Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 50

INTRODUCTION

Definition:

Aggregate: the inert filler materials, such as


sand or stone, used in making concrete
Definition:

A mass of crushed stone, gravel, sand, .


Etc.
Composed of individual particles.
May include clays and silts.
Uses:

Underlying materials for pavements:


(Base & Subbase).

Ingredient in PCC

INTRODUCTION
Aggregate Sources
Natural:

Gravel pits.
River run deposits.
Rock quarries.
Manufactured:

Slag waste from steel mills and expanded shall


and clays Light weight agg.
Styrofoam Light weight agg.
Steel slugs and bearings Heavy weight agg.

Recycled Materials

INTRODUCTION
Aggregate Terminology
Aggregate
Coarse Aggregate (CA)
Fine Aggregate (FA)
Fines (Mineral Filler: MF)
Maximum Size
Nominal Max. Size

INTRODUCTION
Sieve Designation

Sieve Opening: for sieves greater than in.


Number of Openings per Linear Inch.

75 mm
37.5 mm
19.0 mm
12.5 mm
6.3 mm
4.76 mm
2.36 mm
1.18 mm
0.6 mm
0.3 mm
0.15 mm
0.074 mm

CA

FA

MF

INTRODUCTION

Definition of Gravel and Crushed Stone

Gravel- Natural Particles No. 4

to 3 in. Size and the Particles tend


to be Smooth and Rounded.

Crushed Stone - Artificially

Crushed Rock, Boulders, or Large


Cobbles. Most or All of the
Surfaces are from Crushing, and
the Particle Edges tend to be Sharp
and Angular.

INTRODUCTION
Source of aggregate
Natural aggregate:
The natural sands and gravels are the product of weathering
and the action of running water, while the stone sands and
crushed stones are reduced from natural rock by crushing
and screening of quarried material. Sand is one of the key
materials used in the construction industry. The size of
natural sand used in concrete is smaller than 3/16 inch in
diameter. Natural sand usually exhibits well-rounded and
spherical particle shape. These factors enhance the
workability of fresh concrete. The mineralogy of sand
depends on the source of the material and may contain
impurities.

INTRODUCTION
Artificial aggregate:
Usually produced for some special purposes, for
example: burned expanded clay aggregate for making
lightweight concrete. Some artificial aggregates are a
by-product of industrial process such as blast furnace
slag.
Crushed Stone and Manufactured Fine Aggregate (MFA):
Manufactured fine aggregates are man made
aggregate and are machine crushed. Crushed stone
fines and manufactured fine aggregates are all names
for crushed stone aggregates that will pass the
4.75mm sieve.

CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATE
1. Classification according to the Geological Origin:i. Natural aggregate
ii. Artificial aggregate
2. Classification according to size:-

i. Fine aggregate
ii. Coarse aggregate
iii. All-in-aggregate
iv. Single-size-aggregate

CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATE
3. Classification according to shape:i. Rounded aggregate

ii. Irregular aggregate


iii. Angular aggregate
iv. Flaky and elongated aggregate

CLASSIFICATION OF AGGREGATE
4. Classification based on unit weight:i. Normal-weight aggregate
ii. Heavyweight aggregate

iii. iii. Lightweight aggregate

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF
AGGREGATES:
1.Unit Weight and Voids
2. Specific Gravity
3. Particle Shape and Surface Texture
4. Shrinkage of Aggregates
5. Absorption and Surface Moisture
6. Resistance to Freezing and Thawing

UNIT WEIGHT
(unit mass or bulk density)

The weight of the aggregate required to fill a


container of a specified unit volume.
Volume is occupied by both the
aggregates and the voids between the
aggregate particles.
Depends on size distribution and
shape of particles and how densely the
aggregate is packed

Loose bulk density


Rodded or compact bulk density
Normal-weight concrete bulk density of aggregate is approximately 75-110
lb per cubic foot.

