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# FIRST YEAR SEMESTER ONE (1) COURSES

Pre-requisite:

1.

## Introduction set theory

Definition of sets; the empty and universal sets; subsets; union and
intersection of sets; de Morgan's laws; complement of a set; binary
operations; relations; mappings; functions and their inverses; sets of
numbers - integers, rational numbers, real numbers, complex numbers.

2.

Preliminary Algebra
Quadratic equations; completing the square; maximum and minimum
values of quadratic functions and their graphs; polynomials, the factor
theorem; the remainder theorem; approximation to the roots of equations;
solutions of surd equations and fractional equations; inequalities.

3.

Elementary Functions
The standard functions; sinx, cosx, ex, sinhx, coshx on R, their properties
including basic identities and graphs; inverse functions.

4.

## Elementary Differential Calculus

Limits; continuity; derivatives; derivatives of sums, products, quotients and
composite functions; derivatives of trigonometric functions, derivative of
inverse trigonometric functions, exponential functions, logarithmic
functions; higher order derivatives.

Prescribed textbook:
1.
Pure Mathematics 1, Backhouse, J.K. and Houldsworth S.P.T., 1985.
Longman.
Recommended text book:
2.
College Algebra and Trigonometry, Kaufman J.E., 1987. PWS, Publishers.

Pre-requisite:

1.

## Sets and Logic

Venn diagrams; intersection and union; relations and functions; standard
functions (Linear, quadratic and trigonometric) and their graphs.

2.

Algebra
Real numbers; complex numbers; simple equations, quadratic equations;
completing the square, positive and negative definiteness of quadratics and
the maximum and minimum values; polynomials; the Factor theorem; the
Reminder theorem; synthetic division; approximations to the roots of
equations; solution of simultaneous equations; inequalities; partial
fractions; Logarithms (natural logarithms, change of base); Binomial
theorem.

3.

Trigonometry
Solution of triangles; trigonometric identities
differences formulae); trigonometric equations.

(including

sums

and

Prescribed textbook:
1.
College Algebra and Trigonometry. Kaufman, J.E. 1987. PWS Publishers.
Recommended textbook:
2.
Fundamentals of Freshman Mathematics, Allendorfer, CB and Oakley, C.O.
1972. McGraw Hill.

## FIRST YEAR SEMESTER TWO (2) COURSES

M112 - MATHEMATICAL METHODS 11 - A
Pre-requite: M111 - Mathematical Methods I
1.

Further Algebra
Mathematical induction; Binomial theorem.

2.

## Analytical Geometry and Vector Analysis

Plane coordinate system; the particular cases (x, y) and (r, ), equations of
plane curves, loci; straight line, circle and conic sections. The 3-D
geometric vector; the direction vector, direction cosines; the vector
operations a + b. a.b, a x b in geometric terms; the laws of algebra e.g. a.
(b + c) = a.b + a.c and a x (b + c) = axb + axc.

3.

## Matrices and Determinants

Introduction to the concept of a matrix; the particular matrices 0 and I;
transpose AT of A; A + B, AB and kA; determinant |A| of square matrix A,
minors and cofactors; properties of determinants; use of determinants in
the solution of system of simultaneous linear equations (Cramer's rule).

4.

## Further Complex numbers

Polar form of a complex number, Argand diagram; Modulus and argument
of a complex number, De-Moivre's theorem; roots of a complex number.

5.

## Further Differential Calculus

Applications of derivatives to gradient of plane curves; increasing and
decreasing functions; stationary points (maxima, minima, point of
inflection), curve sketching; rate of change.

6.

Integral Calculus
The indefinite integral as the inverse of differentiation; integration,
substitution integration by parts, partial fractions; integration of rational
functions; area under a curve.

Prescribed textbook:
1.
Pure Mathematics 1 and 2, Backhouse J.K. and houldsworth S.P.T. 1985.
Longman.
Recommended textbook:
2.
Analytic Geometry, Thomas G.B. and Finney R.L. Addison Wesley
Publishing company.

## M114 - MATHEMATICS METHODS 11-B

Pre-requisite: M111 - Mathematical Methods I
1a.

Sets

1b.

Further algebra
n
Mathematical induction; Factorial, nCr, , Binomial theorem, n positive
r
integer extended with n a rational number to be used in the expansion of
(1 + x)n, n Q considering the condition -1 < x < 1.

2.

Analytical Geometry
Plane coordinate system (x,y), the cartesian system; Loci; equation of a
point moving under certain restrictions; First degree equations;
ax + by + c = o representing a line, perpendicular lines, angle between two
lines, Second degree equations: ax2 + by2 + cxy + dx + ey + f = 0
representing two intersecting lines, parabola, a ellipse, a hyperbola, a circle
(conics); Circle, equation, centre and radius. Tangents and normal to a
circle, intersection of a circle and a line, intersection of two circles.
Applications.

3.

3-D Vectors
Geometrical representation, magnitude of a vector, the vector operations
a + b, ab, axb and the laws of algebra e.g. a(b + c) = ab + ac and ax (b +
c) = axb + axc.; applications.

4.

Further trigonometry:
Inverse trigonometric functions and their graphs; Extended sum and
difference of angles, double and half angle formula, solving the form
=c, factor formula.

5.

Further functions
Exponential functions and their graphs; hyperbolic functions and inverse
hyperbolic functions; logarithmic functions and the graph; Applications.

6.

## Further complex numbers

Argand diagram, polar form of a compl
and argument of a complex number, De Moivre's theorem; roots of complex
numbers.

7.

## Matrices and Determinants

Concept of matrix, particular matrices O and I, transpose AT of A,
addition/subtraction of matrices, multiplication by a scalar, multiplication
of matrices; Determinant of A (minors and cofactors), properties of
determinants; Use of determinants in the solution of system of
simultaneous linear equations (using Cramer's rule or using adjoint matrix
and inverse matrix) and applications.

8.

## Further differential calculus

Rate of change, implicitly differentiation, higher order derivatives,
convacity, stationary point (point of inflection); Curve sketching (domain,
parity, asymptotes (vertical and horizontal), f'(x) and f"(x) etc.) of
polynomials, rational and radical functions; Derivatives of trigonometric
functions and inverse trigonometric functions; Derivatives of exponential
and logarithmic functions; applications.

9.

Integral Calculus
Indefinite integral as the inverse operation of differentiation, integration of
standard functions, the substitution method, integration of rational
functions, integration by parts; Definite integral, area under a curve and
applications;
Separable differential equations of first order and
applications.

Prescribed Textbook:
1.

## Pure Mathematics 1 and 2, Backhouse J.K. and Houldsworth S.P.T. 1985.

Longman.

Recommended textbook
2.

Analytic Geometry, Thomas G.B. and Finney R.L. 1988. Addison Wesley
Publishing Company.

## M162 - INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICS, PROBABILLITY AND

STATISTICS II
Pre-requisite: M161 - Introduction to Mathematics, Probability and Statistics I
1.

Calculus
Differential calculus: Limits and continuity relating to f(x); derivative of
f(x); the rules for differentiation of sums, products, quotients and composite
functions of x; derivatives of standard functions and their inverse, higher
order derivatives; applications to gradients, increasing and decreasing
functions, stationary points (maximum, minimum and points of inflexion);
rates of change.
Integral calculus: The indefinite integral as the inverse differential
operation; integration of simple standard forms (xn, sinx, cosx, ex, f ' (x) /
f(x); basic methods of integration (substitution, by parts and partial
fractions).

2.

Descriptive Statistics
Discrete and continuous data; frequency distribution; histograms and
frequency polygons; cumulative frequency curves; measures of central
tendency (including use of assumed mean); measures of dispersion.

3.

Probability
Sample space; events, definition of probability; mutual exclusive events
conditional probability; independent events; Bayes theorem; probability
trees; permutations and combination

Probability Distributions
Discrete random variables: probability functions; expectation; variance;
special discrete probability distributions (Binomal and Poisson).
Continuous random variables: probability density functions; expectation,
variance; the normal distribution, standard normal distribution; use of
standard normal tables.

Prescribed Textbooks
1.

## Pure Mathematics 1, Backhouse, J.K. Houldsworth, S.P.T., Cooper, B.E.D

3rd Ed. 1985. Longman.

2.

## A concise Course in A-Level Statistics. Crawshaw, J and Chambers,

J. 1st ed. 1988. ELBS.

Recommended textbooks
3.
4.

## Fundamentals of Freshman Mathematics, Allendorfer, C.B and Oakley,

C.O. 1972. McGraw Hill.
Probability and Statistics. Spiegel, M.R.

Pre-requisite:

## Mathematical Methods II-A or II-B

1.

Analytic geometry
the general equation s(x, y) = 0 of the 2nd degree and its reduction to
canonical form; classification of conic sections; the significant properties of
the conic sections; the (r,q) equations for the parabola, ellipse and
hyperbola.

2.

## Differential calculus of functions of one variable

Tangents and normals to general plane curves; Rolles Theorem; the mean
value theorem and its generalization to Taylor's theorem; Application of
Taylor's theorem; Power series for ex, sinx, cosx, log (1+x), etc; Limits and
limit rules (L'Hospital); Curvature, intrinsic coordinates and the
transformation (x,y) - (s, u).

3.

## Integral calculus of functions of one variable

Further methods of indefinite integration (e.g. transformation, integration
by parts, recurrence formulae, etc.); The definite integral as the limit of a
sum (treated heuristically) with application to areas; volumes; length of
curves; centroids; moments of inertia.

Prescribed textbook
1.

## Analytic Geometry and the Calculus.

Collier-MacMillan.

2nd Ed.

## Goodman, A.W., 1969.

Recommended textbook
2.

Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 5th Ed. Finney, R.L. and Thomas, G.B.

## M221 - LINEAR ALGEBRA I

Pre-requisites:

M112-Mathematical
Methods II-B.

Methods

II-A

or

M114-Mathematical

1.

Linear Equations
Solution of systems of linear equations by the Gauss Jordan Method;
homogeneous and non-homogeneous system; linear dependence of
equations.

