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Project manager: The person with overall responsibility for planning and
managing a project.
This title is used in the construction industry, information technology and many
other industries that are based on the production of a product or service.
Sponsor: The person who has authority over a project, provides funding,
approves scope changes and champions the project within an organization.
The project sponsor is usually a representative of the client, since the client has
commissioned and funded the project.
Stakeholder: Anyone who has an interest in a project or will be affected by it.
Stakeholders can be people inside or outside the organization carrying out the
Subcontractor: A business or person who is paid to do part of the work
assigned to another person or company.
This noun has a related verb: to subcontract.
Scope: The overall definition of what the project is supposed to accomplish,
including the projects goal, the resources to be used to carry it out, and a
specific description of the expected end result.
Deliverables: A deliverable may be either a physical object, such as a newly
designed product, or an outcome, such as the completion of a business plan.
Specifications: Specification is often abbreviated to: specs. Specifications are
detailed descriptions of the deliverables for a project and include all the
technical, time and cost requirements of a project.
Baseline: A set of standards for a project, usually based on previous
experience that can be used to evaluate its progress
The baseline will include the projects expected costs schedule and any
technical requirements.
Resources: All items needed to complete a project, such as a tool, supply item,
facility or person.
People (human resources) and money (financial resources) are often the most
important elements of a project.
To estimate: To calculate or guess the value, size or amount of something.
The noun form can be either: an estimate or an estimation.

Top-down estimate: An estimate for the cost, time, and risks of a project made
by looking at the entire project from the top down, or in great detail, and
comparing it to similar projects in the past.
To allocate: To decide that an amount of money, time or other resources should
be used for a certain purpose.
This verb often appears in two strong collocations: to allocate funds and to
allocate resources.
Margin: A spare amount of money, time or other resources that is set aside in
case of unforeseen problems, costs or delays.
Contingency: A planned allocation of resources that are to be used in the event
that something unforeseen, such as a bad weather, affects the completion of a
project according to the schedule.
Change order: A request for a change in a projects scope, deliverables or cost.
Most large projects will require change orders, either because the project
manager sees the need for changes or because the clients needs have
To sing off: To give approval for someone elses decision.
Schedule: A set of target dates for completing elements of a project.
To schedule: Schedule can also be used as a verb, meaning to prepare a
schedule or to choose a time for an event.
Common collocations: 1. On schedule: progress according to the original plan.
2. behind schedule: Failure to keep up with the planned schedule.
Timeframe: The period of time in which a project or one phase of a project is
meant to be completed.
Timeframe is usually written as one word, but can be written as two: time frame.
To kick off: An idiomatic expression meaning to start. Can also be used as a
noun: kickoff.
To give the green light: To give permission for a project to begin.
Lead time: The time between making a request and receiving the results.
Often used to refer to the time between placing an order and receiving delivery.
To execute: To perform or accomplish a specific task.

Stage / Phase: A specific time period assigned for one element (part) of a
In most cases, each stage will end with the completion of a deliverable.
Milestone: A critical event during the life of a project, usually the
accomplishment of a project deliverable.
Constraint: A restriction or limitation that influences the project plan.
For example, a target date may be a constraint on the scheduling of a project.
Critical path: The sequence of activities that must be completed on time for the
entire project to finish on schedule.
Deadline: The latest time or date by which something should be completed.
Dependency relationship: A relationship between two elements of a project,
requiring one to be started or finished before another can begin.
Pert chart: A tool used to schedule, organize and coordinate tasks within a
Gantt chart: A bar chart that shows the overlapping timing of activities involved
in a project, and sometimes also shows the relationship between them.
Work breakdown structure (WBS): A tree-like structure of tasks that need to
be performed to complete a project.
The WBS is often used as a project management tool.