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Table of Contents

Task 1: Network Topology.............................................................................................2


Network Diagram.......................................................................................................2
IP Addressing Table....................................................................................................3
Task 2: Report................................................................................................................4
References:...................................................................................................................10

Task 1: Network Topology


Network Diagram

IP Addressing Table
Device

Interface

IP Address

Subnet Mask

Default
Gateway

ISP

SBG

PNG

Fa0/0

30.0.0.1

255.0.0.0

N/A

S0/0

20.10.1.1

255.255.255.252

N/A

Fa0/0

168.35.2.1

255.255.254.0

N/A

Fa0/1

168.35.2.128

255.255.255.248

N/A

S0/0

20.10.1.2

255.255.255.252

N/A

S0/1

20.10.1.5

255.255.255.252

N/A

Fa0/0

168.35.2.1

255.255.255.128

N/A

S0/0

20.10.1.6

255.255.255.252

N/A

PC-A

NIC

168.35.1.254

255.255.254.0

168.35.0.1

PC-B

NIC

168.35.2.134

255.255.255.248

168.35.2.12
9

PC-C

NIC

168.35.2.126

255.255.255.128

168.35.2.1

Task 2: Report
1. Discuss the difference between relative network utilization and absolute network
utilization when considering protocol behaviour?
Answer: Relative network utilization specifies how much bandwidth is used by the
protocol in comparison to the total bandwidth currently in use on the segment while
absolute network utilization specifies how much bandwidth is used by the protocol in
comparison to the total capacity of the segment.
2. Briefly explain the important of hierarchy and modularity for network designs.
Answer: Hierarchy helps on reduces the CPU workload required for routers to
communicate with many other routers and process numerous route advertisements as
hierarchical network design methodology allows us to design a modular topology that
limits the number of communicating routers. Using a hierarchical model can helps us
minimize our costs. We only need purchase the appropriate internetworking devices
for each layer of the hierarchy, thus avoiding spending money on unnecessary features
for a layer. Hierarchical model also helps on reducing wasted bandwidth as it enables
accurate capacity planning within each layer of the hierarchy. Modularity of network
design allows us to replicate design elements as the network grows because each
instance of the module is consistent, expansion is easy to plan and implement.

3. Identify and discuss briefly the selection criteria when purchasing internetworking
devices for your design customer?
Answer:
Selection Criteria
Cost

Explanation
The cost of an internetworking device
will depend on the number and speed of
the interfaces, supported features, and

Reliability

expansion capability.
The internetworking device should
provide continuous access to the

Scalability

network.
The number of users on a network
typically grows over time. Therefore,
the internetworking device should

Port Density

provide the opportunity for growth.


Internetworking device must support the
appropriate number of devices on the

Port Speed

network.
The speed of the network connection is
of primary concern to end users.

4. In your report, describe why you should characterize the logical structure of an
internetwork and not just the physical structure.
Answer: The media access method and way network access controlled is based on the
logical topology rather than the physical topology. To effectively troubleshoot
communications problems, it is important to know not only the physical topology but
also the logical topology of the network. It also provide better understanding of
current, future network topology, routing, security, DNS, workload, performance and
economic issues.

5. A) Outline the differences between TCP and UDP. Which has more segment
fields, and what are they? Name one network service that usually uses TCP and
one network service that usually uses UDP and explain why they do so.
Answer:
Transmission Control
Protocol (TCP)
TCP is connection-oriented

Difference

User Datagram Protocol

Connection

(UDP)
UDP is connectionless

protocol. When a file or

protocol. When you a

message send it will get

send a data or message,

delivered unless connections

you don't know if it'll get

fails. If connection lost, the

there, it could get lost on

server will request the lost

the way. There may be

part. There is no corruption

corruption while

while transferring a

transferring a message.

message.
TCP rearranges data packets

Ordered

in the order specified.

UDP has no inherent


order as all packets are
independent of each other.
If ordering is required, it
has to be managed by the

There is absolute guarantee

Reliability

application layer.
There is no guarantee that

that the data transferred

the messages or packets

remains intact and arrives in

sent would reach at all.

the same order in which it


was sent.