2.

Matrices
Matrix form of a linear equation, addition and scalar multiplication of
matrices, matrix multiplications; inverse of matrix; elementary matrices;
elementary row and column operations; equivalence of matrices; Normal
form.

3.

Determinants
Properties of determinants; cofactors; computation of determinants;
expansion by row and column adjoint matrix; cramer's rule; rank of a
matrix.

4.

Vector spaces
Linear independence subspaces; spanning
coordinates; coordinate transformation.

5.

sets;

basis;

dimension;

Linear Transformations
Matrix representation of transformations; composition of
transformations; effect of change of basis on matrix transformation.

linear

Prescribed textbook
1.

## Linear algebra: An introduction; Morris, A.O. 1978. Van Nastrand.

Recommended textbook
2.

## Introduction to matrices and linear transformations, 2nd Ed. Finkbeliner II,

D.T. 1966 W.H. Freeman.

Pre-requisites:

## M112 - Mathematical Methods II-A or M114 - Mathematical

Methods II-B.

1.

Set theory
Elements of Algebra; Relations as subsets of (X*Y) where X, YR; Surjective
and injective relations; functions as special relations; Inverses of functions;
Direct and inverse images of a set under a function.

2.

## The Real line R

Natural numbers, integers, rational and irrational numbers, the real
number line R;R as a totally ordered field; the real numbers 0 and 1; x
for x in R; Dedekind cuts on Q and R; Boundedness of subsets of R; The
nested interval property; The axiom of Archimedes and the denseness of
rationals in R.

3.

Sequences in R
Sequences; Bounded sequences; Converging sequences; Cauchy sequences
in R: lim inf sup of sequences; Diverging sequences Monotone sequences:
Subsequences: Completeness of R.

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Guide to Analysis. Hart, Marry, 1988.Macmillan Education
Recommended Textbooks
2.
Real Analysis. Marsden, J.E. 1974. W.H.Freeman.
3.
Fundamental Real Analysis. Gupta, S.L. and Rani, 1970. N. Vikas. (India).
4.
Elements of Real Analysis. Bartle, R.G. 1976.J.Wiley.

## M261 - INTRODUCTION TO STATISTICS

Pre-requisites: M112-Mathematical Methods II-A or M114-Mathematical
Methods
1.

Introduction
What is statistics, elements of statistics; Sampling Methods
(Data collection); Data representation: graphical techniques, frequency
distribution.

2.

## Estimation and sampling distributions

Point estimates for mean, difference of means, proportions, difference of
proportions and their sampling distributions; Confidence intervals for
mean, difference of means, proportion, difference of proportions, variance
and ratio of variances.

3.

## Statistical hypothesis testing

Definition of statistical hypothesis, type I and type II errors; Tests of
hypothesis about the mean, proportion, the difference of means and
proportions for large and small samples; Tests of hypothesis about variance
and ratio of variances; Tests of independence and goodness of fit test.

4.

Analysis of variance
Introduction to linear model and experimental design; Completely
randomized design (CRD), balanced and unbalanced; Randomized block
design (RBD), unreplicated and replicated.

5.

## Linear regression and correlation analysis

Introduction; Simple linear regression model, least squares, ANOVA table,
t-test, and F-tests, confidence intervals for the intercept and slope;
Correlation analysis, coefficient of correlation.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Statistics.
Mclave, J.T.and Dietrich, F.H. 1979.
Company.

Delloen Publishing

## Recommended text book

2.
Introduction to statistics. Walpole, R.E. 1984, Macmillan.

10

## EM211 - ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS I

Pre-requisite: M114 - Mathematical Methods II-B
1.

Co-ordinate Geometry
Transformation of co-ordinates; Introduction to Conic Section; Some
properties of the circle, parabola, ellipse and hyperbola; Tangent and
normal to conic sections.

2.

## Differentiation and Integration

Leibnitz theorem; Maclaurin and Taylor series; Series in general, divergence
and convergence.

3.

Vectors in space
Vector Algebra and applications in 3-space co-ordinate geometry; vector
functions of a single variable; Differentiation of vector functions;
Application to mechanics.

Prescribed textbook
1.

## Analytic Geometry and Culculus, 2nd Ed. Goodman, A.W. 1969.

Macmillan.

Collier

2.

Analytic Geometry and the Calculus, 2nd Ed. Finney, R.L. and Thomas,

Recommended textbook
1.

Calculus and Analytic Geometry, 5th Ed. Finney, R.L. and Thomas, G.B.

11

Pre-requisites:

## M211 - Mathematical Methods III

1.

Vector analysis
Theory of geometry vectors with applications: Vector and parametric
equations; differentiation of vectors; the notion of a projectile; curvature;
the unit tangent and normal vectors; arc length as a parameter etc.;
Application to 3-dimensional spaces: Vectors in three dimensional spaces;
equations of straight lines in space; the scalar and vector products of two
vectors; computations with vector products; equations of planes, spaces
curves etc.

2.

## Differential calculus of function of several variables

Functions of several variables; partial derivatives of various orders and
their manipulation; The total differential; chain rules for partial and total
differentiation; application of the total differential to error estimation;
Stationary points, etc; Euler's theorem for homogeneous functions.

3.

## Ordinary differential equations

Order, degree and general solutions of D.E.; Linear and non-linear
equation; The general linear equation:
(a) homogeneous, (b) nonhomogeneous; Properties of the linear homogenous D.E. (e.g. superposition of solutions); Properties of the linear non-homogeneous D.E., its
general solution (GS), complementary function (CF) and particular integral
(PI), GS= CF + PI; The solvableD.E's (Linear and non linear) of O(1), their
classification into exact, variable separable, homogeneous, linear, Bernoulli
types etc., and methods for their solutions; The linear equations of O(2)
with constant or homogeneous coefficients and their methods of solutions;
The methods of variation of parameters and solution by series.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Analytic Geometry and the Calculus.
Collier- MacMillan.

## 2nd Ed. Goodman, A.W., 1969.

Recommended textbook
2.
Calculus and Analytic Geometry .5th Ed. Finney, R.L. and Thomas, G.B.

12

Pre-requisites:

## M221 - Linear Algebra I.

1.

Orthogonality.
Inner Products spaces; length; angle; orthogonal vectors; orthogonal bases
Gram Schmidt orthogononalistion; orthogonal and unitary matrices;
orthogonal coordinate transformation.

2.

## Characteristic Roots and Vectors

Eigen values, Eigenvectors and similarity. Diagonalisation of matrices and
linear
transformations;
real-symmetric
and
Hermitain
matrices;
diagonalisation by orthogonal or unitary matrix.

3.

Congruence, diagonalisation and canonial forms; rank and index, definite
and semi definite forms. Applications to conic sections.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Linear Algebra; An introduction, Morris, A.O. 1978. Van Nastrand.
Recommended textbook
2.
Introduction to matrices and linear transformations, 2nd Ed. Finkerbeiner
II, D.T. 1966 W.H. Freeman.

13

Pre-requisite:

## M231 - Real Analysis I.

1.

Infinite series
Infinite series as a special case of sequences. Convergence of infinite
series. Standard series (geometric, harmonic). Theory of positive series.
Tests for convergence of infinite series (comparison tests , D' Alembert,
Guass, Cauchy, integral test etc). General real series. Absolute convergent
series. Conditional convergence. Uniform convergence. Power series.
Representation of standard elementary functions (e.g. (1 + x), e, log (1 + x),
sinx) as infinite power series.

2.

Continuity
Limits of functions. Continuos real valued functions from subsets of R into
R. Some properties of continuos functions on closed intervals.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Guide to Analysis. Hart, Mary. 1988. MacMillan Education.
Recommended textbook
2.
Guide to Analysis. Marsden, J.E. 1974. W.H. Freeman
3.
4.

## Fundamental Real Analysis. Gupta, S.L. and Rani. 1970. N. Vikaas.

(India).
Elements of Real Anlaysis. Bartle, R.G. 1976. J. Wiley.

14

## M292 - INTRODUCTION TO PROBABILITY

Pre-requisite: M211 - Mathematical Methods IV
1.

Introduction
Definitions and axioms of probability.
Sample space and events.
Independent events, conditional probability and Bayes theorem. Counting
techniques.

2.

## Random variables and probability distributions

Definition of random variables and probability distribution, discrete and
continuous.
Expectations of random variables, moment generating
function.
Discrete random variables; Bernoulli, Binomial, Poisson,
Geometric, Negative Binomial and Hypergeometric. Continuous random
variables; Uniform, Exponential, Normal, Gamma and Beta distributions.

3.

## Jointly distributed random variables

Joint distribution.
Independence of random variables.
Conditional
probability functions.
Conditional expectation.
Moment generating
functions.

4.

Test distributions
T-distribution. Chi- square distribution. F-distribution.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Statistics.
Mclave, J.T.
Company.

## and Dietrich, F.H. 1979 Dellen Publishing

Recommended textbook
2.
Introduction to statistics. Walpole, R.E. 1984, Macmillan.
3.
A concise course in A- level statistics. Crawshaw, J. and Chambers, J.
1984. Stanely Thormes.

15

## EM212 - ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS II

Pre-requisites: EM211 - Engineering Mathematics I
1.

## Functions of several variables

Partial derivatives; Geometric implications of first and second order
derivatives-increment of a function of several variables and applications in
error estimation; Total derivative and total differentials: Chain rule.

2.

Differential Equations
First and second order ordinary differential equations with constant
coefficients.

3.

## Matrices and Vector Spaces

Matrix algebra and applications;
eigenvectors.

Vector

spaces;

Eigenvalues

and

Prescribed textbook
1.
Analytic Geometry and Calculus. 2nd Ed. Goodman, A.W. 1969, CollierMacMillan.
Recommended textbooks
2.
Calculus and Analytic Geometry. 5th Ed. Finney, R.L. and Thomas, G.B.
3.
Multivariable Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Differential Equations, 2nd Ed.
Grossman, S.T. 1986. HBL Publishers.

16

Pre-requisites:

## M232 - Real Analysis II

1.

