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28/08/2016

POWERPLANT:BASICOPERATIONOFPOWERPLANT(WHRB)
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POWER PLANT
KNOWLEDGE IS POWER

Jumat, 22 November 2013

BASIC OPERATION OF POWER PLANT (WHRB)

Arsip Blog
2013(18)
November(10)

POWERPLANTOPERATION
BYMUJIYONO

BOILER
Definition
As per Indian Boiler Act 1923, Boiler is defined as any closed vessel
exceeding 22.75 liters in capacity which is used exclusively for
generating steam under pressure and includes any mounting or
accessoriesattachedtosuchvessel,whichiswhollyorpartiallyunder
pressure,whensteamisshutoff.
AgoodBoilershouldhavesomeessentialqualities.
1.Capabletomeetlargeloadfluctuations.
2.Fuelefficienti.e.togeneratemaximumsteamwithminimumfuel
consumption.
3.Abilitytostartupquickly.
4.Easyinmaintenanceandinspection.
5.Occupylessfloorspace.
6.Lowerfrictionlossinwaterandfluegascircuit
7.Littleattentionforoperationandmaintenance.
SystemsinaBoiler
ABoilermainlycontainsfollowingsystems:
1.Feedwatersystem.
2.Steamsystem.
3.Airsystem.
4.Fluegassystem.
5.Fuelhandlingsystem.
6.Ashhandlingsystem.

BASICOPERATIONOFPOWERPLANT
(WHRB)
MYFOTO
FAKTORDAYA
TURBINEHOTSTARTUP
GENERATORTREATMENT
TURBINEWATERIMPECT/CARRY
OVER
DeminProsesMjis
MAKALAH
PenangananInsidenpadaTurbin
PENANGANANBOILERLEVEL
Oktober(4)
September(4)

Mengenai
Saya

MujiyonoAth
Lihatprofillengkapku

BoilerMountings
Fittings on a Boiler which are required for its safe and efficient
operationarecalledmountings.Theseareasfollows:
1.Safetyvalve
2.Waterlevelsightglass(gaugeglass)
3.Pressuregauge
4.Blowdownvalve
5.Mainsteamstopvalve
6.Feedwatercheckvalve(NRV)
7.AirVent
8.Startupvent
9.Manhole
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BoilerAccessories
ThedeviceswhichareusedinaBoilerasanintegralpartandhelpto
runtheBoilerefficientlyarecalledBoilerAccessories.Theseare:
1.Superheater
2.Desuperheater
3.Economizer
4.AirPreheater
5.SootBlower
6.FeedPump
7.IDandFDfans
8.AshRemovalsystem
9.Fuelsupplysystem
10.Dosingsystem
11.Deaerator
SteamGenerationInABoiler..contd
In a Boiler fuel is burnt to get heat energy which is converted from
chemicalenergystoredinafuel.Thisheatenergyisutilizedtoproduce
steamfromfeedwater.
Fuel is fired in the furnace of the Boiler. Different fuel is used in
different Boilers. Accordingly furnace is designed. Water tubes are
arrangedaroundthefurnaceandfluegaspath.Watertubearrangement
made around the furnace is called as water wall. Feed water is
circulatedinthesetubes.WatercomestowaterwallfromBoilerdrum,
andcirculatedbacktodrumafterabsorbingheat.Duetodifferencein
density which is created due to difference in temperature, water
circulates in these tubes naturally. Therefore, it is called Natural
Circulation.

Duringcirculationofwaterintubes,steamisgeneratedandcollectedat
the upper part of the Drum. This is called Saturated Steam
correspondingtoBoilerdrumpressure.Thissteamisfurtherheatedin
Superheatersandbecomessuperheatedsteam.
Boiler Drum is filled with fresh feed water. The feed water, before
enteringintodrumisheatedatEconomizer.Economizerisplacedatthe
flue gas path. Most of the heat of the flue gas is utilized inside the
Boiler.Stillconsiderableamountofheatenergyisavailableinit.This
heatisutilizedinEconomizertoheatupthefeedwater.
Forburningoffuel,requiredOxygenisobtainedfromatmosphericair.
Air is required in Boiler furnace for combustion. This is supplied by
Forced Draught (FD) fan. This air is heated at air preheater (APH)
beforebeingsentintofurnace.Ifcoldairisusedthentherewillbeloss
inenergy.AirpreheaterisplacedatthefluegaspathafterEconomizer.
Airpreheaterisaheatexchangerwhichexchangestheheatoffluegas
to the cold air, which is to be used in furnace. By heating the air,
burningoffueliseasierandlossofenergyisminimized.Ifhotfluegas
wouldnotbeusedtoheatupfeedwateratEconomizerandairatAir
Preheaterthenitwouldescapeintoatmosphere.
FinallythefluegaspassesthroughElectrostaticPrecipitator(ESP)and
exhaustedtoatmospherethroughchimney.AtESPthedustparticlein
thefluegasistrappedandcleangasescapestoatmosphere.
AshwhichisproducedintheBoilerduetocombustionofsolidfuelis
collectedatBoilerbottomandalsoinEconomizer,AirPreheaterand
ESP. This ash is disposed off with the help of suitable ash handling
system.
PreparationsforColdStartup
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1.Allthemanholedoorsshouldbeinclosecondition.Tightnessof
theNutsandBoltsofthemanholedoorstobecheckedproperly.
2.Allthewaterwalldrainlinesshouldbeinclosecondition.
3.Allthesteamdrainlinesshouldbeinopencondition.
4. Startup vent Root Manual isolation valve should be in open
condition.
5.DrumlevelshouldbeatNormalWaterLevel(NWL).
6. Continuous Blow Down (CBD) and Intermittent Blow Down
(IBD)drainsshouldbeinclosecondition.
7.AllthesuperheaterventsincludingDrumventandPuppyHeader
ventshouldbeinopencondition.
8.BeforeandAfterIsolationvalvesatFeedControlStation(FCS)
shouldbeinopencondition.
9. Attemperation Control valve before and after isolation valve
shouldbeinopencondition.
10.Hydrastepshouldbeinhealthycondition.
11.Safetyvalvesshouldbeinhealthycondition.
12. Main Steam stop valve and by pass valve should be in close
condition.
13.Sootblowermanualisolationvalveandcontrolvalveshouldbe
inclosecondition.
14.Boiler Drum Gauge glass steam side and water side isolation
cocksshouldbeinopencondition.
15. HP Dosing Pumps should be in Healthy condition and open
suctionanddischargevalvesofthepump.
16.SolutioninHPDosingagitatortankshouldbeatnormallevel.
17.BoilerFeedPumpsshouldbeinhealthycondition.
18.Deaerator water level should be maintained at 60% by taking
DMTransferpumpinservice.
19.Aircompressorsshouldbeinhealthycondition.
20.Ashhandlingsystemsshouldbeinhealthycondition.
21.ESPshouldbeinhealthycondition.
22.IDfandampershouldbeinZeroposition.
23.Alltheinterlocksandprotectionshouldbecheckedproperlyviz.
Drum level low, Deaerator level low, Boiler Feed Pump (BFP)
dischargepressurelow,FluegastemperatureatPostCombustion
Chamber(PCC)outlethigh,silolevel.

ColdStartupprocess
1. After Kiln lightup, when flue gas temperature at PCC outlet
increasestomorethan450deg.C,openIDfandamper5%.Due
to natural draught created by chimney, flue gas passes through
Boilerandslowheatingandexpansiontakesplace.
2.AfteropeningofIDfandamper,Boilerfurnacetemperaturerises
slowly.Whenthefurnacetemperaturerisesto250degC,Open
IDfandamper10%.
3.WhenFluegastemperatureatPCCoutletrisesmorethan600
degC.,closetheIDfandamperandstartIDfan.
4. When Drum pressure reaches 5 Kg/cm2, close the Drum vent
andPuppyheadervent.
5.WhenBoilerDrumpressurereaches20Kg/cm2,giveblowdown
ofthewaterwalltoremovethedepositionorsludge.
6. By adjusting damper opening raise the Boiler pressure upto 45
kg/cm2and485degC.
7.Startupventshouldbeinopenconditionsincetheadmittanceof
hotfluegasinboiler.
8. OpentheMainsteamlinedrainsinbetweenBoilerMainSteam
StopValve(MSSV)andTGMSSV.
9. Open the MSSV by pass valve to remove all the condensate in
mainsteamlineandensurethatTGMSSVisinclosecondition.
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10. After removal of all the condensates in Main steam line and
properlineheating,openMainSteamstopvalveofBoiler.
11.CloseSuperheaterdrains.
12.PutDrumlevelcontrollerinAutomode.
13.PutAttemperatorcontrollerinAutomode.
14.CloseStartupventasperthesteamdemandofTGset.
15. Charge ESP when Flue gas temperature after Economizer
reaches160deg.C
FinallythefluegaspassesthroughElectrostaticPrecipitator(ESP)and
exhaustedtoatmospherethroughchimney.AtESPthedustparticlein
thefluegasistrappedandcleangasescapestoatmosphere.
AshwhichisproducedintheBoilerduetocombustionofsolidfuelis
collectedatBoilerbottomandalsoinEconomizer,AirPreheaterand
ESP. This ash is disposed off with the help of suitable ash handling
system.

