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Senior Inter Botany Important questions

Very Short answer type questions (2 marks)

1. Define water potential. What is the value of water potential of pure
2. Differentiate osmosis from diffusion.
3. What are apoplast and symplast?
4. Define hydroponics.
5. Give two examples of essential elements that act as activators for
6. Name the essential mineral elements that play an important role in
photolysis of water.
7. Out of the 17 essential elements which elements are called non-mineral
essential elements?
8. Name two amino acids in which sulphur is present.
9. When is an essential element said to be deficient?
10. Name two elements whose symptoms of deficiency first appear in
younger leaves.
11. Explain the role of pink colour pigment in the root nodule of legume
plants. What is it called?
12. Which element is regarded as the 17th essential element? Name a disease
caused by its deficiency.
13. Give an example for each of the aerobic and anaerobic nitrogen fixing
14. Name the essential elements present in nitrogenase enzyme. What type
of essential elements are they?
15. Name any two essential elements and the deficiency diseases caused by
16. What is meant by feedback inhibition?
17. What are competitive enzyme inhibitors? Mention one example.
18. What are non-competitive enzyme inhibitors? Mention one example.
19. What do the four digits of an enzyme code indicate?
20. Who proposed Lock and Key hypothesis and Induced fit hypothesis?
21. Name the processes which take place in the grana and stroma regions of
22. Which tissue transports photosynthates? What experiments prove this?
23. What is the primary acceptor of CO2 in C3 plants? What is first stable
compound formed in a Calvin cycle?
24. What is the primary acceptor of CO2 in C4 plants? What is the first
compound formed as a result of primary carboxylation in the C4

25. Explain the term Energy currency. Which substance acts as energy
currency in plants and animals?
26. What is the common pathway for aerobic and anaerobic respirations?
Where does it take place?
27. Which substance is known as the connecting link between glycolysis and
Krebs cycle? How many carbons does it have?
28. Name the mobile electron carriers of the respiratory electron transport
chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane.
29. What is the final acceptor of electrons in aerobic respiration? From
which complex does it receive electrons?
30. What is the disease that formed the basis for the identification of
gibberellins in plants? Name the causative fungus of the disease.
31. What is apical dominance? Name the growth hormone that causes it.
32. What is meant by bolting? Which hormone causes bolting?
33. Define respiratory climacteric. Name the PGR associated with it.
34. What is ethophon? Write its role in agricultural practices.
35. Which of the PGRs is called stress hormone and why?
36. Define the terms quiescence and dormancy.
37. Define microbiology.
38. Name the bacterium which is a common inhabitant of human intestine.
How is it used in biotechnology?
39. What are pleomorphic bacteria? Give an example.
40. What is sex pilus? What is its function?
41. What is a plasmid? What is its significance?
42. What is conjugation? Who discovered it and in which organism?
43. What is transformation? Who discovered it and in which organism?
44. What is transduction? Who discovered it and in which organism?
45. What is the shape of T4 phage? What is its genetic material?
46. What are virulent phages? Given an example.
47. Define lysis and burst size with reference to viruses and their effects on
host cells.
48. What are temperate phages? Give one example.
49. Mention the differences between virulent phages and temperate phages.
50. Who proposed the chromosome theory of inheritance?
51. What is point mutation? Give an example.
52. Explain the terms phenotype and genotype.
53. Distinguish between heterochromatin and euchromatin. Which of the two
is transcriptionally active?
54. Who proved that DNA is genetic material? What is the organism they
worked on?
55. Given below is the sequence of coding strand of DNA in a transcription