Elements of topology
Open and closed subsets of R; Intervals, neighborhoods, interior points,
exterior and boundary points, limit points of a set; Bolzano-Weistrass
theorem: Cantor intersection theorem; Lindelof covering theorem;
compactness, the Heine-Borel theorem; compact sets and connected sets.

2.

## Continuous functions and functions of bounded variation

Continuity at a point and on a set; uniform continuity; preservation of
connectedness under continuous mappings; the intermediate value
theorem, preservations of compactness under continuous mappings; the
maximum and minimum value theorem; uniform convergence; step
function approximation; functions of bounded variation.

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Real Analysis. Marden. J.E. 1974. W.H. Freeman
2.
Elements of Real Analysis. Bartle, R.G. 1976. J. Wiley.
Recommended Textbooks
3.
Fundamental Real Analysis. Gupta, S.L. and Rani. 1970. N. vikas (India).

17

## M361 - MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS

Pre-requisites: M292 - Introduction to Probability and M212 - Mathematical
Methods Iv.
1.

## Probability Distribution of functions of Random Variables

Moment generating functions; Distributions of order Statistics, Minimum,
Maximum, etc.; Distributions of t, c and F random Variables.

2.

Estimation
Methods of points estimation, method of moments, maximum likelihood
estimators (MLES); Properties of estimators; unbiasness, efficiency
consistency, sufficiency, Cramer-Rao lower bound.

3.

Hypothesis testing
Basic criteria for evaluating statistical procedures; types I and type II
errors; Power function and size of test; simple hypotheses tests, most
powerful tests; Hypothesis testing (Negmann-pearson lemma) Composite
hypotheses tests, uniformly most powerful tests; Monotone likelihood ratio
tests, generalized likelihood ratio tests.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Introduction to the theory of statistics. Mood, A., Gray Bill, F. and Boes,
D.1974 McGraw-Hill.
2.
Introduction to mathematical statics. Hogg, R.V. and Graig, A.T., 1978.
Macmillan.
Recommended textbook
3.
Introduction to statistical theory. Hoel, P.G., Port S.C and Stone C.J. 1991.
Houghtonm Mifflin.

18

Pre-requisites:

1.

## Functions of Several Variables

Transformation in 2 and 3 dimensions, Functional dependence, stationary
points of functions of several variables, maxima and minima under side
constraints, lagrange multipliers, Taylor's theorem in several variables.

2.

Vector Analysis
Scalar and vector fields, the vector operators grad, div and curl, and basic
Operations identities.

3.

## Further Differential Calculus

Surfaces, normal to surface, directional derivatives, tangent plane to a
surface, tangent to a curve in 3-D, rectification of a curve in 3-D.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Multivariable Calculus, Linear Algebra and Differential Equations.
Grossman, S.I. 1986. Hartcourt Brace Jovavich Inc.
2.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Wylie, C.R. and Barrett, L.C. 1982.
McGraw-Hill Book Company.

Recommended textbooks
3.
Advanced Calculus, Schaum's Out line series. Spiegel, Murray R. 1974.
McGraw-Hill Book Company.
4.
Vector Analysis, Schaum's Out line series. Spiegel, Murray R. 1974.
McGraw-Hill Book Company.
5.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Kreyszig, E. 1988. John Wiley and
Sons.

19

Pre-requisites:

## M212 - Mathematical Methods IV and Proficiency in a

Programming language

1.

## Errors and Numerical Instabilities

Properties of computer arithmetic (non-associative, non-commutative);
errors in arguments; absolute error; truncation error; forward and
backward propagation of errors. Algorithms.

2.

Roots of functions
Half interval search (bisection) method; Newton's method; fixed point
methods; modifications of Newton's and other methods.

3.

Approximation of Functions.
Approximation at a point; polynomial fit at a local point; Taylor series
expansion; application to computer algorithms; approximation over an
interval; interpolation, evaluation by forcing the approximation polynomial
through points of known function values; least squares approximation, the
fitting function is not forced through specified points; optimal choice of
evaluation points by Chebyshev polynomials; alternate measures of
distance between functions and uniform approximation.

4.

## Numerical Differentiation and Integration

Simpson's rule; Cote's Gaussian quadrate formulae.

trapezoidal

rule;

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Numerical Analysis. 4th Ed. Burden, R.L. and Faires, J.D., 1989. PSWKent.
Recommended Textbook
2.
Fortran 77 and Numerical Methods for Engineering. Borse.
PSW-Kent.

20

G.J., 1985.

Pre-requisite:

## EM212 - Engineering Mathematics II

1.

Differential Equations
Ordinary Linear differential equations with variable coefficients; Euler
Equation, Laplace transform method; Systems of first order differential
equations; Introduction to partial differential equations.

2.

## Fourier series and Integrals

Fourier series and applications; The Fourier integral

Prescribe textbook
1.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. 6th Ed. Kreyzig, E.1988. john Willey
and Sons.
Recommended textbooks
2.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Wylie.R.C. and Barret, L.C., 1989.
McGraw-Hill.
3.
Multivariable Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Differential Equations, 2nd Ed.
Grossman. S.T. 1986. HBL Publishers.

21

Pre-requisite:

## M331 - Real Analysis III.

1.

Differentiable functions
Differentiability at a point and on a set; differentiability and continuity;
some theorems on differentiation; Rolle's theorem; improper integrals;
Mean-value and generalized mean value (Taylor's) theorem with
applications.

2.

## The Riemann integral

Partition of an interval; refinements of a partition; Riemann sums; Riemann
integral and the intergrability criterion of Riemann classes of intergrable
functions. Properties of the Riemann integral; integral Calculus; the first
mean value theorem for integrals; the Riemann Stieljes integral.

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Real Analysis. Marsden, J.E. 1974. W.H. Freeman
2.
Elements of Real Analysis. Bartle, R.G. 1976. J. Wiley.
Recommended Textbooks
3.
Fundamental Real Analysis. Gupta S.L. and Rani, 1970. N. Vikas.

22

Pre-requisites:
1.

2.

3.

4.

## M212 - Mathematical Methods IV, M222 - Linear algebra II and

M261 - Introduction to Statistics

## Random vectors and Random matrices

Expectation vector. Variance - covariance matrices.
linear transformation.

Distribution of a

Multiple Regression
Multiple Regression model. Least squares estimators and their statistical
properties Residual Analysis. Weighted least squares estimators. Test of
general linear hypothesis. Multi-collinearity.
Analysis of variance
Estimation and multiple comparison. Three way Analysis of Variance.
Experimental Designs: Completely Randomized Design, Randomized Block
Design, Latin Square Design.
Analysis of Covariance
One way classification with one covariate. One way classification with two
covariates. Development by the general regression significant test.

Prescribed Textbooks
1.
Applied statistics. Dunn, O. and Clark, V. 1987. John Wiley.
2.
Introduction to linear regression analysis. Montgonomory, D. and Peck, E.
1982. John Wiley.
Recommended Textbooks
3.
Applied Statistical Linear Models. Neter, J. and Wasserman. 1974.
Richard D. Irwin, Inc.
4.
Design and analysis of experiments. Montgomery, D. 1984. John Wiley.

23

Pre-requisite:

1.

## Further integral calculus

Line integrals, Jacobian, Wronskian, Jacobian's change of variables, double
integrals, surface integrals tripple and their evaluation; Green's theorem,
Stokes theorem, Gauss theorem, irrotational vector fields with examples.

2.

## Fourier series and integral transforms

Inner products of functions, orthogonality, polynomial development of
functions in trigonometric Fourier sine and cosine series, complex form of
Foureir series, the foureir integral theorem, integral transforms, the inverse
theorem for the Fourier sine-cosine, Laplace-Transforms; transform
identities and theorems, the convolution theorem, operational methods in
analyses with applications to simple boundary value problems.

3.

Differential Equations
Simultaneous D.E.'s. Miscellaneous methods for equations of second order
and higher order; solutions by Laplace transform; solutions in series.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Kreyszig, E. 1988. John wiley and
sons.
2.
Multivariable Calculus, Linear Algebra and Differential Equations.
Grossman, S.I. 1986. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich Inc.
3.
Applied fourier Analysis (College Outline Series) Jovanovich, H.B. 1984.
Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Recommended textbooks
4.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Wylie. C.R. 1982, McGraw-Hill Book
Company.
5.
Advanced Calculus Schaum's Outline Series Spiegel, Murray R.., !974,
McGraw-Hill book Company.

24

Pre-requisites:

## M212 - Mathematical Methods IV

M222- Algebra II and proficiency in a programming language.

1.

Solutions of Equations
Linear equations; matrix norms; Gaussian elimination; triangular
decomposition; iterative Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel methods; solution of least
square normal equations by triangular decomposition; non-linear and
transcendental equations.

2.

## Numerical Approximation of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors

Iterative and transformation methods for finding eigenvalues and
eigenvectors; Housholder and QL algorithms; use of norms to bound errors.

3.

## Numerical Solutions of Ordinary Differential Equations

Intial value problems; Euler's method; Taylor's methods; fourth order
Runge-Kutta methods; Multi-step methods; predictor-corrector formulae;
boundary value problems; discretization; finite differences; Galerkin's finite
methods.

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Numerical Analysis. 4th Ed. Burden, R.L. and Faires, J.D, 1989.
PSW-Kent.
Recommended Textbook
2.
Fortran 77 and Numerical Methods for Engineering.
PSW-Kent.

25

Pre-requisite:
1.

## Functions of several variables

Normal

Lines

and

2.

Multiple Integration
Multiple integrals; Line and surface integrals; Integral theorems.

3.

## Statistics and Probability

Sampling inspection; distributions (binomial, hypergeometric, poisson,
normal); Histograms; confidence intervals; Tests of significances; chisquares test.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 6th Ed. Kreyzig, E.1988, John-Wiley
and sons.
Recommended textbooks
2.
Advanced Engineering Mathematics. Wylie. R.C. and Barret, L.C., 1989.
McGraw-Hill
3.
Statistics. McGraw and Dietrich F.H. 1979, Dellen Publishing Company.
4.
Multivariable Calculus, Linear Algebra, and Differential Equations end Ed.
Grossman. S.T. 1986. HBL Publishers.