StartupofWasteHeatRecoveryBoiler(WHRB)
HotStartup
StartupofBoilerwithin2HrsofTrippingofBoilerisknownasthe
HotStartupofBoiler.
1.EnsuretheDrumlevelofBoiler.ItshouldbeatNormalwater
level.
2.StartAirCompressors.
3.StartBoilerFeedwaterPump.
4.StartIDfanwithIDdamperinZeroposition.
5.OpenStartupvent.
6.SlowlyopendamperofIDfan.WatchDrumlevel.
7.RegulateBoilerpressurebyopeningstartupvent.
8.Superheatertemperaturehastobemaintainedwiththehelpof
attemperatorcontrolvalve.
9. Raise the Boiler pressure upto 45 Kg/cm2 and temperature to
485degC.
10.OpenthedrainsofMainsteamlineinbetweenMainSteamStop
Valve(MSSV)ofBoilerandTurbine.
11.OpenBypassvalveofMSSV.
12. Condensate, if any, will be drained out and main steam line
heatingwillbecarriedoutbyopeningofbypassvalve.
13.AfterensuringproperMainsteamlineheating,openMain
14.steamstopvalve.
15.Closealldrainsinmainsteamline.
16. Charge ESP when flue gas temperature at Economizer outlet
reaches160degC
17. Put drum level controller and attemperator controller in Auto
mode.
18.RegulatethepressureofBoilerwiththehelpofstartupvent.
19.CloseStartupventasperthesteamdemandofTGset.
20. Normalize ID fan damper by gradual opening and loading of
Boiler.
ChargingofDeareator
It removes the dissolved gases from the condensate mechanically by
followingtwolaws
1.HenrysLaw
2.DaltonsLawofPartialPressure.
AccordingtoHenrysLaw,Solubilityofdissolvedgasesdecreasesby
increasingwatertemperature.SobychargingsteaminDeaerator
watertemperatureincreasesandsolublegasesincondensatedeparts.
AccordingtoDaltonsLawofPartialPressurePm=Ps+Pa
WherePm=PartialpressureofMixture
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Ps=PartialpressureofSteam
Pa=PartialpressureofAir
ThepartialpressureofairpresentinsidetheDeaeratorcomesout
throughDeaeratorventforequilibriumstate.
ProcedureOfCharging
1.EnsureDMStorageTanklevelismorethan60%.
2.StartDMTransferPumpbyopeningRecirculationvalve.
3.EnsureDeaeratorlevelis60%.Ifthelevelislessthentakethe
makeupwater.
4.OpenalldrainlinesofPeggingPRDSlineandobservethat
condensateiscompletelydrainedout.
5.SlowlyopenPeggingPRDSpressureControlValveandensure
thatcondensateisdrainedoutcompletely.Thenclosethedrains.
6.Graduallyincreasethepressureto2.8Kg/cm2byincreasing
peggingPRDSpressurecontrolvalve.
7.SlowlyheattheDeaeratorbyopeningtheheatinglineisolation
valveandraisetheDeaeratortemperatureto90degC.
8.OpenthebeforeandafterisolationvalveofDeaeratorPressure
Controlvalve.Thenopenthepressurecontrolvalvegradually.
SlowlyincreasetheDeaeratorpressureupto2kg/cm2.Afterthat
puttheDeaeratorPressurecontrolvalveinAutomode.
9.StartLPDosingpump.
10.InLPDosingHydrazineisused.Hydrazineremovesoxygenby
chemicalreaction.
11.EQUATIONN2H4+O2=2H2O+N2
12.ByaddingHydrazinedissolvedoxygenbecomeswaterand
Nitrogengasreleases.
WHRBInterlocks
1.IfDrumlevelbecomesverylowi.e.25%thenIDfanTrips
andEmergencycapopens
2.ThisistoprotecttheBoilertubes.AtlowDrumlevel,heat
fluxinputhastobecutoff,toprotecttheBoilertubes,
otherwisestarvationtakesplace.
3.IfPCCoutlettemperaturerisesto1050degCthenIDfan
damperbecomesZeroandEmergencyCapopens.
4.ThisprotectionisincorporatedtoprotecttheBoilertubesfrom
overheating.
5.IfallBFPstripthenIDfandamperbecomesZeroand
Emergencycapopens.
6.WhenallrunningBFPsTrip,thenDrumlevelfallsdrastically.
ToprotecttheBoilerfromstarvationheatfluxinputshouldbe
cutoff.
7.IfDeaeratorlevelbecomesverylowi.e.25%thenAllBFPs
Trip.
8.RunningofBFPsatLowDeaeratorLevelisharmfulforthe
Pump.
9.IfAshSilolevelishigh,allashhandlingsystemsstop.
10.WhenashSiloisathighlevelthenconveyingmoreashfrom
ashhandlingsystemsresultslineblockageofashconveying
line.Topreventthis,itisbettertostopthesystemsandunload
ashfromAshSilo.
11.BoilerMainsteamstopvalvewillnotopenifbypassMOV
ofMSSVisinclosecondition.
12.Thisprotectionistoavoidlinehammeringduetopresenceof
condensateinmainsteamlineandtopreventcarryoverof
condensatetowardsTurbineside.
13.BoilerFeedWaterMOVwillnotopenifbypassMOVof
FeedwaterMOVisinclosecondition.
14.IffeedwaterisemptyinEconomizerandinthepipelineafter
FeedwaterMOV,thenbyopeningFeedwaterMOVdirectly
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withoutopeningFWbypass,MOVwillleadtooverloadingof
BFP,resultingBFPTrip.
15.ESPtrips,ifAshHopperlevelishigh.
16.ESPhashighvoltage.Ashhaspresenceofcombustibles.
17.ThisprotectionistosafeguardESPatAshHopperlevelhigh.
18.ESPcannotbechargedwithoutstartingofPurgeAirBlower.
20.ThisistoSealtheESPbytheairfromPurgeAirBlower
beforechargingit.
22.ESPcannotbechargedtillfluegasinlettemperaturereaches
160degC.
23.Thisistoavoiddepositionofmoistureandoilcontentinflue
gasonESP.
1.DecreaseinDrumlevel
a.TrippingofFeedPump
If Boiler feed Pump trips then Feed water supply to Boiler interrupts
andleadstoloweringofDrumlevel.Ifthishashappenedthenensure
thattheautostandbyBoilerfeedpumphasstartedinAutomode.Ifthe
autostandbyBoilerFeedpumphasfailedtostartinAutomodethen
starttheBoilerfeedpumpmanuallyotherwiseBoilerwillsufferfrom
starvationandultimatelyitwillleadtoBoilertriptoprotecttheBoiler.
b.TubefailureinEconomizer
IfBoilerEconomizertubefailsthenwatersupplytoBoilerDrumwill
be affected. This leads to decrease in drum level and Feed Control
valve will open more to compensate the Drum level to Normal water
level,whichleadstooverloadingofBoilerFeedpump.
Observethesteamflowandfeedwaterflow.Iffeedwaterdemandto
drumisincreasingthenobserveanysoundfromthefurnace.Iftubehas
failedinsideboilerthenhissingsoundcomesanditcanbenoticedfrom
outside.Simultaneouslycheckthesmokefromthechimney.Ifitisof
whitecolourthentubefailureinsidethefurnaceisconfirmed.
c.UnitgettingintoIslandmode
When Unit comes to Island mode, it follows the load connected
to the Generator. Suppose Unit is generating more power than
the Unit load and exporting to Grid.
At the time of Islanding, Generator will follow the load
connected in this Unit and the Governing Control Valves would
close according to load and allow the steam to pass through
Turbine. The surplus amount of steam will remain in Boiler
which increases the Drum pressure. This drum pressure will
exert a downward thrust to the drum level and it decreases
drastically.
d.WhetherCBDvalve,EBDvalveorIBDvalveopened?
If any operating personnel has opened any of these valves without
proper reason or intimation then also drum level decreases rapidly.
Ensurefirstthenclosethevalveorregulateitobservingthedrumlevel.

