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1) Worksheets - Federalism classification activity - How to understand the separation between state and

national power, defining the powers the state and national have, defining the types federal aid, define the
constitutional provisions
Constitution fill in the blank - filling in each section of the constitution and then defining the words at the
end of the section that matches to that article in the constitution.
"Is that constitutional worksheet" - state what is constitutional and what isn't and then figure out where it
is in the constitutional
Formal amendment - stated the the six unratified amendments (page 81 in book)
2) Chapter 2.4 - the creation of the constitution
Chapter 3 - the basic principles of the constitution, the formal amendments, and the changes made
Chapter 4 - the federalism power divide, the national government and the 50 states, and the interstate
3) federalist and antifederalist
4) https://www.apstudynotes.org/us-history/topics/philadelphia-convention/
conventions 17187, convention where the wrote the constitution, full of fighting, full of compromises,
those who were apposed but was raffled anyway
5) James Madison - father of constitution
- 4th president
- his vocation was liberty, he studied it he obsessed it
- how to understand it and how to keep it and how to protect it
- wrote 24/85 fed papers
- read ever book on how to understand other forms
- painfully shy
- spoke 161 time at the convention but all times where smart and useful
- worked deals while in Philly durning his time to try and make the constitution
6) http://www.ushistory.org/us/15d.asp
7) The federalists wanted the power to be concentrated in the hands of the central or the federal
government as they felt more power to states would be counterproductive. They felt that a strong center
would be helpful in maintaining peace and order in the country. They also felt that the center should have
the power to make uniform rules and regulations for the whole of the country. Federalists felt that giving
power to states to make distinct rules and regulations would lead to chaos as each state would have rules
and regulations as they wanted. However, it was not that federalists wanted states to be powerless as they
visualized powers to be retained with the states in areas where all powers were not vested with the federal
Anti-federalists were in favor of small states as they felt the presence of communities with divergent
views would make passing resolutions difficult, and small republic would make it easier to arrive at a
consensus, to achieve the common good of the people.

8) Separation of powers - Separation of powers is a political doctrine originating in the writings of

Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws where he urged for a constitutional government with three separate
branches of government. Each of the three branches would have defined abilities to check the powers of
the other branches
Check and balances - The system of checks and balances is an important part of the Constitution. With
checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This
way, no one branch becomes too powerful.
Popular sovereignty - The system of checks and balances is an important part of the Constitution. With
checks and balances, each of the three branches of government can limit the powers of the others. This
way, no one branch becomes too powerful.
Limited government - A government that is subject to strict limits on its lawful uses of power, and hence
on its ability to deprive people of their liberty.
Judicial review - Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject
to review by the judiciary. A court with judicial review power may invalidate laws and decisions that are
incompatible with a higher authority, such as the terms of a written constitution.
Federalism - Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by
covenant with a governing representative head. The term "federalism" is also used to describe a system of
government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and
constituent political units (such as states or provinces).
9) Articles - in roman numeral
Section - literally stated "section ..."
Clause - the different paragraphs
10) worksheets
11) The United States Constitution can be changed informally. Informal amendments mean that the
Constitution does not specifically list these processes as forms of amending the Constitution, but because
of change in society or judicial review changed the rule of law de facto. These methods depend on
interpretations of what the constitution says and on interpretive understanding of the underlying intent.
This type of change occurs in two major forms: through circumstantial change and through judicial
12) The Constitution provides that an amendment may be proposed either by the Congress with a twothirds majority vote in both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a constitutional convention
called for by two-thirds of the State legislatures.
13) 1st Amendment: Guarantees the right to the freedoms of speech, press, and religion.
2nd Amendment: Guarantees the peoples right to own and bear arms for their defense.
3rd Amendment: cannot be forced to quarter soldiers during times of peace.
4th Amendment: warrant and probable cause.
5th Amendment: Prohibits abuse of governmental authority in legal procedures.
6th Amendment: Guarantees fair and speedy jury trial and the rights to know the accusation,
7th Amendment: Reserves individuals rights to jury trial
8th Amendment: Forbids exorbitant bails and fines and punishment that is unusual or cruel.
9th Amendment: Reserves the rights of citizens which are not specifically mentioned by the U.S.
10th Amendment: to the people and the States.
11th Amendment: State sovereign immunity.
12th Amendment: Modifies and clarifies the procedure for electing vice-presidents and presidents.

13th Amendment: criminal offense, forbids forced-slavery and involuntary servitude.

14th Amendment: Details Equal Protection Clause, Due Process Clause, Citizenship Clause, and clauses
dealing with the Confederacy and its officials.
15th Amendment: Reserves citizens the suffrage rights regardless of their race, color, or previous slave
16th Amendment: Reserves the U.S. government the right to tax income.
17th Amendment: Establishes popular voting as the process under which senators are elected.
18th Amendment: Denies the sale and consumption of alcohol.
19th Amendment: Reserves womens suffrage rights.
20th Amendment: establishes date of term starts for Congress (January 3) & the President (January 20).
21st Amendment: State laws over alcohol are to remain 21
22nd Amendment: Limit the terms that an individual can be elected as president
23rd Amendment: vote for their own Electors for presidential elections.
24th Amendment: denied the suffrage rights for not paying a poll tax or any other taxes.
25th Amendment: establishes the procedures for a successor of a President.
26th Amendment: 18 and older to vote.
27th Amendment: Denies any laws that vary the salaries of Congress members until the beginning of the
next terms of office for Representatives.
- Expressed powers," are powers granted to the government mostly found in Article I, Section 8 of the
US Constitution within 18 clauses. Expressed powers, also known as the "enumerated powers,"
include the power to coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, declare war, grant patents
and copyrights and more.
- This "Necessary and Proper Clause" (sometimes also called the "Elastic Clause") grants Congress a set
of so-called implied powersthat is, powers not explicitly named in the Constitution but assumed to
exist due to their being necessary to implement the expressed powers that are named in Article I.- Inherent powers are those powers that Congress and the president need in order to get the job done
right. Although not specified in the Constitution, they are reasonable powers that are a logical part of
the powers delegated to Congress and the president.- Reserved powers are defined as powers assigned to the states and the people. The Tenth Amendment
of the United States Constitution covers the subject of reserved powers.- Concurrent powers are powers that are shared by both the State and the federal government. These
powers may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory and in relation to the same body of
citizens. These concurrent powers including regulating elections, taxing, borrowing money and
establishing courts.- There are certain powers that only the state governments have (reserved powers), and there are certain
powers that only the national government has (exclusive powers). The Constitution of the United
States spells out the exclusive powers of the federal government.
- elastic clause. noun. 1. a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the
power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.- The Commerce Clause refers to Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution, which gives
Congress the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several states, and
with the Indian tribes.- The Supremacy Clause of the United States Constitution (Article VI, Clause 2) establishes that the
Constitution, federal laws made pursuant to it, and treaties made under its authority, constitute the
supreme law of the land.-

- Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, known as the "Full Faith and Credit Clause",
addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and
judicial proceedings of every other state."