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Registration No.

: 74 / 24380
Name : SUDIP SEN

Paper No. : II ( Human Resources development)


Response Sheet No. : 1

Question no. 1 : How do you identify the training and development needs of an
organization ?

Answer : Training is a planned effort by a company to facilitate employees learning of jobrelated competencies to fix current skill deficit. If a deficiency in skill is observed ( or
anticipated in near future, for day-to-day operation) to achieve organizations goal and
target , an appropriate training program needs to be planned . The difference between the
actual level of job performance and the expected level of job performance indicates a need
for training.
Development is a long term basis planned effort for the organization or for the individual
mainly to prepare for the future job demands. If a deficiency in skill, knowledge and
qualities is anticipated in future to achieve organizations goal and objective , an appropriate
development program needs to be planned . This is more to prepare the work force to cope
up with the future challenges in the future growth path of the organization.
Though, training needs and development needs may have slightly different flavor, in general
it needs to be assessed separately for each target group of employees based on their skill,
knowledge, age, maturity, responsibility, job role etc. . and overall this should be in
line with ( and to boost up) the organizations goal and objective.
Needs assessment is the first step in the training & development program arrangement and
typically involves ( 1) organization analysis , (2) Person analysis and ( 3) Task Analysis (4)
Performance analysis, ( 5) cost-benefit analysis etc. It is to be properly conducted so that any
one or more of the following situations could occur :
a) Training may be correctly used as a solution to a particular performance problem.
b) Training program should have the right content, objectives and/or methods.
c) Trainees needs to be sent to those training program for which they have the basic
skills, prerequisite skills or confidence needed to learn.
d) Training delivers the expected learning, behavior change, financial outcome as per
companys desire.
e) Money should be spent on training programs which are related to companys
business strategy.
As the goal of the need assessment is to determine whether a training need exists, for whom
it is required, for which task it is required it is important to include managers,
trainers and employees in the assessment process. Normally upper-level managers, midlevel managers and trainers addresses their concern for the organization analysis , person
analysis and task analysis with a slightly different outlook .

Question no. 1 ( continued)

Registration No. : 74 / 24380


Name : SUDIP SEN

Paper No. : II ( Human Resources development)


Response Sheet No. : 1

Upper-Level Managers Mid-level managers Trainers


Is training required to
Shall we spend money Will managers support
achieve organizations goal on training ? How
the training ? Can I
and target ? How training training will help my
have budget
program will support
business goal ?
sanctioned for the
organization business
training ?
strategy ? What are the
threats to companys talent
base ?
Person Analysis
Which unit / team needs
Who should be trained ? How to identify which
training ? What do
Managers or
employees need
employees need to
employees ?
training ?
accomplish business
objectives ?
Task Analysis
Does the company have
whether training makes training for which task
people with skill,
biggest difference in
? Which skill or
knowledge and abilities to product quality or in
abilities are required ?
compete in the market?
customer service ?
Various techniques e.g. Questionnaires, Interviews, Focus groups, Documentation, On-line
technology etc are being used for need analysis, while every technique is having its own
advantages and disadvantages.
Organizational
analysis

Need assessment
technique

Advantages

Observations

Generates relevant data and


minimizes interruption to work

Questionnaires
Interviews

Focus groups

Documentation

Disadvantages

need skilled observer. Employee's


behavior may be affected by being
observed.
Inexpensive, easy summarization time consuming, inappropriate
of data, large no of employees
responses, only provides information
can be addressed
about the asked questions
can explore unanticipated issues. Time consuming, difficult to schedule
Questions can be modified.
and analyze. Need skilled interviewer
Uncovering details of training
needs, causes of problem,
solutions to problems
Good for complex and
Time consuming. Group members only
controversial issues. Questions provide information they think you
can be modified for
want to hear, they may be reluctant to
unanticipated issues.
participate if status differences exist
among group members.
Objective. Good source of
Content may be obsolete. Participants
information on procedure, for
may not understand technical language.
new jobs, for jobs being created.

Question no. 1 ( continued)

Registration No. : 74 / 24380


Name : SUDIP SEN

Paper No. : II ( Human Resources development)


Response Sheet No. : 1

A successful training needs analysis will identify those who need training and what
kind of training ( e.g. Analytical Skills, Communication, Decision Making,
Interpersonal Skills, Project Management, Technology ) is needed. It is counterproductive to offer training to individuals who do not need it or to offer the wrong
kind of training.
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Question no. 4 : How do you design and conduct a specific training program ?

