 To get a number 40 % less than a number x, we multiply the number x by :
a) 1.4 * b) 0.6 c) 0.4 d) 14
15. The price of an article was increased by 4 % . It was then decreased by 4 %. If the last price was

Rs.10, the original price of article was


a)

1002
1002 42
b)

1002
142
c)

10 1002
1 42

*d)

10 1002
1002 42

16. 600 kg of mortar consists of 55 % sand, 72 kg of lime and the rest cement. What percentage of
cement is there in mortar ?
a) 27 % b) 45 % c) 38 % *d) 33 %
17. To get a number 40 % more than a number x , we multiply the number x by
a) 0.4 b) 0.6 *c) 1.4 d) 14
18. p is six times as large as q. The percent that q is less than p, is :
a) 60 *b)

2
16
3
c) 90 d)

1
83
3
19. The price of an article is cut by 10 % . To restore it to the former price, the new price must be increased by
a)

1
9
11
% b) 10 % * c)

1
11
9
% d)11 %
20. If 10 % of m is the same as 20 % of n, then m: n is equal to
a) 5 : 1 b) 2 : 1 * c) 1 : 2 d) 10 : 1
21. A mans basic pay for a 40 hours week is Rs. 20.00. Over time is paid for 25 % above the basic rate. In a
Certain week he worked overtime and his total wage was Rs. 25.00. He therefore worked at total of
* a) 48 hours b) 50 hours c) 45 hours d) 47 hours
22. The current birth rate per thousand is 32 whereas corresponding death rate is 11 per thousand. The net growth rate in
terms of the population increase in % is given by
a) 21 % *b) 2.1 % c) 0.021 % d) 0.0021 %
23. Water tax is increased by 20 % but its consumption is decreased by 20 %. Then the increase or
decrease in the expenditure of the money is :
a) 4 % increase b) No change c) 5 % decrease *d) 4 % decrease
24. x% of y + y % of x is equal to
a) y % of x b) x% of y *c) 2% of xy d) xy% of 3
25. A candidate who gets 20 % of the marks fails by 60 marks. Another candidate who gets 32 % of marks gets

84 marks more than are necessary for passing. The total number of marks is
a) 1000 * b) 1200 c) 1500 d) 1800
26. In an examination 35 % of the total students failed in Hindi, 45 % failed in English and 20 % failed in both.
Percentage of total students passed in both the subject , is
a) 10 b) 20 c) 30 *d) 40
27. When 50 is subtracted from 50 % of a number, the result in 50. What is the number?
a) 50 b) 100 *c) 200 d) 400

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 62


28. The annual income of A is 10 % less than that of B whose income is 20 % more than that of C.
If the monthly income of C is Rs. 200, then the total annual income of A,B & C is
a) 7772 b) 7046 c) 6872 *d) 7872
29. One third of a number is 13. What will be 40 % of that number?
*a) 15.6 b) 20.8 c) 14.4 d) 18.6
30. The length of a rectangle is increased by 20% and the width is decreased by 20%. The area decreases by:
A. 0.8% B. 1.2% *C.4% D.8%
31. If number 50 exceeds by 20%, the new number obtained is :
A.10 B.20 C.40 *D.60
32. In an election between two candidates, a candidate who gets 40% of the votes polled is defeated by a margin of
10000 votes. The number of votes polled in favors of winning candidate is :
A. 20000 B. 15000 *C. 30000 D.40000
33. An electrical contractor purchases a certain amount of wire. 10% of which was stolen. After using 85% of the
remainder, he had 47 m 25 cm of wire left. How much wire did he purchase?
A. 300 m *B. 350 m C. 375 m D. 400 m
34. If the price of one kg of rice is increased by 25%, the increase is Rs. 12. Find the new price of rice per kg?
a) Rs. 48 *b) Rs. 60 c) Rs. 72 d) Rs. 36
35. A & B appeared in an examination. If the difference of their marks is 25 & percentage difference of their marks is
given as 20%. Find the full marks for which the examination has been held?
*a) Rs. 125 b) Rs. 100 c) Rs. 80 d) Rs. 120
36. A & B appeared in an examination. If the difference of their marks is 35 & percentage difference of their marks is
given as 7%. Find the full marks for which the examination has been held?
*a) Rs. 500 b) Rs. 700 c) Rs. 350 d) Rs. 450
37. The daily wage is increased by 12% & a person now gets Rs. 14 per day. What was his daily wage before the
increase?
*a) Rs. 1
2 12 b) Rs. 12 c) Rs. 25 d) Rs. 1
2

16

38. The daily wage is decreased by 12% & a person now gets Rs. 22 per day. What was his daily wage before the
decrease?
a) Rs. 23 b) Rs. 27 *c) Rs. 25 d) Rs. 35
39 A student has to secure 40 per cent marks to pass. If he gets 20 marks and fails by 20 marks, the maxi- mum marks
are :
A. 20 B.40 C.80 *D.100
40. In a college election, a candidate who got 40% of total votes was defeated by his rival by 160 votes. The total
number of votes polled was:
A.900 *B.800 C.700 D.600
41. The selling price of a certain commodity was reduced by 25%. As a result of it, the sales increased by 30%. What
was the effect of it on cash collected by daily sales?
A. 5% increase B. 5% decrease C. 2.5% increase *D. 2.5% decrease
42. If the price of kerosene be raised by 10%, find by how much per cent a householder must reduce his consumption of
kerosene so that not to increase his expenditure?
A. 10% *B. 9.09% C. 9.0% D. 8.25%

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 63


43. A towel was 50 cm broad and 100 cm long. When bleached, it was found to have lost 20% of its length and 10% of
breadth. The percentage of decrease in area is :
*A.28% B.20% C. 10.08% D. 10%
44. The original price of an article is Rs. 3000. The price is discounted by 20% and then raised by 10%. The new price
of the article is:
A. Rs. 2600 *B. Rs. 2640 C. Rs. 2700 D. Rs. 2760
45. In an examination, 1100 boys and 900 girls appeared..50% of the boys and 40% of the girls passed the examination.
The percentage of candidates failed is :
A. 45.0 B: 45.5 *C. 54.5 D. 59.2

46. If the side of a square is increased by 25%, then its area is increased by :
A.25% B.55% C.40.5% *D. 56.25%
47. If A's height is 10% more than B's, by how much percent less is B's height than that of A?
A. 10% B.

1
10
9
%C

1
10
11
% *D

1
9
11
%
48. A candidate scoring 25% marks in an examination fails by 30 marks while another candidate who scores 50%
marks gets 20 marks more than the minimum required for a pass. The minimum pass percentage is :
A.25% B.35% *C. 40% D. 50%
49. In an election between two candidates, one got 55% of the total valid votes. 20% of the votes are invalid. If the total
votes are 7500, what is the number of valid votes that the other person got?
*A. 2700 B. 2900 C. 3000 D. 3100
50. In an examination, there are 3 papers of Mathematics of 100 marks each. A boy secures 60 % in
the first paper and 70% in the second paper. In order to secure 70 % in the aggregate, the
percentage of marks he should secure in third paper, will be
a) 90 % * b) 80 % c) 75 % d) 70 %
51. In an election between two candidates, the candidate who gets 30% of the votes polled is defeated by 15000 votes.
The number of votes polled by the winning candidate is :
A. 11250 B. 15000 *C. 26250 D. 37500
52. In a school 75% of the students pass and 20 fail. The number of students appearing from another school is 20 more
and 10 more students pass than the former school. The pass % of the latter school is:
A. 60 *B. 70 C 75 D.85
53. The income of a broker remains unchanged though the rate of commission is increased from 4% to 5%: The
percentage of slump in the value of business is :
A.8% B.1% C. 20%* D.80%
54. A number is increased by 10% and then reduced by 10%. Then the number:
A. does not change B. increased by 0.1% C. increased by 1% D. decreased -by 1% *
55. If y exceeds x by 20%, then x is less than y by
A. 16% B.16

1
3
% C. 16

2
3
% * D.16

3
5
%
56. Two numbers are respectively 20% and 50% more than a third number. What percentage is the first of the second?
A. 120 B. 100 C.80* D.150
57. Mohan's salary was reduced by 10%. In order to have his salary back to the original amount it must be raised by :
A.10% B.11% C. 11

1
9
'% * D.12.5%

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 64


58. A dishonest shopkeeper professes to sell pulses at his cost price. But he uses a false weight of 950 gram for a
kilogram. His gain is:
A. 6% B. 5.26%* C.5% D. 6.5%
59. After 38litres of petrol were poured into a tank, it was still 5% empty. How much petrol must be poured into the

tank in order to fill it ?


A. 40 litres* . B. 38 litres C. 38.5 litres D 2 litres
60. In an examination. 1000 were boys and 800 girls. 60% of boys and 40% of girls passed. The percentage of
candidates that failed is :
A. 48.88 B. 46.66* C.50.00 D.49.88
61. In a college election, a candidate secured 62% of votes and is elected by a majority of 144 votes. The total number
of votes polled is :
A.600* B. 800 C. 925 D. 1200
62. A's income is 20% less than B's income and B's income is 10% less than C's income. If C's income is Rs. 180, then
the income of A is:
A. Rs. 130 B. Rs. 162 C.Rs. 129.60* D. Rs. 126
63. 1f a number is 50% of another number, then the second number is greater than the first by:
A. 50% B. 100% C. 150% D.200%*
64. The price of sugar increase by 20%. By what percent must a housewife reduce the consumption of sugar so that the
expenditure on sugar is the as before?
A.80% B. 20% C. 16.66%* D. 83.33%
65. A candidate scoring 25% marks in an examination fails by 30 marks while another candidate who scores 50% marks
gets 20 marks more than the minimum required for a pass. The minimum pass percentage is :
A.25% B.35% C. 40%* D. 50%
66. Rakesh credits 15% of his salary in his fixed deposit account and spends 30% of the remaining amount on groceries.
If the cash in hand is Rs.2380, what is his salary?
A. Rs. 5000 B. Rs. 4500 C. Rs. 4000* D. Rs. 3500
67. If 75% of a number is added to 75, the result is the number itself, then the number is :
A.400 B.300* C.60 D.50
68. If the side of a square is increased by 25%, then its area is increased by :
A.25% B.55% C.40.5% D. 56.25% *
69. 300 grams of sugar solution has 40% sugar in it. How much sugar should be added to make it 50% in the solution?
A. 10 grams B. 40 grams C. 60 grams * D. 80 grams
70. A towel was 50 cm broad and 100 cm long. When bleached, it was found to have lost 20% of its length and 10% of
breadth. The percentage of decrease in area is :
A.28%* B.20% C. 10.08% D. 10%
71. A school has only three classes which contain 40, 50 and 60 students respectively. The pass percentages of these
classes are 10, 20 and 10 respectively. The pass percentage of the school is:
A.

1
13
3
%* B. 15% C.

2
16
3
% D. 20%
72. Standard gold contains 22 parts of pure gold to 2 parts of alloy. The- percentage of alloy in a sovereign which is
made of standard gold is:

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 65


A. 11% B. 12% C

1
8
3
%* D

1
11
3
%
73. The length of a rectangle is increased by 20% and the width is decreased by 20%. The area decreases by:
A. 0.8% B. 1.2% C.4%* D.8%
74. In an examination of three papers of 100 marks each, a candidate got 72 and 56 marks in the first two papers. The
percentage of marks he should get in the third paper to have an aggregate of 75% is :
A.75 B.82 C.92 D.97*
75. ln a school 75% of the students pass and 20 fail. The number of students appearing from another school is 20 more

and 10 more students pass than the former school. The pass % of the latter school is:
A. 60 B. 70* C 75 D.85
76. In an examination, 48% and 60% candidates respectively passed in Science and Maths, if 27% candidates failed in
both the subjects, then the percentage of candidates passing the examination is:
A. 35* B. 48 C. 60 D.65
77. In an examination of n questions. A answered 15 of the first 20 correctly remaining questions he answered one-third
correctly All the questions have the same credit. If the student scored 50% marks, how many different values of n
can be there?
A.4 B.3 C.2 D. l *

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 66


PROFIT, LOSS AND DISCOUNT
Basic Terms of Profit/Loss
The topic Profit, Loss and Discount is a straightforward application of Percentages. There is very little new matter that one
would study.
Selling Price: In most of the problems there would be a trader who sells goods to customer. The price at which the trader
sells the goods is called the Selling Price (SP, in short).
Cost Price: The trader would either be purchasing the good from else-where or manufacturing it. In either of the case he
would be incurring a cost. This is called his Cost Price (CP, in short)
Profit/Loss: Profit or Loss = SP - CP, if positive, it's Profit, if negative it's Loss
Profit/Loss Percentage: To compare two products we have to compare the profit per unit of cost i.e.
C.P.
Pr of it
. This figure IS
usually expressed in percentage terms i.e. profit per Rs. 100 of cost. This is termed as Profit Percentage.
Thus, Profit Percentage = x100
C.P.
Pr of it
Loss Percentage = 100

..
Loss
CP

E.g. 1: Find the profit percentage if the CP is Rs. 450 and the SP is Rs. 500
Obviously the profit = SP - CP = 500 - 450 = 50.
Profit Percentage = x x100 11.11%
9
1
100
450
50
x 100
C.P.
Profit

E.g. 2: A trader purchases a good at Rs. 500 and is forced to sell it at Rs. 450. Find his profit percentage. In this case there is
a loss i.e. Profit = 450 - 500 = -50
Profit percentage = 100 10%
500
50

E.g. 3: Amit sells his watch for Rs. 200 for a profit of 20%. At what price did Amit purchase the watch?
Please note that 20% is of the CP which is not known and it is NOT of 200. Thus
CP + 20% of CP= 200
This is same as a 20% increase in CP results in 200. Thus using percentage increase fund as learnt in the earlier chapter, we
have .
x
5
6
CP = 200. Please recall that a 20% i.e.

5
1th
increase is equivalent to multiplying the number by
5
6
:. CP =
6
1000
= 166.66
E.g. 4: Rohit sells his watch at a profit of 12.5% and in the bargain makes a profit of Rs. 15. Find the CP and SP of the
watch.
Again 12.5% is of the CP and this amount is equal to Rs. 15. Since 12.5% in fraction terms is
8
1th
, we have
8
1th
of CP = 15
CP = 120
SP = 120 + 15 = 135

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 67


E.g. 5: Ramesh sells his watch for Rs. 100 and makes a loss of Rs. 10. Find the loss percentage.
These easy questions are given just to rub in the fact that Profit or Loss percentage is always of CP and not SP. Thus in this
questions 10% loss is wrong answer as 10 is found as a percentage of 100, which is the SP and not CP.
CP= 100+ 10= 110
Thus Loss percentage = 100
110
10
= 9.09%

Margin: Sometimes the profit is expressed as a percentage of SP. This percentage


figure is called the Margin. Thus,
Margin = x .
S.P.
Pr of it
100
E.g. 6: If the profit percentage is 6.66%, find the margin percentage.
6.66% i.e.
15
1th
is of the CP, so its best to assume the CP = 15. Hence profit =
15
1th
of 15 = 1 and SP = 16. And now margin
percentage is 16' expressed in percentages is equal to 6.25%.
E.g. 7: A manufacturer sells to the wholesaler at a profit of 20%. The wholesaler sells to the dealer at a profit of 12.5%. The
dealer sells to a retailer at a profit of 10% and the retailer to the customer at a profit of 6.66%. If the cost of manufacturing
the product for the manufacturer was Rs. 625, find the price paid by the customer.
All the profit percentages given are nothing by successive percentage increases on the cost of manufacturing. Thus the 625
990.
15
16
10
11
8
9
5
6

E.g.8: If the selling price of 10 articles is equal to the cost price of 9 articles, find the profit or loss percentage. Let the SP of
10 articles = CP of 9 articles

Profit/Loss percentage = 1 x100


CP
SP

Thus profit x100 10%


10
9 10

E.g. 9: By welling 12 articles, Naveen managed to make a profit equal to the SP of 3 articles. Find his selling price.
SP of 12 articles CP of 12 articles = SP of 3 articles.
SP of 9 articles = CP of 12 articles.
Use the technique, profit percentage = 1 100 33.33%
3
4
1 100
12
1
9
1

Alternatively using the LCM approach, SP of 1 article = Rs. 12 and CP of 1 article = Rs. 9 and profit percentage
100
3
1
100
9
12 9

= 33.33%
E.g. 10: A person buys 12 oranges in a rupee. How many should he sell in a rupee so that he earns a profit of 20%?
CP of 1 orange = Rs.
12
1
SP of 1 orange = Rs.
10
1
12
12
1
. Rs.

Thus 10 oranges have to be sold in 1 Re.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 68


E.g. 11: A person buys oranges at the rate of 5 for Rs. 2 and sells them at a rate of 7 for Rs. 3. Find the profit or loss
percentage.
SP of 1 orange = Rs.
7
3
and CP of 1 orange = Rs.
5
2
.

% 1 100
SP
useP x
CP


to avoid too much work with fractions.
Thus profit percentage = 100 7.14%
14
1
1 100
14
15
1 100
5
2
7
3

E.g. 12: Ankur purchased oranges in two lots, one at rate of Rs. 3 per orange and other at raie of Rs. 5 per orange. He sold
them at a rate of Rs. 4 per orange. Find his profit or loss percent if he purchases the same number of oranges in the two lots.
Since he purchases the same number of oranges in both the lots, let him purchase 1 orange in each lot. Thus his cost = Rs. 3
+ Rs. 5 = Rs. 8.
He now sells 2 oranges at the rate of Rs. 4 per orange. Thus he earns Rs. 8 Thus he neither makes a profit nor a loss.
E.g. 13: Ankur purchased oranges in two lots, one at rate of Rs. 3 per orange and other at rate of Rs. 5 per orange. He sold
them at a rate of Rs. 4 per orange. Find his profit or loss percent if he spends the same amount of rupees on the two lots.
In this question, he is spending equal amounts on each lot. Thus let him spend Rs. 15 (the LCM of 3 and 5) on each lot. Thus
he has incurred of cost of Rs. 30 and purchased 5 + 3 = 8 oranges.
He sells these 8 oranges at a rate of Rs. 4 per orange and earns Rs. 32.
Thus his profit percentage = x100 6.66%
30
2

E.g. 14: Rohan buys two commodities for Rs. 60000 each. He sells one at a profit of 20 % and sells the other at a loss of 20

%. Find his overall profit or loss percent and also the amount of profit or loss.
Since the CP of both the articles are the same, +20% of 60,000 and -20% of 60,000 will cancel out each other and he will
neither make any profit nor any loss.
E.g. 15: Rohan sells two commodities for Rs. 19,8000 each. He sells one at a profit of 10 % and sells the other at a loss of 10
%. Find his overall profit or loss percent and also the amount of profit or loss.
In case like this when the SP of two articles are the same and one is sold at a profit of x% and other at a loss of %
x
100
2

.
Thus loss percent in this case = - %
x
1
100
2

To calculate the amount of loss, we would have to find the CP of the articles. Thus,
CP1 x 19800
10
11
CP1 = 18,000 and
CP2 x 19800
10
9
CP2 = 22,000
Thus total cost = Rs. 18,000 + Rs. 22,000 = Rs. 40,000 and
total earnings = Rs. 19,800 + Rs. 19,800 = Rs 39,600.
Thus loss = Rs. 400.
E.g. 16: When the cost price of an article increases by 20%, a shop-keeper also increases his selling price by 20%. Find the
change in the profit percentage and also in the amount of profit. .