2.INCREASEINDRUMLEVEL
a.WhetherColdstartupinBoilerisinprogress?
During Cold startup when water temperature reaches 900 C then
formation of bubble starts. This is known as swelling phenomenon. If
this is the case then blow down has to be given to maintain the drum
levelatNormalwaterlevel.
b.WhetherInstrumentaircompressortrippedandairlockunitat
feedcontrolstationfailed?
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IfInstrumentaircompressortrips,thenairlockunitofcontrolvalveat
feed control station keeps the control valve at a position at which it
was, before supply of instrument air. This is known as stay put
condition.Ifairlockunitfailstokeepthefeedstationcontrolvalveat
stayputcondition,thenwhensupplyofinstrumentairfails,itleadsto
100%openingofcontrolvalve.Ifthishappens,starttheinstrumentair
compressor as early as possible and regulate the feed station control
valve.

c.WhetherStartupventhasopenedorsafetyvalvepoppedup?
Byopeningstartupvent,whenBoilerisinsteamingcondition,supply
of steam to Turbine Drum level increases rapidly due to release of
pressure in drum. If the steam demand in TG has reduced to a large
extent then it results Boiler drum pressure rise quickly and at that
instant drum level falls rapidly. When startup vent is operated to
release the surplus steam or safety valve pops up, then drum level
increases rapidly. In this case at first ensure for what reason the
pressureinBoilerhasincreased.Ifdrumlevelisincreasingdrastically
thengiveblowdowntoregulateit.Becauseathighersidedrumlevel,
the steam quality will be affected and carry over of water particles to
superheatersandturbinewilltakeplace,whichisverymuchharmful.
d. WhetherStartupventhasopenedorsafetyvalvepoppedup?
Continued.
OperationshouldnotbecarriedoutwhenBoilerisinloadedcondition.
DonotclosetheFeedControlvalvefullyifdrumlevelrisesbecauseif
the control valve is closed completely, the feed water in Economizer
tubes, which was passing to Drum, will became steam due to heat in
fluegasandwhenfeedwatersupplythroughEconomizerwillbeagain
establishedthroughFeedcontrolvalvethenhammeringinEconomizer
tubes due to presence of steam. This may lead to Economizer tube
failure.Afterensuringthereason,closethestartupventanddumpthe
surplussteaminCondenser.Ensurethatthesafetyvalvehasbeenreset
initspositionandnopassingisobserved.
e.Whetherdrumleveltransmitterismalfunctioning?
If drum level transmitter is malfunctioning then observe the level in
hydrastep and immediately inform shift in charge and instrument
personnelaboutthis.
f.WhetherrapidheatsupplytoBoiler?
IfheatsupplytoBoilerwillbeincreasedsuddenlywithahugeamount
then it affects the drum level and it swells. To avoid this regulate the
heat input supply in a gradual loading manner. Sudden and huge
amountofheatsupplywilloverheatthegrainstructureofthetubesand
itsuffersfromfatigue.Incourseoftimetubefails.
g.WhetherstandbyBoilerFeedPumphasstarted?
WhenstandbyBoilerfeedwaterpumphasstartedwithrunningBoiler
feedwaterpump,thenDrumlevelincreasesbecauseatthatopeningin
Boiler feed Control valve when feed water pressure increases, more
feedwaterflowstodrumduetothatopeningofcontrolvalveandleads
toincreaseindrumlevel.Thiscasenormallyhappensduringscheduled
EquipmentchangeoverofBoilerfeedwaterpump.Atfirstthestandby
feed water pump is started and discharge valve of the respective feed
water pump is opened. After that the previously running Boiler feed
pump is stopped. Ensure whether it is a scheduled equipment change
over.
h.WhetherTGhascometoIslandmode?

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IfTGhascometoIslandmodethenBoilerpressureincreasesasthere
is a cut off steam demand as Generator has to follow the load,
connectedtoitinthisunit.IfunitwasexportingthepowertoGridthen
thesurpluspowerwillbereducedatthatinstant,
which the Governor of the TG set will follow. It closes the control
valve and steam pressure rises in Boiler accordingly. Ensure that the
unitisrunningunderIslandmode.Openthestartupventtoreleasethe
pressure.EnsurethattheSafetyvalvehaspoppedupornot.Ifpopped
upthenithasresetproperlyornot.Observethedrumlevelduringthis
operation. Observe the Dump control valve is functioning properly or
not.Ifitisrespondingproperlythentrytosupplysteamtocondenser
byclosingstartupventafterensuringthatBoilerpressurehasreduced
andsafetyvalvehasreset.
h.WhetherTGtripped?
IfturbinetripsthensteamdemandinTurbinewillcutoffandresulting
Boilerpressurerise.EnsureDumpcircuitishealthy.OpentheControl
valveofdumpandclosethestartupventafterensuringthatthesafety
valvereset.
i.WhetheranyCoolingwaterpumpinTGhastripped?
When Cooling water pump in TG for Condenser condensate cooling
tripsthenthevacuumincondenserdropsquicklyandatthatinstantif
theautostandbypumpfailstostartthentheloadsetpointatGenerator
hastobereducedwithimmediateeffect.OtherwisetheTGwilltripdue
to low vacuum. When load set point at Generator decreased suddenly
then Boiler pressure increases. In this case communicate with the TG
operator and open startup vent and lower the Load set point. Try to
start the Main cooling water pump manually. After restoration of
coolingwaterpumpdivertthesteamfromstartupventbyclosingitto
thedumpcircuitandnormalizetheloadofGenerator.
3.DecreaseinBoilerSteamPressure
a.Whetherfluegasinlettemperaturehasreduced?
Iffluegasinlettemperaturereducesthenitsteamgenerationreducesin
Boiler and pressure drops. This has to be observed very carefully and
thegeneratorLoadsetpointhastobelowered,otherwisetheTGwill
tripwhentheMainsteampressurebecomeslow.
b.WhethermoresteamdemandatTGend?
IftheunitisrunningatlowloadassteamgenerationinBoilerislow.If
asamaloperationLoadsetpointatGeneratorisgivenmorethansteam
generationthenBoilerpressuredecreases.andTGisrunningwithlow
load set point. Unit is importing power from Grid. If unit came to
IslandmodethentheGeneratorwillfollowtheloadwhichisconnected
toitandloadsetpointatGeneratorincreasesthanthesteamgeneration
inBoiler.SoBoilerpressuredecreases.Aswecannotchangetheload
set point of Generator by putting lower set point value, Load on the
Generator has to be lowered by cutting off the load connected to it.
ChoosethelessimportantloadconnectedtoGeneratorandcutoffitas
quickly as possible otherwise the unit will suffer from Black out
conditionduetoTGtripatMainsteampressurelowandGridpoweris
unavailable.
ThesamecasehappenswhenthesteamgenerationinBoilerislow

c.Whethersuperheatertubefailed?
IfsuperheatertubefailsthenBoilersteampressuredecreases.Observe
steamflowandfeedwaterflow.Ifsteamflowisatloweringtrendand
feed water flow is at increasing trend then it indicates that tube has
failed. If the tube failure has occurred in side the furnace then white
smoke comes out from chimney. When steam pressure decreases then
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reduce the Generator set point accordingly to avoid TG trip at main