26

Pre-requisite:

1.

## The Complex Number System

The Complex Variable z; Cartesian and polar representation of z; Im z, Re z,
|z|, arg z, de Moivre's theorem; The complex plane; lines and half lines in
the complex plane.

2.

## Elementary Theory of Power Series

Sequences:
convergent, divergent and Cauchy Sequences; Series:
convergent, divergent and absolutely convergent series; Uniform
convergence. Power series; radius of convergence.

3.

## Elementary Point Set Topology of C

Neighborhoods; open and closed point sets; Connectedness; continuous
image of a connected set; regions.

4.

Analytic Functions
Limits and continuity; Differentiability at a point and in domain; the
Cauchy-Riemann relations; Laplace's equations; conjugate harmonic
functions. Standard elementary functions: exp z, log z, z, the trigonometric
and hyperbolic functions of z.

5.

## Analytic Functions as Mappings

Paths and smooth paths; conformal mappings;
transformations; cross ratio; symmetry; oriented circles.

6.

linear

fractional

Complex Integration
Line integrals as functions of paths. Cauchy's theorem; Cauchy integral
formula; higher derivatives; Counting zeros; open mapping theorem.
Morera's theorem; Power series representation of analytic functions.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Functions of one Complex Variable. Conway, J.B. 1978; Springer-verlag.
Recommended textbooks
2.
Complex Variables and Applications, 4th Ed. Churchill, R.V. and Brown,
J.W. 1984. McGraw-Hill.
3.

27

Pre-requisite:

1.

## Basic Group Theory

Commutators and derived groups, normal, composition and central series;
Jordan-Holder Theorem, nilpotent and solvable groups: Permutation
groups, transitivity and imprimitivity; linear groups; simple groups.

2.

## Structure and Theorems of Groups

Group extensions, semi-direct products, direct products, wreath products.

3.

Representations of groups
Matrix representations of groups, examples; Equivalent, reducible and
irreducible representations; complete reducibility of group representations,
Mascheke's theorem Schur's lemma, Schur's relations.

4.

## Group Rings and Group Algebras

Group rings interpretations of KG-modules for ordinary representations.

5.

## Introduction to Group Characters

Group characters and orthogononality relations; Simple applications to
Character Tables.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
An Introduction to Group theory. Ledermann, W. 1964. Oliver and Boyd.
2.

## Introduction to Group Characters. Ledermann, W. 1977. CUP.

Recommended textbook
3.
Topics in Algebrra. 2nd Ed. Herstein, I.N. 1975.J.Wiley.

28

Pre-requisites:

1.

## Open and Closed Sets on the Real Number Line

Intervals: Open, closed, half open, half closed; bounded and unbounded
intervals; Limit points; Open and closed sets.

2.

## The Cantor Set

The intervals: J=[0, 1], J = 0, - , J = -, - and J = -, 1; the Cantor set as a
countable intersection of a finite union of closed subsets of J; Ternary
expansions.

3.

The L Sets
Bounded series of powers non-negative real numbers; Norms on ; holder's
inequality; Minkowski's inequality.

4.

Order Relations
Partial orders; well ordered sets, totally ordered sets; Order isomorphism;
Ordinal numbers; countable sets; cardinal numbers; Zorn's Lemma; Hamel
basis theorem.

5.

## Compact Metric Spaces

The Metric function; Open and closed sets; Limits; limit points; Cauchy
sequences; Dense sets; nowhere dense sets; separable metric spaces; Open
cover; Sequentially compact and totally bounded sets; Heine-Borel theorem;
continuous maps on compact spaces; Uniform continuity.

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis Simmons, F.; 1963.
McGraw-Hill.
Recommended Textbooks
2.
Guide to Real Analysis, Kunda. W.Internal circulation.

29

## M461 MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS

Pre-requisites: M361 - Mathematical Statistics and M362 - Linear Models and
Design of Experiments.
1.

## Multivariate Normal Distributions

Marginal and conditional distribution; Mean, variance- covariance and
correlations.

2.

## Estimation of multivariate parameters

MLE of mean vector and its distribution; MLE of the variance-covariance
matrix; confidence intervals of parameters.

3.

## Distribution of Some statistics

Distribution and uses of Hoteling's T-square statistics; Distributions of the
sample variance-covariance matrix (Wishart distribution); Joint distribution
of the sample mean vector and the sample variance - covariance matrix.

4.

## Discriminate and classification

Separation and classification for two population Fisher's method;
Classification with two multivariate normal populations; fisher's method for
discriminating among several populations.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Introduction to multivariate analysis. Morrison, D.F. 1976, McGraw-Hill.
2.
Applied multivariate statistical analysis. Johnson and Wichern. 1982.
Englewood Cliffs.
Recommended textbooks
3.
Introduction to multivariate analysis.
Chatfield and Collins, 1980.
Chapman and Hall.
4.
An introduction to multivariate statistical analysis. T.Anderson. 1984.
John Wiley and Sons.

30

Pre-requisite:

1.

## Distribution and moments

Random variables and their distributions; Expectations and conditional
expectation; Moment generating functions.

2.

Characteristics functions
Definition and elementary properties; Inversion and uniqueness theorem;
Expansion and convergence theorem; The normal characteristic function.

3.

Limit theorems
Modes of convergence for random variables; weak law of large numbers;
Strong law of large numbers; Central limit theorem.

4.

Martingale theory
Definition and examples of Martingale; Martingale differences and
Hoehding's inequality; Convergence of Martingale; Stopping times; Optional
stopping; the maximal inequality.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Probability and Random processes. Grimmett, G.R. and Stirzacher, D.P.
1992. Claredon Press, Oxford.
2.

Introduction to probability theory and its applications, Vol I and II. Feeler,
W. 1968. John Wiley.

Recommended textbook
3.
Real analysis and probability. Ash, R. 1972 Academic press.

31

## EM 411 - ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS V

Pre-requisite: EM312 - Engineering Mathematics IV
1.

## Introduction to Numerical Linear Algebra

Solution of simultaneous linear algebraic equations; Elimination and
iterative methods; errors problems of accuracy and precision.

2.

## Operations with complex matrices

Algebraic eigenvalue problem; Iterative, transformation and other methods
for the determination of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of matrices; accuracy
and precision; Application to problems of stability and vibrations of
physical systems; Determination of Roots of polynomials and other
algebraic and transcendental equations.

3.

Numerical Differentiation
Finite differences; interpolation and extrapolation

4.

Numerical Integration

5.

## Initial-Value and boundary value problems

Numerical solution of initial-value and boundary-value problems with
applications in engineering; error propagation, accuracy and precision.

6.

7.

## Orthogonal functions and their properties

8.

Fourier series
Fourier integral and Laplace transforms with applications to some typical
scientific and engineering problems.

9.

Harmonic analysis.

10.

NOTE:

## Throughout the course methods and techniques suitable for hand

computations will be considered so as to put advantages and
limitations of using a digital computer in proper perspective.
Students will be encouraged to use the computer by writing
computer programs or using some existing program packages for
solutions of some practical problems.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Numerical Analysis. 4th Ed. Burden, R.L. and Faires, J.D 1989.PSW Kent.
32

2.

Pre-requisites:

1.

## Further Complex Integration

Entire functions; fundamental theorem of calculus.

2.

Calculus of Residues
Classification of singular points. Taylor and Laurent series. Residue
theorem.
Evaluation of definite integrals.
The argument principle;
Rouches theorem.

3.

## The Maximum Modulus Theorem

The Maximum principle. Schwarzs Lemma and applications.

4.

Analytic Continuation
General analytic functions. Function element. Analytic continuation along
a path. Homotopic curves; Monodromy theorem.

Prescribed TextBook
1.
Functions of one complex variable. Conway, J.B. 1978, Springer-Verlag.
Recommended Textbooks
1.
Complex Variables and Applications. 4th Ed. Churchill, R.V. and Brown,
J.W. 1984. McGraw-Hill.
2.

33

Pre-requisites:

1.

## Elementary module theory

Definition and properties; Free modules, finitely generated modules internal
direct sums, torsion modules.

2.

## Decomposition of finitely generated modules over PIDs

Sub modules of free modules, Structure theorem for finitely generated
modules over principal ideal domains. Primary components, Invariant
factor theorem.

3.

## Field extensions and splitting fields

Prime fields, simple extensions, algebraic extensions, normal field
extensions, Galois extensions. Splitting field of a polynomial. Multiple
roots, separable and perfect fields.

4.

## Field Automorphisms an The Galois Group

Galois Group, Fundamental theorem of Galois Theorem, Criterion for
solvability of a polynomial by radicals. The Galois group as a permutation
group of roots.

5.

Finite Fields
Basic results, special bases for finite dim extension fields. The normal base
theorem.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Rings, modules and Linear algebra. Hartley, B. and Hawkes, T.O. 1970.
Chapman and Hall.
2.

## Galois Theory. Stewart. 1973. Chapman and Hall

Recommended textbook
3.
Basic Algebra. Jacobson, I.N. 1985. W.H. Freeman.

34

Pre-requisites:

1.

## Complete Metric Spaces

R and l as examples of complete metric spaces. Baire category theorem.
Fixed point theorem; contraction mapping theorem; Picard's theorem on
existence and uniqueness of solutions of initial value differential equations.

2.

## Normal Linear Spaces

The norm. Bounded linear transformations.
A Banach space. Dual
paces. Reisz representation theorem for l spaces. Hahn-Banach theorem.

3.

## Inner Product Spaces

The inner product, the norm; Schwarz's inequality. Orthogonality. Hilbert
space examples C and l ; projection theorem; Reisz representation theorem;
orthonormal sets;' Bessels inequality; Parseval's relation.

Prescribed Textbook
1.
Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis.
McGraw-Hill.
2.

Simmons, F. 1963,.

Recommended Textbook
Guide to Real Analysis. Kunda, W. Internal circulation.