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 69


If the original cost price and selling price were CP and SP respectively, the increased cost price and selling price would be
1.2 CP and 1.2 SP.
The increased profit would be 1.2 SP - 1.2 CP = 1.2(SP - CP) i.e. 1.2 times the original profit. Thus the profit increases by
20%.
But the profit percentage would remain the same because =
CP
SP CP
. CP
. (SP CP)

12
12
E.g. 17: A trader marks-up his goods by 30% and then offers a discount of 10%. Find the net profit or loss percentage that he
makes.
Using Profit percentage = a +( b) +

100
ab
% we have
Profit percentage = 30 - 10 - 17%
100
30 10

E.g. 18: A trader sells at the same rate at which he purchase his goods. However he uses a balance which reads 1000 gms for
900 gms. Find his profit percentage.
The crucial statement to understand is reads 900 gms for 1000 gms'. This means that when goods weighing 900 gms are
kept, the balance will show a reading of 1000 gms. Thus the customer will pay for 1000 gms, as the balance is showing that,
but will receive only 900 gms. Thus the cost to the trader is for 900 gms only. Lets say the rate at which the trader purchases
and sells is Rs. x per kg.

Thus earnings of the trader = 1000 gms x = 1000x and


cost to the trader = 900 gms x = 900x.
Thus profit percentage = x . %
x
xx
100 11 11
9
1
100
900
1000 900

Unsolved exercise:
1. The cost price of 20 articles is same as selling price of 15 articles. Profit (per cent) in the transaction is
a) 50 % *b)

1
33 %
3
c) 25 % d)

2
66
3
%
2. The cost of 20 articles is the same as the selling price of x articles. If the profit is 25% , then the value of x is:
A. 24 B. 10 C. 16* D. 15
3. If on selling 12 notebooks, a seller makes a profit equal to the selling price of 4 notebooks, what is his profit
percentage:
(a) 16.6% (b) 20% *(c) 50% (d) 30%
4. A shopkeeper buys an article for Rs. 2090.42. Approximately, what will be the percentage profit if he sold that
article for Rs. 2602.58 ?
(a) 15% (b) 20% *(c) 25% (d) 30%
5. Alfred buys an old scooter for Rs. 4700 and spends Rs. 800 on its repairs. If he sells the scooter for Rs. 5800, his
gain percent is :
(a)

4
4
7
% *(b)

5
5
11
% (c) 10% (d) 12%
6. A shopkeeper purchased 70 kg of potatoes for Rs. 420 and sold the whole lot at the rate of Rs. 6.50 per kg. What will
be his gain percent?
(a)

1
4
6
% (b)

1
6
4
% *(c)

1
8
3
% (d) 20%

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 70


7. 100 oranges are bought at the rate of Rs. 350 and sold at the rate of Rs. 48 per dozen. The percentage of profit or loss
is :
*(a)

2
14
7
% gain (b) 15% gain (c)

2
14
7
% loss (d) 15% loss
8. A man buys a cycle for Rs. 1400 and sells it at a loss of 15%. What is the selling price of the cycle?
(a) Rs. 1090 (b) Rs. 1160 *(c) Rs. 1190 (d) Rs. 1202
9. A sells an article which costs him Rs. 400 to B at a profit of 20%. B then sells it to C, making a profit of 10% on the
price he paid to A. How much does C pay B ?
(a) Rs. 472 (b) Rs. 476 *(c) Rs. 528 (d) Rs. 532
10. The difference between a discount of 40 % on Rs. 500 and two successive discounts of 36 % and
4 % on the same amount is
a) Rs 2 b) nil c) Rs 1.93 * d) Rs 7.20
11. The cost price of an article, which on being sold at a gain of 12 % yields Rs. 6 more than when it
is sod at a loss of 12 % , is
a) Rs 24 *b) Rs 25 c) Rs 30 d) Rs 20
12. The price of an article was increased by p%. Later the new price was decreased by p %. If the latest
price was Rs. 1, the original price was
a) Rs

12
100
p
b) Rs. 1 c) Rs.

12
100
p
* d) Rs.

10000
10000 p2
13. The cost of an article is 40 % of the selling price . The per cent that the selling price is of cost price is:
a) 60 b) 40 c) 240 *d) 250
14. A owns a house worth Rs. 10,000. He sells it to B at a profit of 10 % based on the worth of the
house. B sells it to A at a loss of 10 %. In this transaction A gets
*a) a profit of Rs. 1100 b) a profit of Rs. 2000 c) a profit of Rs. 100 d)no profit , no lose
15. Successive discount of 10 % and 20 % is equivalent to a single discount of
a) 30 % b) 15 % * c) 28 % d) 26 %
16. If an article is sold at 5 % gain instead of 5 % loss, the seller gets Rs. 6.72, more. The cost
price of the article is :
* a) Rs. 67.20 b) Rs. 120.00 c) Rs. 134.40 d) Rs. 240.00
17. If the manufacturer gains 10 % , the wholesale dealer 15 % and the retailer 25 %, then the cost of
production of a table, the retail price of which is Rs. 1265 was
a) Rs. 632.50 *b) Rs. 800.00 c) Rs. 814.00 d) Rs. 834.34
18. A manufacturer sold an article at a profit of 4 % to wholesaler. The wholesaler sold the same at 5 % profit
to retailer. If the retailer paid Rs. 273 for the articles then the cost price of manufacturer is
*a) Rs. 250 b) Rs. 260 c) Rs. 270 d) Rs. 280
19. The cost price of 20 articles is the same as selling price of 15 articles. The profit percent in the
transaction is :
* a) 25 b) 30 c)

1
33
3

d) 50
20. A manufacturer sells an article at a loss of

1
12
2
%. Had he sold the article for Rs. 51.80 more, he would have gained
6%. The cost price of the article is :
A, Rs. 216 *B. Rs. 175 C. Rs. 139.30 D. Rs. 280

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 71


21. A man sells two houses at the rate of Rs. 1.995 lakh each. On one he gains 5% and on the other he loses 5%. His
gain or loss per cent in the whole transaction is :
*A. 0.25% loss B. 0.25% gain C. 2.5% loss D. 2.5% gain
22. A shopkeeper marks his goods at a price that would give him 20% profit and allows a discount of 10% in the sale on
the marked price. His profit or loss percent in the transaction is :
*A. 8% profit B. 10% loss C. 12% profit D. 30% profit
23. The difference in selling prices of a heater at gains of 5% and

1
7
2
% is Rs. 1.25. The cost price of the heater is :
A. Rs. 45 *B. Rs. 50 . C. Rs. 52.50 D. Rs. 53.75
24. After successive discounts of 12% and 5% an article was sold for Rs. 209. What was the original price of the article?
A. Rs. 271 B. Rs.

67
251
83
C. Rs. 269 *D Rs 250
25. A shopkeeper first allows a discount of 20% on a certain variety of cloth and then further gives a discount of 15% to
the persons holding a shareholder's coupon. The total discount received by a person holding a shareholder's coupon
would be :
A. 30% *B.32% C. 33.5% D. 35%
26. A man sells 2 horses at the same price. On one he makes a profit of 10% and on the other he loses 10%. On the
whole he :
A. makes no profit no loss B. makes a profit of 1% *C. suffers a loss of 1 % D. suffers a loss of 2%
27. A man gains 10% by selling a certain article for a certain price. If he sells it at double the price, the
profit made is :
A.20% B. 60% *C. 100% D. 120%
28. An electric iron was sold at a profit of 15%. Had it been sold for Rs. 600, the profit would have been 20%. The
former selling price of the electric iron is:
A. Rs. 500 B. Rs. 540 *C. Rs. 575 D. Rs. 600
29. By selling an article for Rs19.50, a dealer makes a profit of 30%. By how much should he increases his selling price
so as to make a profit of 40%?
A. Rs.3.00 B. Rs.1.75 C. Rs 2.00 *D. Rs.1.50
30. A fruit seller purchased 1000 mangoes at the rate of Rs.150 per hundred. He sorted them into three sizes and sold
them as follows :
240 @ Rs. 18 per dozen, 372 @ Rs. 24 per dozen 360 @ Rs. 30 per dozen.
The remaining fruits were spoiled and were thrown away. What was profit?
A. Rs. 2004 B. Rs. 1024 C. Rs. 680 *D. Rs. 504
31. 400 mangoes were bought at Rs. 125 per hundred and were sold for a profit of Rs. 100. The selling price per dozen
was :
A. Rs. 15 B. Rs. 16

1
2
*C. Rs. 18 D. Rs. 20
32. A dishonest shopkeeper professes to sell pulses at his cost price. But he uses a false weight of 950 gram for a
kilogram. His gain is:
A. 6% *B. 5.26% C.5% D. 6.5%
33. Rahul purchased a scooter at 13/15th of its selling price and sold it at 12% more than its selling price. His gain is:
(a) 15% (b)

3
29 %

13
* (c) 25% (d) 30%
34. A man sells two commodities for Rs. 4000 each, neither losing nor gaining in the deal. If he sold one commodity at a
gain of 25%, the other commodity is sold at a loss of :
A. 16.6%* B. 18.18% C.25% D. 6.5%

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 72


35. A fruitseller has 24 kg of apples. He sells a part of these at a gain of 20% and the balance at a loss of 5%. If on the
whole he earns a profit of 10%, the amount of apples sold at a loss is :
A. 4.6 kg *B. 9.6% C.5.6% D. 6.2%
36. A man purchases two clocks A and B at a total cost of Rs. 650. He sells A with 20% profit and B at a loss of 25%
and gets the same selling prices for both the clocks. What are the purchasing prices of A and B respectively.
A. Rs.200 and Rs.450 *B. Rs.250 and Rs.400 C. Rs.350 and Rs.300 D. Rs.220 and Rs.430
37. The C.P. of two watches taken together is Rs. 840. If by selling one at a profit of 16% and other at a loss of 12%,
there is no loss or gain in the whole trasaction, then the C.P. of the two watches are respectively:
A. Rs.360 and Rs.480* B. Rs.480 and Rs.360 C. Rs.380 and Rs.460 D. Rs.400 and Rs.440
38. On selling a chair at 7% loss and a table at 17% gain, a man gains Rs. 296. If he sells the chairs at 7% gains and
the table at 12% gain, then he gains Rs. 400. The actual price of the table is :
A. Rs.1600 B. Rs.1400 C. Rs.2350 D. Rs.2400*
39. A tradesman gives 4% discount on the marked price and gives 1 article free for buying every 15 articles and thus
gains 35% . The marked price is above the cost price by ?
A. 20% B. 39% C. 40% D.50%*
40. The ratio to C.P. to MRP is 2:3 and ratio of profit percent to discount percent is 3:2. Find the profit percent ?
A. 10% B. 15% C. 20% D.25%*

41. A man get 20% profit after allowing discount of 20%. By how much he increased the marked price.
A. 20% B. 25% C. 50% * D. 75%
42. The selling price of a certain commodity was reduced by 25%. As a result of it, the sales increased by
30%. What was the effect of it on cash collected by daily sales?
A. 5% increase B. 5% decrease C. 2.5% increase D. 2.5% decrease*
43. Ram bought an article for Rs. 80 and marked its price with a profit of 20%. He sold the article for Rs. 88,
offering a discount on the marked price. Find the discount he allowed on the marked price.
A. 8.00% B. 8. 25% C. 8
1
3
% * D. 8.50%
44. 1f the selling price of 16 watches is equivalent to the cost price of 20 watches, then the gain per cent is :
A. 30% B. 20% C. 32% D.25% *
45. A person marks his goods 20% higher than cost price and allows a discount of 5%. The percentage of his
profit is :
A. 15% B.20% C.5% D.14% *
46. A tradesman gives 4% discount on the marked price & gives 1 article free for buying every 15 articles & thus gain
35%. The marked price is above the cost price by:

(a) 20% (b) 39% (c) 40% (d) 50%*


47. A single discount that is equivalent to a discount series of 30%, 20% and 10% is :
A. 60% B. 50% C. 49.6%* D. 50.4%
48. Three dealers 'A', 'B' and 'C' offer an article at the same list price. 'A' allows a series of discount of 25%
and 15%, 'B' allows a series of discount of 10% and 30%, while 'C' offers a single discount of 36%. Then:
A. all the offers are the same B. A's offer is best C. B' s offer is best* D. C's offer is best

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 73


49 . The difference in selling prices of a heater at gains of 5% and
1
7
2
% is Rs. 1.25. The cost price of the
heater is :
A. Rs. 45 B. Rs. 50* . C. Rs. 52.50 D. Rs. 53.75
50. 2/3rd of a consignment was sold at a profit of 6% and the rest at a loss of 3%. If however, there was an
overall profit of Rs. 540, the value of the consignment was:
A. Rs. 1620 B. Rs. 4860 C. Rs. 5400 D. Rs. 18000*

51. On selling a chair at 7% loss & a table at 17% gain, a man gains Rs. 296. If he sells the chair at 7% gain & the table
at 12% gain, then he gains Rs. 400. The actual price of the table is:
(a) Rs. 1600 (b) Rs. 1800 (c) Rs. 2200 (d) Rs. 2400*

52. Ram sold two bicycles, each for Rs. 990. made 10% profit on the first and 10% loss second. what is the
total cost price?
A. Rs. 2000 * B. Rs. 1980 C. Rs. 891 D. Rs. 1089
53. A fruit seller purchased 1000 mangoes at the rate of Rs.150 per hundred. He sorted them into three sizes
and sold them as follows :
240 @ Rs. 18 per dozen, 372 @ Rs. 24 per dozen 360 @Rs. 30 per dozen.
The remaining fruits were spoiled and were thrown away. What was profit?
A. Rs. 2004 B. Rs. 1024 C. Rs. 680 D. Rs. 504*
54. A person bought an article and sold it at a 10% loss. If he had bought it for 20% less and sold it for Rs. 55
more, he would have had a profit 40%. The C.P. of the article is:
A. Rs. 200 B. Rs 225 C. Rs. 250* D. Rs. 275
55. A man buys an article for Rs. 80 and marks it at Rs. 120. He then allows a discount of 40%. What is the
percentage of loss or gain?
A 12% gain B. 10% loss* C. 10% gain D. 12% loss
56. A fruit seller bought a consignment of 100 mangoes at a cost of 75 paise each. 10 fruits rotten. If he sold
the rest at Re. 1 per mango, his percentage of profit?
A.20%* B. 15% C.33
1
3
% D. 12%
57. Two shopkeepers announce the same price of Rs. 700, for a sewing machine. The first offers successive
discounts of 30% and 6%, while the second offers successive discounts of 20% and 16%. The shopkeeper
that offers better discount charge less than the other shopkeeper by :
A. Rs. 16.80 B. Rs. 22.40 C. Rs. 36.40 D. Rs. 9.80*
58. A merchant buys 10 drums of kerosene oil. If he sells kerosene oil at Rs. 8 a litre, he loses Rs. 320. On the
other hand if he sells it at Rs. 9.60 a litre, he gains Rs. 256. The number of litres of kerosene in a drum and
the cost price per drum is : .
A.8 Iitres: Rs. 320 B. 36 litres; Rs. 420 C. 36 litres; Rs. 320* D. 50 litres; Rs. 432
59. A person bought 20 litres of milk at the rate of Rs. 8 per litre. He got it churned after spending Rs. 10 and
got 5 kg of cream and 20 litres of toned milk. If he sold the cream at Rs. 30 per kg and toned milk at Rs. 4
per litre, his profit in the transaction is:
A. 25% B. 35.3% * C.37.5% D.42.5%
60. A trader mixes two varieties of teas from two different tea gardens, one costing Rs. 75 per kg and the other
Rs. 100 per kg in the ratio 7 : 3. If the mixture is sold at Rs. 90.75 per kg, his profit or loss is :

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 74


A. 10% profit* B. 10% loss C.
1
2
3
% profit D. No profit no loss
61. Arun sold an article to Babu at a profit of 10% Babu sold it to Chander for Rs. 60.50 and gains 10%. What
did Arun pay for it?
A. Rs. 54.45 B. Rs. 55.06 C. Rs. 50.00 * D. Rs. 56.50
62. A man gains 10% by selling a certain article for a certain price. If he sells it at double the price, the profit
made is :
A.20% B. 60% C. 100% D. 120%*
63. A man sells 2 horses at the same price. On one he makes a profit of 10% and on the other he loses 10%. On
the whole he:
A makes no profit no loss B. makes a profit of 1% C. suffers a loss of 1 % * D. suffers a loss of 2%
64. When a producer allows 36% commission on the retail price of his product, he earns a profit of 8.8%. what would
be his profit percent if the commission is reduced by 24%?
A. 49.6%* B 48.4% (c) 50.2% (d) 47.8%
65. The cost price of 20 articles is the same as the selling price of x articles. If a profit is 25%, then the value of x is:
(a) 15 (b) 16* (c) 18 (d) 25

66. If on selling 12 notebooks, a seller makes a profit equal to the selling price of 4 notebooks, what is his present
profit?
(a)

2
16
3
(b) 25 (c) 50* (d) Data Inadequate (e) None of these.
67. Rahul purchased a scooter at

13
15
th of its selling price and sold it at 12% more than its selling price. His gain is :
(a) 20% (b)

3
29 %*
13
(c) 30% (d)

1
38 %
13
68. A man sells two commodities for Rs. 4000 each, neither loosing nor gaining in the deal. If he sold one commodity at
a gain of 25%, the other commodity is sold at a loss:
(a)

2
16
3
%* (b)

2
18
9
% (c) 25% (d) None of these
69. A fruitseller has 24 kg of apples. He sells a part of these at a gain of 20% & the balance at a loss of 5%. If on the
whole he earns a profit of 10%, the amount of apples sold at a loss is:
(a) 4.6 kg (b) 6 kg (c) 9.6 kg* (d) 11.4 kg
70. A man purchases two clocks A & B at a total cost of Rs. 650. He sells A with 20% profit & B at a loss of 25% & get
the same selling price for both the clocks. What are the purchasing price of A & B respectively?
(a) Rs. 225, Rs. 425 (b) Rs. 250, Rs. 450* (c) Rs. 275, Rs. 375 (d) Rs. 300, Rs. 350
71. The C. P. of two watches taken together is Rs. 840. If by selling one at a profit of 16% & other at a loss of 12 %,
there is no loss or gain in the whole transaction, then the C.P. of two watches are respectively:
(a) Rs. 360, Rs. 480* (b) Rs. 480, Rs. 360 (c) Rs. 380, Rs. 460 (d) Rs. 400, Rs. 440

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 75


SIMPLE INTEREST
When we part with our money to keep in the bank, bank pays us an interest to do so. Similarly when we
borrow money, we have to pay a interest. The interest received or paid depends on three factors:
Principal (P): The amount of money that is loaned out or is borrowed is called the principal. Interest would
obviously depend on the principal. Higher is the amount more is the interest and lower the amount lesser in the
interest.
Time Period (t): Again it should be obvious that if the money is loaned or borrowed for a longer time period,
more interest will be charged and for a shorter time period, lesser will be the interest.
Rate of Interest (r): There is a third factor which determines the interest. This is the Rate of Interest, expressed as
a %age. This is a pre-determined amount that the giver and the receiver agree to end it specifies the amount of
interest charged per Rs.100 of the principal for a specified time period. Thus if the rate of interest agreed is 8%
per annum, it means that on every Rs.100 of the principal amount, the interest will Rs.8 per year.
Further there are two ways in which an interest can be charged. For each of the year the money is
borrowed/loaned, interest could be charged just on the principal amount loaned/borrowed or for each of the year
the interest could be charged on the amount outstanding i.e. principal amount and the accrued interest of the
previous year. These two methods are discussed in details in the following sections.