Examples of
Aggregates Used

Uses for the


Concrete

vermiculite, ceramic

can be sawed or nailed,


also used for its
insulating properties

lightweight

expanded clay, shale or


slate, crushed brick

used primarily for making


lightweight concrete for
structures, also used for its
insulating properties

normal weight

crushed limestone, sand,


river gravel,
crushed recycled
concrete

used for normal concrete


projects

steel or iron shot; steel


or iron pellets

used for making high


density concrete for
shielding against nuclear
radiation

Weight

ultra-lightweight

heavyweight

UNIT WEIGHT
1. Normal weight aggregate:
It is usually the natural
aggregate for which the unit
weight is between (1500
to1800) kg/m3.

Normal Aggregate

UNIT WEIGHT
2. Lightweight aggregate:

It can be artificial or natural. The artificial lightweight


aggregates are produced as both coarse and fine materials.
They have a lower density due to increase in porosity which
results in an overall lowering of the concrete strength ceiling.
Lightweight aggregates are not as dense as normal weight
aggregates (unit weight less than 1000 kg/m3) and because
their elastic modulus is lower, produce concrete with a lower
elastic
modulus and a higher creep and shrinkage. Lightweight aggregates can be
of natural sources such as Pumic
(a volcanic rock).

UNIT WEIGHT
3. Heavyweight aggregate:

Where concrete of a high


density is required, in
radiation
shielding
for
example,
heavyweight
aggregates can be used. The
unit weight can be larger than
1800
kg/m3.
Concrete
densities of 3500-4500 kg/rn3
are obtained by using Barytes
(a barium sulphate ore). Even
greater concrete densities are
obtained using lead shot around 7000 kg/m3.

VOIDS
Void content affects mortar requirements in mix design; water
and mortar requirement tend to increase as aggregate void
content increases.
Void content between aggregate particles increases with
increasing aggregate angularity.
Void contents range from 30-45% for coarse
aggregates to about 40-50% for fine
aggregates.
Total volume of voids can be reduced
by using a collection of aggregate sizes.

The cement paste requirement for concrete is proportional to the void content of
the combined aggregate.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY (RELATIVE DENSITY)


Absolute: the ratio of the weight of the solid to the weight of an
equal volume of water (both at a stated temperature)
refers to volume of the material excluding all pores
Apparent: ratio of the weight of the aggregate (dried in an oven at
212- 230F for 24 hours) to the weight of water occupying
a volume equal to that of the solid including the
impermeable pores
volume of solid includes impermeable pores (but not
capillary pores)
Used for calculating yield of concrete or the quantity of aggregate required
for a given volume of concrete.

PARTICLE SHAPE AND SURFACE TEXTURE


Rough textured, angular, elongated particles require more water to
produce workable concrete than do smooth, rounded, compact
aggregates.
Aggregates should be relatively free of flat and elongated
particles (limit to 15% by weight of total aggregate).
Important for coarse and
crushed fine aggregate these require an increase in
mixing water and may
affect the strength of the
concrete, if cement water
ratio is not maintained.

SHRINKAGE OF AGGREGATES:
Large Shrinkage =

Low Shrinkage =

fine grained
sandstones, slate,
basalt, trap rock, claycontaining
quartz, limestone,
granite, feldspar

What happens if
abnormal aggregate
shrinkage occurs?

Excessive cracking
Large deflection of reinforced beams

and slabs
Some spalling (chipping or crumbling)
If more than 0.08 percent shrinkage occurs, the aggregate is
considered undesirable.

ABSORPTION AND SURFACE


MOISTURE
If water content of the
concrete mixture is not
kept constant, the
compressive strength,
workability, and other
properties will vary from
batch to batch.

Moisture Conditions of Aggregates:


1. Oven dry- fully absorbent

2. Air dry- dry at the particle surface but


containing some interior moisture
3. Saturated surface dry (SSD) neither
absorbing water nor contributing water to
the concrete mixture
4. Wet or moist- containing an excess of
moisture on the surface

Absorption Capacity: maximum amount of water


aggregate can absorb
Absorption Capacity (%) = [(WSSD WOD)/WOD] X 100
Surface Moisture: water on surface of aggregate
particles
Surface Moisture (%) = [(WWET WSSD)/WSSD] X 100
Moisture Content: of an aggregate in any state
Moisture Content (%) = [(WAGG WOD)/WOD] X 100

RESISTANCE TO FREEZING AND THAWING


Important for exterior concrete.
Affected by an aggregate's high porosity, absorption,
permeability and pore structure.
If aggregates or concrete absorbs so much water that
when the water freezes and expands the concrete
cannot accommodate the build up of internal pressure,
popouts may occur.