Write the sequence of

a) Its complementary strand
b) The mRNA
56. What is the difference between exons and introns?
57. What is meant by capping and tailing?
58. In a typical DNA molecule, the proportion of Thymine is 30% of the N
bases. Find out the percentages of other N bases.
59. The proportion of nucleotides in a given nucleic acid is: Adenine 18%,
Guanine 30%, Cytosine 42% and Uracil 10%. Name the nucleic acid and
mention the number of strands in it.
60. What are molecular scissors? Where are they obtained from?
61. Name any two artificially restructured plasmids.
62. What is EcoRI? How does it function?
63. What are cloning vectors? Give an example.
64. Name the nematode that infects the roots of tobacco plants. Name the
strategy adopted to prevent this infestation.
65. Give one example for each of transgenic plants which are suitable for
food processing and those with improved nutritional quality.
66. What is meant by hidden hunger?
67. Name two semi-dwarf varieties of rice developed in India.
68. Give two examples of wheat varieties introduced in India which are high
yielding and disease resistant.
69. Give two examples of fungi used in SCP production.
70. What is emasculation? Why and when is it done?
71. Give any two important contributions of Dr. M.S. Swaminathan.
72. Which two species of sugarcane were crossed for better yield?
73. Why does Swiss cheese have big holes? Name the bacteria responsible
for it.
74. Name a microbe used for statin production. How do statins lower blood
cholesterol level?
75. Give any two microbes that are useful in bio technology.
76. Name any two genetically modified crops.
77. Name any two industrially important enzymes.
78. In which food would you find lactic acid bacteria? Name the bacterium.
79. Name any two fungi which are used in the production of antibiotics.
80. Name the scientists who were credited for showing the role of penicillin
as an antibiotic.
Short answer type questions (4 marks)
1. Define and explain water potential.
2. What is meant by plasmolysis? How is it practically useful to us?
3. Transpiration is a necessary evil. Explain.

4. Explain the steps involved in the formation of root nodule.

5. Explain how pH affects enzyme activity with the help of a graphical
6. Write briefly about enzyme inhibitors.
7. With the help of diagram, explain briefly the process of cyclic
8. Explain the structure of chloroplast? Draw a neat labelled diagram.
9. Write a note on agricultural and horticultural applications of auxins.
10. Write short notes on seed dormancy.
11. Write any four physiological effects of cytokinins in plants.
12. Explain the importance of microbiology.
13. How are bacteria classified on the basis of morphology?
14. How are bacteria classified on the basis of number and distribution of
15. Explain the conjugation in bacteria.
16. What is ICTV? How are viruses named?
17. Explain the structure of TMV.
18. Explain the structure of T-even bacteriophages.
19. Explain the lytic cycle with reference to certain viruses.
20. Mention the differences between lytic and lysogenic cycles.
21. Mention the advantages of selecting pea plant for experiment by Mendel.
22. Explain the law of dominance using a monohybrid cross.
23. Define and design a test cross.
24. How many types of RNA polymerases exist in cells? Write their names
and functions.
25. What are the differences between DNA and RNA.
26. Write the important features of Genetic code.
27. Write short notes on restriction enzymes.
28. What are the different methods of insertion of recombinant DNA into the
host cell?
29. List out the beneficial aspects of transgenic plants.
30. Write notes on green revolution and gene revolution.
Long answer type questions (8 marks)
1. Define transpiration. Explain the structure and mechanism of opening
and closing of stomata.
2. Explain the nitrogen cycle giving relevant examples.
3. Give an account of glycolysis. Where does it occur? What are the end
products? Trace the fate of these products in both aerobic and anaerobic
4. Explain the reactions of Krebs cycle.

5. List five natural plant growth regulators. Write a note on discovery,

physiological functions and agricultural/horticultural applications of any
one of them.
6. Explain briefly the various processes of recombinant DNA technology.
7. Give a brief account of the tools of recombinant DNA technology.
8. Give an account of bio-technological applications in agriculture and other
9. You are a botanist working in the area of plant breeding. Describe the
various steps that you will undertake to release a new variety.
10. Describe the tissue culture technique and what are the advantages of
tissue culture over conventional method of plant breeding in crop
improvement programmes?


P.Uma Amareswari,