Simple Interest: This method the interest charged per year is calculated only the principal. What this
means is that if Rs.1000 will be loaned, the interest will be charged only Rs.1000 even in successive years.

Thus if the rate is per annum, then simple interest per year = r% of p and thus we get the following
formula for SI,
SI =
100
pr t
Amount returnable = Principle + SI
E.g. 1 : If a deposits Rs.20000 in a bank for 3 years at a rate of 10%. What is the simple interest he will get at the
end of the period?
Here P = 20000, r = 10%, t = 3 yrs
Hence SI =
20000 10 3
100

SI = Rs.6000.
E.g.2 : Sagar borrows Rs.50000 from a bank for 5 years. What is the rate charged by the bank if after 5 years
Sagar had to pay Rs.66000 to the bank?
Here 66000 is the total outstanding amount which is Principal + SI. Since principle is given as Rs.50000, we get
SI=66000-50000
Using the above formula we get,
16000=
50000 5
6.4%
100
r
r

E.g.3 : After how many years would an amount double itself at 15% rate of interest?
We dont have the principle here, we can denote it by P. If the amount doubles then obviously the SI would be
equal to the principal

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 76


So we have P=
15
100
pt
Which gives t=
100
15
So t = 6.67 years.
E.g. 4: The rate of interest of a bank is 10%. Aakash was taking a loan of a huge amount for one year so the bank
agreed to give him the loan at a rate 8%. They reasoned that even with 8% they will get twice the interest that
they would have got had they given out a loan of Rs.4000000 at 10% for a year. What is the amount of Akashs
loan?
SI =
4000000 10 1
100
SI 400000

Since the interest they will get in Akashs case is double the interest they earned in the above case, the interest
will be Rs.800000.
Now in Akashs case,
81
800000
100
10000000

p
P

Hence Akash will be taking loan of Rs.10000000.


Unsolved exercise:
1. At the rate of 8

1
2
% p.a. simple interest, a sum of Rs. 4800 will earn how much interest in 2 years 3 months?
(a) Rs. 796 (b) Rs. 816 *(c) Rs. 918 (d) Rs. 956
2 A sum of Rs. 400 was lent out at a simple interest & at the end of 1
4 6 years the total amount was rs. 625. Find the
rate of interest per cent per annum.
a) 9% b) 8% c)* 5% d) 6%
3. What will be the simple interest earned on an amount of Rs. 16,800 in 9 months at the rate of 6

1
4
%
*(a) Rs. 787.50 (b) Rs. 812.50 (c) Rs. 860 (d) Rs. 887.50
4. The simple interest on Rs. 1820 from March 9, 2003 to May 21, 2003 at 7

1
2
% rate will be:
(a) Rs. 22.50 *(b) Rs. 27.30 (c) Rs. 28.80 (d) Rs. 29
5. How much time will it take for an amount of Rs. 450 to yield Rs. 81 as interest at 4.5% per annum of simple
interest?
(a) 3.5 years *(b) 4 years (c) 4.5 years (d) 5 years
6. A sum of Rs. 12,500 amounts to Rs. 15,500 in 4 years at the rate of simple interest. What is the rate of interest?
(a) 3% (b) 4% (c) 5% *(d) 6% (e) None of these
7. A sum of Rs. 1600 gives a simple interest of Rs. 252 in 2 years and 4 months. The rate of interest per annum is :
(a) 6% (b) 6

1
4
% (c) 6

1
2
% *(d) 6

3
4
%
8. Reena took a loan of Rs. 1200 with simple interest for as many years as the rate of interest. If she paid Rs. 432 as
interest at the end of the loan period, what was the rate of interest?
(a) 3.6 *(b) 6 (c) 18 (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
9. A man took a loan from a bank at the rate of 12% p.a. simple interest. After 3 years he had to pay Rs. 5400 interest
only for the period. The principal amount borrowed by him was :
(a) Rs. 2000 (b) Rs. 10,000 *(c) Rs. 15,000 (d) Rs. 20,000

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 77


10. A sum fetched a total simple interest of Rs. 4016.25 at the rate of 9 p.c.p.a. in 5 years. What is the sum ?
(a) Rs. 4462.50 (b) Rs. 8032.50 (c) Rs. 8900 *(d) Rs. 8925 (e) None of these
11. The simple interest at x% for x years will be Rs. x on a sum of :
(a) Rs. x *(b) Rs.

100
x



(c) Rs. 100x (d) Rs.

100
x



12. Rs. 800 becomes Rs. 956 in 3 years at a certain rate of simple interest. If the rate of interest is increased by 4%, what
amount will Rs. 800 become in 3 years ?
(a) Rs. 1020.80 (b) Rs. 1025 *(c) Rs. 1052 (d) Data inadequate (e) None of these
13. A person borrows Rs. 5000 for 2 years at 4% p.a. simple interest. He immediately lends it to another person at 6

1
4
%
p.a. for 2 years. Find his gain in the transaction per year.
*(a) Rs. 112.50 (b) Rs. 125 (c) Rs. 150 (d) Rs. 167.50
14. In how many years, Rs. 150 will produce the same interest @ 8% as Rs. 800 produce in 3 years @ 4

1
2
%?
(a) 6 (b) 8 *(c) 9 (d) 12
15. If Rs. 64 amounts to Rs. 83.20 in 2 years, what will Rs. 86 amount to in 4 years at the same rate percent per annum?
(a) Rs. 114.80 (b) Rs. 124.70 (c) Rs. 127.40 *(d) Rs. 137.60
16. The simple interest on a certain sum of money at the rate of 5% p.a. for 8 years is Rs. 840. At what rate of interest
the same amount of interest can be received on the same sum after 5 years?
(a) 6% *(b) 8% (c) 9% (d) 10%
17. The interest on a certain deposit at 4.5% p.a. is Rs. 202.50 in one year. How much will the additional interest in one
year be on the same deposit at 5% p.a. ?
(a) Rs. 20.25 *(b) Rs. 22.50 (c) Rs. 25 (d) Rs. 42.75
18. What will be the ratio of simple interest earned by certain amount at the same rate of interest for 6 years and that for
9 years?
(a) 1 : 3 (b) 1 : 4 *(c) 2 : 3 (d) Data inadequate (e) None of these
19. Nitin borrowed some money at the rate of 6% p.a. for the first three years, 9% p.a. for the next five years and 13%
p.a. for the period beyond eight years. If the total interest paid by him at the end of eleven years is Rs. 8160, how
much money did he borrow?
*(a) Rs. 8000 (b) Rs. 10,000 (c) Rs. 12,000 (d) Data inadequate (e) None of these
20 The simple interest on a sum of money will be Rs. 600 after 10 years. If the principal is trebled after 5 years, what
will be the total interest at the end of the tenth year?
a) Rs. 600 (b) Rs. 900 *(c) Rs. 1200 (d) Rs. 1500 (e) Data inadequate
21. The simple interest on Rs. 10 for 4 months at the rate of 3 paise per rupee per month is :
*(a) Rs. 1.20 (b) Rs. 1.60 (c) Rs. 2.40 (d) Rs. 3.60
22 A sum of money becomes 4 times itself in 3 years at a simple interest. In how many years will it amount to 7 times
itself.
a) 6 years* b) 12 years c) 8 years d) none of these
23. A sum of money at simple interest amounts to Rs. 815 in 3 years and to Rs. 854 in 4 years. The sum is :
(a) Rs. 650 (b) Rs. 690 *(c) Rs. 698 (d) Rs. 700
24. The difference between the interests received from two different banks on Rs. 1000 for 2 years is Rs. 20. Thus the
difference between their rates is.. percent.
a) 2 b) 1* c) 1.5 d) 2.5

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 78


25. A certain amount earns simple interest of Rs. 1750 after 7 years. Had the interest been 2% more, how much more
interest would it have earned?
(a) Rs. 35 (b) Rs. 245 (c) Rs 350 *(d) Data inadequate (e) None of these

26. The ratio of Principal and Amount at certain rate of simple interest is 4:5. But after next three years the
ratio becomes 5:7 respectively. Find the rate of Interest.
(a) 6% (b) 8% (c) 5%* (d) 10%
27. At what rate percent per annum will the simple interest on a sum of money be

2
5
of the amount in 10 years?
(a) 4%* (b)

2
5
3
% (c) 6% (d)

2
6
3
%
25. A sum of money becomes

7
6
of itself in 3 years at a certain rate of simple interest. The rate per annum is:
(a)

5
5
9
% (b)

5
6
9
% (c) 18% (d) 25%
26. Simple interest on a certain sum at a certain annual rate of interest is

1
9
of the sum. If the numbers representing rate
percent & time in years be equal, then the rate of interest is:
(a)

1
3
3
%* (b) 5% (c)

2
6
3
% (d) 10%
27. Peter invested an amount of Rs. 12000 at the rate of 10 p.c.p.a. simple interest & another amount at the rate of 20
p.c.p.a. simple interest. The total interest earned at the end of 1 year on the total amount invested became 14 p.c.p.a.
find the total amount invested.
(a) 20,000 (b) 22,000 (c) 24,000* (d) 25,000
28. The rates of simple interest in two banks A & B are in the ratio of 5 : 4. A person wants to deposit his total savings
in two banks in such a way that he received equal half yearly interest from both. He should deposit the savings in
banks A & B in the ratio:
(a) 2 : 5 (b) 4 : 5* (c) 5 : 2 (d)5 : 4
29. A sum of Rs.1550 is lent partly at 5% & partly at 8 % p.a. simple interest. The total interest received after 3 years
was Rs. 300. The ratio of the money lent at 5% to that lent at 8% is:
(a) 5 : 8 (b) 8 : 5 (c) 16 : 15* (d) 31 : 6
30. An amount of Rs. 1,00,000 is invested in two type of shares. The first yields an interest of 5% p.a. & the second 11%
p.a. if the total interest at the end of 1 year is

3
9%
4
, then the amount invested in each share was:
(a) Rs. 52,500, Rs. 47,500 (b) Rs. 62,500, Rs. 37,500*
(c) Rs. 72,500, Rs. 27,500 (d) Rs. 82,500, Rs. 17,500
31. A person invested in all Rs. 2600 at 4%, 6% & 8% per annum simple interest. At the end of the year, he got the
same interest in all the three cases. The money invested at 4 % is:
(a) Rs. 200 (b) Rs. 600 (c) Rs. 800 (d) Rs. 1200*
32. Divide Rs. 2379 into 3 parts so that their amounts after 2, 3 & 4 years respectively may be equal, the rate of interest
being 5% per annum at simple interest. The first part is:
(a) Rs. 759 (b) Rs. 792 (c) Rs. 818 (d) Rs. 828*

33. A man invested

1
3
of his capital at 7% ;

1
4
at 8% and the remainder at 10%. If his annual income is Rs. 561, the
capital is
(a)Rs. 5400 (b) Rs. 6000 (c) Rs. 6600* (d) Rs. 7200

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 79


COMPOUND INTEREST
In the case of compound interest, after a fixed time intervals the interest amount is calculated on the
principal and this interest amount is added to the principal to determine the current outstanding amount. Then
during the next time interval, interest is charged on the current outstanding amount and not on the principal.
Again this interest is added to find the outstanding amount. This process is continued for successive years.
Explanation of the above using a numeric example:
Consider a loan of Rs10000 is taken with compound interest being charged at a rate of 10% p.a, Read the
following table row wise
Simple Interest
charged this year
Amount
outstanding
At end of the year
Year Compound Interest
charged this year
Amount
outstanding
At end of the year
1000 11000 1st year 1000 11000
1000 12000 2nd year 1000 + 100 12100
1000 13000 3rd year 1000 + 100 +100 + 10 13310
1000 14000 4th year 1000 + 3(100) +3(10) + 1 14641
Consider a loan of Rs10000 is taken with compound interest being charged at a rate of 10% p.a,for
1
2
2
yrs. Read
the following table row wise
Simple Interest
charged this year
Amount
outstanding
At end of the year
Year Compound Interest
charged this year
Amount
outstanding
At end of the year
1000 11000 1st year 1000 11000
1000 12000 2nd year 1000 + 100 12100
500 12500 1
2
2

year

500 + 50 +50 + 5 12705


Unsolved exercise:
1 Rs. 7500 is borrowed at CI at the rate of 4 % per annum. What will be the amount to be paid after 2 years.
a) Rs. 8112* b) Rs. 7112 c) Rs. 8212 d) Rs. 8221
2. Albert invested an amount of Rs. 8000 in a fixed deposit scheme for 2 years at compound interest rate 5 p.c.p.a.
How much amount will Albert get on maturity of the fixed deposit?
(a) Rs. 8600 (b) Rs. 8620 (c) Rs.8800 (d) Rs. 8840 *(e) None of these
3. What will be the compound interest on a sum of Rs. 25,000 after 3 years at the rate of 12 p.c.p.a?
(a) Rs. 9000.30 (b) Rs. 9720 *(c) Rs. 10123.20 (d) Rs. 10483.20 (e) None of these
4. Seema invested an amount of Rs. 16000 for 2 years at compound interest & received an amount of Rs. 17640 on
maturity. What is the rate of interest?
a) 8 pcpa b) 5 pcpa* c) 4 pcpa d) none of these
5. What is the amount at compound interest for 2 years at 2%?
a) 2.0404 times the principal b) 1.0404 times the principal*
c) 1.404 times the principal d) Data inadequate

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 80


6. Find the amount of Rs. 6400 in one year 6 months at 5 per cent compound interest, interest being calculated half
yearly.
a) Rs. 6882.10 b) Rs. 6892.10* c) Rs. 6982.10 d) None of these
7. Find the compound interest on Rs. 8000 in 3 months at 5% interest payable quarterely.
a) Rs. 250 b) Rs. 200 c) Rs. 150 d) Rs. 100*
8. Sam invested Rs. 15,000 @ 10% per annum for one year. If the interest is compounded half-yearly, then the amount
received by Sam at the end of the year will be:
(a) Rs. 16,500 (b) Rs. 16,525.50 *(c) Rs. 16,537.50 (d) Rs. 18,150 (e) None of these
9. At what rate of compound interest per annum will a sum of Rs. 1200 become Rs. 1348.32 in 2 years?
*(a) 6% (b) 6.5% (c) 7% (d) 7.5%
10. Find the compound interest on Rs. 15,625 for 9 months at 16% per annum compounded quarterly.
(a) Rs. 1851 (b) Rs. 1941 *(c) Rs 1951 (d) Rs. 1961
11. what will be the compound interest acquired on a sum of Rs. 12000 for 3 years at the rate of 10% per annum.
a) Rs. 2652 b) Rs. 3972 c) Rs. 3960* d) Rs. 3852
12. A property decreases in value every year at the rate of 1
4 6 % on its value at the beginning of that year. If its value at
the end of 3 years be Rs. 21093.75, what was it worth at the beginning of these three years.
a) Rs. 25600* b) Rs. 26500 c) Rs. 2550 d) Rs. 25800
13. Rs. 25000 is borrowed at CI at the rate of 3% for the first year, 4% for the second year & 5% for the third year. Find
the amount to be paid after 3 years.
a ) Rs 28119* b) Rs 29118 c) Rs 28129 d) Rs 28117
14. what sum will amount to Rs. 15916.59 in 3 years at compound interest, the interest for 1 st, 2nd & 3rd years being 3,2
& 1% respectively.
a) Rs. 15900 b) Rs. 15000* c) Rs 16000 d) none of these
1.5 At what rate percent compound interest will Rs 625 amount to Rs 676 in 2 years.
a) 3% b) 2% c) 4%* d) 5%
16. Find the amount of Rs 800 at compound interest in

1
2
2
years at 5%.
a) Rs. 904.05* b) Rs. 904.50 c) Rs. 904 d) Rs. 905.04
17. On what sum will the compound interest for 1
2 2 years at 10% amount to Rs 6352.50.
a) Rs 4900 b) Rs 5500 c) Rs 5000* d) Rs 5800
18. The difference between simple interest and compound interest on Rs. 1200 for one year at 10% per annum reckoned
half-yearly is:
(a) Rs. 2.50 * (b) Rs. 3 (c) Rs. 3.75 (d) Rs. 4 (e) None of these
19. The principal that amounts to Rs. 4913 in 3 years at 6

1
4
% per annum compound interest compounded annually, is:
(a) Rs. 3096 (b) Rs. 4076 (c) Rs. 4085 *(d) Rs. 4096
20. In how many years will a sum of Rs. 800 at 10% per annum compounded semi- annually become Rs. 926.10?
(a) 1

1
3
* (b) 1

1
2
(c) 2

1
3
(d) 2

1
2

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 81


21. A sum of money placed at compound interest doubles itself in 6 years. In how many years will it amount to 16 times itself.
a) 24 years* b) 26 years c) 22 years d) 20 years
22. At same rate per cent will the compound interest, does a sum of money become 27 times in how many years if the
Same sum becomes 3 times in 4 years?
(a) 8 years (b) 12 years * (c) 24 years (d) 36 years
23. If the simple interest on a sum of money for 2 years at 5% per annum is Rs. 50, what is the compound interest on the same sum
at the same rate and for the same time?
*(a) Rs. 51.25 (b) Rs. 52 (c) Rs. 54.25 (d) Rs. 60
24. If the CI on a certain sum of 2 years at 5% be Rs410, what would be the SI?
(a) Rs200 (b) Rs300 (c) Rs350 (d)* Rs400
25. The simple interest on a certain sum of money for 2 years at 5% per annum in Rs100. Find the compound interest at the same
rate and for the same time.
(a)* Rs102.50 (b) Rs1503 (c) Rs103.50 (d) 102.25
26. Find the difference between the simple and the compound interest on Rs8000 for 3 years at 5 percent.
(a)* Rs61 (b) Rs60 (c) Rs51 (d) Rs59
27. A certain amount of money at compound interest grows upto Rs6560 in 3 years and upto Rs7216 in 4 years. Find the rate per
cent per annum.
(a)* 10% (b) 5% (c) 8% (d) 6%
28. An automobile financier claims to be lending money at simple interest, but he includes the interest every six months for
calculating the principal. If he is charging an interest of 10%, the effective rate of interest becomes:
(a) 10% *(b) 10.25% (c) 10.5% (d) None of these
29. The population in a city increases at the rate of 5% annually. Its present population is 1,85,220. Three years ago, the population
was:
A. 1,81,500 B. 1,83,433 I C. 1,60,000 * D. 1.27,783

30. The sum of money invested at compound interest amounts to Rs. 1075 in two years and amounts to Rs. 1548 in four
years. Find the rate of interest.
(a) 10% (b) 15% (c) 18% (d) 20%*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 82


RATIO AND PROPORTION
Ratios:-Ratios are used to compare two quantities. They give the relative 'size' of the two quantities.
Thus, the ratio a : b is simply
b
a
E.g. 1: What is the ratio of 1 hr 20 mins and 50 minutes?
When a ratio is to be found, both quantities must be in the same units. 1 hr 20 minutes is 80 mins. Thus the required ratio is
85
5
8
50
80
i.e. :
min s
min s

E.g. 2: If a: b is 3 : 4 and b : c is 5 : 6, find the ratio a: c.