35

Pre-requisites:

## M361 - Mathematical Statistics and M362 - Linear Models

and Design of Experiments.

1.

Bayesian inference
Posterior and prior densities. Bayesian point and interval estimates.
Loss functions. Decision functions. Value information.

2.

## Basic concepts and models

Basic concept of lifetime distributions. Some important models. Censoring
and statistical methods

3.

## Life tables, graphs, and related procedures

Life tables. Non-parametric estimation of the survivor function. Plotting
procedures. Least squares estimation of parameters.

4.

## Discrete multivariate methods

Log-linear models. Generalized linear models. Logistics regression. Probit
analysis.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Theoretical statistics.
Cambridge.

## Cox and Hickley.

1974.

University Press,

2.

## Statistical models and methods for life time data.

John Wiley and Sons.

## Lawless, J.F. 1982.

3.

Analysis of survival data. D.R. Cox, D.R and oakes, D. 1984. Chapman
and all.

Recommended textbooks
4.
Discrete multivariate analysis theory and practice. Bishop, Y.M., Fienberg,
S.E and Holland, P.W. 1975. M.I.T press.
5.

Press.

36

Pre-requisite:

## M491 - Probability Theory.

1.

Stochastic Processes
Definition and examples

2.

Markov Chains
Introduction, Chapman-Kolmogorov equations, and classification of states,
limiting probabilities, some applications: the gamblerrs ruin problem,
branching processes, time reversible Markov chains, Markov decision
processes.

3.

## The Exponential Distribution and the Poisson Process

Definition and properties of the exponential distribution, counting
processes, Poisson process, interarrival and waiting time distributions,
nonhomogeneous and compound Poisson process.

4.

## Continuous Time Markov Chains

Introduction, birth and death processes, the Kolmogorov differential
equations, limiting probabilities, time reversibility.

5.

Renewal Theory
Definition, distribution of N(t), limit theorems, regenerative processes.

6.

Queuing Theory
Introduction, steady state probabilities, Exponential models, M1G11
models and some variations on it, multiserver queues.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Introduction to Probability Models. S.M. 1985. Academic Press.
2.
Probability and Random Processes by G. Grimmett, G. and Stirzaker, D.
1982. Oxford Science Publications.
Recommended textbook
3.
Introduction to Stochastic Processes. Hoel, P. Port, S.Stone, C. 1972,
Houghton Mifflin.
4.
The elements of Stochastic Processes. Bailey, N.T.J. 1964, John Wiley
5.
An Introduction to Probability Theory and its Applications, Feller, W. 1971,
John Wiley.

37

Pre-requisites:

## M361 - Mathematical statistics and M362 - Linear models and

design of experiments

Co-requisite:

## M492 - Stochastic processes.

1.

Fundamental concepts
Introduction, examples; the autoconvariance and autocorrelation
functions; the partial autocorrelation function; white noise processes;
estimation of the mean, autocovariance and autocorrelations; moving
average and autoregressive representations.

2.

Stationary Models
Autoregressive processes, moving average processes, the dual relationship
between autoregressive and moving average processes, autoregressive
moving average processes.

3.

Non-stationary Models
Non-stationarity in the mean, deterministic trend models, autoregressive
integrated moving average models (ARIMA), variance stabilizing
transformations.

4.

Forecasting
Introduction, forecasting with the minimum mean square error (MSE),
model fitting and simulation.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Time series Analysis.
Company.

## Wei, W.W. 1990.

Recommended textbooks
2.
Time series. Kendall, M. and Ord, J. Keith. 1990. Edward Arnold.
3.
Time Series Analysis, Forecasting and Control . Box G.E.P. and Jenkins,
G.M 1970. Holden - Day.
4.
The Analysis of Time Series: Theory and Practice, Chatfield, C. 1975,
Chapman and Hall.

38

## COURSES OFFERED IN EITHER SEMESTER

M225 - INTRODUCTION TO MATHEMATICAL LOGIC
Pre-requisites:

## M112 Mathematical methods II-A or M114-Mathematical

Methods II-B.

1.

Propositional Logic
Statements;
truth-value, truth-tables;
connectives, tautology and
algebra of propositions, logical equivalence;
valid
arguments; rules of inference and formal proofs; conditional and indirect
proofs; introduction to predicates and quantifiers.

2.

Sets
Sets as truth-sets of propositions; algebra of sets and algebra of
propositions; indexed families of sets and their connection with quantified
statements; Cartesian product of two sets; relations and their properties;
equivalence relations and equivalence classes; functions, countable and
topological, Geometric.

3.

Propositional Calculus
Axiom system for prepositional calculus; modus ponens; deduction
principle; completeness; consistency.

4.

Predicate Calculus
Variables, constants, predicate letters; terms; interpretions; first order
theories.

5.

## Applications of Logic to Mathematics

Abstract groups, fields, linear and quadratic equations; ordered fields,
absolute value; inequalities.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Introduction to Mathematical logic. Mendelson, E. 1964. Van Nostran.
Recommended textbook
2.
Schaums outline of theory and problems of set theory and related topics.
Lipschultz, S. 1964. Schaum.
39

Pre-requisites:

## M222 Linear algebra II.

1.

Permutations
Permutations of a set, cycles, cycle decomposition, odd and even
permutations.

2.

## Introduction to Group Theory

Definition of a group, example-symmetry groups. Subgroups, cosets,
Lagrangess theorem, cyclic groups, generators of a group; conjugate
classes, normalizers, normal subgroups, simplicity of An ( n5 ) direct
product of groups.

3.

## Further Group Theory

Factor groups, homomorphisms, isomorphism theorems.
stabilizers, transitivity, sylow theorems and applications.

Orbits,

4.

Integers
Well ordering; division algorithm; unique factorizations into primes.

5.

## Introduction to Ring Theory

Definitions of rings, integral domains, fields. Subrings, left and right
ideals, homomorphisms, isomorphisms of rings, quotient rings; Polynomial
rings R[X].

6.

## Factorization in integral domains

Principal Ideal rings and domains, Prime and maximal ideas. Unique
factorization domains Ideal structure in the ring F[x], for a given field F.

Prescribed textbook
1.
A first course in Absract Algebra, Fraleigh, J.B. 1978, Addison Wesly.
Recommended textbook
2.
Topics in Algebra 2nd Ed. Herstein, I.N. 1975, J. Wiley.

40

M335 TOPOLOGY
Pre-requisites:

## M212 Mathematical Methods IV and Linear Algebra II

1.

Set Theory
Mappings, relations, cordinality and axiom of choice.

2.

Metric spaces
Examples, including function and sequence spaces. Inequalities (Holder
and Minkoski) open and closed sets; interior, closure and boundary points,
Neighbourhoods, equaivalent metrics.
Continuity, homeomorphisms,
convergence. Subspace of a metric space, product of metric spaces.
Completeness.

3.

Topological Spaces
Definitions of topological spaces, closure, interior, boundary and limit
points.
Base, coverings separability, continuity homeomorphisms,
separation axiom. Countability, open subbase, open mappings weak
topologies.

4.

Compactness
Open cover, subcover, compact space and subspace, continuous functions,
Heine-Borel Theorem; compactness for metric spaces, Bolzano-Weierstrass
theorem; sequential compactness; T spaces and Hausdorff space.

5.

Connectedness
Definition, connectedness of R, continuity and connectedness, components
a connected spaces; totally disconnected space.

6.

Approximation
Bernstein approximation theorem; Weierstrass approximation theorem;
the real and complex stone-weierstrass theorems.

Prescribed textbook
1.
Introduction to topology and Modern Analysis.
McGraw-Hill.
41

## Simons, G.F. 1963.

Recommended textbook
2.
Introduction to topology. Mendelson, B. 1964. Van Nostrand.

Pre-requisites:

## M361 Mathematical Statistics and M362 Linear Models and

Design of Experiments.

1.

Introduction
Populations, samples and statistics. Estimation. Hypothesis testing.
Some properties of hypothesis tests. Some comments on non parametric
statistics.

2.

## Some tests based on Binomial Distribution

Binomial test. Quantile test. Sign test and its variations.

3.

## Some tests based on Ranks

One and two independent samples. Several independent samples, Kruskalwallis one-way analysis of variance.
Freedman two-way analysis of
variance. The one-sample or matched-pairs case. Measures of rank
correlation.

4.

## Statistics of Kolmogorov-Smirnov type

The Kolmogorov goodness-of-fit test. Tests on two independent samples.
Tests on several independent samples.

Prescribed textbooks
1.
Practical non parametric statistics, Conover, W.J. 1980. John Wiley and
Sons.
2.
Non parametric statistical methods. Hollander, M. and Wolf, D.A. 1973.
John Wiley and Sons.
Recommended textbooks
3.
Introduction to the theory of Statistics. Mood, A.M., Grabill, F.A. and Boes.
1974. McGraw-Hill.
4.
Non parametrics: Statistical methods based on ranks. Lehman, E.L. 1975.
McGraw-Hill.

42

MASTER OF SCIENCE
PROGRAMS IN
MATHEMATICS AND STATISTICS
1.

Introduction:
The Graduate program in Mathematics has been offered in the University of
Zambia since 1975; and at the moment, the program in mathematics and
Statistics offers courses leading to the M. Sc. degree. Areas of special
interest to members of the department include: Group Theory; Group
Representation Theory; Management Mathematics; Numerical Analysis;
Probability theory; ring Theory; Real and Functional analysis; Special
Functions; theoretical Statistics.

2.

## Library and Research Facilities:

The University of Zambia Library and the Departmental Library have large
numbers of mathematics books and some individual Lecturers subscribe to
a good number of mathematical periodicals. A computer room is in the
department and its services are available to students.

3.

Aims:
The M.Sc. program in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics serves
two types of students - (1) those interested in further graduate study in
abstract applied probability and numerical methods.
The degree may be awarded for work completed in one of two ways:
(i)
(ii)

## By research and dissertation only; and

by coursework, followed by research and dissertation.

Both modes are available but most candidates will proceed to the degree
through coursework and a dissertation.