Segment Field:

TCP has more segment fields than UDP because certain data types do not require
reliable delivery and extra overhead and they are Sequence Number,
Acknowledgement Number, Header Length, Reserved, Flags, Window, Urgent
Pointer and Options. Sequence Number and Acknowledgment Number fields specify
bytes in the byte stream. The sequence number is used for segment differentiation and
is useful for reordering or retransmitting lost segments. The Acknowledgment number
is set to the next segment expected. TCP header length indicates how many 4-byte

words are contained in the TCP header. Window field indicates how many bytes can
be transmitted before an acknowledgment is received.
Web is the network service that usually use TCP. For example, when a Web server
sends an HTML file to a client, it uses the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
protocol to do so. The HTTP program asks the TCP layer to set up the connection and
send the file. The TCP stack divides the file into packets, numbers them and then
forward them individually to the IP layer for delivery. Although each packet in the
transmission will have the same source and destination IP addresses but packets may
be sent along multiple routes. The TCP program layer in the client computer waits
until all of the packets have arrived, then acknowledges those it receives and asks for
the retransmission on any it does not (based on missing packet numbers), then
assembles them into a file and delivers the file to the receiving application. UDP is
normally used in media streaming. Real Time Transport Protocol (RTP) is the
protocol used for the actual transport and delivery of the real-time audio and video
data. As the delivery of the actual data for audio and video is typically delay sensitive,
the lighter weight UDP protocol is used as the Layer 4 delivery mechanism. The RTP
flow when delivering the content is unidirectional from the server to the client. The
source port used by the server when the UDP data is always even although it is
dynamically assigned.

5. B) Choose and explain briefly any five (5) typical technical goals for
organizations today. What trade-offs may be necessary in order to improve
network efficiency?
Answer:
Typical Technical Goals
Scalability
Availability

Explanation
The ability for network to grow.
A percent uptime per year, month, week,
day or hour compared to the total time

Usability

in that period.
The ease of use with which network
users can access the network and

Adaptability

services.
Avoid incorporating any design
elements that would make it hard to
implement new technologies in the

Affordability

future.
A network should carry the maximum
amount of traffic possible for a given
financial cost.

Implementing good throughput for one application might cause delay


problems for another application. The cause of the efficiency of the (network)
throughput is the packet size, so if one application have large packet size to make it
efficiency, the other packet for another application may don't have capacity on the
network.

References:
1. Cisco Training Academy. (n.d.). Retrieved November 14, 2015, from
http://cisco-training-academy.blogspot.my/2009/10/benefits-of-hierarchicalnetwork.html
2. Hierarchical Network Design - Access Layer of the Hierarchical Network
Design Model. (n.d.). Retrieved November 14, 2015, from
https://www.edrawsoft.com/Hierarchical-Network-Design.php
3. TCP vs UDP. (n.d.). Retrieved November 14, 2015, from
http://www.diffen.com/difference/TCP_vs_UDP
4. What is the difference between UDP and TCP internet protocols? (n.d.).
Retrieved November 14, 2015, from http://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/keydifferences-between-tcp-and-udp-protocols/
5. The TCP/IP Guide - TCP Message (Segment) Format. (n.d.). Retrieved
November 15, 2015, from
http://www.tcpipguide.com/free/t_TCPMessageSegmentFormat-3.htm
6. Networking Basics: TCP, UDP, TCP/IP and OSI Model. (n.d.). Retrieved
November 15, 2015, from http://blog.pluralsight.com/networking-basics-tcpudp-tcpip-osi-models
7. Web TCP/IP. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2015, from
http://www.w3schools.com/website/web_tcpip.asp
8. What are examples of TCP and UDP in real life? (n.d.). Retrieved November
15, 2015, from http://stackoverflow.com/questions/5330277/what-areexamples-of-tcp-and-udp-in-real-life
9. Gary McGath. (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2015, from
http://www.garymcgath.com/streamingprotocols.html
10. User Datagram Protocol (UDP). (n.d.). Retrieved November 15, 2015, from
https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc785220(v=ws.10).aspx
11.