6
5

4
3

c
b
and
b
a
Multiplying the ratio together we get,
8
5
6
5
4
3

c
a
i.e.
c
b
b
a
E.g. 3: If a : b is 3 : 4 and b : c is 5 : 6, find the ratio a : b : c
We see that b is common to the two ratios. Thus making b the same in the two ratios we can club the two ratios into one.
20
15
5
5
4
3
4
3

b
a
i.e. a: b = 15: 20
24
20
4
4
6
5
6
5

c
b
i.e. b:c 20: 24
Thus a: b: c = 15: 20: 24
E.g. 4: If a : b is 2 : 5, b : c is 3 : 5 and c : d is 5 : 4, find the ratio a : b : c : d.
a : b is 2 : 5 which is same as 6 : 15
b : c is 3 : 5 which is same as 15 : 25.
Thus a : b : c is 6 : 15 : 25
Now c is common to a : b : c and c : d and thus making c equal in the two ratios, c : d is 5 : 4 which is same as 25 : 20.
Thus a : b : c : d is 6: 15 : 25 : 20
E.g. 5: If the ratio of boys and girls in a class is 4: 3 and the total number of students in the class is 84, find the number of
boys and girls.
Assuming the number of boys and girls to be 4k and 3k, we have
4k+ 3k = 84 => k = 12
Thus the number of boys and girls is 48 and 36 respectively.
The above should be just visualized as follows:

Boys Girls Total Boys Girls Total


Ratio Scale 4 3 7 4 3 7
x 12 x 12 x 12 x 12
Actual value 84 ? ? 84

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 83


Eg. 6: the time taken by A and B to reach their office from home is in the ratio 7: 10. If B takes 18 minutes more than A to reach
office, find the time taken by each of them to reach office.
Time taken Time taken Diff in
By A by B time taken
Ratio Scale 7 10 3
x6
Actual value ? ? 18
Thus time taken by A = 7 x 6 = 42 minutes and time taken by B = 10 x 6 = 60 minutes.
E.g. 7: Divide Rs. 72 in the ratio 2 : 3 : 4.
Sum
Ratio Scale 2 3 4 9
x8
Actual value ? ? ? 72
Eg. 8: Three numbers are in the ratio 2: 3: 4 and the sum of the squares of the numbers is 464. Find the sum of the numbers.
Sum of squares Sum of numbers
Ratio Scale 2 3 4 29 9
x 16 x 4
Actual value 464 ?
E.g. 9: The ratio of the income and expenditure of Amit and Sumit are 5: 8 and II : 9. If Amit and Sumit save Rs. 7900 and Rs.
2100 respectively, find their incomes.
In this question there are two ratios given. We would have to use two different constant of proportionality for the two ratios.
Thus assuming the income of Amit and Sumit as 5k and 8k and assuming the expenditure of the two as 11n and 9n, we have the
following two equations:
5k- 11n = 7900 and
8k- 10n = 2100
Solving the two equations simultaneously and eliminating n we get,
50k- 110n = 79000
8k- 110n = 231000
we get 38k = 152000 => k = 4000.
Thus the incomes of Amit and Sumit are 5x4000=20,000 and 8 x 4000= 32,000 respectively.

Unsolved exercise:
1. If A : B = 5 : 7 and B : C = 6 : 11, then A : B : C is :
(a) 55 : 77 : 66 (b) 30 : 42 : 77* (c) 35 : 49 : 42 (d) None of these
2. If A : B = 3 : 4 and B : C = 8 : 9, then A : C is :
(a) 1 : 3 (b) 3 : 2 (c) 2 : 3* (d) 1 : 2
3. If A : B : C = 2 : 3 : 4, then A/B : B/C : C/A is equal to :
(a) 4 : 9 : 16 (b) 8 : 9 : 12 (c) 8 ; 9 : 16 (d) 8 : 9 : 24*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 84


4. If A: B = 1/2 : 3/8 , B: C = 1/3 : 5/9 and C: D = 5/6 : 3/4 then the ratio A : B : C: D is :
(a) 4 : 6 : 8 : 10 (b) 6 : 4 : 8 : 10 (c) 6 : 8 : 9 : 10 (d) 8 : 6 : 10 : 9*
5. If 2A = 3B = 4C, then A : B : C is ;
(a) 2 : 3 : 4 (b) 4 : 3 : 2 (c) 6 : 4 :3* (d) 20 : 15 : 2
6. If A/3 = B/4 = C/5, then A : B : C is :
(a) 4 : 3 : 5 (b) 5 : 4 : 3 (c) 3 ; 4 : 5* (d) 20 : 15 : 2
7. If x : y = 5 : 2, then (8x + 9y) : (8x + 2.y) is :
(a) 22 : 29 (b) 26 : 61 (c) 29 : 22* (d) 61 : 26
8. If 15% of x = 20% of y, then x : y is :
(a) 3:4 (b) 4:3* (c) 17: 16 (d) 16: 17
9. If A is the 1/3 of B and B is of C, then A:B:C is
(a) 1:3:6* (b) 2:3:6 (c) 3:2:6 (d) 3:1:2
10. If 10% of m is the same as 20% of n, then m: n is equal to:
(a) 1:2 *(b) 2:1 (c) 5:1 (d) 10:1
11. If A:B=2:3 and B:C=4:5, then C:A is equal to:
*(a) 15:8 (b) 12:10 (c) 8:5 (d) 8:15
12. If a:b=2:5. Find (3a+4b) : (4a+5b).
*(a) 26:33 (b) 14:31 (c) 25:32 (d) 33:26

13. If Rs.. 782 be divided into three parts, proportional to

1
2
:

2
3
:

3
4
then the first part is :
(a) Rs. 182 (b) Rs. 190 (c) Rs. 196 (d) Rs. 204 *
14. Two numbers are in the ratio 3 : 5. If 9 is subtracted from each, the new numbers are in the ratio 12 : 23. The smaller
number is
(a) 27 (b) 33* (c) 49 (d) 55
15. Two numbers are in the ratio 1 : 2. If 7 is added to both, their ratio changes to 3 : 5. The greatest number is
(a) 24 (b) 26 (c) 28* (d) 32
16. Rs. 1210 were divided among A, B, C so that A : B = 5 : 4 and B : C = 9 : 10. Then, C gets:
(a) Rs. 340 (b) Rs. 400* (c) Rs. 450 (d) Rs. 475
17. In a bag, there are coins of 25 p, 10 P and 5 p in the ratio of 1 : 2 : 3. If there are Rs. 30 in all, how many 5 p coins
are there?
(a) 50 (b) 100 (c) 150* (d) 200
18. The ratio of three numbers is 3 : 4 : 5 and the sum of their squares is 1250. The sum of the numbers is :
(a) 30 (b) 50 (c) 60* (d) 90
19. Salaries of Ravi and Sumit are in the ratio 2 : 3. If the salary of each is increased by Rs. 4000, the new ratio becomes
40 : 57. What is Sumit's present salary?
(a) Rs. 17,000 (b) Rs. 20,000 (c) Rs. 25,500 (d) None of these*
20. Divide 94 into two parts in such a way that fifth part of the first and eighth part of the second are in the ratio 3:4.
*(a) 30, 64 (b) 20, 44 (c) 35, 69 (d) 30, 65.
21. Rs.600 has been divided among A, B and C in such a way that Rs.40 more than (2/5) of As share Rs.20 more than
(2/7) of Bs share, Rs.10 more than (9/17) of Cs share, are all equal. As share is:

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 85


(a) Rs.280 (b) Rs.170 *(c) Rs.150 (d) Rs.200
22. A certain amount was divided between Kavita and Reena in the ratio 4:3. If Reenas share was Rs.2400, the amount
is:
*(a) 5600 (b) 3200 (c) 9600 (d) None of these
23. If a carton containing a dozen mirrors is dropped, which of the following cannot be the ratio of broken mirrors to
unbroken mirrors?
(a) 2:1 (b) 3:1 *(c) 3:2 (d) 7:5
24. Rs5625 is to be divided among A, B and C, so that A may receive (1/2) as much as B and C together receive and B
receives (1/4) of what A and C together receive. The share of A is more than that of B by
*(a) 750 (b) 775 (c) 1500 (d) 1600
25. The ratio of the money with Ram and Gopal is 7:17 and that with Gopal and Krishan is 7:17. If Ram has Rs490,
Krishan has
*(a) 2890 (b) 2330 (c) 1190 (d) 2680
26. The students in three classes are in the ratio 2:3:5. If 20 students are increased in each class, the ratio changes to
4:5:7. The total number of students in the three classes before the increase were
(a) 10 (b) 90 *(c) 100 (d) None of these
27. One year ago the ratio between laxmans and Gopals salary was 3:4. The individual ratios between their last years
and this years salaries are 4:5 and 2:3 respectively. At present the total of their salary is Rs4160. The salary of
Laxman now, is
*(a) 1600 (b) 2560 (c) 1040 (d) 3120
28. There is a ratio of 5:4 between two numbers. If 40% of the first number is 12 then what would be the 50% of the
second number?
*(a) 12 (b) 24 (c) 18 (d) Data inadequate
29. If 25% of a number is subtracted from a second number the second number reduces to its five-sixths. What the ratio
between the first number and the second number?
*(a) 2:3 (b) 3:2 (c) 1:3 (d) data inadequate
30. In a school the number of boys and that of the girls are in the ratio of 2:3. If the numbers of boys is increased by
20% and that of girls is increased by 10%. What will be the new ratio of the number of boys to that of girls?
(a) 4:5 (b) 5:8 *(c) 8:11 (d) Data inadequate
31. The ratio of the incomes of A & B is 5:4 & the ratio of their expenditures is 3:2. If at the end of the year, each saves

Rs. 1600, then the income of A is:


(a) Rs. 3400 (b) Rs. 3400 (c) Rs. 4000* (d) Rs. 4400
32. A sum of Rs. 1300 is divided amongst P, Q, R & S such that

'''2
.
'''3
P s share Q s share R s share
Q s share R s share S s share
Then, Ps Share is:
(a) Rs. 140 (b) Rs. 160* (c) Rs. 240 (d) Rs.320
33. If 40% of a number is equal to two-third of another number, what is the ratio of first number to the second number?

(a) 2 : 5 (b) 3 : 7 (c) 5 : 3* (d) 7 : 3

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 86


PARTNERSHIP
Partnership is when two or more people join in by contributing money to fund a venture. The profits realized from the venture after
a specific period of time is distributed among the partners in the ratio of their investments.
E.g. 1: Rahul and Rohit get in Rs. 4000 and Rs. 5000 to fund a new venture. In what ratio should they divide the profit of Rs.
1,80,000 earned at the end of the year?
The profit has to be divided among Rahul and Rohit in the ratio of their investments i.e. 4 : 5
Rahul's share
Rohit's share
Total
Ratio Scale
4
5
9
x 20,000
Actual value
?
?
1,80,000
Thus Rahul's share = 4 x 20,000 = 80,000 and Rohit's share = 5 x 20,000 = 1,00,000.
When the investment and also the time period is different:
In cases of partnership when both the investment and the time period the amount is invested are different for the partners, the profit
is shared in the ratio of their investments x time.
E.g. 2: A and B enter into a partnership with Rs. 8,000 and 15,000 respectively. After 3 months C joins them by investing Rs.
10,000. 4. months before the first year is completed, B quits, taking his invested amount back with him. In what ratio should the
profit of Rs. 2,55,000 earned in the first year be distributed among the three?
A has invested 8,000 for 12 months
B has invested 15,000 for 8 months
C has invested 10,000 for 9 months.
Thus the profit has to be distributed in the ratio of 8 x 12 : 15 x 8 : 10 ;!< 9 i.e. 16 : 20 : 15
A B C Sum
Ratio Scale 16 20 15 51
x 5,000
Actual value ? ? ? 2,55,000
A, share = 16 x 5,000 = 80,000, Bs share = 20 x 5,000 = 1,00,000, Cs share = 15 x 5,000 = 75,000

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 87


Unsolved exercise:
1. P and Q started a business investing Rs. 85,000 and Rs. 15,000 respectively. In what ratio the profit earned after 2
years be divided between P and Q respectively?
(a) 3 : 4 (b) 3 : 5 (c) 15 : 23 (d) 17 : 23 *(e) None of these
2. Anand and Deepak started a business investing Rs. 22,500 and Rs. 35,000 respectively. Out of a total profit of Rs. 13,800,
Deepak's share is :
(a) Rs. 5400 (b) Rs. 7200 *(c) Rs. 8400 (d) Rs. 9600
3. A, B, C enter into a partnership investing Rs. 35,000, Rs. 45,000 and Rs. 55,000 respectively. The respective shares of A, B, C in
an annual profit of Rs. 40,500 are :
*(a) Rs. 10,500, Rs. 13,500, Rs. 16,500 (b) Rs. 11,500, Rs. 13,000, Rs. 16,000
(c) Rs. 11,000, Rs. 14,000, Rs. 15,500 (d) Rs. 11,500, Rs. 12,500, Rs. 16,500

4. Reena and Shaloo are partners in a business. Reena invests Rs. 35,000 for 8 months and Shaloo invests Rs. 42,000 for 10
months. Out of a profit of Rs. 31,570, Reena's share is :
(a) Rs. 9471 *(b) Rs. 12,628 (c) Rs. 18,040 (d) Rs. 18,942
5. Kamal started a business investing Rs. 9000. After five months, Sameer joined with a capital of Rs. 8000. If at the end of the
year, they earn a profit of Rs. 6970, then what will be the share of Sameer in the profit?
(a) Rs. 1883.78 *(b) Rs. 2380 (c) Rs. 3690 (d) Rs. 3864
6. Arun, Kamal and Vinay invested Rs. 8000, Rs. 4000 and Rs. 8000 respectively in a business. Arun left after six months. If after
eight months, there was a gain of Rs. 4005, then what will be the share of Kamal ?
*(a) Rs. 890 (b) Rs. 1335 (c) Rs. 1602 (d) Rs. 1780
7. A, Band C enter into a partnership. They invest Rs. 40,000, Rs. 80,000 and Rs. 1,20,000 respectively. At the end of the first year,
B withdraws Rs. 40,000, while at the end of the second year, C withdraws Rs. 80,000. In what ratio will the profit be shared at the
end of 3 years ?
(a) 2 : 3 : 5 *(b) 3 ; 4 ; 7 (c) 4 : 5 ; 9 (d) None of these
8. If 4 (Ns capital) = 6 (B's capital) = 10 (C's capital), then out of a profit of Rs. 4650, C will receive :
(a) Rs. 465 *(b) Rs. 900 (c) Rs. 1550 (d) Rs. 2250
9. A, B, C hired a car for Rs. 520 and used it for 7, 8 and 11 hours respectively. Hire charges paid by B were :
(a) Rs. 140 *(b) Rs. 160 (c) Rs. 180 (d) Rs. 220
10. A, Band C rent a pasture. A puts 10 oxen for 7 months, B puts 12 oxen for 5 months and C puts 15 oxen for 3 months for
grazing. If the rent of the pasture is Rs. 175, how much must C pay as his share of rent?
*(a) Rs. 45 (b) Rs. 50 (c) Rs. 55 (d) Rs. 60
11. Three partners A, B, C start a business. Twice As capital is equal to thrice B's capital and B's capital is four times C's capital.
Out of a total profit of Rs. 16,500 at the end of the year, B's share is :
(a) Rs. 4000 *(b) Rs. 6000 (c) Rs. 7500 (d) Rs. 6600
12. A and B start a business with investments of Rs. 5000 and Rs. 4500 respectively. After 4 months, A takes out half of his capital.
After two more months, B takes out onethird of his capital while C joins them with a capital of Rs. 7000. At the end of a year, they
earn a profit of Rs. 5080. Find the share of each member in the profit.
(a) A - Rs. 1400, B - Rs. 1900, C - Rs. 1780
(b) A - Rs. 1600, B - Rs. 1800, C - Rs. 1680 *
(c) A - Rs. 1800, B - Rs. 1500, C - Rs. 1780
(d) A - Rs. 1680, B - Rs. 1600, C - Rs. 1800
(f) None of these

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 88


PROBLEMS ON AGES
E.g. 1: The ratio of the present ages of a father and a son is 8 : 1. Eight years hence, the ratio would be 10 : 3. What is the
present age of the father?
Assuming the present ages of the father and son to be 8k and k respectively, the ages after 8 years will be 8k + 8 and k + 8.
Thus we have,
3
10
8
88

k
k
24k + 24 = 10k + 80 14k= 56 k = 4
Thus present age of father is 8 x 4 = 32 years.