steam pressure low and ensure whether tube has failed or not. If tube
has failed then Boiler shut down has to be taken to replace the failed
tubewithanewtube.
d.WhetherIDfandamperhasclosedtozeroposition?
This case happens when flue gas temperature at Post Combustion
Chamber reaches 10500 C. Flue gas flow to Boiler cut off when ID
dampercloses.ItmeansheatsupplytoBoilerhascutoff.Itresultsin
less steam generation. So when ID damper closes due to high PCC
temperature, immediate load reduction has to be carried out in
GeneratortoavoidTGtripduetoMainsteampressurelow.
e.WhetherhandleverofSafetyvalvehasbeenoperated?
Ifanypersonhasoperatedthehandleverofsafetyvalvewithoutproper
communicationwiththeoperatingpersonnelforsometimethenBoiler
steampressuredecreasesanddrumlevelincreases.
4.INCREASEINMAINSTEAMTEMPERATURE
a.WhetherBoilerisloadedwithhugeamountofheatsuddenly?
Main steam temperature rises if flue gas temperature at Boiler inlet
rises suddenly. As superheaters are located at convection zone,
therefore when flue gas temperature rises, it increases the superheater
temperature. If attemperator control valve fails to control the main
steam temperature then TG will trip due to main steam temperature
going high. In order to avoid such a situation, if main steam
temperaturerisesduetoriseinfluegastemperature,thenimmediately
attemperator control valve has to be taken to manual mode and
attemperation should be increased. Also communicate with the kiln
personnelaboutthesuddenriseinfluegastemperature.
b.WhetherSootBlowingisinprogress?
During soot blowing, steam temperature rises because more steam is
required for soot blowing and heat input to the Boiler has been
increasedbyopeningtheIDfandamper.Soduringsootblowing,main
steamtemperaturehastobeobservedcarefully.Ifattemperatorcontrol
valvefailstocontroltheriseinmainsteamtemperatureinautomode,
thenithastobecontrolledtakingittomanualmode.
c. WhetherAttemperationcontrolvalveisinmanualmodeorwrong
valuecommandinputbytheoperator?
Normally it happens when there is a high fluctuation in main steam
temperature. The attemperation control valve fails to control the
temperature in Auto mode. So the concerned operator has to take the
attemperationcontrolvalvetomanualmodetocontrolthetemperature.
But if he forgets to put this control valve in Auto mode after
stabilizationofmainsteamtemperature,thenitwillremaininmanual
mode and during more heat input from Kiln, the main steam
temperature would rise. Also sometimes operator puts wrong value
commandforattemperationcontrolvalveopeningfromcontrolstation
in manual mode, which would result in increase in main steam
temperature.
d. Whether forget to open before and after isolation valves of
attemperationControlvalve?
ThissituationcomesduringcoldstartupofBoiler,iftheinspectionand
checking was not done properly by the operation personnel. During
initialperiod,thisthingcannotbenoticedbutatthetimeofmainsteam
temperaturerisebyopeningattemperationcontrolvalveflowofwater
cannot be established as before and after isolation valves are in close
condition. So care has to be taken for proper inspection and checking
beforestartup.
5.DECREASEINMAINSTEAMTEMPERATURE
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a.Whetherinletfluegastemperaturehasdropped?
If flue gas inlet temperature drops due to problem in Kiln side then
mainsteamtemperaturedecreases.Soifmainsteamtemperatureisin
decreasing trend then first observe the flue gas inlet temperature to
Boiler.
b. WhetherLoadsetpointisgiveninGeneratormorethantheSteam
generation?
IfLoadsetpointinGeneratorisgivenmorethanthesteamgeneration
inBoilerthenmainsteampressuredecreasesandalsothemainsteam
temperaturedecreases
c.WhethervalvesheetofAttemperationcontrolvalveiseroded?
ThissituationcomesduringLowLoadoperationofBoiler.Ifheatinput
to Boiler is low, then steam generation reduces and also the power
generation.Atthattime,feedwaterpassesduetoerodedvalvesheetof
attemperationcontrolvalveanddecreasesmainsteamtemperature.
d.WhetherIDdamperhasbecomeZeroduetoPCCoutlettemperature
High?
When Post Combustion Chamber temperature increases more than
10500C,openingofIDdamperbecomesZero.Atthattimeheatsupply
to Boiler from Kiln stops suddenly. So it results in rapid decrease in
main steam temperature. If this situation arrives, then attemperation
control valve has to be taken to Manual mode from Auto mode and
decreasingmainsteamtemperaturehastobecontrolled.
6.FURNACEDRAUGHTTOWARDSPOSITIVESIDE
a.Whethertubefailurehasoccurredinsidefurnace?
In furnace, the draught is maintained at negative side to carry out the
hot flue gas, ash and other suspended particles from kiln to chimney
through ID fan. If Boiler tube fails inside furnace then draught goes
towardspositiveside.Assteamdensityishigherthanairdensity.Also
it adds an additional load on ID fan. So ID fan takes more current in
thissituation.
b.Whetherdraughttransmitterisshowingwrongvalue?
This can be known if other draught transmitters in flue gas path are
showing right value and one of these is showing erratic value. This
problem should be brought to the notice to shift in charge and
instrumentationpersonnel.
7. LONG RETRACTABLE SOOT BLOWER IS NOT AT ITS
ORIGINALPOSITION
a. Whether Long Retractable soot blowers chain has broken during
SootBlowingoperation?
If chain breaks at intermediate position of lancer tube during soot
blowingbyLRSB,thenmotorwillbeunabletoretractittotheoriginal
position i.e. home position. Check the position of lancer tube, when
soot blowing operation is in progress and chain has broken. In this
situation,donotcutoffsteamflowthroughlancertube.Itisbecauseit
issituatedinhighheatzonei.e.atconvectionzone.Assteamactsasa
coolant, it will take the heat added to the lancer tube and will protect
thelancertubefromoverheatingandbending.Thelancertubehasto
be drawn out manually. After ensuring that it has been drawn to its
homeposition,steamthroughthelancertubecanbecutoffandchain
maintenanceworkcanbecarriedout.
b.Whetherhomepositionlimitswitchismalfunctioning?
ThismayhappenaftercompletionofsootblowingbyLongRetractable
Soot Blower. The limit switch at home position may not give home
positionfeedbackoftheLRSBduetomalfunction.Ifthiscasehappens
then immediately the position of the lancer tube has to be checked.
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Limit switch at home position has to be rectified by Instrumentation


department.
c.

HAMMERING OF MAIN STEAM LINE DURING


CHARGING.
Usuallymainsteamlinehammeringoccursifthecondensatepresentin
thatlineisnotproperlydrainedoutandpipelineisincoldcondition.If
hugeamountofsteamisallowedtopassthroughthatpipelinethenline
hammering takes place which is very much harmful for the pipe line.
Sotoavoidthiscasehappeningalwaysopenthedrainofthepipeline.
Observe the condensate is drained properly from that pipe line. After
completion of condensate draining, warmup the pipe line with very
less quantity of steam. Gradually increase the pipe line temperature.
Afterconfirmationthatthelineisproperlyheated,moresteamflowcan
beallowed.

SteamTurbine
Steamturbineisamechanicaldevicethatextractsthermalenergyfrom
steam and converts it into mechanical work. Interiors of a turbine
consistsofseveralsetsofblades.Somesetofbladesarefixedatcasing
(FixedBlade)andsomesetofbladesarefixedontherotor(Moving
Blade).
Fixedbladesconvertpotentialenergyofthesteamintokineticenergy
and direct the flow to moving blades. Moving blades convert this
kineticenergyintoforce,causedbypressuredropandresultinrotation
of turbine shaft. Steam is allowed to enter into the turbine through
control valve. This steam after passing through different stages of
blades is allowed to exhaust. The exhaust steam is condensed in a
condenserandcondensatethenreusedinboiler.
1.ImpulseTurbine
2.ReactionTurbine
1)IMPULSETURBINE:
InImpulseturbineinsteadofsetfixedbladesasetofnozzlesarefitted
inthecasing.Pressuredropofsteamtakesplaceinthesenozzlesand
velocity of steam increases. This high velocity jet of steam contains
significantamountofkineticenergy.Thishighvelocitysteamispassed
through a set of moving blades, where pressure of the steam remains
constantandvelocitydecreases.
2)REACTIONTURBINE:
Inreactionturbinefixedbladesarefixedinthecasing.Shapeofthese
bladesissuchthatthespacebetweenthebladeshascrosssectionsame
asshapeofnozzle.Movingbladesarefixedtotherotor.Fixedblades
guide the steam to moving blades . Blade shape is so designed that
steamglidesovertheblades.Steamwhileglidingovermovingblades
producesreactionontheblade.Thisreactionforceproducetherotates
therotor.
1.Casing
2.Rotor
3.MovingBlade
4.FixedBlade
5.SteamSealingSystem
6.Bearing
JouralBearing
ThrustBearing
7.Gland
8.ExhaustHood
9.EmergencyStopValve
10.GoverningValveAndControlValve
11.BarringDevices.
12.GoverningSystems
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vCASING
Casingofturbineplaysimportantrolefortheperformanceofaturbine.
Thisistheoutershellofturbine.Fixedbladesandnozzlesareattached
to this. Casing facilitates to accommodate moving parts and provides
passageforsteam.Normallyitisformedbycasting.Asthetemperature
of steam for operating turbine is high so, normally Cr, Mo alloy steel
casting is used for casing of a turbine. Metal to metal joint sealing is
donetoensurenoleakageofsteam.
vROTOR
Rotoristhemovingpartofaturbinewhichextractsworkfromsteam.
This is the heaviest part of the turbine. Normally total shaft is
manufacturedbyforging.Rotorconsistofshaftmovingbladeandinter
stage sealing labyrinth. Thrust collar is provided to take care of axial
thrust of rotor during various load conditions. Rotor of the turbine is
allowed to expand uniformly. Rotor of the turbine should not be
allowedtoremainstandstillwhenitishot.Duetoitsselfweightthere
isachanceofsaggingordeformation.Rotor
vMovingBlades
Enthalpy of steam is converted into rotational energy as it passes
throughturbinebladesets.Ineachstageoftheturbinetherearemoving
andfixedblade.Asineachsteppressureofsteamdecreases,itsvolume
increases.Thebladehastohandlemorevolumeofsteam.Bladehasto
withstand high pressure and temperature of steam. Good tensile and
fatigue strength is required. Good vibration damping property, low
ductility,resistancetocorrosionanderosionisessential.Bladecanbe
dividedintothreeportions.
1.Tip
2.Profile
3.Root
vFixedBlades
Fixed blades facilitate expansion of steam and guide it to flow over
subsequent moving blade row. Partition between pressure stages in a
turbine casing are called diaphragms. It holds vane shaped nozzles or
fixedit

MAINCOMPONENTSOFSTEAMTURBINE
1.JOURNALBEARING
Journalbearingisacylinder,whichsurroundstheshaftandisfilled
withsomeformoffluidlubricant.Itconsistsofasplitoutershellof
hardmetalandsoftmetalattheinnercylindricalpart.Inthisbearing
a shaft or journal rotates inside the bearing over a layer of
lubricatingoil,separatingtheshaftandbearingthroughafluidfilm
bydynamicprinciple.Innersurfaceofthisbearingiscoatedwitha
soft metal called as white metal or Babbitt. This is a tin or lead
basedalloy.
2.THRUSTBEARING
Journalbearingsareusedtotakeradialloadoftheshaft.Butitcant
takeaxialload.Shaftispermittedtofloattobothaxialdirection.But
theaxialfloatisrestrictedtocertainlimit.Excessiveaxialshiftmay
damagerotatingandfixedparts.Forthisthrustbearingisprovided.
EMERGENCYSTOPVALVE
This valve is normally hydraulically operated. The valve opens
hydraulically against a spring force. To close the valve
hydraulically
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Fluidisdrainedandvalveclosesimmediatelyduetoforceofspring.
Thisvalveisnormallyfullyopenandfullyclosetype.