43

The program lasts for a minimum of two years and a maximum of four
years for full-time candidates. For part-time candidates lasts a minimum
of three years and maximum of six years.
When taken by coursework and research the program in two parts: Part I
consists of advanced courses, equivalent to eight (8) semester courses; 3 in
each semester of the first semester of second year, since in Mathematics
and Statistics, the coursework plays a larger role; Pat II consists of
research under supervision on an approved topic leading to the preparation
of a dissertation. Normally, no candidate will be permitted to proceed to
Part II unless he/she has passed examinations of coursework in Part I.
The course for Part I are given below.

4.

The minimum qualification for registration as a candidate for the degree of
Master of Science in Mathematics and Statistics is a Bachelor of Science
degree of the University of Zambia of sufficiently high standard, or the
equivalent from another University. The Board of Studies may require a
candidate as a condition for registration to take such other pre-requisite or
concurrent studies or examinations as with approval of Senate it may
prescribe.

5.

## Language and Cognate Requirements:

There are in general no language or congnate requirements for the degree,
though student interested in Management Mathematics, Numerical
Analysis, Probability or Statistics and any other applied mathematics will
need to demonstrate proficiency in computer programming to gain
admittance to certain courses. All students are encouraged to supplement

6.

Mode of Application:
Application forms for admission to this program are available from the
Directorate of Research and Graduate Studies, University of Zambia, P.O.
Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia. The closing date for receipt of applications is
announced from time to time by the Directorate of Research and Graduate
Studies.

7.

Courses:
Not all courses listed below will be offered in any one year, but each course
for which there is sufficient demand and availability of staff will be offered.
In addition to the listed courses, there are ongoing research seminars in
various areas, in which students are invited to participate. There are also a
number of visiting colloquium speakers, whose talks students are urged to
attend.
The courses in Part-I consist of the following:44

## Algebra option: Year 1 Semester 1

Mat5211
Mat5251
And either
Mat5111
Or Mat5311

Year 1 Semester 2
Mat5222
Mat5022
And either
Mat5122
Or Mat5822

Year 2 Semester 1
Any two of
Math6011
Mat6211
Mat6261
Mat6311

## Real and Functional Analysis option:

Year 1 Semester 1
Mat5111
Mat5311
Mat5341
Mat5811

Year 1 Semester 2
Mat5122
Mat5222
Mat5382
Mat5822

Statistics option:
Year 1 Semester 1
Mat5111
Mat5311
Mat5611
Mat5811

Year 1 Semester 2
Mat5022
Mat5622
Mat5922
Mat5822

45

Year 2 Semester 1
Any two of
Mat6011
Mat6211
Mat6311
Mat6361

Year 2 Semester 1
Any two of
Mat6051
Mat6061
Mat6611
Mat6641
Mat6661

COURSE DESCRIPTIONS

MANAGEMENT MATHEMATICS
MAT5022 - OPTIMIZATION I
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Linear Programming provides methods of optimizing linear functions
which are constrained by linear equations. It provides planning
skills of limited resources in any business activity for optimum
output.
At the end of this course, students will be expected to formulate and
solve linear programming and network flow problems.

B.

Teaching Methods:
Linear programming, Simplex method, Duality and Sensitivity
Analysis, Polynomial algorithms, Minimal cost network flows, and
Transportation and assignment problems, the out-of killer algorithm,
Maximal flow problem, Shortest path algorithm, the Revised simplex
algorithm.

C.

Topic Outline:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week

D.

Assessment:
1.
Continuous Assessment
1.1 Assessment
1.2 Tests
46

=
=
=

30%
10%
20%

2.
E.

Final Examination
Total

=
=

70%
100

Texts:
Linear Programming and Network Flows by M.S. Bazaraa, J.J. Jarvis,
H.D. Sherali, 2nd., John wiley (1990);
Operations Research, Applications and Algorithms by W. L. Winston,
2nd ed., PWS - KENT Publ. Co. (1991).

MAT6011 - OPTIMIZATION II
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

A real life situations can not be formulated as a Linear programming
problem. This course is an extension of optimization I, which provides
methods of optimization I, which provides methods of optimization of nonlinear functions.
At the end of the course, students will be expected to formulate and solve
integer, Quadratic and Non-linear programming problems.

B.

Topic Outline:
Integer Programming, The Branch and Bound Method, Knapsack Problems,
the cutting plane algorithm, Non-linear programming, golden section
search, Unconstrained maximization and minimization with several

C.

Teaching Methods:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1.
Continuos Assessment
1.1 Assignment
1.2 Test
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

=
=
=

30%
10%
20%

=
=

70%
100%

Tests:
Operations Research, Applications and Algorithms by W. L. Winston, 2nd
ed., PWS-KENT Publ. Co. (1991).
47

## Operations Research, an Introduction by Handy, A, 5th ed., Prentice Hall

Inter. Inc. (1992).

MAT6051 - Econometrics
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Econometrics deals with formulating an economic phenomena into a
statistical model or a set of statistical hypotheses to explain it.
Econometric methods are used to estimate the parameters of the model, to
test hypotheses concerning them and to forecast the model.
At the end of this course, students will be expected to know which factors
can explain a given economic phenomena, how these factors should be
measured, what quantitative relationships exist, how such relations can be
estimated or tested and what conclusions can be drawn from the
investigations.

B.

Topic Outline:
The Two-variable Linear Model, Extensions of the Two-variable Linear
Model, The K-variable Linear Model, Generalized least squares, Lagged
variables, Time series Methods.

C.

Teaching Methods:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1.
Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

## Final Examination = 70%

TOTAL
= 100%

Text:
-Econometric Methods by J. Johnston, 3rd ed., John Wiley (1991)
48

## -Modern Econometrics, An Introduction, by Leighton Thomas,

-Econmetrics by T. Dudley & J. Lew Silver, Addison-Wesley, (1988)

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

This course provides methods of determining optimum levels of
stocks under demand and supply conditions in a production system.
(i) How much to order; (ii) When to order. Hence ensures smooth
At the end of this course, students will be expected to find solutions
of inventory problems under deterministic and stochastic demand
and under different production environments.

B.

Topic Outline:
Deterministic EOQ Inventory Models, Probabilistic Inventory Models,
Just in time (jit) approach to production.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and a 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1.
Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

## Final Examination = 70%

TOTAL
= 100%

Text:
-Operations Research, Applications and Algorithms by W.L. Winston, 2nd
ed., PWS-KENT Publ. Co. (1991).
49

## -Operations Research, an Introduction by Handy, A, 5th ed., Prentice Hall

Inter. Inc. (1992)

MATHEMATICAL METHODS
MAT5111 - Ordinary Differential Equations and Integral Equations.
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Ordinary differential equations arise in many engineering and physical
problems. This can be in form of mathematical models of various physical
and applied systems. Thus there is need to know if a solution exists and
under what circumstances. This is the aim of this course. Further, many
methods of solving such equations have been developed and this course
satisfies the needs of mathematicians and other applied scientists.
Integral equations are useful in analysis.
Problems in mechanical
vibrations, engineering and mathematical physics require knowledge of
integral equations. It is possible at times to transform an integral equation
into a differential equation and obtain a numerical solution. However,
differentiation increases errors while integration tend to smooth out the
errors. This calls for the need to study differential and integral equations
side by side.

B.

Topic Outline
Theory of linear equations, Sturm-Liouville Theory, Series solutions,
distribution of zeros of solutions, introduction to non-linear equations, E.V.
problems.
Definitions and classification of integral equations, Fredholm theory,
Volterra equations, questions of existence of solutions, Hilbert-Schmidt
theory, Singular integral equations with Cauchy-type Kennels.

C.

Teaching Method
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
50

D.

Assessment
1.
Continuous Assessment =
1.1 Assignment
=
1.2 Tests
=
2.

E.

=
=

70%
100%

Texts
Ordinary Differential Equations by W. Bolton, longmna (1994);
Integral Equations by F. G. Tricomi, John Wiley (1957);
Differential Equations: A modeling Approach by Frank R. Giodano &

MAT5141
A.

Final Examination
Total

30%
10%
20%

## Rationale and Objectives

This course is essential to students of mathematics. It continues on the
concepts and ideas developed in undergraduate level courses. The idea of
complex functions in analysis is treated in detail. Students need the
material in this course in that the ideas (e.g. convergence) are found and
are necessary in all fields of mathematics.
In addition to this, the calculus of variations play an important role in the
fields of analysis, physics and engineering. It is a powerful method of
obtaining solutions to problems in these fields. Ideally, one can say,
calculus of variation also extends concepts develops in undergraduate
course in that it involved problems of finding extremum. But problems
found in calculus of variations are usually not suited to elementary
calculus and infact it is functional which are most considered in calculus of
variations. Thus a student needs this course in that even numerical
solutions do require one to know that no other method can be applied to
obtain a solution.

B.

Topic Outline:
Multivalued functions, Riemann surfaces, Infinite complex integrals,
Infinite series and infinite products - their convergence and properties,
transformations,
applications.
The basic problem of the calculus of variation, direct methods of solution,
existence and uniqueness of solutions, equivalent bounded value problems,
indirect methods of solution, applications in 1, 2, 3, -D.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
51

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment
1.1
Assignment
1.2
Tests
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 30%
= 10%
= 20%
=
=

70%
100

Texts:
Real and Complex analysis, Rudin, W., McGraw-Hill (1966)
Applied Complex Variables by Dettman, J.W, Longman (1965);
Theory of functions by Tichmarsh, W.C., Oxford University Press (1939);

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Partial differential equations which have one or more independent variables

and
partial derivatives. Most problems of mathematical physics are of this type.
An
introductory course in partial differential equations should touch on
classical types of equations.
This course aims to give the necessary
background for a student who wants to pursue further research in this field of
mathematics. Classical equations are introduced and their application to real
life situations is illustrated in this course. Students from other departments
(like physics, engineering, etc) will find this course quite interesting and
stimulating.
B.