Unsolved exercise:
1. Sachin is younger than Rahul by 4 years. If their ages are in the respective ratio of 7: 9, how old is Sachin?
(a) 16 years (b) 18 years (c) 28 years (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these*
2. The ratio between the present ages of P and Q is 5: 7 respectively. If the difference between Q's present age and P's
age after 6 years is 2, what is the total of P's and Q's present ages?
(a) 48 years* (b) 52 years (c) 56 years (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
3. Present ages of X and Yare in the ratio 5: 6 respectively. Seven years hence this ratio will become 6: 7 respectively.
What is X's present age in years?
(a) 35* (b) 42 (c) 49 (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
4. Six years ago, the ratio of the ages of Kunal and Sagar was 6: 5. Four years hence, the ratio of their ages will be 11:
10. What is Sagar's age at present?
(a) 16 years* (b) 18 years (c) 20 years (d) Cannot be determined (e) None of these
5. The ratio of the present ages of two brothers is 1: 2 and 5 years back, the ratio was 1: 3. What will be the ratio of

their ages after 5 years?


(a) 1 : 4 (b) 2 : 3 (c) 3 : 5* (d) 5 : 6
6. The ratio of the father's age to his son's age is 7: 3. The product of their ages is 756. The ratio of their ages after 6
years will be:
(a) 5: 2 (b) 2: 1* (c) 11: 7 (d) 13: 9
7. The ratio of the ages of a man and his wife is 4: 3. After 4 years, this ratio will be 9: 7. If at the time of marriage, the
ratio was 5: 3, then how many years ago were they married?
(a) 8 years (b) 10 years (c) 12 years* (d) 15 years
8. The ratio between the present ages of A and B is 5 : 3 respectively. The ratio between Ks age 4 years ago and B's age
4 years hence is 1 : 1. What is the ratio between As age 4 years hence and B's age 4 years ago?
(a) 1: 3 (b) 2: 1 (c) 3 : 1* (d) 4: 1 (e) None of these
9. A is two years older than B who is twice as old as C. If the total of the ages of A, B and C be 27, then how old is B?
(a) 7 (b) 8 (c) 9 (d) 10* (e) 11
10. Eighteen years ago, a father was three times as old as his son. Now the father is only twice as old as his son. Then
the sum of the present ages of the son and the father is:
(a) 54 (b) 72 (c) 105 (d) 108 *
11. Tanya's grandfather was 8 times older to her 16 years ago. He would be 3 times of her age 8 years from now. Eight
years ago, what was the ratio of Tanya's age to that of her grandfather?
(a) 1 : 2 (b) 1 : 5 (c) 3 : 8 (d) None of these*
12. Four years ago, the father's age was three times the age of his son. The total of the ages of the father and the son after
four years, will be 64 years. What is the father's age at present?
(a) 32 years (b) 36 years (c) 44 years (d) Data inadequate (e) None of these*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 89


ALLIGATION OR MIXTURE
E.g.1: 9 litres of milk and water solution having 40% milk is mixed with 3 litres of milk and water solution having 70%
milk. Find the percentage of milk in the mixture of the two solutions.
Using the formula for weighted average,
Cavg = % 47.5%
12
570
12
360 210
12
40 % 9 70% 3

Imagining the visual method, we would just need to divide 70% - 40 % = 30% in the ratio I : 3. Thus the first part will be
4
1
x 30 = 7.5 and the required answer will be 47.5%.
E.g.2: When a milk and water solution having 42% milk is mixed with another solution having 57% milk, the resultant
mixture has equal amount of water and milk. Find the ratio in which the two solutions are mixed.
Resultant mixture having equal amount of milk and water is equivalent to it having 50% milk. Thus using the visual method,
Thus the ratio of mixing is 7: 8.
Using formula, 50 =
12
1 2 42

57
ww
w%w%

from which the ratio WI: W2 can be found.

Unsolved exercise:
1. In what ratio must a grocer mix two varieties of pulses costing Rs. 15 and Rs. 20 per kg respectively so as to get a
mixture worth Rs. 16.50 per kg ?
(a) 3 : 7 (b) 5 : 7 (c) 7 : 3* (d) 7 : 5
2. In what ratio must tea at Rs. 62 per kg be mixed with tea at Rs. 72 per kg so that the mixture must be worth Rs.
64.50 per kg ?
(a) 3 : 1* (b) 3 : 2 (c) 4 : 3 (d) 5 : 3

3. The cost of Type 1 rice is Rs. 15 per kg and Type 2 rice is Rs. 20 per kg. If both Type 1 and Type 2 are mixed in the
ratio of 2 : 3, then the price per kg of the mixed variety of rice is :
(a) Rs. 18* (b) Rs. 18.50 (c) Rs. 19 (d) Rs. 19.50
4. A dishonest milkman professes to sell his milk at cost price but he mixes it with water and thereby gains 25%. The
percentage of water in the mixture is :
(a) 4% (b) 6

1
4
% (c) 20%* (d) 25%
5. Two vessels A and B contain spirit and water mixed in the ratio 5 : 2 and 7 : 6 respectively. Find the ratio in which
these mixture be mixed to obtain a new mixture in vessel C containing spirit and water in the ratio 8 : 5
(a) 4 : 3 (b) 3 : 4 (c) 5 : 6 (d) 7 : 9*

7
50%
57%
42%
8

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 90


6. One quality of wheat at Rs. 9.30 per kg is mixed with another quality at a certain rate in the ratio 8 : 7. If the mixture so formed
be worth Rs. 10 per kg, what is the rate per kg of the second quality of wheat?
(a) Rs. 10.30 (b) Rs. 10.60 (c) Rs. 10.80* (d) Rs. 11
7. Tea worth Rs. 126 per kg and Rs. 135 per kg are mixed with a third variety in the ratio 1 : 1 : 2. If the mixture is worth Rs. 153
per kg, the price of the third variety per kg will be :
(a) Rs. 169.50 (b) Rs. 170 (c) Rs. 175.50 (d) Rs. 180
8. In what ratio should gold at Rs15 per gram be mixed with gold at Rs10 per gm so that the resulting mixture be worth Rs13 per
gm.
(a)3:2 (b) 3:1 (c) 1:1* (d) 2:3*
9. 150 gm of sugar solution has 20% sugar init. How much sugar should be added to make it 25% in the solution?
(a) 30 gm* (b) 45 gm (c) 35 gm (d) 40 gm
10. 56 litres of a mixture contains milk and water in the ratio 5:2. How much water is to be added to get a new mixture containing
milk and water in the ratio 5:3?
(a) 9 ltr (b) 6 ltr (c) 7 ltr (d) 8 ltr*
11. In what ratio must a grocer mix two varieties of tea worth Rs. 60 a kg and Rs. 65 a kg so that by selling the mixture at Rs. 68.20
a kg he may gain 10% ?
(a) 3 : 2* (b) 3 : 4 (c) 3 : 5 (d) 4 : 5
12. How many kg of salt costing 40 P per kg must be mixed with 16 kg of salt costing 55 p per kg so that 25% may be gained by
selling the mixture at 60 P per kg?
(a) 14kg* (b) 16 kg (c) 12 kg (d) 15 kg

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 91


VARIATION
Variation
i. Direct Variation
Two variables, x and y, are said to vary directly if when one of them increases (or decreases), the other also increases (or
decreases) proportionally.
The word 'proportionally' is important here. If one of them doubles, the other should also double; if one of them becomes
one-third, the other should also become one-third.
If the two variables vary directly we would have
3
3
2
2
1
2

y
x
y
x
y
x
=
E.g.1: If 6 carpenters can build 14 chairs in a week, how many chairs can 15 carpenters build in a week?
More carpenters would imply more chairs and that too proportionally. Thus number of chairs build and number of.

carpenters vary directly.


Thus,
6 15
14 ?
and thus 15 carpenters will build 35 chairs in a week.
ii. Inverse Variation:
Two variables, X and y, are said to vary inversely if when one of them increases (or decreases), the other decreases (or
increases) proportionally.
Thus, if one of them doubles, the other should halve; if one of them becomes one-third, the other should become thrice.
Since the two variables vary inversely we would have x1, y1 = x2 y2 = x3 y3 =.
E.g. 2: If 6 men can build a wall in 10 days, 15 men could build the wall in how many days?
More men would imply less days and that too proportionally. Thus number of men and days taken to build the wall are
inversely proportional.
Thus, 6 10 = 15 ? and thus 15 men will build the wall in 4 days.

Unsolved exercise:
1. If the cost of x metres of wire is d rupees, then what is the cost of y metres of wire at the same rate?
(a) Rs.

xy
d



(b) Rs. (xd) (c) Rs. (yd) (d) Rs.

yd
x



*
2. If the price of 6 toys is Rs. 264.37, what will be the approximate price of 5 toys ?
(a) Rs. 140 (b) Rs. 100 (c) Rs. 200 (d) Rs. 220 * (e) Rs. 240
3.The price of 357 mangoes is Rs. 1517.25. What will be the approximate price of 49 dozens of such mangoes?
(a) Rs.3000 (b) Rs. 3500 (c) Rs. 4000* (d) Rs. 2500
4. If a quarter kg of potato costs 60 paise, how many paise will 200 gm cost ?
(a) 48paise * (b) 54 paise (e) 56 paise (d) 72 paise
5. If 11.25 m of a uniform iron rod weighs 42.75 kg, what will be the weight of 6 m of same rod?
(a)2.8 kg* (b) 25.6 kg (e) 28 kg (d) 26.5 kg
6. On a scale of map, 0.6 cm represents 6.6 km. If the distance between the points on the map is 80.5 cm, the actual distance
between these points is :
(a) 9km (b) 72.5 km (e) 190.75 km (d) 885.5 km *

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 92


7. An industrial loom weaves 0.128 metres of cloth every second. Approximately, how many seconds will it take for the loom to
weave 25 metres of cloth?
(a)178 (b) 195 * (c) 204 (d) 488
8. A flagstaff 17.5 m high casts a shadow of length 40.25 m. The height of the building, which casts a shadow of length 28.75 m
under similar conditions will be
(a)10 m (b) 12.5 m * (c) 17.5 m (d) 21.25 m
9. A wheel that has 6 cogs is meshed-with a larger wheel of 14 cogs. When the smaller wheel has made 21 revolutions, then the
number of revolutions made by the larger wheel is
(a) 4 (b) 9 * (c) 12 (d) 49
10. In a camp, there is a meal for 120 men or 200 children. If 150 children have taken the meal, how many men will be catered to
with the remaining meal?
(a) 20 (b) 30 * (c) 40 (d) 50
11. The cost of 16 packets of salt, each weighing 900 grams is Rs. 28. What will be the cost of 27 packets, if each packet weighs 1
kg?
(a) Rs. 52.50* (b) Rs. 56 (e) Rs. 58.50 (d) Rs. 64.75
12. Running at the same constant rate, 6 identical machines can produce a total of 270 bottles per minute. At this rate, how many
bottles could 10 such machines produce in 4 minutes?
(a) 648 (b) 1800* (c) 2700 (d) 10800

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 93


Time and work - A
* 1 1 2 2 M D M D * 1 1 1 2 2 2 M D H M D H * 1 1 1 1
2222

MDHW
MDHW

E.g. 16 men can do a piece of work in 10 days. How many men are needed to complete the work in 40 days ?
Sol. As we know 1 1 2 2 M D M D
So 16 10 = M2 40
M2 =

16 10
40

= 4 men.
E.g. 40 men can cut 60 trees in 8 hours. If 8 men leaves the job, how many trees will be cut in 12 hours ?
M1 = 40, D1 = 8 , W1 = 60
M2 = 40-8 = 32, D2 = 12, W2 = ?
111
222

MDW
MDW
therefore W2 = 2 2 1
11

M DW
MD
=

32 12 60
40 8

= 72 trees.
E.g. 5 men cam prepare 10 toys in 6 days working 6 hours a day. Then in how many days can 12 men prepare 16 toys
working 8 hrs a day ?
Sol. As we know that 1 1 1 1
2222

MDHW
MDHW

Therefore 1 1 1 2
2
221

M D HW
D
MHW
=
5 6 6 16
12 8 10

= 3 days
E.g. If 3 men or 4 women can reap a field in 43 days, how long will 7 men and 5 women take to reap it ?
Sol. 3 men = 4 women
1 man = 4/3 women
7 men = 28/3 women
7 men + 5 women = 28/3 + 5 = 43/3 women
Now the question becomes:
If 4 women can reap a field in 43 days, how long will 43/3 women take to reap it ?
i.e. 1 1

2
2

MD
D
M
= 2
4 43
43 / 3
D

=
4 43 3
43

= 12 days.

Unsolved exercise:
1. 36 men can complete a piece of work in 18 days. In how many days will 27 men complete the same work?
a) 12 (b) 18 (c) 22 (d) 24 (e) None of these' *

2. 20 men can cut 30 trees in 4 hours. If 4 men leave the job, how many trees will be cut in 6 hours?
(a) 30 trees (b) 36 trees* (c) 40 trees (d) None of these
3. 4 mat-weavers can weave 4 mats in 4 days. At the same rate, how many mats would be woven by 8 mat-weavers in
8 days?
(a) 4 (b) 8 (c) 12 (d) 16 *
4. In a dairy farm, 40 cows eat 40 bags of husk in 40 days. In how many days one cow will eat one bag of husk?
(a) 1 (b)

1
40
(c) 40 * (d) 80

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 94


5. 12 men working 8 hours per day complete a piece of work in 10 days. To complete the same work in 8 days,
working 15 hours a day, the number of men required is:
(a) 4 (b) 5 (c) 6 (d) 8 *
6. 10 men, working 6 hours a day can complete a work in 18 days. How many hours a day must 15 men work to
complete the same work in 12 days?
(a) 6 * (b) 10 (c) 12 (d) 15
7. 39 persons can repair a road in 12 days, working 5 hours a day. In how many days. will 30 persons, working 6 hours
a day, complete the work?
(a) 10 (b) 13 * (c) 14 (d) 15
8. If 18 pumps can raise 2170 tonnes of water in 10 days, working 7 hours a day; in how many days will 16 pumps
raise 1736 tonnes of water, working 9 hours a day?
(a) 6 (b) 7 * (c) 8 (d) 9
9. If 80 lamps can be lighted, 5 hours per day for 10 days for Rs. 21.25, then the number of lamps, which can be
lighted 4 hours daily for 30 days, for Rs. 76.50, is :
(a) 100 (b) 120 * (c) 150 (d) 160
10. If 12 carpenters, working 6 hours a day, can make 460 chairs in 24 days, how many chairs will 18 carpenters make
in 36 days, each working 8 hours a day?
(a) 1260 (b) 1320 (c) 920 (d) 1380 *

11. 20 men can prepare 40 toys in 24 days working 18 hours a day. Then in how many days can 36 men
prepare 48 toys working 16 hrs a day?
(a) 16 days (b) 12 days (c) 21 days (d) 18 days*
12. 3 pumps, working 8 hours a day, can empty a tank in 2 days. How many hours a day must 4 pumps work to empty
the tank in 1 day?
(a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 11 (d) 12 *
13. If 8 men can reap 80 hectares in 24 days, then how many hectares can 36 men reap in 30 days?
(a) 350 (b) 400 (c) 425 (d) 450*
14. If 7 spiders make 7 webs in 7 days, then 1 spider will make 1 web in how many days?
(a) 1 (b)

7
2
(c) 7 * (d) 49

15. If 5 men or 9 women can do a piece of work in 19 days, then in how many days wll 3 men and 6 women do the
same work?
(a) 12 (b) 15* (c) 18 (d) 21
16. If 30 men and 14 boys can reap a field in 21 days, in how many days will 20 men and 4 boys reap it, supposing that
3 men can do as much as 5 boys ?
a) 36 days* (b) 30 days (c) 42 days (d) 45 days

17. If 3 men or 5 women can reap a field in 43 days, how long will 5 men and 6 women take to reap it?
(a) 15 days* (b) 25 days (c) 18 days (d) 12 days
18. A fort had provision of food for 150 men for 45 days. After 10 days, 25 men left the fort. The number of days for
which the remaining food will last, is:
(a) 29

1
5
(b) 37

1
4
(c) 42 * (d) 54

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 95


19. There is a sufficient food for 116 men for 25 days. After 21 days. 100 men leave the place. For how many
days will the rest of the food last for the rest of the men?
(a) 19 days (b) 24 days (c) 29 days* (d) 15 days
20. A contractor undertakes the work of laying 12 kms long telephone cable. The work is to be completed in
350 days. He employs 45 men. After 200 days of work he finds that cable for a distance of only 4 and 1/2
kms is laid. How many extra men must be employ to finish the work in time
(a) 50 (b) 55* (c) 60 (d) 65

Time and Work-B


Points to remember:i) If a man can do a piece of work in 6 days, then 1/6th of work is done in one day. Similarly, if 1/6th work is
done in a day, the whole work can be finished in 6 days.
ii) If A can do a work in 4 days and B in 7 days, the ratio of the work done by A and B in the same time is
7:4.
iii) If A is twice as good a workman as B, then A will take half of the time taken by B to do a certain piece of
work. It means the ratio of the work done by A and B is 2:1.
iv) Wages are paid in proportion to units of job done by each in the same time.
E.g. 1: If A takes 15 days to do
5
3th
of a work, what part of the work does he do in 1 day?
Whatever work is done in 15 days, in 1 day
15
1th
of that work will be done, thus,
15 days to do
5
3th
of the work in 1 day
5
3
15
1 th
=
75
3th
of the work will be done.
E.g. 2: If 1 man takes 18 days to do
5
2th
of the work, in how many days will he complete the work?