AGGREGATE CHARACTERISTICS
Gradation
Particle Shape and Surface Texture
Hardness
Toughness
Soundness
Deleterious Materials

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION TABLE


Sieve size(mm)

% Passing

19.00

100

9.50

100

4.750

95

2.360

84

1.180

74

0.600

53

0.425

41

0.300

31

0.150

14

0.075

3.80

PAN

0.00

Maximum Aggregate
Size = 9.5 mm
Nominal Maximum Aggregate
Size =4.75 mm

GRADATION TYPES
Dense (well-graded): a gradation that is near the FHWAs
0.45 Power Curve for maximum density.
Gap Graded: a gradation that contains only a small
percentage of aggregate particles in the mid-size range. The
curve is flat in the mid-size range.
Open graded: a gradation that contains only a small
percentage of aggregate particles in the small range. This
results in more air voids. The curve is near vertical in the
mid-size range, and flat and near-zero in the small-size
range.
One Sized: a gradation with the majority of aggregates
passing one sieve (vertical line).
Uniformly Graded. a gradation that contains most of the
particles in a very narrow size range. (almost vertical line).

Well (Dense)
graded
Gap Graded

Uniform

Open Graded

MAXIMUM AND NOM. MAX.


AGGREGATE SIZE
Nominal Maximum Aggregate Size. The largest
sieve that retains some of the aggregate
particles but generally not more than 10% by
weight.

Superpave defines nominal maximum

aggregate
size as "one sieve size larger than the first
sieve to retain more than 10 percent of the
material.

MAXIMUM AND NOM. MAX.


AGGREGATE SIZE
Maximum Aggregate Size: The smallest sieve
size through which 100% of the aggregate
sample particles pass.
Superpave defines the maximum aggregate
size as "one sieve larger than the nominal
maximum size.

PARTICLE SHAPE

Rounded

Angular

PARTICLE SHAPE
Important in that it affects the workability of the plastic
concrete. The more rounded an aggregate the lower the
inter particle friction, the smaller the surface/unit volume
and therefore less water is required for a given workability.
Therefore, a potentially higher strength is possible.
Most important factors affecting the behavior of the fresh
concrete mix. Water demand and water requirement are
too a large extent dependent on the particle and to a lesser
extent, on the surface texture of the particles. The ideal fine
aggregate particle is spherical in shape with a relatively
smooth surface because this requires the least amount of
paste to cover and it facilitates inter-particle movement
more easily thus mixing is easier.

PARTICLE SHAPE
Concrete made with rounded chunky particle has a lower water
demand than concrete made with elongated flaky particles. This
is due to a lower void volume if the particles are well-shaped.
This is particularly significant in the fine aggregate fraction.
Many aggregates properties depend on the properties of the
parent rock (e.g., chemical and mineralogical composition,
petrographic classification, specific gravity, hardness, strength,
physical and chemical stability, pore structure and colour).
Crushed aggregates can be used to produce higher strength
concrete (greater than about 80 N/mm2) as greater bond
strength can be achieved between the aggregate and the paste
due to the rough angular texture of the aggregate surface.

SURFACE TEXTURE
Surface texture of this particle also has an
influence with rough surface having a much large
surface area than smooth texture particle.
Smother particles tend to produce a more
workable concrete. The bond strength is, however
likely to be higher with rough textured materials.
The particles can be glassy, smooth, granular,
rough, crystalline or honeycombed.

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


Determined by
mechanical sieving or
screening is called
gradation.
Size grading is
regarded as the main
feature of sand (fine
aggregate,
manufactured sand)
and has significant
influence on
workability of
concrete.

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


The actual size of the aggregate particles influences the
concrete mix. In practice it is desirable to have particles of
different sizes. The aggregate is usually split into at least two
different portions for ease of batching. The common dividing
point is 5mm (or 4.75mm). Material larger than 5mm is
termed coarse aggregate or gravel and the material smaller
than 5mm is termed fine aggregate, fines or sand.