Topic Outline:
The P.D.E's of mathematical Physics, classification, methods of solution,
equivalent problems in integral equations using Green function, reduction to
equivalent variational
problem, numerical methods of solution
(characteristics, etc).

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination

= 70%
52

Total

= 100%

E.

Texts:
Partial Differential Equations, Rauch, J., Springer-Verlag (1991);
Method of mathematical Physics (II), Courant, R.. & Hilbert, D., John Wiley
(1989);
Partial Differential Equations, John, F., Springer-Verlag (1964)
Partial Differential Equations by P. R. Gaberedian, John Wiley (1964).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

These topics are formerly units which formed M510 and are included here as
they prepare students in other areas of mathematical analysis and for
subsequent research work.

B.

Topic Outline:
Advanced calculus of several variables, Special functions, Fourier series and
Orthogonal Polynomials, Asymptotic Expansions, etc.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

These topics were formerly units in the previous M530 and are not
completely described due to lack of specialist staff.

53

ALGEBRA
MAT5211 - Theory of Rings and Modules
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

A graduate course in Algebra must primary prepare students to handle the
algebra which they will meet in all of mathematics: topology, partial
differential equations, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, analysis and
representation theory, not to speak of algebraic number theory with all its
ramifications.
This course introduces the student to another algebraic structure not fully
covered at undergraduate level and to the methods of algebraic geometry
rooted in commutative algebra and the theory of modules, mostly over a
Neotherian ring.

B.

Topic Outline:
Rings and homomorphisms, commutative rings, polynomials and group rings,
localization, principal and factorial rings.
The group of homomorphisms of modules, Direct products and sums of
modules, free modules, The dual space and dual module, modules over
principal rings, Euler-Poincare maps, The Snake lemma, Direct and inverse
limits.
Noetherina rings and modules, semi-simple and simple rings, the Jacobson

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

54

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Text:
Algebra by T.W. Hungerford, 8th printing, GTM, vol. 73, Springer (1996);
Algebra by Serge Lang, 3rd ed., Addison-Wesley (1993);
The Theory of Rings by N. H. McCoy, Macmillan (1964);
Lectures in Abstract Algebra I by N. Jacobson, Van Nostrand (1963).

MAT5251

Lie Algebra

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

This course aims rather to achieve as great a degree of clarity as possible
regarding the main concepts of the theory of Lie Algebras and the techniques
of proof which are used. It is intended to serve as an introduction to the
theory and concentrates on the basic results in the structure theory of Lie
Algebras.

B.

Topic Outline
Lie Algebras and subalgebras, ideas, the commutator series, solvability,
nilpotency, simple and semisimple Lie Algebras, direct and semi-direct sums,
structure theory, Lie's theorem, Engel's theorem, Cartan's criteria for
solvability and for sim-simplicity, the roots of a simple Lie Algebra, the
Dynkin Diagram, the existence and isomorphism theorems, description of the
simple Lie Algebras.

C. Teaching Method
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
D.

Assessment
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

E. Texts:
55

## Lie Algebras, Lecturer notes in Mathematics 127 by I.N. Stewart, Springer

(1970);
Note on Lie Algebras by H. Samelson, Van Noostrand, N.Y. (1969);
Lie Algebras by N. Jacobson, Interscience publ., N.Y., (1962)

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Group Theory forms an essential part of all mathematics degree courses and
the primary purpose of this course is to provide an account of several major
applications of representation theory to the structure of finite groups. This
course presupposes knowledge of only several basic topics in algebra -a
knowledge of the standard facts of linear Algebra and a modest acquaintance
with group theory.

B.

Topic Outline
Group representations, properties of group characters, induced characters,
GroupTheoretical applications - Algebraic numbers, representations of the group
algebra,
Burnside's (p,q) - theorem, Frobenius groups; Arithmetic properties of group
characters, Real representations.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Text:
56

## Introduction to Group Characters by W. Ledermann, 2nd ed., Camb. Univ.

Press (1987)
Linear Representations of Finite Groups by J.P. Serre, Spinger (1986).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Because of their significance in physics and Lie groups, they have been areas
of intensive study by physicists and chemists, as well as mathematicians.
This course is intended for graduate students who have some knowledge of
finite groups and general topology, but is other wise self-contained. It aims at
introducing the student to new areas of research.

B.

Topic Outline:
Multiply transitive groups, the transitive constituents of G, the method of
Schur, Relationship with representation theory.

C.
D.

## Finite irreducible complex reflection groups

Vector and Root graphs, Root systems and subsystems, Cohen graphs and
their classifications;
Decompositions in complex imprimitive reflection groups;
Representations of complex imprimitive reflection groups;
Assessment:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%
57

E.

Texts:
Finite Groups of Lie Type: conjugacy classes and complex characters; by R.
W. Carter, Wiley Interscience (1985);
The Theory of Lie Groups by Claude Chevalley, Princeton Univ. Press
(1970);
Finite Permutation Groups by H. Wielandt, Academic Press, N.Y. (1964).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

These topics are formerly units which formed M520 and are included here
as they prepare students in other areas of algebra and for subsequent
research work.

B.

Topic Outline:
Geometric Algebra, Number theory, classification of finite simple groups,
Topological groups, The Haar Integral, etc.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

These topics were formerly units in the previous M530 and are not
described in full due to lack of specialist staff.

58

## REAL AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS

MAT 5311 - Lebesgue Measure and Integration I
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

A careful study of Lebesgue Measure and Lebesgue Integration is very
important for any student who wants to use mathematics beyond the
elementary manipulation of formulas to solve standard types of problems.
In order to be able to modify techniques to different problems and adapt
concepts to new contexts, it is very important and necessary to develop a
good understanding of Measurable functions and the geometry of Lebesgue
Measure.
As the use of mathematics in the areas of social science, life science,
economics, management science, engineering and computer science has
grown in the last decade, it has become more important for students to
study these areas of Real and Functional analysis.

B.

Topic Outline:
Measurable functions, Lebesgue measure on Rn, the geometry of Lebesgue
measure, transformation of integrals; construction of the Lebesgue integral,
Relation to the "definite integral and indefinite integral", step functions on
Rn, the Lebesgue integral on Rn, Fubini's theorem, The monotone
convergence theorem, the dominated convergence theorem; the spaces Lp,
bounded linear functional in Lp, holder's inequality, Minkoski's Inequality,
the duality of the spaces Lp, Lq,; The Riesz representation theorem.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week
59

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Texts:
Applications of Functional Analysis and Operator theory by V. Hutson an
dJ. S> Pym, Academic Press (1980);
Real and Complex Analysis by W. Rudin, 2nd., McGraw-Hill (1974);
Real analysis by H. L.. Royden, 2nd ed., The Macmillan co. N. Y> (1968).

A.

## Rationale and Objective

This course is an extension of M531. It aims at providing the student with
a basic knowledge of the theory of general measure and measure spaces
and related topics.

B.

Topic Outline:
Basic theory of general measure and measure spaces, the general Lebsgue
Integral, convergence theorems, Product measures, Fubini's theorem,
completion of product measure, convolutions, Total variation measure and
related topics, the dual of C (X), where X is a compact Hausdorff space,
Radon-nikodym theorem and its consequences, Modes of convergence,
convergence in Lp, Convergence in measure.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Texts:
Applications of Functional Analysis and Operator Theory by V. Hutson and
J. S. Pym, Academic Press, (1980);
Real and Complex Analysis by W. Rudin, 2nd ed., Mcgraw-Hill (1974);
Real Analysis by H. L. Royden, 2nd, ed., the macmillan co. N. Y. (1968).
60

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

It is now widely accepted that functional analysis is a tool of great power in
the solution of mathematical problems arising from physical situations.
The object of this course is to provide the student with a careful selection of
material that is regarded as essential abstract techniques for applications
to functional analysis and other areas of mathematics.

B.

Topic Outlines:
Banach Spaces - Bounded Linear Transformations, Hahn-Banach theorem
and its consequences, Open mapping theorem, Closed graph theorem,
Banach-Steinhaus theorem.
Hilbert Spaces - Inner Product Spaces, Orthonormal Sets, Riesz
representation theorem, Bounded Linear Operations in Hilbert spaces.

C.
D.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Texts:
61

## Functional Analysis with Applications by B. Choudhary and S. Nanada,

1st ed., Wiley Eastern Ltd. (1989);
First course in Functional Analysis by goffman, C. and G. Pedrick,
Printince Hall, New Delhi (1974);
Functional Analysis by W. Rudin, McGraw-Hill, N.Y. (1973).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

This is an extension of m534. This course is intended to provide the basis
for applied mathematicians, theoretically inclined engineers or physicists,
or as an introduction for research students who wish to acquaint
themselves with some of the powerful techniques of functional analysis.

B.

Topic Outline:
Operator Theory - Linear Operators, Self-adjoint operators, Compact
operator, convergence of operators; Spectral Theory - spectrum of an
Operator, Spectral radius, Spectral mapping theorem, Invariant subspaces;
Topological vector spaces - Basic concepts, local bases, locally convex
spaces, Frechet spaces, distributions.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Texts:
Functional analysis by W. Rudin, McGraw-Hill (1973);
62

## Linear Operators, Part I, by N. Dunford and J. T. Schwartz, Inter science,

N. Y. (1958);
First course in Functional Analysis by C. Goggman and G. Pedrick,
Functional Analysis with Application by B. Choudhary and S. Nanda, Wiley
Eastern Ltd. (1989).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

A careful study of Real and Functional Analysis is very important for any
student who wants to use mathematics beyond the elementary
manipulations of formulas to solve standard types of problems and adapt
concepts to new contexts, modify techniques to different problems and
adapt concept to new contexts, it is very important and necessary to
develop a good understanding of Real and Functional Analysis. As the use
of mathematics in the areas of social science, life science,, economics,
management science, engineering and computer science has grown in the
last decade, it has become more important for students to study these
areas of Real and Functional Analysis.
These topics are formally units which formed M530 and are included here
as they prepare students in other areas of Real and Functional Analysis
and for subsequent research work.

B.