18 days,
5
2th
- of the work 1 day,
5
2
18
1
=
45
1th
of the work entire work in 45 days.
E.g. 3: If A does
16
5th
- of a work in 3 days, how many days will be taken to complete
48
35th
- of the work?
3 days,
16
5th
of work 1 days,
48
5th
of the work
48
35th
of the work in 7 days?
E.g. 4: If a man can complete a work in 60 days, what part of the work will be completed by 3 men working for 5 days?
I man completes work in 60 days 1 man in 1 day does
60
1th
of the work
3 men in 1 day do
60
3th
of the work
3 men in 5 day do
4
1
60
15
5
60
3th th
i.e. of the work
E.g. 5: If A does a work in 10 days and B does the same work individually in 12 days, in how many days will the work be
completed if they work simultaneously?
Approach 1: Per days work

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 96


A does
10
1th
of the work in 1 day.
B does
12
1th
of the work in 1 day.
Working simultaneously, they do
60

11
12
1
10
1th th th
of the work in 1 day
Thus total days taken by both working simultaneously =
11
60
days
Shortcut is:-

ab
ab

10 12
10 12

=
11
60

days. Ans.
E.g. 6: If A does a work in 10 days and B does the same work individually in 12 days. A starts working alone and after 3
days is joined by B. After another 1 days, A quits. How many more days will be taken by B to complete the work?
Approach 1: Per days work
A is effectively working for 4 days and thus will do
5
2
10
4 th
i.e. of the work.
B has to do
5
3th
of the work and he will take a total of 7 2
5
36
12
5
3
. days for it. He has already put in 1 day of work. So
he will take another 6.2 days.
Approach 2: (4)1/A + (1+d)1/B = 1,

41
10 12
th th d
=1th
Unsolved exercise:
1. A does a work in 10 days and B does the same work in 15 days. In how many days they together will do
the same work?
(a) 5 days (b) 6 days* (c) 8 days (d) 9 days
2. A can do a piece of work in 20 days and B can do it in 20 days. How long would they take to do it working
together?
(a) 12 days* (b) 10 days (c) 15 days (d) 16 days
3. A can finish a work in 18 days and B can do the same work in half the time taken by A. Then, working
together, what part of the same work they can finish in a day ?
(a)

1
6
* (b)
1
9
(c)
2
5
(d)
2
7
4. A tyre has two punctures. The first puncture alone would have made the tyre flat in 9 minutes and the
second alone would have done it in 6 minutes. If air leaks out at a constant rate, how long does it take both
the punctures together to make it flat ?
(a)1
1
2
minutes (b) 3
1
2
minutes (c) 3
3
5
minutes* (d) 4
1
4
minutes
5. A, Band C can complete a piece of work in 24, 6 and 12 days respectively. Working together, they will
complete the same work in :
(a)
1
24
day (b)
7
24
day (c) 3
3
7
days* (d) 4 days
6. A man can do a job in 15 days. His father takes 20 days and his son finishes it in 25 days. How long will
they take to complete the job if they all work together?
(a) Less than 6 days (b) Exactly 6 days (c) Approximately 6.4 days* (d) More than 10 days

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 97


7. A man can do a piece of work in 5 days, but with the help of his son, he can do it in 3 days. In what time
can the son do it alone?
(a) 6
1
2
days (b) 7 days (c) 7
1
2
days* (d) 8 days
8. A can lay railway track between two given stations in 16 days and B can do the same job in 12 days. With
the help of C, they did the job in 4 days only. Then, C alone can do the job in :
(a) 9
1
5

days (b) 9
2
5
days (c) 9
3
5
days* (d) 10 days
9. A takes twice as much time as B or thrice as much time as C to finish a piece of work. Working together,
they can finish the work in 2 days. B can do the work alone in :
(a) 4 days (b) 6 days* (c) 8 days (d) 12 days
10. A can completes

5
8
of a job in 10 days. At this rate, how many more days will it take him to finish the job?
(a)5 (b) 6 * (c) 7 (d) 7

1
2
11. X can do
1
4
of a work in 10 days, Y can do 40% of the work in 40 days and Z can do
1
3
of the work in 13
days. Who will complete the work first ?
(a) X (b) Y (c) Z* d) X and Z both
12. P, Q and R are three typists who working simultaneously can type 216 pages in 4 hours. In one hour, R can
type as many pages more than Q as Q can type more than P. During a period of five hours, R can type as
many pages as P can during seven hours.How many pages does each of them type per hour?
(a) 14, 17, 20 (b) 15, 17, 22 (c) 15, 18, 21* (d) 16, 18, 22
13. A can do a piece of work in 50 days and B in 40 days. They work together for 10 days and then A leaves B
to finish the work alone. How long will B take to finish it?
(a) 11 days (b) 18 days (c) 22 days* (d) 26 days
14. P can complete a work in 12 days working 8 hours a day. Q can complete the same work in 8 days working
10 hours a day. If both P and Q work together, working 8 hours a day, in how many days can they
complete the work?
(a) 5
5
11
* (b) 5
6
11
(c) 6
5
11
(d) 6
6
11
15. A and B can do a work in 12 days, B and C in 15 days, C and A in 20 days. If A, B and C work together,
they will complete the work in :
(a) 5 days (b) 7
5
6
days (c) 10 days* (d) 15
2
3
days
16. A and B can do a piece of work in 72 days; B and C can do it in 120 days; A and C can do it in 90 days. In

what time can A alone do it ?


(a) 80 days (b) 100 days (c) 120 days* (d) 150 days
17. A and B can do a work in 8 days, B and C can do the same work in 12 days. A, B and C together can
finish it in 6 days. A and C together will do it in :
(a) 4 days (b) 6 days (c) 8 days* (d) 12 days
18. A can do a certain work in the same time in which B and C together can do it. If A and B together could do
it in 10 days and C alone in 50 days, then B alone could do it in :

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 98


(a) 15 days (b) 20 days (c) 25 days * (d) 30 days
19. A is twice as good a workman as B and together they finish a piece of work in 14 days. The number of
days taken by A alone to finish the work is :
(a) 11 (b) 21 * (c) 28 (d) 42
20. A and B working alone can finish a job in 5 days and days respectively. They work at it alternately for a
day. If B starts the work, find in how many days the hob will be finished ?
(a) 5
6
7
* (b) 5
6
11
(c) 6
5
11
(d) 6
6
11
21. A can do a piece of work in 10 days while B can do it in 12 days. Both of them together do the work. If the
total amount paid for the work in Rs440, how much is As share in it?
(a) 200 (b) 250 (c) 240 * (d) 260
22. A, B and C can do a work in 4, 6 and 10 days respectively. They finish the work together and earn Rs310.
What is the share of each?
(a) 150, 100, 60* (b) 140, 110, 60 (c) 160, 90, 60 (d) 150, 110, 50
23. A, B and C contract to do a work in Rs4200. A can do the work in 6 days. B in 10 days and C in 12 days.
If they work together to do work, what is the share of C?
(a) 2000 (b) 1200 (c) 1000* (d) 1500
24. Two men undertake to do a piece of work for Rs200. One alone do it in 6 days, the other in 8 days. With
assistance of boy they finish it in 3 days. Find share of the boy?
(a) 25* (b) 100 (c) 75 (d) 50
25. A alone can complete a work in 16 days & B alone in 12 days. Starting with A, they work on alternate
days. The total work will be completed in:
(a) 12 days (b) 13 days (c)
5
13
7
days (d)
3
13
4
days*
26. A man, a woman & a boy can complete a job in 3, 4 & 12 days respectively. How many boys must assist 1
man & 1 woman to complete the job in
1
4
of a day?
(a) 1 (b) 4 (c) 19 (d) 41*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA 99

Pipes and Cisterns


E.g. 1: An inlet pipe can fill in an empty cistern in 30 minutes whereas a leak in the bottom of the cistern can empty a filled
tank in 40 minutes. Find the time taken to fill the cistern when both the inlet pipe and the leak are on. Part of cistern that is
filled each minute =
120
1
40
1
30
1

Thus entire cistern is filled in 120 minutes.


E.g. 2: Two inlets pipes can individually fill a cistern in 10 minutes and 20 minutes respectively. However it took them 8
minutes to fill the cistern working simultaneously, because of a leak at the bottom of the cistern. In how many minutes would
the leak empty the entire filled cistern if the inlet pipes are closed?
Since cistern is filled in 5 minutes, each minutes
8
1th
of it is getting filled. Thus if the leak can empty the filled cistern in x
minutes, we have
.
x x 40
1
40
1425
8
11
20
1
10
1

Thus the leak can empty the cistern in 40 minutes.

Unsolved exercise:
1. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 20 and 30 minutes respectively If both the pipes are used together, then
how long will it take to fill the tank ? .
(a) 12 min * (b) 15 min (c) 25 min (d) 50 min
2. A cistern can be filled by a tap in 4 hours while it can be emptied by another tap in 9 hours. If both the taps are
opened simultaneously. then after how much time will the cistern get filled ?
(a) 4.5 hrs (b) 5 hrs (c) 6.5 hrs (d) 7.2 hrs*
3. Pipe A can fill a tank in 5 hours, pipe B in 10 hours and pipe C in 30 hours. If all the pipes are open, in how
many hours will the tank be filled?
(a) 2 (b) 2.5 (c) 3 * (d) 3.5
4. Pipes A and B can fill a tank in 5 and 6 hours respectively. Pipe C can empty it in 12 hours. If all the three pipes
are opened together, then the tank will be filled in :
(a) 1
13
17
- hours (b) 2
8
11
hours (c) 3
9
17
- hours* (d) 4
1
2

hours
5. Two pipes A and B can separately fill a cistern in 60 minutes and 75 minutes respectively. There is a third pipe
in the bottom of the cistern to empty it. If all the three pipes are simultaneously opened, then the cistern is full in 50
minutes. In how much time, the third pipe alone can empty the cistern ?
(a) 90 min (b) 100 min * (c) 110 min (d) 120 min
6. A pump can fill a tank with water in 2 hours. Because of a leak, it took 2

1
3
hours to fill the tank. The leak can drain all the
water of the tank in :
(a) 4

1
3
hrs (b) 7 hrs (c) 8 hrs (d) 14 hrs *

7. A tap can fill a tank in 6 hours. After half the tank is filled, three more similar taps are opened. What is the total
time taken to fill the tank completely?
(a) 3 hrs 15 min (b) 3 hrs 45 min* (c) 4 hrs (d) 4 hrs 15 min

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


100
8. Bucket P has thrice the capacity as bucket Q. It takes 60 turns for bucket P to fill the empty drum. How many turns it will take
for both the buckets P and Q, having each turn together to fill the empty drum?
(a) 30 (b) 40 (c) 45 * (d) 90
9. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 12 minutes and 15 minutes respectively. If both the taps are opened simultaneously, and the
tap A is closed after 3 minutes, then how much more time will it take to fill the tank by tap B ?
(a) 7 min 15 sec (b) 7 min 45 sec (c) 8 min 5 sec (d) 8 min 15 sec *
10. Two pipes A and B can fill a tank in 15 hours and 20 hours respectively while a third pipe C can empty the full tank in 25 hours:
All the three pipes are opened in the beginning. After 10 hours, C is closed. In how much time, will the tank be full ?
(a) 12 hrs * (b) 13 hrs (c) 16 hrs (d) 18 hrs

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


101

TIME AND DISTANCE


Relation between Time, Speed and Distance:
Speed is defined as distance covered per unit time. Thus,
Speed =
Time taken
Distance covered
Accordingly, the unit of speed are
hr
km
(or kmph i.e. kilometers per hours) and
sec
meters
(m/s).
In certain problems you would need to convert speed from kmph to m/s. Thus it would be a good idea to memorise the
conversion factor and conversion of the most often used speeds:
1 kmph = m/s
18
5
18 seconds
5 meters
3600 seconds
1000 meters
1hr
1km

Thus, 18 kmph = 5 mls


Very often, in questions that require conversion of speed from kmph to m/s, the speed used will be some comfortable
multiple of 18 kmph. One should not spend time in using the, above conversion, instead should be ready with the following:
18 kmph = 5 m/s, 36 kmph = 10 m/s, 45 kmph = 12.5 m/s 54 kmph = 15 m/s

72 kmph = 20 m/s 90 kmph = 25 m/s


Proportionality between Time, Speed and Distance
This is probably the most important topic in this chapter. And also the most thought-intensive. It provides the foundation to
solve many tough problems orally!

Time & speed


Time is inversely proportional to speed, when distance is constant.
E.g.1: If a man walks at the rate of 5 kmph, he misses a train by 7 minutes. However, if he walks at the rate of 6 kmph, he
reaches the station 5 minutes before the departure of the train. Find the distance to the station.
Missing the train by 7 minutes and reaching early by 5 minutes implies that the time taken at speed of 6 kmph is 12 minutes
less than the time taken at speed of 5 kmph.
The ratio of speeds is 5 : 6 and since distance is constant the ratio of the time taken will be in the ratio 6 : 5. Also as
explained the difference in the time taken in the two cases differ by 12 minutes. Thus,
Usual Time
at 5 kmph
taken
Time taken at
6 kmph
Diff in time
taken
Usual Time
taken
Time taken at
3/5th speed
Ratio 6 5 1 6 5
x 12

x 12
x12
Actual value ? ? 12 72 60

Km/h m/s
5
18

18
5

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


102
Thus time taken at 6 kmph is 72 minutes and at 5 kmph is 60 minutes. Either of these speed and time combination can be
used to find the distance. Since 60 minutes is 1 hour, its easier to find the distance at 5 kmph x 1 hr = 5 km. Check that the
same distance is found using the other combination of 6 kmph and 72 minutes.
Thus the distance is 5 km.
Distance a Speed
Distance is directly proportional to speed, when the time is same
E. g. 2: Two trains start simultaneously, one from Bombay to Kolkata and other from Kolkata to Bombay. They meet each
other at Nagpur which is at a distance of 700 kms from Bombay. If the distance between Bombay and Kolkata is 1600 km,
find the ratio of their speeds.
Since the trains started simultaneously, the time they have been traveling till the time they meet is equal. And hence the
distance they cover will be in ratio of their speed. Since the train from Bombay has covered 70Q km and the train from
Kolkata has covered 1600 -700 = 900 kms, the ratio of their speeds will be 700: 900 i.e. 7: 9.
Distance &Time
Distance is directly proportional to time when speed is constant
E.g. 3: A car overtakes an auto at point A at 9 am. The car reaches point B at 11 am and immediately turns back. It again
meets the auto at point C at 11 :30 am. At what time will the auto reach B?
Since the car takes 2 hours to travel AB and 0.5 hours to travel BC, The ratio of the distances AB : BC will be 2: 0.5 Le.4 : I.
(Distance is proportional to time)
Since C lies in between A and B, the ratio of the distance AC to CB will be 3 : 1.
The auto has traveled AC in 2.5 hours (from 9 am to 11 :30 am). To travel B to C he will take
3
150

3
2.5hrs min s
= more minutes. Thus the auto will reach B at 12.40 pm.
Relative Speed:
If two objects are moving with speeds 81 and 82, their relative speed is
S1 + S2, if they are moving in opposite direction and
S1 - S2, if they are moving in same direction.
Time taken to meet/catch =
1 2 Relative speed i.e. S S
Init ial distance sepoarating them

E.g. 4: A thief escapes from a prison at 2 pm and travels away at a speed of 30 kmph. The police realize the escape at 3:30
pm and start the chase then at a speed of 40 kmph. At what time will the police catch the thief? At what distance from the
prison is the thief caught.
When the chase starts i.e. at 3: 30 pm, the thief has already run 30 x 1.5 = 45 kms. Thus, this is the distance that separated the
police and the thief and so the time taken to catch is
40 30
45

= 4.5 hours.
The distance run by the police is 40 kmph x 4.5 hours = 180 kms and so the thief is caught at a distance of 180 kms form the
prison.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


103
Unsolved exercise:
1. A train runs at the rate of 45 km an hour. What is its speed in metres per second?
(a) 25/2 m/sec* (b) 24 m/sec
(c) 21/2m sec (d) None of these
2. A motor car takes 50 seconds to travel 500 metres. What is its speed in km per hour?
(a) 32 km/hr (b) 36 km/hr*
(c) 34 km/hr (d) 38 km/hr
3. A man covers a certain distance by car driving at 40/km/hr and he returns backs to the starting point riding
on a scooter at 10 km/hr. Find his average speed for the whole journey.
(a) 8 km/hr (b) 16 km/hr*
(c) 12 km/hr (d) None of these
4. A man covers a certain distance by car driving at 30 km/hr and he returns back to the starting point riding
on a scooter at 20 km/hr. Find his average speed for the whole journey.
(a) 24 km/hr* (b) 27 km/hr
(c) 15 km/hr (d) 12 km/hr
5. A man is walking at a speed of 6 km per hour. After every km he takes rest for 6 minutes. How much time
will he take to cover a distance of 18 km.
(a) 5 hrs (b) 5 hrs 42 min
(c) 4 hrs 42 min* (d) None of these
6. A man covers a certain distance between his house and office on scooter. Having an average speed of 15
km/hr, he is late by 5 min. However, with a speed of 20 km/hr, he reaches his office 5/2 min earlier. Find
the distance between his house and office.
(a) 15 km (b) 31/2 (c) 7 km (d) 15/2 km*
7. A motor car does a journey in 12 hrs, the first half at 15 km/hr and second half at 30 km/hr. Find the
distance.
(a) 190 km (b) 280 km (c) 240 km* d) 210 km
8. Two men A and B start from a place P walking at 2km and 5 km an hour respectively. How many km will
they be apart at the end of 2 hours, if they walk in opposite directions?
(a) 7 km (b) 8 km (c) 12 km (d) 14 km*
9. A person covers a distance in 8 minutes if he runs at a speed of 9 km per hour on an average. Find the
speed at which he must run to reduce the time of journey to 6 minutes.
(a) 12 km/hr* (b) 10 km/hr
(c) 9 km/hr (d) None of these
10. A train travels 150 km in 5 hours and 250 km in 3 hours. Find the average speed of train.