AuxiliarySystemOfSteamTurbine
1.OILSYSTEM
Oiltank
OilPump
OilCooler
OilFilter
OilCentrifuge
OilOverHeadTank
Accumulator
2.CONDENSATESYSTEM
3.GLANDSEALINGSYSTEM
4.STEAMEJECTORANDVACCUMSYSTEM
5.CONDENSER
6.COOLINGWATERSYSTEM

TurbineColdStartupSequenceMethod
Operation of steam turbine is a complex process. Before starting the
rollingofaturbine,auxiliarysystemsaretobeproperlyputinservice.
Normally for start up of a turbine some operations are followed in
sequence.
vChargingofSteamPipeLine
FromBoiler,steamiscarriedtoturbinemainsteampipeline.Incold
condition,specialcareistobetakentoheatupthesteamlineandallow
gradualthermalexpansion,beforegivingfullloadontheturbine.
Drain points are provided at the steam line to drain out condensate
presentinsteampipeline,thatisformedduetocondensationofsteam.
Firstofall,thesedrainsareopenedbeforechargingsteamonthepipe
line. After condensate is drained out boiler main steam stop by pass
valveisopenedslowly.
Some steam is allowed to flow through the pipe line and it starts
gainingheatfromthesteamandsteamiscondensed.Atthebeginning,
condensatealongwithsomesteamisallowedtocomeoutthroughthe
drain. These drains are throttled slowly and closed when no more
condensatebutonlydrysteamcomesoutfromthedrain.
Steam traps provided in the pipe line are kept in line once drains are
closed.ThenMainSteamStopValveoftheboilerisopenedslowlyso
thatthelinetemperatureisincreasedgradually.Ensureextractionisnot
restricted anywhere. Watch the temperature of bypass reaching the
normallevelafterwhichstopvalveofboilercanbeopenedfully.
TocirculatecoolingwaterintheCondenser,coolingwaterpumpsareto
bestarted.
Beforestartingpump
1.EnsureSumplevelofthecoolingtowerbasinisnormal(>80%)
2.Keepsuctionvalveofthepumpinopencondition&dischargein
closedcondition.
3.Ensureinlet&outletcoolingwatervalvesofCondenser
distributervalvesofcoolingtowerareinopencondition.
4.EnsureventsprovidedatCondenserwaterboxareinopen
conditiontoremovetrappedair.
5.Startthepump&openthedischargevalve.
6.Observewhethercoolingwaterisfallingonthecoolingtoweror
not.
7.Ensurethatdistributionofcoolingwaterinallchambersisequal,
otherwiseadjustthevalvesprovidedatthedistributionheader.
8.Observewhetherallthecoolingwaterpumpsaresharingloador
not.
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9.OnceTurbineisstartedandloaded,coolingtowerfanscanbe
startedonebyoneasperrequirement.

StartingOfM.O.P(MainOilPump)
1. BeforestartingofM.O.PcheckthehealthyconditionofMain
OilTank(M.O.T)lowlevelswitchfromH.M.I.
2.BeforestartingM.O.P,checkoillevelinM.O.Poilcupaswellas
oillevelinA.O.P&E.O.Poilcups.
3. Ensure again suction & discharge valves of M.O.P, A.O.P &
E.O.Pareinopencondition.
4.StartM.O.P.
5.OpenJ.O.PsuctionlinecomingfromM.O.P&A.O.Pdischarge
header,thenopenitsdischargevalve.
6.PutA.O.P,J.O.P&E.O.Pinautoselectionmode.
TakingOilCoolerintoLine
1.WhenM.O.Pstarts,oilcirculatestothecircuitthroughoilcooler
2.Toensureoilispassingthroughtheoilcoolerornot,seethrough
theviewglassafteropeningtheairventofoilcooler
3.AfterconfirmingoilispassingthroughtheventvalvetoM.O.T,
closetheventvalve
4. Opentheoilequalizinglineofstandbyoilcoolerandwaitfor
sometimetofillitwithoil,thenclosetheequalizingvalve
5.

Maintain lub oil temperature in between 420C 450C by


adjustingtheoutletcoolingwatervalveofonlinecooler

TakingOilCoolerintoLine
1. When M.O.P starts, oil circulates to the circuit through oil
cooler
2.Toensureoilispassingthroughtheoilcoolerornot,seethrough
theviewglassafteropeningtheairventofoilcooler
3.AfterconfirmingoilispassingthroughtheventvalvetoM.O.T,
closetheventvalve
4. Opentheoilequalizinglineofstandbyoilcoolerandwaitfor
sometimetofillitwithoil,thenclosetheequalizingvalve
5. Maintain lub oil temperature in between 420C 450C by
adjustingtheoutletcoolingwatervalveofonlinecooler
Checking Of Lub Oil Header Pressure and Individual Bearing
Pressure
1.Checkthelub.oilheaderpressurefromfieldandH.M.I.Itmust
bemorethan3Kg/cm2.
2.Checktheindividualbearingoilpressure
i.TGFrontJournalBearing1.2Kg/cm2

ii.TGThrustBearing1.2Kg/cm2

iii.TGRearJournalBearing1.2Kg/cm2

iv.GearBox2Kg/cm2

v.AlternatorFrontJournalBearing1Kg/cm2

vi.AlternatorRearJournalBearing1Kg/cm2

3.Checkindividualbearing'sreturnoillineviewglasswhetheroil
ispassingthroughitornot.

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4. Checkoverheadtankoilreturnlineviewglass,ensureoilflow
throughreturnoillinethenclosequickfillingvalveofoverhead
tank.
5.Checkhealthinessofoverheadtankoillevelindicator.
Oncetheabovesystemsareinservice,glandsteamcanbechargedat
gland.CareistobetakenwhilechargingglandsteaminacoldTurbine.
As the gland area of Turbine is at normal temperature during cold
condition,hotglandsteammayproducethermalshockatthatarea.To
avoidthis,steamistobechargedslowlyandcondensateproducedisto
bedrainedthroughglandsteamdrain.
Followingstepsaretobefollowedforglandsteamcharging:
1.

Charging of auxiliary PRDS (Pressure Reducing & De


Superheating)

2.ChargingofGlandHeader
3.

Charging Of Aux PRDS (Pressure Reducing And De


Superheating)
4.Openalldrainvalves
5.Openmainmanualisolationvalvebefore&afterPCV(Pressure
ControlValve)
6.OpenPCVby5%fromoperationstation
7.OpenPCVby10%assoonascondensatecomesoutfromline
8.Closealldrainvalves
9.PutthePCVinAutomodewithdesiredpressuresetpoint
10.OpenmanualisolationvalveofTCV(TemperatureControl
Valve)
11.ObservethetemperatureandthenputTCVinautomodewith
desiredtemperaturesetpoint

ChargingofGlandHeader
1.Openalldrainvalvesofglandsteamheader
2.Openglandsteamheadermanualisolationvalve
3.OpenglandsteamheaderPCVby5%forlineheating.
4.OpenglandsteamheaderPCVby10%toincreaseglandsteam
headerpressure
5.Closealldrainvalveinglandsteamheader
6.PutglandsteamheaderPCVinautomodewithdesiredpressure
setpoint.
Exhaust steam of turbine is condensed at condenser with the help of
cooling water. The condensate produced is evacuated from the
condenser by the help of Condensate Extraction Pump (CEP). This
condensatepassesthroughglandsealcondenserandejectorcondenser
to gain heat of the gland steam and ejector steam respectively. So the
temperature of condensate increases there before feeding to deaerator
forfurtheruseatboiler.
ThiscondensateisfurtherheatedatL.P.Heater(ifprovided)byusing
LPSteamextractionofturbine.
Toputthecondensatesysteminoperation,followingstepsarerequired
tobefollowed:
1.Ensurecondenserhotwelllevelisadequate,otherwisefillthehot
wellwithmakeupDMWater
2. Open Suction and discharge valves of the pump. Ensure
differentialpressureofthestrainerisnormal
3.Opencondensateinletandoutletvalvesofglandsealcondenser,
ejectorcondenserandLPHeater
4.Puttherecirculationcontrolvalveinautomode
5.Openpumpglandcoolingvalveandstartthepump
The condensate will pass through gland seal condenser & ejector
condenser. It should be re circulated to condenser again through
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recirculation control valve. Once steam starts entering into turbine,