Registration No. : 74 / 24380


Name : SUDIP SEN

Paper No. : II ( Human Resources development)


Response Sheet No. : 1

Designing and conducting of a successful training program depends upon advance planning
in terms of who , what , when , how and where about the program. Depending upon
the no. of participants, types and content of training , duration of training, methods and
trainer the whole program needs to be designed.

Following major primary components are there in training design :


1) Learning Outcome
2) Training Materials ( Reading materials, charts, e-learning materials )
3) Logistics ( where and when the training will take place ? Classroom or shop-floor or
out-door program ? One hour program or one day program or one week program or
one month program ?)
4) Training methods
5) Trainer
Once Training need assessment is properly done, next step is to set the training
objectives i.e. what special work a trainee is supposed to be able to do after the
completion of the training period. Objectives of training may be of three types :
Orientation Training ( Most basic training for initial overview) , Problem Solving
( trouble shooting ) and Innovation ( Futuristic and anticipatory ).
Normally following EIGHT steps are followed in designing a training program :
1) Purpose and target : what training needs to accomplish and who are the trainees
2) Participants need : A brief written/telephonic survey among the trainees about
the need , Review of feedback forms for similar previous training program (if any).
3) Training goal and objective : Clarification of expected outcome.

Question no. 4 : Continued

Registration No. : 74 / 24380


Name : SUDIP SEN

Paper No. : II ( Human Resources development)


Response Sheet No. : 1

4) Outline Training content : Introduction content to create a positive learning


environment. Learning content to improve the desired skill and abilities. Wrap up
and evaluation content to bridge the gap between training and implementation
and also to close the program in a positive note.
5) Develop instructional activities : This will be dependent on factors like group
size, Trainers style, principles of adult learning, participants learning style,
education/skill level of participants , type of skill/ ability to be trained.
6) Preparation of written training design : written document with detail plan of
training schedule, goals & objectives which will help to stay in track during the
training program and also to make mid-course corrections, if any required.
7) Participant evaluation / feedback form : To get a feedback whether the
participants has got the desired skill & knowledge which the trainer was supposed to
provide, whether the activities were interesting, was the training format appropriate,
was the venue / audio-visual support proper, was the trainer sufficiently
knowledgeable for the subject of training etc.
8) Follow up activities for the training program : newsletter & website posting,
coaching, mentoring, study group and booster sessions can be planned.
There are various methods of imparting training e.g. Lecture, Discussion, case Study,
Role Play, Group task, brainstorming, E-learning etc . Each one having its own
advantages and disadvantages. An appropriate method needs to be selected which will be
most effective for the participants and will suit best for the topic of training.
Several learning theories relate to how people learn and the same is having vital role
in designing training programs and to create a positive learning environment :
Reinforcement Theory : explain our behavior and why we do what we do. There are
four primary approaches to reinforcement theory: positive reinforcement, negative
reinforcement, positive punishment and negative punishment.
Social learning Theory : Basic Four processes are Attention, Retention, Motivation
and Motor Reproduction which are the parts of learning in a social context purely
through observation or direct instruction.
Goal setting Theory : Development of an action plan designed to motivate towards a
SMART goal where outcomes evolves in the form of Choice, Effort , Persistance and
Cognition.
Need Theory : Explains how the Achievement, Power and Affiliation influences action
in a managerial context. Here dominant motivating factors are achievement, affiliation
and Power.
Question no. 4 : Continued

Registration No. : 74 / 24380


Name : SUDIP SEN

Paper No. : II ( Human Resources development)


Response Sheet No. : 1

Expectancy Theory : Defines that motivation as a process controlled by the individual


that governed choices among alternative forms of voluntary activities.
Depending up on the maturity level of the participants, organizations objective & goal,
practical resources available and constraints etc we need to design the training program.
Conducting the actual program is equally important to designing the program , as there
may be unforeseen and unexpected problems on the spot and we should have some scope
of adjustments / trouble shooting plan so that most of the issues can be tackled properly.
Lastly collection of feedback is very important from the point of view of Organizational
goal so that the ROI can be worked out and the degree of fulfillment of the basic objective
of the training program can be evaluated.

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