(a) 50 km/hr* (b) 60 km/hr


(c) 100 km/hr (d) 80 km/hr
11. A thief steals a motor car at a 1 PM and drives it at 45 km an hour. The theft is discovered at 2 PM and
the owner sets off in another car at 54 km an hour. When will he overtake the thief?
(a) 5 PM (b) 3 PM (c) 7 PM* (d) Cant be determined
12. A monkey tries to ascend a greased pole 91 metres high. He ascends 10 metres in first minute and slips
down 1 metre in the alternate minute. If he continues to ascend in this fashion, how long does he take to
reach the top?
(a) 19 minutes* (b) 18 minutes (c) 20 minutes (d) None of these
13. A train running at
7
11
of its own speed reached a place in 22 hours. How much time would be saved if the
train could have run at its own speed?
(a) 7 hours (b) 8 hours* (c) 14 hours (d) 16 hours

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


104
14. Excluding stoppages, the speed of a bus is 54 kmph & including stoppages, it is 45 kmph. For how many minutes
does the bus stop per hour?
(a) 9 (b) 10* (c) 12 (d) 20
15. Three persons are walking from a place A to another place B. Their speeds are in the ratio of 4 : 3 : 5. The time ratio
to reach B by these persons will be:
(a) 4 : 3 : 5 (b) 5 : 3 : 4 (c) 15 : 9 : 20 (d)15 : 20 : 12*
16. A is twice as fast as B & B is thrice as fast as C is. The journey covered by C in 54 minutes will be covered by B in:
(a) 18 min* (b) 27 min (c) 38 min (d) 9 min
17. A walks around a circular field at the rate of 1 round per hour while B runs around it at the rate of 6 rounds per hour.
They start in the same direction from the same point at 07:30 a.m. They shall first cross each other at:
(a) 7.42 a.m.* (b) 7.48 a.m. (c) 8.10 a.m. (d) 8.30 a.m.
18. Two guns were fired from the same place at an interval of 10 minutes & 30 seconds, but a person in the train
approaching the place hears the second shot 10 minutes after the first. The speed of the train (in km/hr), supposing that
speed travels at 330 metres per second, is:
(a) 19.8 (b) 58.6 (c) 59.4* (d) 111.80
19. The jogging track in a sports complex is 726 metres in circumference. Deepak & his wife starts from the same point
& walk in opposite directions at 4.5 km/hr & 3.75km/hr respectively. They will meet for the first time in:
(a) 4.9 min (b) 5.28 min* (c) 5.5 min (d) 6 min
20. A & B walk around a circular track. They start at 8 am from the same time in the opposite directions. A & B walk at
a speed of 2 rounds per hour & 3 rounds per hour respectively. How many times shall they cross each other before 9.30
am?

(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 7* (d) 8

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


105

TRAINS
In the problems asked, usually a train is crossing either a pole or a man (stationary or walking) or a platform or bridge or
another train (obviously moving). For all such cases you could use the following with the modifications as noted below:
Time taken to cross =
12
12

SS
LL

If one of the object is a pole or a man, its length will be 0 (zero)


If one of the object is stationary (e.g. pole, platform, bridge), its speed will be 0 (zero) and the relative speed will just be the
speed of the moving object.
E.g. 1: A train running at 72 kmph crosses a telephone pole in 7 sec. What is the length of the train?
Since a telephone pole is a stationary object of negligible length, the distance the train covers is just its own length.
Speed in m/s = 72 x 20m/ s

18
5

Distance = 20 x 7 = 140 m
So length of the train = 140 m
E.g. 2: A train crosses 2 platforms of length 400 m and 600 m in 6 seconds and 8 seconds respectively. What is the length of
the train?
Let the length of the train be x.
Then, 8
S
600 x
6
400
i

and
S
x
i

Since we want to find x, eliminating Si, we have


8
600
6
400 x x

Cross multiplying 2x = 400 x = 200. Hence the length of the train is 200 m.
E.g. 3: A train crosses two persons who are walking at 2 kmph and 4 kmph, in the same direction in which the train is going,
in 9 and 10 seconds respectively. Find the length of the train.
If the length (in kms) and speed (in kmph) of the train is l and s respectively, we have

9 10
;
2 3600 4 3600
ll
ss

400l = s=2; 360l = s-4


These are two simultaneous equations in 1 and s. Since we want to find I, eliminating s by subtracting the equations, we get
40l = 2 l = 1000 50 meters
20
1

Unsolved exercise:
1. A train traveling at 30 km in hour took 13.5 sec. in passing a certain point. Find the length of the train.
(a) 113m. (b) 112m (c) 112.5 m* (d) none of these.
2. A train 110 m in length runs through a station at the rate of 36 kmph. How long will it take to pass a given
point ?
(a) 11sec.* (b) 12sec. (c) 13 sec. (d) 15 sec.
3. A train 160 m long passes a standing man in 18 sec. What is the speed of the train ?
(a) 28 kmph. (b) 36kmph (c) 32 kmph* (d) none of these.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


106
4. Find the length of a bridge, which a train 130m long, travellling at 45 kmph, can cross in 30 sec.
(a) 240m. (b) 235m (c) 250 m (d) 245 m*
5. A train 540 m long is running with a speed of 72 kmph. In what time will it pass a tunnel 160 m long ?

(a) 40 sec. (b) 30 sec. (c) 35 sec.* (d) 42 sec..


6. A train 240 m long passes a bridge 120 m long in 24 sec. Find the speed with which the train is moving.
(a) 45 kmph. (b) 54kmph* (c) 36 kmph (d) 42 kmph.
7. Two trains 70m and 80 m long respectively, run at the rates of 68 kmph and 40 kmph respectively on parallel rails in
opposite directions. How long do they take to pass each other?
(a) 5 sec*. (b) 10 sec. (c) 12sec. (d) 6 sec.
8. A train 150 m long crosses a man walking at a speed of 6 kmph in the opposite directions in 6 sec. The speed of the
train is
(a) 96 kmph (b) 84 kmph* (c) 106 kmph (d) 66kmph.
9. Two trains are running in opposite directions with the same speed. If the length of each train is 135 m and cross each
other in 18 sec. the speed of each train is
(a) 104 kmph (b) 27 kmph* (c) 54 kmph (d) none of these.
10. A train 100 m long meets a man going in opposite direction at 5 kmph and passes him in 7.2 seconds. At what rate is
the train going ?
(a) 45 kmph.* (b) 54kmph (c) 36 kmph (d) 42 kmph.
11. Two trains of length 110 m and 90 m are running on parallel lines in the same direction with a speed of 35 kmph and
40 kmph respectively. In what time will they pass each other ?
(a) 144 sec. * (b) 140 sec. (c) 134 sec. (d) 154 sec..
12. Two trains travel in the same direction at 56 kmph and 29 kmph and the faster train passes a man in the slower train
in 16 sec. Find the length of the faster train.
(a) 100 m (b) 120 m * (c) 124 m (d) 420 m.
13. 250 m long train crosses a platform of length 350 m in 50 sec. Find the time for train to cross a bridge of 230 m.
(a) 45 sec. (b) 80 sec. (c) 40 sec*. (d) 54 sec.
14. A train passes a pole in 15 seconds and passes a platform 100 m long in 25 seconds. Find its length.
(a) 150 m.* (b) 100 m. (c) 250 m. (d) data inadequate.
15. A train passes two men walking in the direction opposite to the train at 7 m/s and 13 m/s in 5 sec. and 4 sec.
respectively. Find the length of the train.
(a) 100 m. (b) 120 m.* (c) 75 m. (d) 125 m.
16. Two stations are 110 km apart on a straight line. One train starts from A at 7 a.m and travel towards B at 20 kmph.
Another trains starts from B at 8 a.m and travel towards A at the speed of 25 kmph. At what time will they meet?
(a). 9 a.m (b). 10 a.m* (c). 11 a.m (d). 10:30 a.m
17. The length of the train that takes 8 seconds to pass pole when it runs at speed 36kmph is . Mtrs?
(a) 70m (b) 80m* (c) 5m (d) 90m.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


107
18. How long will a train 60m long traveling at 40kmph take to pass through station whose platform is 90m long?
(a) 12.5 seconds (b) 13.5 seconds* (c) 14.5 seconds (d) 15.5 seconds
19. Two stations A and B are 110 km apart on a straight line. One train start from A at 7 a.m and travel towards B at 20
kmph speed. Another train start from B at 8 a.m and travel towards A at 25kmph . At what time will they met?
(a) 10 a.m* (b) 11 a.m (c) 12 a.m (d) 13 a.m
20. A train overtakes two persons who are walking in the same direction in which the train is going, at the rate of 2
kmph and 4 kmph and passes them completely in 9 and 10 seconds respectively. The length of the train is?
(a) 72m (b) 54m (c) 50m* (d) 45m.
21. A train 100 metres in length passes from a milestone in 10 seconds another train of the same length traveling in
opposite direction in 8 seconds. The speed of the second train is ?
(a) 54 kmph* (b) 55 kmph (c) 60 kmph (d) 70 kmph
22. A train running at certain speed crosses a stationary engine in 20 seconds. To find out the speed of the train, which of
the following information is necessary:
(a) only the length of the train
(b) only the length of the engine
(c) either the length of the train and the length of the engine
(d) both the length of the train and length of the engine.*
23. The speed of 100m long running train a A is 40% more than the speed of another 180m long train B running in the
opposite directions. To fin out the speed of train B, which of the information given in statements P and Q is sufficient?
P: The two trains crossing each other in 6 seconds
Q: The difference between the speed of the two trains was 26kmph.
(a) only p is sufficient (b) only Q

(c) both P & Q are needed (d) either P or Q are sufficient.*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


108

BOATS AND STREAMS


Boats and Streams:
When a boatman is rowing in still water, say a lake, he would be moving at a speed at which he can row. This speed is called
the speed of boat in still water or simply speed of boat. But consider the same boatman in a stream. Because of the current he
is either aided (if rowing in the direction of the stream, this is called Downstream) or will be opposed (if rowing against the
stream, called Upstream).
If the speed of boatman in still water is B and the speed of the stream is S, we have Downstream Speed = B + S
Upstream Speed = B - S
If the speed of boatman is lesser than the speed of the current or stream, the upstream speed will be negative i.e. he is trying
to row upstream, but rather than move in that direction, he is taken in opposite direction by the stream. But such situations do
not occur in math problems on this topic.
The above relations can be modified for cases when the effective downstream speed, D and upstream speed, U is given and
we are supposed to find Band S.
B=
22
DU
,S
DU

E.g. 1: A boat covers a distance of 16 km in 2 hours when rowing downstream and in 4 hours if rowing upstream. What is
the speed of the boat in still water?
Speed Upstream = 8km/hr
2
16
Speed Downstream = 4km/hr
4
16

From the above formula, speed of boat in still water = km/hr


DU
6
2
84
2

E.g. 2: The rowing speed of a man in still water is 7.5 kmph. In a river flowing at 1.5 kmph, it takes the same boatman 50
minutes to row a certain distance and come back. Find the distance.
Here Speed Downstream = 7.5 + 1.5 = 9 km/hr
Speed Upstream = 7.5- 1.5 = 6 km/hr
Let the required distance be x. Since the time taken by him is
6
5
696
5

xx
hr,
Solving we get, x = 3
Hence the place is 3 km away.
E.g. 3: A boatman rows to a place 48 km distant and back in 14 hours. He finds that he can row 4 km with the stream in the
same time as 3 km against the stream. Find the rate of the stream.
Since the time taken to row 4 km downstream is same as the time taken to row 3 km upstream,

B S B S

43
4B 4S = 3B + 3S B = 7S
Since the boatman takes 14 hours to row to a place 48 km distant and come back,
14
48 48

B S B S
Substituting B = 78, we have
14
68
14
6
48
8
48

SSSS
14 1
14
S
S

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


109
Unsolved exercise:
1. A boat goes 14 km upstream in 56 minutes. The speed of stream is 2 km/hr. The speed of boat in still water is
(a) 6 kmph (b) 7 kmph (c) 17 kmph* (d) 8.5 kmph
2. The speed of a boat in stll water is 10 km/hr. If its speed downstream be 13 km/hr, then speed of the stream is:
(a) 1.5 kmph (b) 3 kmph* (c) 5 kmph (d) 8.5 kmph
3. A man can row downstream at the rate of 14 km/hr and upstream at 5 km/hr. Find mans rate in still water.
(a) 9.5 kmph* (b) 8 kmph (c) 9 kmph (d) 5 kmph
4. A man row upstream 16 km and downstream 27 km taking 5 hours each time. What is the velocity of current ?
(a) 2 kmph (b) 2.1 kmph (c) 1.1 kmph* (d) 8 kmph
5. A man can row 4.5 km/hr in still water and he finds that it takes him twice as long to row up as to row down the
river. Find the rate of stream.
(a) 6 kmph (b) 1.5 kmph* (c) 2.5kmph (d) 3.5 kmph
6. The speed of a boat in still water is 15 km/hr and the rate of current is 3 km/hr. The distance traveled downsream in
12 minutes is
(a) 3.6 km* (b) 2.4 km (c) 1.2 km (d) 5 km
7. The current of stream runs at 1 kmph. A motor boat goes 35 km up stream and back again to the starting point in 12
hours. The speed of the motor boat is ?
(a) 6 kmph* (b) 7 kmph (c) 9 kmph (d) 8.5 kmph
8. A man can row 5 kmph in still water. If the the river is running at 1 kmph, it takes him 75 minutes to row to a place
and back. How far is the place?
(a) 3 km* (b) 2.5 km (c) 4 km (d) 8.5 km
9. A man can row upstream at 7 kmph and down stream at 10 kmph. Find mans rate water and rate of current?
(a) 2.5, 1.5 kmph (b) 8.5, 1.5 kmph* (c) 3, 2.5 kmph (d) 3.5, 2.5 kmph
10. A man can row

1
9
3
kmph in still water and he finds that it takes him thrice as much time to row up than as to row
down the same distance in river. The speed of the current is?
(a) 5 kmph (b)

2
4

3
kmph* (c) 5 kmph (d) 4 kmph
11. A boat travels upstream from B to A and down strean from A to B in 3 hours. If the speed of boat in still is 9 kmph
and the speed of the current is 3 kmph, the distance between A and B is?
(a) 10 km (b) 12 km* (c) 11 km (d) 13 km.
12. A man row upstream at 8 kmph and down stream at 13 kmph. The speed of the stream is?
(a) 5 kmph (b) 2.5 kmph* (c) 10.5 kmph (d) 4.2 kmph
13. A man rows 13 km upstream in 5 hours and also 28 km downstream in 5 hours. The velocity of the stream is.
(a) 1.5 kmph* (b) 2 kmph (c) 2.5 kmph (d) 3 kmph
14. The current of a streams runs at 1 kmph . A motor boat goes 35 km upstream and back again to the starting point in
12 hours. The speed of the motor boat in the still water is?
(a) 6 kmph* (b) 7 kmph (c) 9 kmph (d) 8 kmph
15. A man can row o boat at 10 kmph in still water. If the speed of the stream is 6 kmph the time taken to a row distance
of 80 km down the stream is?
(a) 8 hours (b) 5 hours* (c) 10 hours (d) 20 hours
16. If a man rows at 6 kmph in still water and 4.5 km against the current, then his along the current is?
(a) 7.5 kmph* (b) 6 km (c) 8 km (d)9 km

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


110

PERMUTATIONS & COMBINATION


Some Important Notation and Formulae
1. Factorial Notations: The product of n consecutive positive integers beginning with 1 is denoted by n! and
read as n factorial.
i.e. n! = 12345.. (n-1)
or = n(n-1)(n-2)(n-3)..321
for example: 6! = 654321 = 720
9!
6!
=

9 8 7 6!
6!

= 987 = 504
2. Numbers of permutations or arrangements of n different things taken r at a time.

!
( )!
n
r

n
p
nr

3. Number of selections, or groups of n different things taken r at a time.

!
!( )!
n
r

n
C
rnr

4. a) ! n n

Pr r Cr
b) If n n
xy

C C then either x = y or x + y = n

c} ! n
n

P n

d) 0 1 n n
n

C C

e) 0! = 1
5. Number of permutations of n things out of which `p` are alike and are of one type, `q` are alike and are of
the other type, `r` are alike and are of another type and remaining all are different is:

!
!!!
n
pqr
6. Total number of selections of zero or more things from `n` different things is:

.......... 2 n n n n n
n C C C C
012

7. Number of ways to distribute or divide n identical things among r persons where any persons may get any
no. of things = 1
1
nr
r

8. Number of ways of arranging n people on a circular track (circular arrangment) = (n - 1)!


9. When clockwise and anticlockwise observation are not different then number of n different things =

1!
2
n
10. If n number of people distributing gifts to each other, then No. of gift given = n(n-1), Here n is a natural number.
11. If a particular member doesnt give gift but take from all then number of gifts = (n-1) (n-1)
12. If two of such type then number of gift = (n-2) (n-1)

PERMUTATIONS
Example: 1 In how many different ways can the letters of the word PROBE be arranged ?
Sol. The word PROBE consists of 5 distinct letters.
Therefore total number of arrangements = 5! = 54321 = 120 ans.
Example: 2 In how many different ways can the letters of the word APPLE be arranged ?
Sol. The word APPLE consists of 5 letters, with two repeated letters.
Therefore total number of arrangements =
5!
2!
= 543 = 60 ans.