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


The distribution of the different sizes of particles in
the coarse or fine aggregates is termed grading. The
grading may be coarse or fine depending on the
distribution of the particles and may be continuous
(particles of different sizes) or single sized (particles
of predominantly one size).
The gradation of the aggregate however could be
controlled with full range of particles size and
fraction percentages could be altered. The other
advantage of using manufactured fine aggregate is
that it has superior shape and surface texture that
could increase aggregate crushing strength, lower
surface area and better workability.

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


While the grading of fine
aggregate in concrete has a
limited effect on to the
water demand of concrete,
it has a major influence on
the properties of fresh
(plastic) concrete with in
turn has an effect on the
appearance and finish of
the hardened concrete .
Fine aggregates should
have
the
following
gradation recommended by
ASTM C33 as shown in
Table.

Sieve Size (Number)

Total Percent
Passing (%)

9.5mm ( 3/8 inch )

100

4.75mm ( No. 4 )

95 -100

2.36mm ( No. 8 )

80 -100

1.18mm ( No. 16 )

50 - 85

600m ( No. 30 )

25 - 60

300m ( No. 50 )

10 - 30

150m ( No. 100 )

2 - 10

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


Fine aggregate particles larger than 300 micron have a
little influence on concrete mix apart from adding body
to the fine aggregate and determining the cohesiveness
and workability of the mix.
Fine aggregate with low percentages of fine -300 micron
produced harsh concrete which tends to segregate. Thus,
the type of fine aggregate also tends to produce concrete
that bleeds. Bleeding refers to water that rises to the
surface of nearly placed concrete. It leaves water
channels in the hardened concrete that reduces the
permeability of the concrete (Neville and Brooks, 1993).
On floor slabs and deek it creates a weak friable surface
on the hardened concrete.

PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION


For most practical concretes it is desirable to have the particle sizes
evenly distributed from the maximum size of coarse aggregate down
to the smallest sand particles. This will enable the aggregate to
compact in the densest form leaving the minimum number of voids to
be filled by the more expensive
cement paste. It will also minimize the risk
of segregation of the plastic concrete du
ring handling & placing. The test method
covers the determination of the particle size
distribution of fine and coarse aggregates
by sieving, is Sieve Analysis of Fine and
Coarse Aggregates, (ASTMC 136 -96a) or
(BS 812-103.1).

PRESENCE OF CLAY LUMPS AND


MATERIALS FINER THAN 75M
Clay may be present in aggregate in the form of surface
coatings which interfere with the bond between the
aggregate and the cement paste.
In addition, silt and crusher dust may be present either
as surface coatings or as loose material.
Even in the latter form. Silt and free dust should not be
present in large quantities because, owing to their
fineness and therefore large surface area, they increase
the amount of water necessary to wet all the particles
in the mix.

PRESENCE OF CLAY LUMPS AND


MATERIALS FINER THAN 75M
Material finer than the 75-m (No. 200) sieve can be
separated from larger particles much more efficiently
and completely by wet sieving than through the use of
dry sieving.
Therefore, accurate determinations of material finer
than 75 m in fine or coarse aggregate are desired.
Materials Finer than 75-m (No. 200) Sieve in Mineral
Aggregates by Washing (ASTM C 117 95) and for clay
lumps, the test is "Clay Lumps and Friable Particles in
Aggregates" (ASTM C 142 97).

PRESENCE OF SULFATE OR
CHLORIDE IONS IN AGGREGATES
Because of the danger of chloride- induced corrosion of
steel reinforcement, the BS specifications specifies the
maximum total chloride content in the mix.
If salt is not removed, it will absorb moisture from the
air and cause efflorescence- unsightly white deposits
on the surface of the concrete.
The presence of Sulphates will cause low ultimate
strength and disintegration due to expansion.
"Methods for determination of sulphate content"(BS
812-118) For chloride ions: Method for determination
of water-soluble chloride salts (BS 812-117).

THANK YOU

Оценить