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To allow the driver to engage and disengage the transmission from the
Clutch is applied/engaged means your foot is off the pedal
Slave cylinder disengages the clutch
Pressure plate forces the clutch to the flywheel


Clutch cover
Pressure plate
Clutch disc
Release bearing (throw-out bearing)
Transmission input shaft (clutch shaft)

Clutch housing aka bell housing

Transmissions may or may not use a pilot bearing
Rear wheel drive transmissions always use a pilot bearing/bushing
Front transmission bearing retainer (quill) has the release bearing sitting on it
Traditional release bearing is when the bearing is not riding on the pressure plate
when not engaged the amount of play till it engages is called free play
Test questions will be on traditional
If you dont have to make constant adjustments on the clutch then it would be
called a constant running type
Only driven member is the friction disk
As the clutch disk wears the release levers move toward the release bearing and
decrease the freeplay
Friction disk

Clutch facing
Cover plate
Spline hub with flange
Drive plate with marcel springs (for smooth engagement has the frictional
material bonded or riveted to it) and torsional springs (also there for

Splined to the input shaft

Marcel springs are also called cushion springs (wavy)

Flange/hub area has torsional coil springs to absorb torsional vibrations (also
prevents the gear shifter from rattling and they also compress and allow for a
smoother take off)
Coefficient of friction as the temperature heats up the coefficients of friction
increases and the clutch may slip
Stop pins allow the center hub to turn only so far and allow the torsional springs to
only compress so much
Inspect torsional springs (are they loose) would cause chatter
Friction surface

In the friction disk there are groves that keep it from suctioning itself to the fly
wheel if the groves are gone this can cause grinding when the customer is taking
off from a dead because the disk is continuing to rotate
To much free play may not allow the disk to fully disengage

Clutch cover and pressure plate

Clutch cover is bolted to the flywheel
Has to be well balanced
Radiates heat away
Either coil spring or diaphragm design
Pressure plate forces the clutch disc against the flywheel
Secured to the clutch cover in one of three ways
Boss drive the drive lug or boss drive has the lug coming out of the cover itself.
Radial strap type steel plates that dont wear out (no disengagement problems)
Chordal strap type series of straps around the outside

2 coil spring design

Borg and beck style 3 wide fingers (brute clamping force) (heavy pedal
Long style/semi centrifugal thin fingers also has a counter weight on the
back of the lever so at higher speeds it clamps harder
Diaphragm type most common

Pressure plate
As the friction disk decreases on the diaphragm the clamping load will
increase until about the half way mark then it will also decrease
Diaphragm has easy pedal effort

As the friction disk decreases on the coil spring design the clamping force
Coil spring type release fingers has medium pressure
Semi centrifugal type hard to engage

Diaphragm can also be called a Bellville spring the spring is sandwiched

between 2 rings called pivot rings

Run out check with a dial indicator on the flywheel

Straight edge across the fly wheel
Use die grinder to do a small resurface
When it comes to pressure plates the thing most commonly over looked is the
finger height adjustment
When the plate is bolted down all the fingers need to be at the same height
Finger height adjustment is responsible for even release of the pressure plate
and if they are uneven it can lead to hard shifting

Normally the clutch capacity is 1.2 -1.4 capacity

Release bearing (throw out bearing)

Allows the clutch assembly to be activated while it is rotating

Lubricate splines on input shaft only if the manufacture recommends

Front transmission bearing retainer housing (quill)

As the clutch wears out the fingers go closer to the release bearing which decreases
free play

Torque is transferred from the friction surface to the drive plate through the rivets

Operating systems

o May require adjustment
o Uses a master and slave cylinder
Mechanical linkage
o Pushrod style
o Over center spring/assist spring
Helps return pedal to stop
Helps in assisting you apply the pedal
(diaphragm pivot rings also give the over center action where as
if you are over half way they will assist)

Pedal free play adjust should be made often 6-12 months

Integral clutch slave cylinder / slave cylinder and release bearing assembly

Dual mass flywheels

Prevent gear rattle
Absorbs engine vibrations before they are transmitted to the driveline where they
can create gear rattle
The primary section of the flywheel contains springs to isolate engine vibrations and
a torque limiting device
Dual mass flywheels resurfacing is not recommended on some ford applications the
flywheel can be resurfaced and new bolts used

Clutch chatter

Misaligned or broken transmission/engine mounts

Check for proper hydraulic release
Release bearing could be sticking or binding
Check disc hub splines
Check input shaft splines
Check for uneven finger height
Damaged pilot bearing
Oil on face of clutch (or burned)

Clutch fork pivot and finger wear

Weak springs (torsion damper)
Loose rivets
To much grease applied to splines
Could be suspension driveline components which may seem like clutch
Warped pressure plate
Improper clutch cover torque sequence
Broken diaphragm spring finger
Loose bell housing bolts

Trans in neutral with pedal released worn input shaft bearing (growling bearing
type noise) noise most likely goes away when pedal pressed in
Trans in neutral Slight pedal pressed release bearing (wurring noise got louder,
squealing noise than now went away)
Fully depress the pedal pilot bearing (squealing or growling type noise)

Gear clashing noise when trying to put vehicle into gear

Faulty clutch disk

Faulty pilot bearing (wont allow the input shaft to stop if it seized)
Clutch fork and ball stud worn bent broken etc.
Clutch gear (input shaft) binding on the splines (clutch disk binding on input
shaft splines and keeps riding along with the flywheel)
Warped bent clutch disk (improper install)
Air in the hydraulic system
Pedal misaligned/bent/worn
Incorrect pedal free travel
Excessive engine idle speed
Pressure plate to flywheel loose
Uneven finger height

Clutch release

Leaks in the hydraulic system

Try starting the vehicle off in a higher gear to determine clutch slippage.
Vehicle should stall immediately
Make sure dowel pins go back
Clutch pedal free play
Clutch pedal height

Clutch slippage

Oil on disk
Check clutch pedal free travel (the release bearing may be slightly riding on
the spring causing the clutch to not be fully engaged)
Release bearing

Clutch spin down test

With your foot off the pedal in neutral vehicle running press the pedal down for 5
seconds go into reverse (because its not synchronized) there should be no noise
or grinding