Topic Outline:
Distribution Theory, fixed Point Theory, Locally convex spaces and related
topics, Theory of Wavelets, etc.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
63

1.2 Tests
2.
E.

Final Examination
Total

= 20%
= 70%
= 100%

These topics were formerly units in the previous M530 and are not
described in full due to lack of specialist staff.

APPLIED MATHEMATICS
MAT5511 Theoretical Physics:
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

computational strategies in theoretical physics, will find in this course both
the fundamentals and detailed treatments of these topics.

B.

Topic Outline:
General theory of fluid and Solid Mechanics, Waves and Composite flows,
Complex variable techniques in Mechanics of Continua.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lecturers and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

These topics were formerly units in the previous M550 and are not
described in full due to lack of specialist staff.
64

MAT5522 Mechanics:
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

This course provides a thorough account of the necessary mathematical
tools along with many examples in the theory of relativity and in the
general theory of quantum mechanics.

B.

Topic Outline:
Theory of Relativity, general theory in Quantum Mechanics and Statistical
Mechanics.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
= 70%
Total
= 100%
These topics were formerly units in the previous M550 and are not
described in full due to lack of specialist staff.

65

THEORETICAL STATISTICS
MAT5611 Mathematics Statistics
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

The course is a systematic treatment of mathematical statistics from a
theoretical point of view. Consideration is made to important fundamental
ideas and describe them in some detail to appreciate the motivation as well
as the mathematics of the theory in the estimation and hypothesis testing.
It lies the foundation as most statistics deals with either estimation or
hypothesis testing or both estimation and hypothesis testing.

B.

Topic Method:
The theory of parametric estimation, Theory of hypothesis testing, testing
statistical hypothesis, point estimation theory.

C.

Assessment:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination

= 70%

66

Total
E.

= 100%

Texts:
Element of Statistics by Fergus Daly, Chris Jones, Daniel Lunn, David
Hand and Kevin Macconway, Addison-Wesley (1995);
Testing statistical hypothesis by E. I. Lehmann, J. Wiley & Sons (1989)

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

The course is a presentation of up-to-date theory and techniques of
statistical inference in a logically integrated and practical form. To
incorporate the important developments in the subject that have taken
place in the last three decades, this course combines some mathematical
theory of statistics and the application of the theory to practical problems.

B.

Topic Outline:
Multiple Regression Models or Generalized Linear Models, an outline of
generalized linear models, models for continuous data with constant
variance, binary data, Log linear Models, model checking, Models for
survival data.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Texts:
67

## Generalized Linear Models by P. McCullagh and J. A. Nelder FRS. 2nd Ed.,

Chapman & Hall (1989);
Statistical Models and Methods for life data by J. F. Lawless, J. wiley &
Sons (1982).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

The course is aimed at giving the student the basic understanding of the
concepts and theory that are important to the field of non-parametric
statistics. Also the most important basic approaches that lead to nonparametric distribution free tests of hypothesis.

B.

Topic Outline:
Distribution free statistics, U-statistics, power functions and their
properties, Asymptotic Relative efficiency, Confidence Intervals and
Bounds, Point Estimation, Linear rank statistics under the null hypothesis,
Two-sample location and scale problems, the one-sample location problem,
other important problems.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hour lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

68

E.

Texts:
Introduction to theory of Non-parametric statistics by R. H> Randles and D.
A. Wolfe & Sons (1979).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Statistical inference techniques, if not applied to the real world, will lose
their importance and appear to be deductive exercises. The aim of the
course is to give statistical analysis of lifetime or response time data. This
topic is of considerable interest to statisticians and workers in areas such
as engineering, medicine, and biological sciences. The field has expanded
rapidly in recent years, and publications on the subject can be found in the
literatures of several disciplines besides statistics.

B.

Topic Outline:
Introduction, Random sampling, Relative Risk, Odds Ratio and Attributable
Risk, Adjustment of data without use of multivariate models and using
multiple linear regression, follow-up studies: Life tables and person years,
comparison of numerical results for various methods of adjustment, the
primacy of data collection.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%

69

2.
E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

Texts:
Statistical Methods in epidemiology by H. A Kalm and C. T. Sempos, Oxford
Univ. Press (1983)

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

This course discusses the statistical inference with the probability
background. The rigorous expression that degrees of uncertainty require
are furnished by mathematical methods and probability concepts which
form the foundations of modern statistical theory. Quantitative inference, if
it were to retain its scientific character, could not be divested of its logical,
mathematical, and probabilistic aspects.

B.

Topic Outline:
Algebra of Vectors and Matrices, Probability theory:
tools and
technicalities, continuous probability models, Theory of least squares and
Analysis of variance, Criteria and Methods of Estimation, Large sample
theory and models, theory of statistical inference.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%
70

E.

Text:
Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications by C. R. Rao, 2nd Ed., J.
wiley & Sons (1973).

GEOMETRY
MAT5761 Classical Geometry and Geometric Structures
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

These topics are formerly units which formed M570 and are included here
as they prepare students in other fields of mathematics and for subsequent
research work.

B.

Topic Outline:
Theory of surfaces (Gauss), Riemannian geometry, Tensor calculus on
Riemannian spaces, Differentiable manifolds, fibre bundles, symplectic
geometries.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

E.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

71

These topics were formerly units in the previous M570 and are not
described in full to lack of specialist staff.

NUMERICAL ANALYSIS
MAT5811 Numerical solutions to Partial Differential Equations
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Numerical methods of solving partial differential equations are necessary
for equations that have no closed form solution. An important class of
partial differential equations is that of the second order which is further
classified into parabolic, hyperbolic and elliptic. The content of this course
is a basis for all who do mathematical modeling of physical phenomena and
others.
The objectives of this course are to provide:
a.
An understanding of 2nd order partial differential equations
b.
An understanding of the basic numerical methods for solving 2nd
order partial differential equations.

B.

Topic Outline:
Numerical solutions to elliptic, parabolic and hyperbolic partial differential
equations. Method of characteristics for hyperbolic equations. Finite
difference methods for elliptic and parabolic equations. Stability and
convergence for iterative methods and error analysis.

C.

Teaching Method
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
72

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
= 70%
Total
= 100%
E.
Texts:
Numerical Analysis by D. Kincaid & W. Cheney, Brooks/Cole Publ.co.
(1991);
Numerical analysis by R. L. Burden and J. D. Faires, 4th ed., PWS-KENT
publ. co. (1989);
Numerical solutions of Partial Differential Equations by G. D. Smith,
Oxford Univ. Press (1965).

A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

Solutions to many physical problems require the calculation, or at least
estimation of the eigenvalues and corresponding eigenvectors of a matrix
associated with a linear system of equations. Various methods apply to
different structures of matrices, hence the study of solutions of the different
structures of matrices is necessary.
The study of approximation theory involves two general types of problems.
One problem arises when a function is given explicitly but we wish to find a
simpler type of function, such as a polynomial, that can be used to
determine approximate value of the given function. The other problem is
concerned with fitting functions to given data and finding the best
function in a certain class that can be used to represent the data. This is a
basic course for those dealing with data.
The objectives of this course are to provide:
a.
An understanding of the eigenvalue problem for general matrices;
b.
An understanding of the basic methods of approximation theory;
c.
An understanding of methods of solution of the eigenvalue problem

B.

Topic Outline:
The eigen value problem for general matrices, transformation to Hessenberg
form, solution by Q-R methods, direct and inverse iterations, Error
analysis, application to non-linear simultaneous equations of conjugate
gradient, Newton methods. Least squares approximation to functions and
orthogonal expansions in algebraic or trigonometric polynomials, uniform
and L norms, minimax and other approximations.
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C.
D.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week.
Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%

E.

Text:
Numerical analysis by D. Kincaid & W. Cheney, Brooks/Cole Publ. co.
(1991);
Numerical analysis by R. L. Burden and J. D. Faires, 4th ed., PWS-KENT
Publ. co. (1989).

PROBABILITY THEORY
MAT5922
A.

Probability I

## Rationale and Objectives:

This course links the probability theory to its applications in the physical
and social sciences and in operations research.
At the end of the course, students will be expected to
probabilistically.
Probability theory techniques to physical social sciences problems.

think

B.

Topic Outline:
Markov Chains, Poisson process, Continuous time Markov chains,
Renewal theory, Queuing theory, Reliability theory, Brownian motion and
stationary processes, simulation.

C.

Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week

D.

Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%
74

E.

Text:
Introduction to Probability Models by Sheldon M. Ross, 5th ed., Academic
Press, Inc. (1993).

MAT6911 Probability II
A.

## Rationale and Objectives:

This course develops the mathematical theory of probability; an approach
different from the intuitive understanding of the probability.
At the end of the course, students will be expected to understand
probability spaces as measure spaces, random variables as measurable
functions and should know probability axioms and their application in the
Decision theory and forecasting models.

B.

C.
D.

Topic Outline:
Probability spaces as measure-spaces, Random variables as measurable
functions, Independence, Conditional probability, Expectation, Martinglaes,
Characteristic functions, Limit theorems, Decision theory, Forecasting
models.
Teaching Method:
3 hours of lectures and 1 hour of tutorial per week
Assessment:
1. Continuous Assessment = 30%
1.1 Assignment
= 10%
1.2 Tests
= 20%
2.

Final Examination
Total

= 70%
= 100%
75

E.

Text:
Operations Research, an Introduction by Handy, R., 5th ed., Academic
Press, Inc. (1992);
Operations Research, Applications and Algorithms by W. L. Winston, 2nd
ed., PWS-KENT Publ. co. (1991).

NOTE:
The following numbers have been used in the third digit slot:
4 a second course in the same field taught in the 1st semester;
6 an optinal course;
8 a second course in the same field taught in the 2nd semester.

TEACHING METHOD:
Three hours of lectures and a one hour tutorial per week in all courses.
MAT6000 DISSERTATION
Once a candidate has successfully completed Part I of the program, he/she may
register for Part II. A research project is then undertaken, and a dissertation is
submitted on the subject of the project. The dissertation should comply with the
regulations provided by the Directorate of Postgraduate and Research.

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