dischargecontrolvalvecanbeputinautomodetomaintainlevelofthe
hotwell.
Ifthecondensateextractionpumpistobestartedandifthereisvacuum
insidethecondenser,thenvacuumbalancelinevalveistobeopenedto
avoidanyairtrappedinsidethepump.
Before Main steam enters into the turbine, there should be vacuum in
thecondenser.Firstofall,startingejectorisusedtoevacuateairfrom
condenser.Thisisasinglestagenoncondensingtypeejector.
Takethefollowingstepstobuildupvacuumbystartingejector:
1. Ensure availability of auxiliary steam at desired pressure &
temperature
2.Ensurethevacuumbreakervalveofthecondenserisclosed.
3. Ensurecoolingwateriscirculatinginthecondenserandturbine
glandischargedfully
4.Opensteamvalveofthestartingejector
5.Observesteamisventedtoatmosphere
6.Openejectorairvalve
7.Observevacuuminsidecondenserisincreasingslowly.
8. Main ejector is to be taken into line once turbine is loaded and
startingejectoristobestoppedthen.
Toputmainejectorintoline,followingstepstobefollowed:
Main ejector is to be taken into line once turbine is loaded. Starting
ejector is to be stopped then. To put main ejector in line, following
stepstobefollowed.
1.EnsureCondensateExtractionPump(CEP)isrunning.
2. Ensure cooling water inlet and outlet valves of the ejector
condenserareopened.
3.Ventoutairfromwaterboxoftheejectorcondenserbyopening
rotametrevalve.
4.Openejectorcondensatetrapbeforeandafterisolationvalve
5.FilluptheUtubebywaterlocally
6.Openflashboxstandpipeisolationvalve
7.Closealldrainvalvesofejector
8.Openthemainisolationvalveoftheejectorsteamline
9.Slowlyopentheairlinevalveoftheejectorandobservevacuum
isincreasing.
When vacuum is stable, then the slowly ejector can be stopped by
closingairvalvefirstthenthesteamvalveofejector.
Once Auxiliary systems are in operation and full vacuum is obtained
inside, condenser turbine can be started. Turbine is required to be
startedintwodifferentconditions.
1.ColdStartUp
2.HotStartUp
In cold startup turbine is started from cold condition. In this case,
special care is taken for proper heating of casing and rotor for proper
thermal expansion. As both rotor and casing are in cold condition it
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requires time for heat up. But in case of hot start up both casing and
rotorareinhotcondition.Soitcanbestartedwithinashortperiod.
StartupCurve
To allow proper thermal explanation of casing and rotor, the turbine
manufacturersadviseistobefollowedforstartupprocedure.
steamshouldnotenterimmediatelytoturbineasitmaydamage
theturbineduetounevenexpansion.
Manufacturerssuggestsoakingtimeforlowidlespeedandhigh
idle speed for proper thermal expansion between rotor and
casing means to hold the turbine at the particular speed for a
particulartime,thenallowtheturbinespeedtohigherrange.
Soaking time is different for cold startup and hot startup.
Manufacturers advice should always be followed strictly for soaking
andstartupcurveincoldstartupandhotstartupconditions.

TurbineRollingPreparation..contd
To start rolling of turbine, some steps are followed depending upon
mode of starting (Auto or Manual) and types of governing system
(HydraulicorElectroHydraulic)
Beforerollingofturbinecheck,ensurethefollowingpoints:
1.Lubeoillevelandcontroloilpressurearenormal
2.Lubeoiltemperatureisbetween42to450C
3.Ensureglandsealingsystemisinoperationandglandsealing
pressureisnormal
4.Ensurestartingejectorisinthelineandcondenserpressureis
0.9kg/cm2
5.Ensurecoolingwateriscirculatingincondenserandauxiliary
coolingwaterinlub.oilcooler
6.Ensurethecasingdrain,TGinletsteamlinedrain,TGwarm
7.upventanddrainareinopencondition
8.EnsureAccumulatorisinline
9.Ensureoverheadoiltankisfullandreturnoilflowisvisiblein
theviewingglass
10.EnsureCondensateExtractionpump(CEP)isinoperation
11.EnsureExhausthoodspraysolenoidvalveisinoperating
condition.
12.OpenthebypassofTurbineSteamstopvalve(TSSV)
13.EnsurecompleteremovalofcondensatefromTGinletlineand
ensurethetemperatureofTGinletsteamisrisingafterthrottling
drainvalves.OpenTurbineSteamStopValve(TSSV)
14.Throttlethewarmupventasperrequirementandobservesteam
temperatureisrising.Oncesteamtemperaturereachesatdesired
temperature,thenprepareforTGrolling.]
TGRolling
1.ResetthegovernorfromwoodyardSOS
2.ResetfromHMI
3. Engage trip lever and ensure build up of trip oil pressure at
governingconsole
4.OpenE.S.V.(EmergencyStopValve)fromH.M.I.
5.CheckphysicallytheopeningofESV(EmergencyStopValve)
6.GiveruncommandfromHMI
7. Observe the rise in rpm gradually. RPM goes up and after
reaching1000rpm(LowIdlespeed)automatically,itwillhold
for15minutesinhotstartupand30minutesincoldstartup(in
caseofautorolling).Otherwise hold the speed as advised by
themanufacturer.
8. Ensure oil pressure is normal. Check vibration and any
abnormalsound
9.Firststopbarringgearthenstopjackoilpump(J.O.P)
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10.Gettherelayresetbefore2000rpm
11. After completion of the hold time at 1000 rpm, R.P.M. goes
fromlowidlespeedtohighidlespeed2500rpm,ifitisinauto
mode,otherwiseincreasethespeedmanually
12.Afterreaching2500rpm,itholdsfor15minutesincaseofhot
startupand30minutesincaseofcoldstartupautomatically.If
it is not auto rolling, hold the speed as per advice of
manufacturer.
13. Close the TG casing drain, inlet steam line drain, warm up
vent,warmupdrain
14.Check the lube oil pressure at different bearings and check
bearingtemperatureandvibrationandrecordit.
15. Aftercompletionofhighidlespeed(2500rpm)soakingtime.
R.P.M.willriseuptoratedspeed7500rpm
16.Maintainlubeoilpressureandtemperatureatdifferentbearings
asperthemanufacturersadvice
17.MaintainTGinletpressureandtemperatureasperdesign
18.Giveclearancetosynchronizetogeneratepower.

TurbineProtectionLogic
NO

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

DESCRIPTION
Lube Oil header press
lo lo
Lube Oil Press
after filter lo lo
Oil Press lo Trip
device outlet
Turbine exhaust
steam press hi hi
Cond. Level hi hi
Cond. Level lo lo
Turbine
overspeed
Trip command from
governor
Rotor axial
displacement hi hi
Turbine front brg vib
hi hi
Turbine rear brg vib hi
hi
GB pinion DE brg vib
hi hi
GB pinion NDE brg vib
hi hi
GB G shaft NDE vib hi
hi

15

GB G shaft DE vib hi hi

16

Alternator front brg


vib hi hi

SETPOINT
2

1.2 Kg/cm

4 Kg/cm
2

4 Kg/cm

TIME
DILAY
(sec)
2
2
2

0.6 Kg/cm
95%
15%

2
2
2

8220

+/ 0.45 mm

200
micron
200
micron
200
micron
200
micron
160
micron
180
micron
160
micron

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2
2
2
2
2
2
2
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17
18

Alternator Rear brg


vib hi hi
86T relay
operated

19

Inlet steam temp lo lo

20

Inlet steam temp hi hi

33

Turbine exhaust steam


press hi hi
Turbine NWS thrust
brg temp hi hi
Turbine WS thrust brg
temp hi hi
Turbine front brg temp
hi hi
Turbine rear brg temp
hi hi
MOP side thrust pad
temp hi hi
HS Working Side temp
hi hi
HS Non Working Side
temp hi hi
Alt. side brg temp hi
hi
MOP side brg temp hi
hi
HS NWS brg temp hi hi
Drive end brg temp hi
hi
NDE brg temp hi hi

34

Inlet steam press lo lo

35

Inlet steam press hi hi

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32

NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

160
micron

2
2

400/440 deg
C
525 deg
C
0.6
Kg/cm2

6
6
0

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

115 deg C

80 deg C

80 deg C
38/39
Kg/cm2
48/50
Kg/cm2

0
3
8

TIME
DILAY
(sec)

DESCRIPTION

SETPOINT

Lube Oil Press lo


Control oil press lo
Trip Oil Press lo
(PSLL305A)
Exhaust steam press
hi
Hotwell level hi
hi
Turb speed hi hi
WWG
Trip command from
governor

1 Kg/cm2
4.5 Kg/cm2

2 Kg/cm2

10

0.4 Kg/cm2

7865

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Turb Axial shaft


displacement hi hi
Turb shaft front vib
hi hi
Turb shaft rear vib hi
hi
Turb shaft front vib
hi hi
GB LS shaft rear vib
hi hi
GB HS shaft front vib
hi hi
GB LS shaft rear vib
hi hi
Gen L/O relay 86B
operated
Inlet steam temp lo
Inlet steam temp hi
Bearing temp hi
Thrust Brg. Temp 1
Thrust Brg. Temp 2
Thrust Brg. Temp 3
Thrust Brg. Temp 4
Tur. Front brg
Tur rear brg
GB front (HSS) brg
Temp 1
GB front (HSS) brg
Temp 2
GB thrust brg temp 1
GB thrust brg temp 2
GB rear (LSS) brg
temp 1
GB rear (LSS) brg
temp 2
Gen front brg
Gen rear brg
Inlet steam press lo
Inlet steam press hi
Exhaust temp hi
Turb speed hi hi TSI
Emergency trip PB1
Emergency trip
PB2
Turbine trip from HMI

+/ 0.7
mm
156
microns
156 microns
156 microns
340 microns
340 microns
340 microns