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


111
Example:3 In how many different ways can the letters of the word MISSISSIPPI be arranged ?
Sol. The word consists of 11 letters, with repeated letters.
Therefore total number of arrangements =
11!
4!2!4!
=
11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
4321432121

= 34650ans.
Example: 4 In how many different ways can the letters of the word STRANGE be arranged so that vowels
come together ?
Sol. The word STRANGE consists of 2 vowels(A,E) and 5 consonants. For vowels together we will
consider vowels (A,E) as a single letters, with other consonants.
So (A,E) , S,T,R,N,G are six letters to arrange and can be arrange in 6! ways. But two vowels can
be arranged in 2! ways itself.
So total no. of ways so that vowels come together in = 6! 2!
Therefore total number of arrangements = 720 2 = 1440

Example: 5 How many numbers between 400 and 1000 can be made with the digits 0,2,3,4,5 and 6 ?
a) without repetition of digits.
b) with repetition allowed.
Sol. In this type of questions first of all decide of how many digits the required numbers will be. Then
fill up the places on which there are restritions and then apply the formula of permutation for filling
up the remaining places with remaining digits.
Since the number should be greater than 400, therefore, hundreds place can be filled up by any one
of the three digits 4,5 and 6 in 3 ways.
a) For first part remaining where repetition is not allowed two places can be filled up by remaining
five digits in 5
2P .
Therefore required numbers = 3 5
2P = 3

5!
3!
= 60 ans.

b) for second part remaining where repetition is allowed two places can be filled up by remaining
five digits in 5 5 ways.
Therefore required numbers = 3 5 5= 75 ans

Example: 6 In how many ways 3 prizes can be given away to 7 boys when each boy is eligible for any number
of prizes.
Sol.
1
2
st
nd

prize
prize

same boy,
1
2
st
nd

boy
boy

same prize
Two prizes can be given to the same boy but two boys cannot get the same prize, therefore, we
must start with prize.
Each of the three prizes can be given away to any one of the 7 boys in 7 ways.
required number 7 7 7 = 343. ans.
Example: 7 In how many ways can 4 Indians and 4 Americans people be seated around a round table so that no
two Indians are in adjacent positions ?
Sol. If we put 4 Indians around the round table, we can do this in 3! Ways.
Once the 4 Indians are placed around table. We have to place the four Amaricans around the same
round table. Now, since the Indians are alresdy placed we can do this in 4! Ways (as the starting
point is defined when we put the Indians)
Hence, answer = 3! 4!
Example: 8 In a group of 50 people all give gift to each other but Ravi does not give gift to anyone but take from all.
Find how many gift were distributed in the party.
Sol No. of gifts = (n - 1) (n -1)
= 4949 = 2401 Ans

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


112
Unsolved exercise:
1. In a class there are 27 boys and 14 girls. The teacher wants to select 1 boy and 1 girl to represent the class in a
function. In how many ways can the teacher make this selection?
*a) 378 b)786 c) 143 d)875
2. From Goa to Bombay there are two roots; air, and sea. From Bombay to Delhi there are three routes; air, rail and road.
From Goa to Delhi via Bombay, how many kinds of routes are there?
a) 8 b) 7 c) 5 d) 6*
3. A coin is tossed five times and outcomes are recorded. How many possible outcomes are there?
a) 24 b) 28 c) 32* d) 36
4. In how many ways can an examinee answer a set of ten true/false type questions?
a) 1024* b) 1042 c) 1058 d) 1087
5. A letter lock consists of three rings each marked with 10 different letters. In how many ways it is possible to make an
unsuccessful attempt to open the lock?
a) 896 b) 972 c) 785 d) 999*
6. How many three-digit numbers are there with no digit repeated?
a) 468 b) 648* c) 784 d) 558
7. How many three-digit numbers are there?
a) 750 b) 800 c) 850 d) 900*
8. How many three-digit odd numbers are there?
a) 450* b) 470 c) 590 d) 540
9. How many four-digit numbers can be formed with the digits 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 which are greater than 7000, if repetition of
digits is not allowed?
a) 48 b) 56 c) 64 d) 72*
10. In how many ways can six persons be seated in a row?
a) 720* b) 800 c) 480 d) 560
11. In how many ways can 4 prizes be distributed among 5 students, when
(i) no student gets more than one prize?
a) 4! b) 5!* c) 6! d) 7!
(ii) a student may get any number of prizes ?
a) 625* b) 565 c) 655 d) 750
(iii) no student gets all the prizes ?
a) 628 b) 568 c) 620* d) 680
12. How many numbers of four digits can be formed with the digits I, 2, 3, 4,5 if the digits can be repeated in the same
number?
a) 615 b) 625* c) 675 d) 695
13. How many three digit numbers can be formed by using the digits a 0 1, 3, 5, 7 while each digit may be repeated any
number of times?
a) 120 b) 95 c) 110 d) 100*

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


113
14. In how many ways can the letters of the word 'STRANGE' be arranged so that
(i) the vowels come together?
a) 1000 b) 1210 c) 1440* d) 1690
(ii) the vowels never come together?
a) 1210 b) 3600* c) 1690 d) 1960
15. The number of words that can be formed out of the letters of the word 'COMMITTEE' is
(a) 3
9!
(2!)
* (b) 2
9!
(2!)
(c)
9!

2!
(d) 9!
16. i) How many different words can be formed with the letters of word 'SUNDAY'?
a) 480 b) 560 c) 640 d) 720*
ii) How many of the words begin with N?
a)110 b) 210 c) 120* d) 140
iii) How many begin with N and end in Y?
a) 24* b) 30 c) 36 d) 20
17. i) How many different words can be formed from the letters of the word 'GANESHPURI' ?
a) 8! b) 10! * c) 6! d) 9!
In how many of these words:
(ii) the letter G always occupies the first place?
a) 8! b) 7! c) 6! d) 9!*
(iii) the letters P and I respectively occupy first and last place?
a) 8!* b) 6! c) 7! d) 5!
(iv) the vowels are always together?
a) 5! 6! b) 6! 5! c) 4! 7 d) 7! 4!*
18. How many different signals can be made from 4 red, 2 white and 3 green flags by arranging all of them
vertically on a flagstaff?
a) 1430 b) 1260* c) 1620 d) 1340
19. In how many ways five persons can sit around the round table.
a) 8! b) 6! c) 4!* d) 5!
20. In how many ways the bead of 10 different colours can be put in round neckles ?
a)
10!
2
* b) 9! c)
9!
2!
d) 10!

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


114

COMBINATION
Example: 1 There are 25 students in a class. Find the number of ways in which a committee of 3 students
is to be formed.
Sol. Number of selections, or groups of n different things taken r at a time is
!
!( )!
n
r

n
C
rnr

Number of formation of committee from 25 students taken 3 at a time.


25
3

25!
3!(25 3)!
C

25 24 23
321

= 2300 ans.

Example: 2 From a group of 6 boys and 4 girls, in how many different ways can 2 boys and 2 girls be
selected for a competition ?
Sol. The require number of ways:6 4
C2 C2 =
6!
2!(6 2)!

4!
2!(4 2)!
=
65
21

43
21

= 90. ans.

Example: 3 In an examination a minimum is to be secured in each of 5 subjects for a pass. In how many
ways can student fail ?
Sol. The student will fail if he fails in one or more subjects. Now, the students can fail in one or more
subjects out of 5 subjects in
55555
12345

C C C C C ways

= 5555555

C C C C C C C
= 5 2 -1 ( because, 0 1 2 .......... 2 n n n n n
n C C C C )
= 31 ans.
Unsolved exercise:
1. From a group of 15 cricket players, a team of 11 players is to be chosen. In how many ways can this be done?
a) 1234 *b)1365 c) 2314 d)4325
2. How many different boat parties of 8, consisting of 5 boys and 3 girls, can be made from 25 boys and 10 girls
a)5674600 b)6378900 *c)6375600 d)9878967
3. In how many ways can a student choose 5 courses out of 9 courses if 2 courses are compulsory for every
student?
a)35* b) 76 c) 90 d) 21
4. (i) In how many ways can a football team of 11 players be selected from 16 players ?
a) 1000 b) 2000 c)4368 * d)2002
How many of these will
(ii) include 2 particular players ?
a) 1000 b) 2000 c)2010 d)2002*
(iii) exclude 2 particular players?
a) 365 b) 364* c) 80 d) 125
5. (i) There are 10 professors and 20 students out of whom a committee of 2 professors and 3 students is to be
formed. Find the number of ways in which this can be done.
a) 10050 b) 21000 c)20100 d)51300*
0123450

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


115
Further find in how many of these committees:
(ii) a particular professor is included.
a) 10269* b) 123456 c) 10780 d) 102345
(iii) a particular student is included.

a) 7695* b) 5678 c)8746 d) 7854


6. Total number of words formed by 2 vowels and 3 consonants taken from 4 vowels and 5 consonants is equal to
(a) 60 (b) 120 (c) 7200* (d) none of these.
7. How many different selections of 4 books can be made from 10 different books, if
(i) there is no restriction;
a) 130 b) 150 c) 210* d) 235
(ii) two particular books are always selected;
a) 35 b) 28* c) 42 d) 26
(iii) two particular books are never selected ?
a) 64 b) 68 c) 80 d) 70*
8. In an examination, a student has to answer 4 questions out of 5 questions; questions 1 and 2 are however compulsory.
Determine the number of ways in which the student can make the choice.
a) 2 b) 5 c) 6 d) 3*
9. Find the number of diagonals of
(i) a hexagon
a) 7 b) 8 c) 9* d) 10
(ii) a polygon of 16 sides.
a) 102 b) 104* c) 108 d) 110
10 The number of diagonals that can be drawn by joining the vertices of an octagon is
(a) 20* (b) 28 (c) 8 (d) 16
11. At the end of a business conference the ten people present all shake hands with each other once. How many
handshakes will there be altogether?
(a) 20 (b) 45* (c) 55 (d) 90

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


116

PROBABILITY
1. n(S) = total no. of possible events ie no. of sample space
2. n(E) = no. of desired events
3. Probability of an event is defined as P(E) =
()
()
nE
nS
=
...
...
no of desired events
total no of events
4. 0 P(E) 1
5. Probability of an impossible event = 0
6. Probability of a certain event = 1
Example 1. A dice is thrown. What is the probability that the number shown on the dice is a no. divisible by 3.
Sol. sample space is {1,2,3,4,5,6,}
Ie total no. of possible events n(S) = 6
Desired events ie multiple of 3 {3,6}
Ie total no of desired events n(E)= 2
Probability of an event is defined as P(E) =
()
()
nE
nS
=
2
6
=
1

3
ans.
Example 2. A bag contains 6 black balls and 8 white balls. One ball is drawn at random. What is the probability
that the ball drawn is white ?
Sol. Total no. of balls = 8 + 6 = 14
No. of white balls = 8
Probability (drawing a white ball) =
8
14
=
4
7
ans.
Example 3. A bag contains 5 blue and 4 black balls. Three balls are drawn a random. What is the probability
that 2 are blue and 1 is black ?
Sol. Let S be the sample space and E be the event of drawing 3 balls out of which 2 are blue and 1 is
black. Then, n(S) = Number of ways of drawing 3 balls out of 9 = 9
3C =
987
321

= 84
n(E) = Numbers of ways of drawing 2 balls out of 5 and 1 ball out of 4 is = 5 4
2 1 C C = 10 + 4 = 14

Probability of an event is defined as P(E) =


()
()
nE
nS
=
14
84
=
1
6
ans.
Example 1.
Unsolved exercise:
1. A die is thrown. Find the probability of getting:
(i) a prime number
(a)1/4 (b)2/3 (c) 3/4 (d) 1/2*
(ii) 2 or 4
(a)1/2 (b) 1/3* (c) (d)1/5
(iii) a multiple of 2 or 3.
(a)1/4 (b)2/5 (c)2/3* (d)3/5
2. In a simultaneous throw of a pair of dice, find the probability of getting:
(i) 8 as the sum
(a)2/9 (b)5/12 (c)5/36* (d)1/6
(ii) a doublet
(a)1/2 (b)1/6* (c)1/3 (d)1/4

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


117
(iii) a doublet of prime numbers
(a)1/3 (b)2/5 (c)1/12 * (d)1/4
(iv) a doublet of odd numbers

(a)1/12 * (b)1/6 (c)2/5 (d)2/9


(v) a sum greater than 9
(a)4/5 (b)3/5 (c)1/5 (d)1/6*
(vi) an even number on first
(a)1/2* (b)1/3 (c)1/5 (d)1/6
(vii) an even number on one and a multiple of 3 on the other
(a)5/36 (b)1/3 (c)11/36* (d)7/12
(viii) neither 9 nor 11 as the sum of the numbers on the faces
(a)13/36 (b)5/6* (c)7/12 (d)3/4
(ix) a sum less than 6
(a)1/2 (b)1/3 (c)5/18* (d)4/9
(x) a sum less than 7
(a)5/12* (b)3/8 (c)6/7 (d)1/6
(xi) a sum more than 7
(a)1/2 (b)2/9 (c)5/12* (d)1/6
(xii) neither a doublet nor a total of 10
(a)1/5 (b)7/9* (c)5/12 (d)1/9
(xiii) odd number on the first and 6 on the second
(a)1/12 * (b)5/9 (c)5/18 (d)1/6
(xiv) a number greater than 4 on each die
(a)1/6 (b)2/9 (c)5/12 (d)1/9 *
(xv) a total of 9 or 11
(a)1/6* (b)2/5 (c)5/12 (d)1/5
(xvi) a total greater than 8.
(a)1/12 (b)2/9 (c)5/18 * (d)1/6
3. Three coins are tossed together. Find the probability of getting:
(i) exactly two heads
(a)1/2 (b)3/8* (c)5/8 (d)1/3
(ii) at least two heads
(a)1/2* (b)2/9 (c)5/12 (d)1/3
(iii) at least one head and one tail.
(a)2/5 (b)2/9 (c)3/4* (d)1/6
4. A card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 cards. Find the probability that the card drawn is:
(i) a black king
(a)1/24 (b)2/13 (c)5/12 (d)1/26*
(ii) either a black card or a king
(a)1/2 (b)2/9 (c)7/13* (d)1/6
(iii) black and a king
(a)1/26* (b)2/13 (c)7/13 (d)3/26
(iv) a jack, queen or a king
(a)1/2 (b)2/13 (c)3/13* (d)1/6
(v) neither a heart nor a king
(a)1/2 (b)2/13 (c)5/13 (d)9/13*
(vi) spade or an ace
(a)3/26 (b)2/9 (c)4/13* (d)1/26
(vii) neither an ace nor a king
(a)11/13* (b)2/29 (c)5/12 (d)1/26

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


118
(viii) a diamond card
(a)1/2 (b)2/9 (c)5/13 (d)1/4*
(ix) not a diamond card
(a)1/2 (b)3/4* (c)5/12 (d)1/6
(x) a black card
(a)1/2* (b)2/9 (c)5/12 (d)1/6
(xi) not an ace
(a)5/26 (b)2/9 (c)12/13* (d)1/26

(xii) not a black card.


(a)1/2* (b)1/3 (c)5/12 (d)1/6
5. A box contains 6 red marbles numbered 1 through 6 and 4 white marbles numbered from 12 through 15. Find the
probability that a marble drawn is
(i) white
(a)1/2 (b)2/5* (c)5/12 (d)1/6
(ii) white and odd numbered
(a)1/5* (b)2/9 (c)5/2 (d)5/6
(iii) even numbered
(a)1/2* (b)2/9 (c)5/12 (d)1/6
(iv) red or even numbered.
(a)1/2 (b)2/9 (c)4/5* (d)1/3
6. A class consists of 10 boys and 8 girls. Three students are selected at random. What is the probability that the selected
group has
(i) all boys?
(a)1/21 (b)5/34* (c)5/17 (d)1/34
(ii) all girls?
(a)7/102* (b)2/9 (c)5/102 (d)1/51
(iii) 1 boy and 2 girls?
(a)23/102 (b)25/102 (c)35/102* (d)4/51
(iv) at least one girl?
(a)29/34* (b)2/17 (c)5/17 (d)1/17
(v) at most one girl?
(a)10/17* (b)2/17 (c)5/34 (d)1/34
7. An urn contains 7 white, 5 black and 3 red balls. Two balls are drawn at random. Find the probability that
(i) both the balls are red
(a)1/5 (b)1/35* (c)5/7 (d)1/7
(ii) one ball is red and the other is black
(a)1/7* (b)2/7 (c)5/7 (d)6/7
(iii) one ball is white.
(a)1/3 (b)2/15 (c)5/12 (d)8/15*
8. There are four men and six women on the city councils, If one council member is selected for a committee at random,
how likely is that it is a women?
(a)1/2 (b)2/9 (c)5/12 (d3/5*
9. A box contains 10 white, 6 red and 10 black balls. A ball is drawn at random from the box. What is the probability that
the ball drawn is either white or red?
(a)1/2 (b)2/9 (c)8/13 * (d)1/6

THIRD AXIS QUANTITATIVE APTITUDE QA


119
10. 100 students appeared for two examinations. 60 passed the first, 50 passed the second and 30 passed both. Find the
probability that a selected at random has passed at least one examination.
(a) 2/5 (b)4/5 * (c) 3/5 (d) 1/2
11. In a town of 6000 people 1200 are over 50 years old and 2000 are female. It is known that 30% of the females are
over 50 years, what is the probability that a random chosen individual from the town either female or over 50.
(a) 3/5 (b) 11/30* (c) 2/5 (d) 4/15
12. In class XI of a school, 40% of the students study Mathematics and 30% study Biology. 10% of the class study both
Mathematics and Biology. If a student is selected at random from the class, find the probability that he will be studying
Mathematics or Biology or both.
(a) 1/2 (b) 3/4 (c) 3/5* (d) 5/6
13. In a class of 60 students 30 opted fro NCC, 32 opted for NSS and 24 opted for both NCC and NSS. If one of these
students is selected at random, find the probability that:
a) The student opted for NCC or NSS.
(a) 3/10 (b)4/25 (c) 7/15 (d)19/30*
b) The student has opted neither NCC nor NSS.
(a) 1/3 (b)11/30* (c) 4/5 (d) 17/30
c) The student has opted NSS but not NCC.
(a) 1/5 (b) 4/15 (c)2/15* (d) 7/12

14. The probability that a student will pass the final examination in both English and Hindi is 0.5 and the probability of
passing neither is 0.1. If the probability of passing the English Examination is 0.75. What is the probability if passing the
Hindi Examination?
(a)0.65* (b) 0.6 (c)0.35 (d)0.9

10.) 936.36 74.31.7


(a)0.70 (b)156.91* (c)448 (d)96
11.) 1 3 6859 7.27.8
(a)75.16* (b)1402 (c)448 (d)600
12.) 3.122.06457.96
(a)56 (b)27.8272* (c)27.5672 (d)20.657
13.) 462.25 6.451.74.2

(a) 5.16 (b)10.879 (c)10.473* (d)14.073


14.) 1 3 4913 87 435132.25
(a)19.3* (b)14.2 (c)4.4 (d)19.7
15.) 2 12.14 3.684.212564

(a)7.5 (b)12.6756 (c)4.8 (d) 8131.9236*


16) 2 1 (3.4) 47.61 5.29
(a)5.16 (b)14.02 (c)14.8 (d)14.56*
17) 1 3 12 4 6 5 15 6 474 552 70 56
(a) 74.2* (b)1.980 (c)193.88 (d)600
18) 2 1562572152139

(a)69 (b)42 (c)91* (d)68


19) 2 3 3 1 (2 8) 1 95 3 2 (4 913) 12 25
(a)10.922* (b)10.02 (c)10.48 (d)10.6
20) 1 2 3 (262144)923111(298)

(a)99.9726* (b)99.14 (c)99.448 (d)99.76


21) 2 (512) 486257569
(a)47.5144* (b) 30 (c)48.24 (d)43.657
22) 2 15129 154.632125(24)


(a)24.704* (b)14.78 (c)44.987 (d)69.5
23) 1 2 3 (110592)(25)46656
(a) 75.16 (b) 20.9 (c) 22.368* (d)60
24) 888888
(a)56.19 (b)14.02 (c)89.78 (d) 625.152*
25) 2 1112(1.3) 141542436
(a)15.29* (b)13.29 (c)14.58