400
520
115
115
115
115
115
115
115

deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg
deg

C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C

2
2

115 deg C
115 deg C
115 deg C
115 deg C
115 deg C
115 deg C
115 deg C
115 deg C
40 Kg/cm2
50 Kg/cm2
120 deg C
7860

2
6

TurbineAuxiliarySystem
InPowerPlantotherthanturbine,thereareotherassociatedsystems.
The systems are required for running of a turbine. Most of the
importantcomponentsandsystemsforauxiliarysystemsare:
1.OilSystem
2.CondensateSystem
3.GlandsealingSystem
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4.EjectorandVacuumSystem
5.CoolingwaterSystem
6.Condenser
OilSystem
Lubricatingoilissuppliedtothebearingsandusedforgoverningof
turbine.Mainfunctionoflubricatingoilisto:
1.Lubricatethebearings.
2.Coolingofbearings.
3.Flushoutmetallicdebris.
4.Controlspeedoftheturbine.\
PrinciplesofLubrication
Tomaintainafilmoflubricantbetweenthesurfacesinrunning
conditionanyoneofthefollowingprincipleoflubricationprevails.
1.Hydrodynamiclubrication
2.Hydrostaticlubrication
3.Elastohydrodynamiclubrication
Ifnoneoftheaboveconditionsexiststheconditionwillbeof:
Boundarylubrication
HydrodynamicLubrication
AlsocalledFullFloodLubrication/Wedgefilmlubrication
Wedgefilmformationduetogeometry&speed.
a.Inhydrodynamicprinciplefluidviscosityisnotsufficientto
maintainafilmbetweenthemovingsurfaces&higherpressure
requiredtosupporttheloaduntilthefluidfilmisestablished,
therequiredpressuregeneratedinternallybydynamicaction.
b.Thewedgefilmliftsthejournalandallowscompleteseparation
c.Theformationofathickfluidfilmthatwillseparatetwo
surfacesandsupportaloadasthetwosurfacesmovewith
respecttoeachother.
By feeding oil from an external source under heavy pressure into the
pocket machined into the bottom of the bearings, the journal can be
liftedandfloatedonfluidfilms.
When the journal reaches a speed sufficient to create hydrodynamic
films the external pressure can be turned off and the bearing will
continuetooperateinhydrodynamicmanner.
ComponentsofLubricatingOilSystem
Maincomponentsoflubricatingoilsystemare:
1.Oiltank
2.Oilpumps
3.Oilfilter
4.Oilcentrifuge
5.Oiloverheadtank
6.Accumulators
Oiltank
Totaloilforthesystemisstoredinthethistank.Thetankhasadequate
capacity to hold sufficient oil during running & stop condition. The
tankbaseismadeslopedtooneside,sothatthesedimentinoilcanbe
collected in the lower area and can be drained out by opening drain
valve.Thetankhaslevelmeasurementfacilitytogivealarmforlowoil
level.Alsoalevelglassisprovidedtofindouttanklevelatanyinstant.
Suitable tapings are provided to facilitate oil suction for oil pumps,
drainingofreturnoilfrombearingsandgoverningsystem,connection
foroilcentrifuge,fillupoffreshoiletc.
Oneoilmistfanisprovidedonthetanktoventoutanyoilvaporand
keepthetankslightlybelowatmosphericpressure.
OilPump
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Topumpoilfromtheoiltanktovariouslubricationpointsand
controllingpurpose,oilpumpsareprovided.Normallythreepumpsare
provided.Thesepumpsare:
1.Mainoilpump(M.O.P)
2.Auxiliaryoilpump(A.O.P)
3.Emergencyoilpump(M.O.P)
OilCoolers
Normallytwooilcoolersof100%capacityareprovidedtocooldown
entire oil supplied to turbine bearings,gearbox,and generator bearings
forlubrication.Governingoilisnotcooledatoilcooler.Thisoiltaken
outbeforeoilcooler.Onecoolerisputonlineandanotheroneiskept
as standby. Online changeover facility is provided to take the standby
coolerintoservice,withoutinterruptionofoilsupply,whileturbineis
running.
Beforechangeover,itistobeensuredthatthestandbycoolerisfilled
withoilandairisventedoutproperly.Otherwisetherewillbeairlock
andoilsupplytobearingsmayinterrupt.
Oilcoolerisashellandtubetypeheatexchanger.Coolingwaterflows
insidethetubebundleandoilflowsattheshellside.Coolingwaterfor
oilcoolerisobtainedfrommaincoolingwatersystemofpowerplant.
Regulating valves are provided at the inlet and outlet of the cooling
watersupplyline.
To increase and decrease oil temperature, cooling water flow is
decreased and increased respectively through these regulating valves.
Always the cooling water outlet valve is regulated to vary flow of
cooling water. At any case cooling water inlet valve is not to be
throttled as sufficient cooling water will not available inside tub and
tubemaydamage.
Drain point is provided at the cooler to drain out settled sediment at
bottomofthecooler.
OilFilters
Oilcomingoutfromcoolerispassedthroughoilfiltertoremoveany
contaminated particle or debris. Filter is normally basket type with
removable filter cartridge. Like cooler there are two filters of 100%
capacity each with suitable online changeover arrangement. The oil is
filtered up to 2025 micron level on these filters before circulating in
bearings.
Differential pressure across the filter is measured which indicates the
choking condition of filter cartridge. If differential pressure is high it
indicates,filterischokedandneedscleaning.
Beforechangeoverofoilfilterwhenturbineisinoperation,itistobe
ensured that standby filter is completely filled and no air is trapped
inside. Filter cartridge of standby filter is always to be kept clean, so
thatatanymomentthiscanbetakenintoline,ifrequired.
OilCentrifuge..contd.
Centrifugeisamachinewhichseparateswaterandsolidparticlesfrom
oil.Thisisachievedbycentrifugalforceofahighspeedrotatingbowl
inside the separator. Due to centrifugal force, heavier particles are
displacedtowardstheouterperipheryofthebowlandthelighteroilis
displaced towards center of the bowl, where it is collected and sent
backtomainoiltank.
SteamEjectorAndVacuumSystem
Vacuum is maintained by continuously evacuating non condensing
gases from the condenser with the help of steam ejector. Pressure of
noncondensinggasesdecreasecondenserefficiency.Forremovingnon
condensing gas to create vacuum in the condenser normally steam
ejector is used. This is like a pump in which venturi effect of a
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converginganddivergingnozzleisusedtoconvertpressureenergyof
steamtovelocityenergytocreatesuctioneffect.
WORKINGPRINCIPLEOFEJECTOR
Highpressuremotivesteamenterstoejectorchestthroughnozzleand
then expanded. Pressure energy of steam is converted into velocity.
Increased velocity causes reduced pressure which socks
vapour.Diffuser section then compress the steam vapour mixture then
exhaustedtocondenser.
OperatingProcedureOfEjectorSystem
1.Circulatecondensatethroughejectorcondenser.
2. Open steam of ejector. So it will create vacuum in inter ejector
condenser.
3.Opensteamofejector.
4.Openairvalveofcondenser.

Condenser
CondenserisanimportantAuxiliaryequipmentofanysteam
turbine.Exhauststeamofturbineisexhaustedintocondenser,
where it is condensed in vacuum. By maintaining vacuum in
condenser,maximumenergycanbeextractedfromsteamand
turbine efficiency increases. Condensate obtained is utilized
againatboilerforsteamformation.
Therearedifferenttypesofcondenser.Someoftheimportant
typesofcondensersarelistedbelow.
1.Jettypecondenser
2.Aircondenser
3.Surfacecondenser
SurfaceCondenser
Thistypeofcondenseriswidelyusedatpowerplants.Cooling
water is not mixed with condensate in this case. Condensate
obtainedispureandcanbeusedinboiler.Thisisashelltype
andtubetypeheatexchanger.Shellofthecondenserisclosed.
Tubes are arranged inside the shell in which cooling water
flows. Condenser neck is connected to the exhaust hood of
turbine.Anexpansionjointisprovidedinbetweentofacilitate
thermalexpansion.
Steam from turbine flows at the shell side of condenser and
cooling water flows inside the tube. Main components of a
surfacecondenserare:
ShellHotwell
AiroutletTube
RapturediskWaterbox
OverheadTank
Oil accumulator is provided on the governing or control oil
lineoftheturbine.Thisaccumulatormaintainsoilpressurein
the line during momentary fluctuation of oil pressure during
oil pump change over or sudden operation of servomotor of
governingvalve.
Intheaccumulatoraninertgasfilledbladderisprovided.Gas
pressure inside the bladder is maintained slightly below the
normaloilpressure.
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Duringnormaloperation,oilpressureofthelinecompressthe
bladderandoilisoccupiedintheoilspaceoftheaccumulator.
When,pressureatthelinedrops,thebladderisexpanded,due
totheinsidegaspressure.Soitpushesoutoilofspacetothe
lineandtakescaremomentaryoilpressurefluctuation.
OilAccumulator
Oil accumulator is provided on the governing or control oil
lineoftheturbine.Thisaccumulatormaintainsoilpressurein
the line during momentary fluctuation of oil pressure during
oil pump change over or sudden operation of servomotor of
governingvalve.
Intheaccumulatoraninertgasfilledbladderisprovided.Gas
pressure inside the bladder is maintained slightly below the
normaloilpressure.
Duringnormaloperation,oilpressureofthelinecompressthe
bladderandoilisoccupiedintheoilspaceoftheaccumulator.
When,pressureatthelinedrops,thebladderisexpanded,due
totheinsidegaspressure.Soitpushesoutoilofspacetothe
lineandtakescaremomentaryoilpressurefluctuation.
EmergencySituationInSteamTurbine
Steam Turbine is a critical rotating equipment. High
temperatureandpressuresteamisusedtorotatetheturbineat
highspeed.Massoftherotatingpartishigh.Thereisalways
chance of severe misshapen leading to fatal accident and
damage of high cost equipment. Incase of any system goes
wrong generation of power may be interrupted for a longer
period leading to heavy loss to the plant. So the power plant
engineer should be trained enough to face any emergency
situation, at any time and properly handled emergency
situations.
1)Overspeed
Due to failure of governing system the turbine speed may
become dangerously high. Rotor can rotate momentarily
without damage up to 110% of rated speed. At higher speed
rotorstressincreases.Duetohighcentrifugalforcestheblades
which are fixed to the rotor may come out. Failure of blade
root can cause severe accident and damage to turbine. To
avoid dangerous over speed turbine is provided with
mechanical and electrical over speed trip arrangements.
Tripping limits are set in such a way that turbine speed does
not exceed 110% of rated speed. These overspeed tripping
limits are to be checked regularly. Mechanical overspeed
device is to be set within set limit and checked at suitable
intervals.Atanycircumstanceoverspeedtrippinglimitisnot
to be bypassed. If overspeed tripping does not work,
immediatelystoptheturbinebyapplyingemergencytrippush
button. For the 18.5 MW turbine at Tata Sponge, overspeed
trippinglimitis7865rpm.
2)FailureOfLubricationOilSystem:
Lubrication Oil is used to lubricate and cool down bearing
metal. Sometimes the lubrication oil supply may be
interrupted due to failure of pumps, leakage in oil line or
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chokingofoilfilter.Thisconditionmaydamagebearingsand
gear box. If such an incident happens for any reason, the
turbine is required to be stopped as soon as possible. Low
lube oil header pressure tripping is incorporated with turbine
to trip the turbine immediately. If lube oil header pressure
becomes 1kg/cm2, oil supply is to be restored as early as
possible.Afterresumingoilsupply,ifpossible,turbineistobe
rotatedmanuallytofindoutanydamage(inspectbearings).
3.HighVibration
Rotoroftheturbinerotatesathighspeed.Anydeformationor
unbalance of the rotor produces high vibration. Sometimes
depositsonbladesanddamageofanyrotatingpartmaycreate
heavyvibration.Damageofjournalbearingmayalsoproduce
vibration. The moving and rotating parts of the turbine are
closedspaced.Duetodisturbanceinrotorshaftordifferential
expansion, there is chance of rubbing. Rubbing creates high
vibrationandabnormalsound,soatanycasehighvibrationof
turbine is not be overlooked. Incase of high vibration the
turbineshouldbestoppedimmediatelyandturbineinternalsto
be inspected to avoid further damage. High vibration
protection in logic is incorporated with turbine to trip the
turbine when turbine front and rear journal bearing vibration
goes to 156 Micron and gear box front and rear journal
bearinggoesto340microns.
4)HighBearingTemperature
Highbearingtemperatureoccursduetoinadequateoilflowin
thebearingormetaltometalcontactinbetweenbearingand
rotor. High temperature damages Babbitt material of the
bearing.Incaseofhightemperatureofthebearing,aturbineis
requiredtobestopped.Oilsupplytobearingistobechecked
and if required bearing is to be opened for inspection. High
bearing temperature protection logic is provided to turbine.
Fordifferentbearing1150Cisatrippinglimit.
5)FailureOfBarringDevice
When turbine is stopped in hot condition, it is to be put on
barring. In some situation just after stopping turbine barring
gearmaybefoundnotworking.Itisnotrecommendedtokeep
the rotor in standstill condition. By any means rotor is to be
rotated normally by hand barring arrangements provided to
changetherotorpositionby180Ccontinuously.
6)HighCondenserHotWellLevel
Due to problem in condensate extraction pumps, sometimes
thecondensatecannotbeevacuatedfromhotwell.Sohotwell
level becomes high. In this situation there is possibility that
water level in condenser increases and enters into turbine
through exhaust hood. Condenser vacuum reduces drastically
in this condition. If at any case water enters into a running
turbineitcreatesaserioussituationanddamagestheturbine.
Loadistobereducedonturbineinthissituation.Ifsituationis
notcontrollable,turbineistobestopped.
9)HighSteamParameter
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Like low steam temperature and pressure, high steam


temperatureandpressureisnotdesirableforturbineoperation.
Highsteamtemperaturemaydamageturbineasthemetrology
oftheturbineisdesignedforaparticulartemperature.
10)LowCondenserVacuum
Duetovacuumincondenserthesteamfromturbineiseasily
exhausted into condenser. If vacuum inside the condenser
drops, it restricts exhaust of steam of turbine. This creates
backpressureinsideturbine.Vacuummaydropduetofailure
in cooling water system, failure of ejectors, or leaking
condenserairline.Standbyejectororstartingejectoristobe
immediatelytakenintoline.Leakingairlineistobearrested
promptlyorcoolingwatersupplytobeincreased.Ifvacuumis
not improved, the turbine is to be stopped immediately. Low
vacuum protection logic is provided to trip the turbine when
condenservacuumdropsto0.4kg/cm2.
11)FailureOfCoolingWaterSystems
Due to failure of cooling water pumps or choking in cooling
water circuit, cooling water supply may be reduced or
interrupted. In this case turbine exhaust steam cannot be
condensed. This will increase the pressure of the condenser
and drop the vacuum. Rapture disks of the condenser may
rapture,heavybackpressurewillbecreatedinturbine.Inthis
case load is to be reduced first and care is to be taken to
normalizecoolingwatersupply.Ifsituationdoesnotimprove
thenturbineistostopped.
BlackOutmaneuverMethodforWHRBPowerPlant
Both the TG fails and Grid not available : (BLACK OUT
CONDITION)
1. In the above cases ( Total blackout condition ) ensure
availability of DG emergency power to all the
emergencydrivesofboththeCPPwithin10seconds(i.e.
Boiler main steam stop valve, Auxiliary oil pump,
Barring gear, Emergency oil pump, Boiler feed pump
dischargevalve,CPParealighting&Jackoilpump&
TGsteamstopvalve)
2. Ensure from field pressure gauge that lubrication
continues in both the TG by gravity method (oil flows
fromoverheadtanktoalltheTGbearingsandreturnsto
mainoiltankbydrainheader)
3. Ensure from HMI & field that Emergency oil pump is
runningthroughDCpower&oilsupplycontinuestoall
thebearings.
4.StarttheJackoilpumpofTG.
5. Ifemergencypowerisnotavailablewithin10seconds,
then immediately contact the Electrical Shift In Charge
aboutthematterandtrytoresumeemergencypoweras
quicklyaspossible,withthehelpofShiftInChargeCPP
&ShiftInChargeElectrical.
6. Afterresumingofemergencypower,closemainsteam
stopvalveofallthethreeBoilersandmaintainthedrum
pressurethroughstartupvent.
7. In blackout condition, ensure that Kiln stack cap will
remain 100% open till the availability of boiler feed
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pump. If stack cap is closed or partially closed, then


contact Kiln control rooms to open the same through
ShiftInChargeCPP.
8.Inblackoutcondition,alltheboilerswillbeinhotboxup
condition.
9.

Ensure emergency stop valve of TG is in closed


condition
10.ClosetheTGinletmotorisedvalve.
11. Close all the boilers feed pump discharge motorised
valves.
12.Afterresumingofemergencypower,auxiliaryoilpump
willstartinautomode.Ensurethesamefromfield&
HMI,thenstoptheemergencyoilpumpfrompaneland
putitinautomode.
13. After resuming of 1000kva DG, power start one feed
pumpofCPP1andsupplywatertoallthreeboilersand
maintainthedrumlevelupto40%.

Diposkan oleh Mujiyono Ath di 17.44


4 komentar:
Cooper Freer 10 Maret 2014 03.01
such a great resource that you are providing and you give it away for free. I love seeing
websites that understand the value of providing a quality resource for free. It's the old
what goes around comes around routine.
Balas
Balasan
Focus Engineerrs 7 Juli 2016 04.48
Thanks for sharing latest techniques.
Metering Pump Manufacturer in India
Dosing Pump Manufacturer in India | Chemical Dosing System | water
treatment equipments
Balas

Zhu Y 27 Juli 2015 02.03


Our pneumatic factory was founded in 2000,CHECK HERE. In decades of serving China
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like Air Gun.
Balas

Focus Engineerrs 15 April 2016 03.48


Thank you so much for taking the time to share such a nice information.
reliable chemical dosing system
Balas

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